Posts Tagged ‘TEFLIN’

Analisis Jenis dan Frekuensi Kesalahan Gramatikal Bahasa Inggris Tulis Mahasiswa

Zubaidi

Politeknik Negeri Malang


ABSTRAK

Kesalahan gramatikal dalam berbahasa asing tidaklah dapat dihindari dan ini waiar terjadi.  Kesalahan ini disebabkan oleh beberapa faktor, yang antara lain berupa: pengaruh bahasa  asal, generalisasi yang berlebihan (overgenerali-zation), tidak megetahui aturan gramatikal, atau aturan gramatikal yang disalah-mengertikan. Penelitian ini menguji frekuensi dan jenis kesalahan tulis dari 20 karangan pendek yang dibuat oleh mahasiswa Jurusan Administrasi Niaga, Politeknik Negeri Malang. Dari  429  kalimat dalam karangan tersebut ditemukan 871 kesalahan dalam 25 jenis. Jenis kesalahan yang terbanyak adalah omission of article, omission of plural, S-V agreement, dan omission of preposition. Hasil investigasi terhadap penyebab kesalahan tersebut adalah adanya pengaruh bahasa asal (L1) terhadap bahasa sasaran (L2).

 

Kata kunci: kesalahan gramatikal, error analysis, contrastive analysis, grammatical errors

 

Mempelajari kesalahan gramatikal (grammatical errors) dalam suatu wacana setidaknya dimaksudkan untuk dua tujuan, yakni: (1) men-cari data tentang perolehan bahasa (language acquisition), dan (2) mencari informasi sebagai dasar untuk mengembangkan kurikulum dan menyusun materi pengajaran (Richards, ed., 1974).

Kesalahan gramatikal adalah penyimpa-ngan terhadap aturan baku dalam bahasa tulis maupun lesan yang terjadi secara sistematis (Giri, 2010). Dalam proses mempelajari suatu bahasa kesalahan gramatikal adalah sesuatu yang wajar dan sering kali tidak ter-hindari. Oleh karena itu kesalahan ini perlu dipelajari dan dicermati sehingga dapat dike-tahui jenis, frekuensinya dan penyebabnya sehingga kemudian dapat ditemukan cara-cara untuk mengatasi kesalahan tersebut.

 Ada beberapa jenis kesalahan grama-tikal yang dikelompokkan secara umum dalam analisis kesalahan. Jenis kesalahan tersebut adalah (1) penghapusan morfem gramatikal (omitting grammatical morphemes), (2) penandaan ganda (double marking), (3) pola keteraturan (regularizing), (4) penggunaan archiform (using aarchiform), (5) penggunaan dua bentuk atau lebih dalam perubahan random (using two or more forms in random alteration), dan (6) salah penempatan (mis-ordering). Jenis-jenis kesalahan ini kemudian dikembangkan lagi bersamaan dengan dikem-bangkannya teori-teori baru dalam analisis kesalahan gramatikal dalam berbahasa.

 

Contrastive Analysis vs. Error Analysis

Contrastive analysis (CA) muncul pada abad ke-18 ketika William Jones membandingkan bahasa-bahasa Yunani dengan bahasa-bahasa Sanskrit. Dengan CA ini ia menemukan bahwa kedua kelompok bahasa tersebut memiliki banyak persamaan yang sistematis. CA memfokuskan pengamatannya pada aspek hubungan-hubungan fonologi dan evolusinya, sehingga dihasilkan silsilah-silsilah bahasa.

Pendekatan CA ini didasarkan pada asumsi bahwa kita dapat meramalkan dan menguraikan struktur bahasa yang dipelajari (L2) yang akan menyebabkan kesulitan dalam pelajaran dengan membandingkannya dengan bahasa asal (L1). Dalam  perbandingan bahasa  kedua bahasa tersebut akan ditemukan aspek-aspek bahasa yang sama dan berbeda. Diasumsikan bahwa aspek bahasa yang sama akan mudah dipelajari sedangkan aspek yang berbeda akan sulit dipelajari.

Selain itu, CA juga dikaitkan dengan teori pengalihan bahasa atau language transfer. Dalam teori ini dikatakan bahwa pembelajar bahasa cenderung untuk mengalihkan pola atau struktur bahasa asal ke pola atau struktur bahasa yang dipelajarinya. Menurut beberapa pakar CA, pengalihan bahasa digolongkan dalam dua kelompok, yakni pengalihan bahasa yang meunjang pembelajaran, dan pengalihan bahasa yang menghambat pembelajaran.

Para ahli bahasa terpecah menjadi dua kelompok dalam memandang manfaat CA ini, yakni kelompok yang percaya bahwa CA dapat memberikan sumbangan yang berarti bai pengajaran bahasa, dan kelompok yang meragukan manfaat CA dalam membantu keberhasilan pengajaran bahasa. Namun, setidaknya CA berguna dalam: (1) menerangkan mengapa kesalahan terjadi, dan (2) menunjuk-kan strategi apa yang harus diambil untuk mengurangi kesalahan itu dalam pembelajaran bahasa.

Dalam melakukan investigasinya, CA mengamati Perbedaan (dan persamaan) pada aspek: (1) fonologi, baik fonem segmental maupun suprasegmental, gugus vokal maupun gugus konsonan; (2) morfologi atau pembentukan kata; (3) sintaksis, yakni pembentukan kalimat, baik struktur dalam (deep structure) dan struktur luar (surface structure); (4) leksis (lexical contrasts), yakni yang terkait dengan kosa kata; (5) budaya, yakni dalam perilaku non-linguistik; dan (6) ortografis (orthographical contrasts), yaitu dalam penulisan abjad, suku kata dan tulisan logografik.

Dalam teori CA ini dikatakan bahwa ‘belajar bahasa’ pada dasarnya merupakan suatu proses pembentukan kebiasaan-kebia-saan otomatis dan bahwa oleh karenanya kesalahan-kesalahan yang terjadi berasal dari kebiasaan dalam berbahasa asal (L1) yang mempengaruhi pembelajar dalam mempelajari bahasa sasaran (L2). Dikatakan juga bahwa analisis kontrastif atau perbandingan dari dua bahasa yang dipelajari akan menggambarkan aspek-aspek bahasa sasaran mana yang meng-hasilkan kesalahan.

Namun, beberapa pakar bahasa lain melihat bahwa sejumlah besar kesalahan yang dibuat pembelajar mungkin tidak dapat ditelusuri melalui bahasa asalnya. Oleh karena-nya, teori CA ini dianggap tidak dapat menjelaskan secara rinci sebab-sebab dari kesalahan gramatikal. Sebagai gantinya, muncullah teori baru yang disebut sebagai Error Analysis.

Error Analysis (EA) atau analisis kesalahan baru menjadi populer pada tahun 1965-an. Teori ini meneliti secara mendalam kesalahan-kesalahan yang ditemukan dalam pembelajaran bahasa dan mencari tahu sebab-sebab terjadi kesalahan yang dibuat. Tidak berbeda dengan CA, EA dipergunakan untuk mengidentifikasi unsur-unsur bahasa yang menimbulkan kesulitan belajar.

Sementara itu, EA dilaksanakan dengan menganalisis wacana pembelajar, baik lesan maupun tulis, dan mengidentifikasi kesalahan yang ada dan kemudian dikelompokkan dalam jenis kesalahan dan selanjutnya dihitung frekuensinya. Kesalahan yang mempunyai frekuensi tinggi dikategorikan sebagai unsur bahasa yang sukar dipejari atau dipahami; sebaliknya kesalahan yang mempunyai frekuensi rendah dianggap sebagai mudah.

Sebelum diuraikan lebih lanjut tentang metode dalam EA, perlu diketahui terlebih dahulu tentang kesalahan gramatikal (grammatical errors) dan kekeliruan gramatikal (grammatical mistakes).

Menurut teori audiolinguism, kesalahan gramatikal merupakan tanda bahwa cara penyajian materi bahasa kurang baik atau guru kurang mahir dalam mengajar. Sementara itu menurut pendekatan komunikasi, kesalahan-kesalahan gramatis justru merupakan tanda bahwa proses belajar mengajar berjalan dengan lancar dan bahwa kesalahan tersebut tidak perlu dihindari atau dielakkan.

Dalam berbahasa pembelajar sering membuat kesalahan. Kesalahan, atau lebih tepatnya penyimpangan dari strukutr yang benar, dibedakan dalam dua kategori, yakni KESALAHAN atau disebut errors, dan KEKELIRUAN atau disebut mistakes. Secara konsep, keduanya berbeda.

Kekeliruan (mistakes) adalah penyimpa-ngan yang tidak secara sengaja diucapkan atau dituliskan oleh seorang penutur, dan dengan mudah dapat diperbaiki oleh penutur itu sendiri. Semua orang, baik penutur asli maupun bukan penutur asli, dapat membuat kekeliruan. Tetapi apabila ia dapat dengan segera memperbaiki kekeliruan tersebut karena dia sadar bahwa ia membuat kekeliruan maka ini bukan disebabkan ia tidak menerapkan aturan-aturan tata bahasa yang benar. Kekeliruan biasanya disebabkan oleh hal-hal yang bersifat psikologis, seperti: kelelahan, kurang menyi-mak, mengantuk, memikirkan hal lain, dan lain sebagainya.

Sebaliknya, kesalahan (errors) ialah penyimpangan dari tata bahasa yang benar karena ia tidak memahami aturan tata bahasa tersebut. Oleh karenanya, penutur tersebut  biasanya tidak dapat segera memperbaiki kesalahan itu. Kesalahan biasanya terjadi secara sistematis dan sering terjadi berulang. Penutur akan menyadari kesalahannya jika diberitahu oleh penutur lain atau guru.

Secara lebih rinci, langkah-langkah yang dilakukan dalam analisis kesalahan (EA) ini adalah: (1) mengidentifikasi kesalahan, tidak hanya yang terkait dengan faktor linguistik tetapi juga dengan faktor non-linguistik; (2) menjabarkan kesalahan, yakni menggolongkan jenis kesalahan berupa addition, omission, alteration,  dan misordering; (3) menerangkan kesalahan, yaitu mencari sebab-sebab terjadinya kesalahan, yang umumnya berupa fossilization, overgeneralization, hyper-correction, miscon-ception, dan misformation; (4) mengevaluasi kesalahan, yakni menganalisis kesalahan secara kualitatif dan kuantitatif; dan (5) memperbaiki kesalahan.

Dalam menganalisis kesalahan, EA menggunakan empat taksonomi untuk mengelompokkan kesalahan. Taksonomi ini diperlukan untuk mencari sebab-sebab kesalahan sehingga mudah dalam menarik kesimpulan. Keempat taksonomi tersebut adalah:

 

  1. 1.       Taksonomi Kategori Linguistik (linguistic category taxonomy)

Dalam taksonomi ini pengelompokan kesalahan didasarkan pada aspek kebahasaan (linguistic items) yang  meliputi fonologi, sintaks, morfologi, semantik, leksikon, dan wacana (discourse).

 

  1. 2.       Taksonomi Strategi Permukaan (surface strategy taxonomy)

Dengan taksonomi ini kesalahan gramatikal digolongkan berdasarkan pada bagaimana struktur bahasa mengalami perubahan yang mengarah pada kesalahan. Kesalahan yang mungkin terjadi adalah (1) omission, yakni penghilangan unsur-unsur kalimat tertentu yang justru diperlukan, (2) addition, yaitu penambahan unsur-unsur kalimat yang justru tidak diperlukan, (3) misformation, yakni pembentukan unsur kalimat yang salah, dan (4) misorder, yaitu penempatan unsur kalimat yang salah.

 

  1. 3.       Taksonomi Perbandingan (comparison taxonomy)

Taksonomi ini mengklasifikasi kesalahan dengan membandingkan kesalahan yang sama yang dilakukan oleh anak-anak penutur asli  bahasa yang dipelajari. Kelompok kesalahannya dimasukkan dalam empat golongan, yakni development errors, interlingual errors, ambigious errors, dan other errors.

 

  1. 4.       Taksonomi Efek Komunikasi (communica-tion effect taxonomy)

Dalam taksonomi ini kesalahan didasarkan pada ‘kesalahan-kesalahan bukan dalam struktur dan kosa kata tetapi dalam ragam bahasa yang digunakan’ atau disebut sebagai unsur pragmatik. Unsur pragmatik ini mencakup setting,pelaku komunikasi, tujuan, suasana, topik, dan media.

 

Bahan-Bahan Analisis Kesalahan

Dalam melakukan analsis kesalahan gramatikal, peneliti dapat menggunakan sumber-sumber data analisisnya. Umumnya sumber itu dikumpulkan dari bahan-bahan wacana yang diproduksi oleh pembelajar, baik secara lesan maupun tertulis. Hasil-hasil penelitian menun-jukkan bahwa teknik pengambilan data dapat mempengaruhi hasil atau kesimpulan dari analisis, dalam hal ini adalah baik jenis kesalah-an yang ditemukan maupun urutan unsur-unsur bahasa yang menjadi titik perhatian analisisnya. Oleh karena itu, dalam memilih jenis data untuk dianalisis peneliti perlu mempertimbangkan kemungkinan hasil yang akan diperoleh.

Data untuk analisis kesalahan dapat diambil dari sumber-sumber berikut.

 

  1. a.      Wawancara

Biasanya wawancara dilaksanakan secara individual berdasarkan pertanyaan-perta-nyaan mengenai topik-topik tertentu. Hasil wawancara itu direkam dan kemudian dianalisis. Dengan cara wawancara  ini peran pewawancara sangat berpengaruh dalam ujaran-ujaran yang dihasilkan oleh pembelajar. Situasi yang diciptakan oleh pewawancara akan juga mempengaruhi pembelajar secara psikologis yang pada akhirnya hasilnya mungkin baik atau tidak. Teknik wawancara ini membutuhkan waktu yang panjang sehingga jarang digunakan.

 

  1. b.      Karangan Tertulis

Dengan cara ini peneliti memberikan beberapa pilihan topik kepada pembelajar untuk kemudian menulis sebuah karangan pendek, satu atau beberapa paragraf, sesuai dengan topik yang dipilihnya. Tingkat kesulitan topik yang diberikan (berdasarkan latar belakang pengetahuan atau back-graound knowledge pembelajar) akan mempengaruhi hasil wacana yang diproduksi, terkait juga dengan penguasaan kosa katanya.

 

  1. c.       Karangan lesan

Dengan cara ini peneliti memberikan topik-topik tertentu dan pembelajar kemudian mencatat hal-hal yang akan diucapkan. Data analisis berupa rekaman dari karangan lesan yang diproduksi oleh pembelajar.

 

  1. d.      Dialog Terbuka

Cara ini disebut sebagai open-ended dialog, dimana pembelajar diberi suatu percakapan antara dua peran, A dan B. Peran A sudah memiliki kalimat-kalimat lengkapnya, sedangkan peran B masih kosong yang harus dilengkapi oleh pembelajar sesuai dengan konteks yang diberikan. Data semacam ini disebut sebagai data denga  bahan pancingan atau elicitated data.

 

  1. e.       Terjemahan

Bahan data analisis dengan cara ini dipero-leh dari pembelajar atas hasil terjemahan. Pembelajar diberi suatu wacana dalam bahasa asal (L1) dan mereka kemudian diminta untuk menterjemahkannya ke dalam bahasa sasaran (L2). Teknik ini sering dipakai tetapi memerlukan kehati-hatian karena apabila ujaran-ujaran dari bahasa asal tidak jelas atau tidak disusun dengan baik dan baku maka hasil terjemahannya juga akan tidak baik. Dengan demikian, kesalahan yang terjadi bukan disebabkan oleh ketidakmampuan pembelajar dalam berbahasa sasaran tetapi lebih oleh faktor lain.

 

Subyek Penelitian

Penelitian ini menjabarkan dan menjelaskan kesalahan gramatikal yang terdapat pada karangan tulis pendek  oleh mahasiswa Program Diploma III, Jurusan Administrasi Niaga, Poli-teknik Negeri Malang. Di jurusan ini bahasa Inggris diajarkan sebagai salah satu mata kuliah pokok.

Mata kuliah ini diajarkan selama enam semester berturut-turut dan bersifat sebagai mata kuliah praktek dalam koridor English for Specific Purposes (ESP) dan English for Occupational Purposes (EOP). Dengan demikian, topik-topik yang diajarkan adalah topik yang terkait dengan jurusan, yang antara lain filing, handling guests, office management, financial management, office ettiquette, secretarial duties dan lain sebaginya.

Bahasa Inggris diajarkan dalam jumlah jam yang cukup banyak dibandingkan dengan mata kuliah lain, yakni 5 atau 6 jam per minggu selama 18 minggu. Pada semester 1 dan 2 bahasa Inggris diajarkan dengan fokus pada dasar-dasar bahasa Inggris termasuk grammar, ungkapan-ungkapan sederhana untuk berkomu-nikasi, dan dikemas dalam empat keterampilan berbahasa, yakni reading, listening, speaking dan writing.

 

Metodologi dan hasil penelitian

Penelitian ini dilakukan terhadap hasil karya tulis pendek oleh mahasiswa di Jurusan Administrasi Niaga Politeknik Negeri Malang.  Dengan menggunakan sampel secara acak, 20 karangan pendek diambil dari sejumlah 51 karangan. Karangan ini adalah hasil tugas dalam mengikuti mata kuliah ‘Business English’ yang diajarkan pada semester 5.

Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui jenis-jenis kesalahan gramatikal yang dilakukan oleh mahasiswa dalam karangan tulis mereka dan untuk mengetahui tingkat keseringan atau frekuensi kesalahan gramatikal untuk masing-masing jenisnya.

Hasil penelitian ini bermanfaat bagi para pengajar bahasa Inggris, khususnya di Jursan Administrasi Niaga, sebagai salah satu evaluasi terhadap kesulitan-kesulitan yang dihadapi oleh mahasiswa dalam berbahasa Inggris, yang ditunjukkan dengan terjadinya kesalahan-kesalahan gramatikal. Dengan demi-kian, pengajar dapat memberikan waktu khusus untuk mengajarkan dan memperbaiki kesa-lahan-kesalahan gramatikal tersebut bersama-sama dengan mahasiswa.

Dengan menggunakan taksonomi stra-tegi permukaan (surface strategy taxonomy), semua karangan dianalisis untuk mengidenti-fikasi kesalahan-kesalahan gramatikal yang terdapat di dalam setiap kalimat. Proses ini adalah bagian analisis yang membutuhkan  banyak waktu dan ketelitian karena setiap kalimat dari sejumlah 429 kalimat ditandai jenis-jenis kesalahannya. Tanda-tanda tertentu digunakan untuk menandai kesalahan, seperti garis bawah, lingkaran, tanda panah tunggal, tanda panah bolak-balik, tanda centang, tanda tanya, dan tanda coret.

Setelah semua kesalahan diidentifikasi, kesalahan tersebut kemudian dikelompokkan jenis kesalahannya. Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa terdapat 25 jenis kesalahan gramatikal seperti terangkum pada Tabel 1 berikut.

 

 

Tabel 1

Jenis, Contoh dan Frekuensi Kesalahan yang Dibuat oleh Mahasiswa

 

Jenis Kesalahan

Contoh

Frekuensi

Total

Persen

A.      Omission (tulisan superscript adalah pembetulan oleh peneliti)
A1. Article Qualified opinion is given by the auditor.

207

23,77

A2. Head noun GNP is used to measure high and low income.

5

0,57

A3. Subject We hope we are not deceived by that.

18

2,07

A4. Main verb … and the workers are not bored.

37

4,25

A5. Direct object The company divides it into several parts.

6

0,68

A6. Preposition The tax bond is divided into two parts.

58

6,66

A7. Plural In fact, the function of all secretaryies is not only helping the director.

83

9,53

A8. Conjuction … many private banks take fund from people with all methods and that is a good idea.

8

0,92

B.      Addition (tanda kesalahan dan pembetulan oleh peneliti)
B1. Double marking of verb Macro economy is a science that is studyies carefully …

18

2,07

B2. Double marking of noun … makes the workplace an important part of each worker employee.

18

2,07

B3. Article The selection depends on a the job analysis.

7

0,80

B4. Preposition We can know the economic situation of a country with in the same variables.

16

1,83

C.      Misformation (tulisan miring oleh peneliti)
C1. Overgenerali-zation It catched sight of Section 3 PBB institutions …

11

1,26

C2. Alternating forms of verb It is used to indicate and to provision

42

4,82

C3. Alternating forms of preposition Status refers with a person’s rank or …

29

3,33

C4. Alternating forms of adverb … to indicate the economic variables with the way totality.

26

2,99

C5. Alternating forms of noun All departments must have planning.

50

5,74

D.      Misordering (tulisan miring oleh peneliti)

 

 

D1. Adverb Credit tax only can happen if …

2

0,23

D2. Noun They don’t take the credit long-term because …

9

1,03

E.       Other Errors (tulisan miring oleh peneliti)

 

 

E1. Tense The limited company is being a kind of a comapnies…

29

3,33

E2. Passive voice … that is invite to operate in districts.

31

3,56

E3. Adj-Noun The price favourable is wanted by the supplier.

45

5,17

E4. Possessive Auditors report consists of …

21

2,41

E5. Agreement Tabungan Kesra are motored by BII, Bank Danmon, and Bank Bali.

81

9,30

E6. To-Infinitive The selection must to take attention to a rule and government appointment.

14

1,61

871

100,00

Sumber: Data primer penelitian

Langkah berikutnya dalam analisis ini adalah mencari sebab terjadinya kesalahan yang dibuat oleh mahasiswa. Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa ada lima macam sebab terjadinya kesalahan, sebagai berikut:

1. Pengaruh bahasa asal (bahasa Indonesia) terhadap bahasa Inggris, yang mencakup:

1.a. Penghilangan kata sandang (article):

  • Secretary is assistant of leader. →   A secretary is an assistant of a leader.
  • In 1990 there was decrease of production. →   In 1990 there was a decrease of production.

1.b. Pengurutan frase benda yang tidak benar:

  • The operator bank includes …→   The bank operator includes …
  • Invoice Purchase is made for the buyer. →   Purchase Invoice is made for the buyer.)

1.c. Pemilihan kata depat yang tidak tepat:

  • The function of a secretary is different with the function of   …→   The function of a secretary is different from the function of…
  • We know people will be interested with high interests.→   We know people will be interested in high interests.

1.d. Pembentukan kata keterangan yang tidak tepat:

  • The leader must solve the problem with careful.→   The leader must solve the problem carefully.
  • “…to indicate the economic variables with the way totality.”→   …to indicate the economic variables in the total way.

 

2. Generalisasi aturan yang tidak benar (over-generalizatio), yang meliputi:

2.a. Pembentukan kata yang tidak benar (misformation):

  • The company never gived holidays. →   The company never gave holidays.
  • The guests may not be leaved doing nothing.→   The guests may not be left doing nothing.

2.b. Pembentukan kata benda yang tidak benar:

  • All departments must have plan-ning.→   All departments must have plans.
  • The guests must write thier identity in the guest booking.→   The guests must write thier identity in the guest book.

 

3. Aturan bahasa tertentu tidak dipahami, yang meliputi:

3.a. Pemakaian kata kerja yang salah:

  • After research the problem, so the writer…→   After researching the problem, the writer…
  • The secretary must keep smile.→   The secretary must keep smiling.

3.b. Pemilihan ‘tense’ yang tidak benar:

  • If the company was good, I will take the job.→   If the company were good, I would take the job.)
  • The waiting room provided good situation in order the guests can stay well.→   The waiting room provides good situation in order the guests can stay well.

3.c. Penggunaan kata depan yang tidak tepat:

  • The auditor has examined the financial report according in Auditing Standards.→   The auditor has examined the financial report according to Auditing Standards.
  • …to receive guests who will meet to the director.→   …to receive guests who will meet to the director.

 

4. Pembelajar tidak menerapkan tata bahasa secara lengkap, yang umumnya berupa penghilangan unsur bahasa tertentu:

4.a. Tidak adanya ‘head noun’ dalam frasa benda (omission of head-noun):

  • The secretary can keep the meeting for the next meeting.→   The secretary can keep the meeting minutes for the next meeting.
  • The company can use perpetual to balance the property.→   The company can use perpetual method to balance the property.

4.b. Tidak adanya kata kerja utama dalam kalimat (omission of main verb):

  • The workers absent from work.→   The workers were absent from work.
  • It also a kind of limited tax.→   It is also a kind of limited tax.

4.c. Tidak adanya subyek kalimat (omission of subject):

  • In the study developed categories of needs.→   In the study he developed categories of needs.
  • Also means an employee who manages correspondence.→   Also secretary means an employee who manages correspondence.

4.d. Tidak adanya kata depan (omission of preposition):

  • … to take care of the documents manager.→   … to take care of the documents of manager.
  • The duty the receiving department is to receive all goods.→   The duty the receiving department is to receive all goods

4.e. Tidak ada kesesuaian antara subyek dan kata kerja utamanya (S-V agreement):

  • She help the manager for his jobs.→   She helps the manager for his jobs.
  • It cause a person to take the tax…→   It causes a person to take the tax…

4.f. Tidak adanya kesesuaian antara kata sandang dan kata benda (Article-Noun agreement):

  • The secretary should be able to write a letters well.→   The secretary should be able to write a letter well.
  • The secretary then keeps that letters.→   The secretary then keeps those letters.

 

5. Pembelajar mempunyai pengertian yang salah tentang suatu konsep dalam bahasa sasaran (L2). Contoh kesalahan seperti ini adalah penulisan kata kerja berganda (double marking of verb):

  • So her leader must can take measures …→   So her leader must take measures …
  • Objective tax is be a tax which …→   Objective tax is a tax which …

 

Kesimpulan dan saran

Langkah berikutnya dalam analisis kesalahan dalam penelitian ini ada mengevaluasi kesalah-an. Yang dimaksud dengan mengevaluasi kesa-lahan adalah menganalisis data secara kualitatif dan kuantitatif. Dari data primer penelitian, semua kesalahan dikelompokkan jenisnya dan kemudian dihitung frekuensinya. Hasil evaluasi ini tercantum pada Tabel 1 di atas.

Tabel tersebut menunjukkan bahwa jumlah keseluruhan kesalahan yang dibuat adalah 871 dari 429 kalimat. Jenis kesalahan yang mempunyai frekuensi paling tinggi adalah ‘omission of article’ yakni sebesar 23,77%. Kesalahan seperti ini diyakini disebabkan oleh masih besarnya pengaruh bahasa asal (Bahasa Indonesia) terhadap kemampuan berbahasa Inggris karena kata sandang dalam bahasa Indonesia bukan merupakan unsur penentu dalam kalimat, sementara sebaliknya, kata sandang dalam bahasa Inggris sangatlah penting. Dengan demikian, unsur bahasa ini perlu mendapatkan perhatian khusus dalam proses belajar mengajar.

Jenis kesalahan kedua yang sering dila-kukan oleh mahasiswa adalah ‘omission of plural’ atau tidak menggunakan bentuk plural untuk frasa benda. Kesalahan ini dilakukan oleh mahasiswa sebanyak 9,53%. Kesalahan ini terjadi juga akibat pengaruh bahasa asal karena bahasa Indonesia tidak memiliki aturan yang sama terkait kesesuaian antara head-noun dan kata sandang atau article.

Jenis kesalahan ketiga dengan frekuensi besar adalah ‘S-V agreement’ dimana jumlah-nya adalah 81 atau sebesar 9,30%. Jenis kesalahan ini umumnya timbul karena maha-siswa tidak menerapkan atauran tata bahasa secara benar.

Kesalahan yang berkaitan dengan preposition perlu diajarkan secara lebih intensif dalam proses belajar mengajar mengingat hasil evaluasinya menunjukkan persentase yang cukup besar yakni 58 kesalahan.

Setelah evaluasi dalam metode peneli-tian ini, langkah berikutnya yang perlu dilaku-kan adalah memperbaiki kesalahan dengan cara melakukan rekonstruksi ujaran-ujaran yang digunakan. Memperbaiki kesalahan ini dilaku-kan dengan memperhatikan jenis kesalahan dan penyebab kesalahannya.

Selanjutnya, agar mahasiswa menyadari bahwa mereka membuat kesalahan gramatikal dalam kalimat yang mereka buat, memperbaiki kesalahan ini dilakukan bersama-sama dengan mahasiswa.

Karena pengaruh bahasa Indonesia menjadi penyebab paling besar terjadi kesalahan gramtikan ini, mahasiswa perlu diberi waktu cukup untuk lebih banyak mempelajari tata bahasa Inggris, khususnya pada aturan tata bahasa yang memiliki pola yang sangat berbeda dengan pola bahasa Indonesia. Pemberian materi ini akan lebih baik dilakukan dengan memberikan banyak latihan sehingga pola kalimat yang sering mereka buat secara salah dapat diingat lebih mudah dan dapat dipahami dan digunakan secara bawah sadar.

Penanganan kesalahan gramatikal harus dilakukan seara hati-hati dan diupayakan agar mahasiswa tidak merasa ‘salah’ yang akhirnya dapat menurunkan motivasi mereka untuk menggunakan bahasa Inggris. Perbaikan kesala-han gramatikal sebaiknya dilakukan dengan yang tepat.

 

Daftar Pustaka

Abbasi, Mehdi; Karimnia, Amin. 2011. “An analysis of grammatical errors among Iranian translation students: Insights from interlanguage theory”. European Journal of Social Sciences. 25(4). 525-536.

Abushihab, Ibrahim; El-Omari, Abdallah H.; and  Tobat, Mahmoud. 2011. “An analysis of written grammatical errors of Arab learners of English as a foreign language at Alzaytoonah Private University of Jordan”. European Journal of Social Sciences. 20(4). 543-552.

Erdogan, P. 2005. “Contribution of error analysis to foreign language teaching”. Mersin University Journal of the Faculty of Education. 1(2). 261-270.

Font-Llitjos, Ariadna; Probst, Katharina; and Carbonell, J aime G., “Error Analysis of Two Types of Grammar for the Purpose of Automatic Rule Refinement” (2004). Computer Science Department. Paper 304. http://repository.cmu.edu/compsci/304

Giri, Anju. 2010. “Errors in the use of English grammar”. Journal of NELTA. 15/1-2. 54-63.

Guasti, Maria Teresa. 2002. Language Acquisition: The Growth of Grammar. Massachusetts: Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Lee, I. 2004. “Error correction in L2 secondary writing classrooms: The case of Hong Kong”. Journal of Second Language Writing. 13(4). 285–312.

Lightbown, Patsy M.; Spada, Nina. 1998. How Languages Are Learned. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Richards,  Jack, (Ed).  1974.  Error  Analysis:  Perspectives  on  Second  Language  Acquisition.  London: Longman.

Thornbury, Scott. 1999. How to Teach Grammar. Essex: Pearson Education Limited.

Using Mind Mapping and Five Reviewing Patterns to Improve Senior High School Students’ Vocabulary Mastery

by Dian Fadhilawati

Islamic University of Balitar, Blitar, East Java, Indonesia

Abstract

This reported research was a collaborative action research to improve the vocabulary achievement of high school students using mind mapping and five reviewing patterns proposed by Buzan (2009). The subjects were 35 students of X-B class of MAN Kota Blitar, East Java, Indonesia, in 2011/2012 academic years. The data of the research included qualitative data (observation result and field note) and quantitative data (test result). This research was conducted in one cycle which included 2 meetings. The first meeting was done at Tuesday, 7 February 2012. It was for teaching vocabulary about newspaper and publishing using mind mapping and review 1. The second meeting was done at Wednesday, 8 February 2012. It was for teaching vocabulary about radio and television as well as for the review 2 at the beginning of the meeting. At the end of the meeting, the teacher gave take home tasks for review 2 of meeting 2. Further, the third review (1 week after the first learning) was given at Wednesday, 15 February 2012. It was intended for reviewing both the materials in meeting 1 and 2. The forth review was a take home reviewing tasks given 1 month after the first learning and the fifth review was a take home review assigned 3 months after the first learning. After all of the five reviews, a vocabulary test was administered. The finding showed that the implementation of mind mapping and 5 reviewing patterns could improve the students’ vocabulary achievement, from the mean score of 55.66 to 80.57. The students also gave positive responses toward the strategies applied as reflected from the result of the questionnaire given.

 

Key words: mind-mapping, reviewing, vocabulary achievement

Based on the researcher’ preliminary observation at the first of February 2012, it was found the following weaknesses. First, teachers lacked of media in teaching and learning process (the teacher only used an exercise book called “LKS Aspirasi”). He did not use the language laboratory, chart, mind mapping, game, song pictures, or other media/facilities. Second, the students were lazy and unmotivated. Third, the students were passive in the classroom. Fourth, in teaching vocabulary the teacher only wrote down the vocabulary list on the white board and asked the students to find the meaning of the word in Indonesian. Therefore, the researcher assumed that instruction absolutely must be changed by the teacher by using appropriate method in order the students take apart to the lesson and got better achievement at the end of teaching learning process.

In addition, based on the result of the vocabulary test which administered to the students before the action, it could be said that the students’ English ability of X-B class was low, especially in understanding the meaning of words in context. The students’ mean score for the vocabulary test was 55.66, that was below the minimum school standard criterion of English mastery that required them at least have mean score 70.00.

Actually, there are a lot of interactive media or strategies to encourage students to take apart in the lesson especially in vocabulary teaching and learning. Since vocabulary teaching and learning aimed at enabling learners to understand the concepts of unfamiliar words, to gain a greater number of words, and to use words successfully for communicative purpose, it is necessary for the teacher to select and apply appropriate strategies in teaching vocabulary for the students which could improve their motivation to take apart in the lesson.

Mind mapping and five reviewing patterns proposed by Buzan (2009) can be applied by the teacher in teaching vocabulary. There are some reasons why the teacher may use mind mapping in teaching vocabulary, for example: (1) mind mapping is very appropriate and flexible to be applied for different levels of age, theme, subject, and situation either for whole class, group or individual, (2) mind mapping is a very good tool for creative thinking and problem solving, (3) in foreign language teaching and learning, mind mapping can improve memory recall of facts, words or images, (4) mind mapping is creative note taking method, which eases us to remember much information, and (5) mind mapping is colorful, uses pictures or symbols which leads the students’ interest to the subject (Deporter, Readon, and Nourie, 1997: 175). From the statement above, it can be concluded that mind mapping is potentially a good way to teach vocabulary to the students in senior high school.

In line with the previous statements, Buzan (1993:1) adds that mind mapping is a powerful graphic technique which provides a universal key to unlock the potential of brain. It imitates the thinking process, recording information through symbol, pictures, emotional meaning and colors, exactly the same like our brain process it. It means that mind mapping is very useful media for creating attractive, and enjoyable learning that lead the successfulness of the students in learning English vocabulary

In addition Buzan (2009: 39) also states that by using a mind mapping we can see what we are going to do and what we have done. It means, mind mapping may be used by the teacher or the students for planning the lesson, summarizing the lesson or recall to the lesson that the students have learnt. Moreover, Buzan (2009) also argues that mind mapping and 5 reviewing patterns will lead the students to achieve good scores in their examination test.

Talking about the success of the students’ in gaining good vocabulary achievement, it is crucial for the teacher to think deeply about how to implant vocabulary in the students’ mind for long term memory. In this case, the teacher may apply reviewing to facilitate the students with better memory to what they have learnt. It could be done at school or at home by giving tasks as a mean for reviewing the lesson that the students have learnt.

Usually many students are confused in deciding when they should start to review their school lessons, and most of them tend to postpone the reviews. As a result, in the time of final test, they often panic and study for their test immediately at the night before the examination with less sleep. As a result, at the examination day they lost concentration, were sleepy and, therefore, they failed or got poor scores. Actually, the best way to review lessons is step by step, little by little, day by day, and gradually until it becomes a habit in life (Buzan, 2009:38).

Furthermore, a good reviewing model was proposed by Buzan (2009) which is called 5 reviewing patterns. Buzan (2009:125) states that if students review the lesson 5 times such as: (1) 1 hour after the first learning, (2) 1 day after the first learning, (3) I week after the first learning, (4) 1 month after the first learning, and (5) 3 months up to 6 months after the first learning), they would have permanent memory of the lesson.

Therefore, the researcher and her collaborator assumed that the use of mind mapping and 5 reviewing patterns proposed by Buzan (2009) could improve the students’ vocabulary achievement and facilitate the students’ memory of the words or phrases they have learnt.

The studies on the use of mind mapping in teaching English have been performed by some researchers such as: Indah (2010), Effendi (2004), and Helmasari (2008). In this case, Indah (2010) proved that mind mapping was an effective medium to teach vocabulary to the tenth grade students of SMU Negeri 15 Palembang. Besides that, Effendi (2004) also found that mind mapping was effective to increase the second year students’ reading comprehension at SLTPN 43 Palembang. Further, Helmasari (2008) reported that mind mapping was effective to teach paragraph writing to the eleventh year students of SMA Negeri 14 Palembang.

 

 

Research Objective

The objective of this research is to use mind mapping and five reviewing patterns to improve the tenth year students’ vocabulary achievement at MAN Kota Blitar.

 

Research Design

In this research, the researcher employed collaborative classroom action research through mind mapping and Buzan’s 5 reviewing patterns to improve the students’ vocabulary achievement of X-B class of MAN Kota Blitar. In this case, the researcher’s collaborator was involved from the beginning up to the end of the research process. The action of teaching vocabulary through mind mapping and Buzan’s 5 times reviewing patterns is done by the researcher, and her collaborator acted as an observer of the teaching learning process. This idea is based on Calhoun’s principle (in Kasbollah, 2002:43) that argued “in collaborative action research, the researcher makes collaboration with the school teacher investigated as the researcher’s collaborator to do the research activities.”

 

Research Setting

The Research was conducted in MAN Kota Blitar starting from February to May 2012. The school is located at Jl. Jati 78 Sukorejo Blitar. This school was chosen because of some reasons such as: there are problems which need solution dealing English teaching learning process mainly on vocabulary achievement of X-B class which considered need to improve, and of course the permission from headmaster of MAN Kota Blitar.

 

Research Subjects

The research subjects of this research were the students of Class X-B of MAN Kota Blitar, consisting of 35 students (11 boys and 14 girls). The class was chosen as the subject because: (1) the class of X-B got the lowest achievement among the others class at the first semester (2) the students’ low vocabulary achievement (with the mean score of 55.66).

 

Research Procedure

The procedure of this Classroom Action Research was a modified version of Kemmis and Taggart (1997:27) model which covered some steps, namely preliminary study, planning of action, action, observing the action, and reflecting on the observation. This research was held from February to May 2012. The researchers conducted this study for one cycle that planning the action, implementing the action followed by 5 times reviewing, observation and evaluation, and analysis and reflection. This was only one cycle because the purpose has been achieved with only one cycle. Further, the description of the research procedures was presented on the following figure.

fig-1-dianfadila

Figure1: The Procedures of Classroom Action Research (CAR)

 

Research Instruments

1. Test

Vocabulary test was given after the implementation of the action. It was used to know the students’ development. The test consisted of 50 words about newspaper and publishing as well as radio and television in which it distributed as follows: (1) questions numbers 1-15 were in the form of multiple choice, (2) questions number 16-30 were in the form matching test, (3) question number 31-40 were in the form guided completion and (5) question number 49-50 were in form of rearranging the scrambled words into good sentences. To make the test administered valid and reliable, in this research the researcher and her collaborator conducted validity test to another class of the tenth grade students at MAN Kota Blitar (X-C) class. Furthermore, the researcher used content validity, the evidence based on content of the test’s and its relationship to the construct it was intended to measure. In this case, the researcher looked for evidence that the test represented a balanced and adequate sampling of vocabulary mastery. Moreover, the content validity of the test was based on the basic competence in the tenth grade of Senior High School’s curriculum.

Before the post test was given to the respondent. It was tried out first to other group of students who had the same level with the respondent to know the test items were too difficult or too easy, whether the time is enough or not and the respondents understood the instruction or not. It was tried out on 2nd May 2012 at the class X-C of MAN Kota Blitar consisting 35 students. The following is the vocabulary test that was given to the students either in preliminary test or after the action test.

 

2. Observations Checklist

            Observation checklist was used to get the data about the students’ activities during the teaching learning process. In this case the researcher provided 2 observations checklist; the first to observe the teacher’ preparation, presentation, teaching method, personal characteristic, and teacher-students interaction in the classroom. The second observation checklist was intended as media in observing the students’ activities in the classroom.

 

3. Questionnaire

            A questionnaire was used to collect the data about the students’ reaction toward mind mapping and Buzan’s 5 times reviewing patterns in learning vocabulary. The Questionnaire contained 10 items with Likert scale options: Absolutely Agree (AA), Agree (A), Not Sure (NS), Not Agree (NA), and Absolutely Not Agree (ANA). It was adopted from Kristiana (2011).

 

4. Field note

            To get the rich data, this research also used field notes to write down the activities of teacher and students in the classroom which are not covered in observation checklist. Further, field notes composed of the descriptions of what was being heard, seen, experienced and thought in the classroom. The recorded data dealt with the phenomenon such as: time allotment, classroom atmosphere, tasks organization, and teacher’s feedback.

 

Criteria of Success

            The criterion of success in this research was designed on the basis of the school criterion: the students are considered good or successful in their vocabulary achievement if they achieve at least 70 of the optimal score competence level of 100. It means that the students’ mean score of the post-test should equal to or is higher than 70. Moreover, beside the students’ score in vocabulary achievement, the result of questionnaire was used to support the explanation of the criteria of success.

 

Kinds of Data and Data Sources

 

There were two kinds of data in this research, namely quantitative data and qualitative data. Quantitative data in the research refer to the data acquired from the test and questionnaire. Moreover qualitative data refer to the result from observation, questionnaire and field notes.

 

Techniques of Data Collection

The data were collected by (a) conducting an observation, (b) making field note, (c) administering test, (d) distributing questionnaire.

 

Data Analysis

The data analysis was used by researcher in this research followed some procedure such as: classifying the data, presenting the data and the last was concluding the data.

 

1. Data Classification

In this research, the data were classified into two categories, the first was quantitative data and the second was qualitative data. The quantitative data referred to the data which was taken from the students score as well as the questionnaire. However, the qualitative data were taken from the observation and check list as well as field note.

 

2. Data Display

The classified data from observation result and field note were described qualitatively using categories of achievement such as: very poor, poor, fair, good, and very good. Moreover, the data taken from the test was presented in tables, and the data from the questionnaire was calculated in percentage.

Furthermore, the use of quantitative data analysis was classified as follow:

1. The rule to decide the accomplishment degree and the mean score

  • Rule to find an individual degree of mastery

 

 

(Adopted from Petunjuk Guru Bahasa Inggris for the Senior high school).

  • Rule to find mean score

 

M       =      Mean score

SX      =      the total scores of the students’ vocabulary test

N        =      the numbers of students

(Adapted from Beast, 1981). 

2. The rule of calculating the percentage of students’ questionnaires responses

 

 

 

 

Concluding the Data

Data conclusion was done after the researcher evaluated and interpreted the data. It is important to conclude the data to know whether another cycle was necessary. In this research, researcher stopped the action at cycle 1 because the students had achieved mean score 88.57. That result was higher than the minimum mastery criterion stated in that school (70.00). Moreover, that result was supported by the results of observations which indicated the improvement of the teaching learning process from teacher and students’ part and the result of questionnaire dealing the implementation of teaching learning vocabulary using mind mapping.

 

Reflection

Reflection is the most important part in Classroom Action Research, it is needed to evaluate whether another cycle to solve the problems is necessary or not. The number of cycles cannot be predicted in advance. A classroom action research may take only one cycle if after the first cycle, all the targeted criteria of success have been achieved. The researchers, in fact, have to do their best to plan their classroom action research as few cycles as possible.

If all of the problems in teaching vocabulary are solved, there is no need to conduct the second cycle. In reflection, the researchers consult the result of data analysis and compare it with the criteria of success. If the result of our first action fulfills the criteria of success, the action is stopped. If it does not fulfill the criteria of success, the researchers should continue to the second cycle by revising the lesson plan (Latief, 2010:87).

Furthermore, Mistar (2010:31) states that “reflection in a classroom action research is an effort to evaluate whether the teaching learning process succeeds or fails based on the criteria of succeed that have been decided before”.

The reflection in this research was done by the researcher and her collaborator after accomplishing each of the research steps in order to know whether we could stop the research or should continue to another cycle. In this case, they decide to stop this research in the first cycle, because the criterion of succeed of the research has been achieved by the students. The student’s mean score was 80.56; it was higher than the criterion of success of the research (70.00).

 

The Result of Teaching Learning Process Analysis

The analysis of the teaching-learning process was done based on the result of field notes and the observation checklist. Some findings show improvement from both the student and teachers’ parts. On the part of the students’ attitude towards the task, it was found that the students were actively involved and participated actively in the lesson. Further, the teacher’ ability in conducting teaching and learning process was observed and categorized as excellent and above average. Mostly, the indicators in observation checklist were rated 4 (excellent) and 3 (above average) by the collaborator researcher. In this case, the teacher was evaluated in the five points namely: (1) preparation, (2) presentation, (3) execution/method, (4) personal characteristics, teacher-students inter­action. Dealing with preparation, the teacher was well prepared and the lesson execution was good.

Further related to presentation, the teacher explained the materials well, smoothly, in sequence, and logically. Moreover the teacher also paced the lesson well, gave the lesson direction to the students clearly, for example in asking them to do the tasks, to play mind map, to do homework etc. Besides that, the teacher always tried to make the students talk or write for example by asking question, asking them to write the sentences, etc. Further, she also realized if there were some students who were having trouble in understanding the lesson. In this case, she asked the students the points they didn’t understand and she explained it again carefully. Further, in presenting the materials the teacher was very encouraging, full of enthusiasm, and showed the interest in the lesson,

Furthermore, dealing with execution or method, the teacher used various activities in during the class, reinforced the material, walked around the class, made eyes contact with the students, and knew the student’s name well. She also distributed the questions appropriately and used media in teaching. Contextual learning was used with clear example and illustration of the materials through mind mapping.

On the teacher’s personal characteristics, the teacher was patient in answering the students’ questions. She had audible voice for all students in the class. She also had a good appearance, initiative and was resourceful. She had appropriate and acceptable use of English while she is teaching the students.

The last point is related to teacher – student interaction in the classroom. Dealing with that point, the teacher tried to set the class into a student-centered class. She encouraged students’ participation in classroom by asking them to do activities or to raise or answer questions. Further, she was able to control and direct the class well; she sometime relaxed the students and made students work in group or individual. In conclusion teacher and the students had excellent interaction for enjoyable learning in the classroom.

An analysis of the result of the test given at the end of cycle 1 showed that an improvement of learning result was achieved. In this case, the mean score of the student’s in the vocabulary test after the action increased significantly after the implementation of mind mapping and 5 reviewing patterns proposed by Buzan (2009). The mean score of the students was 80.57. The students’ mean score was higher than the students’ mean score in vocabulary test before the action (55.66) and the minimum criterion mastery stated in the school (70.00).

 

The Students’ Questionnaire Result

The data on students’ opinion towards learning vocabulary using mind mapping and Buzan’s 5 reviewing patterns was obtained through a questionnaire with 10 statements given to 35 students of the tenth year of students in X-B class of MAN Kota Blitar. The questionnaire contained four variables to measure: (1) learning motivation, (2) learning result, (3) tasks accomplishment and (4) social relationship. The result showed that on the first variable “learning motivation”, the students are motivated to learn vocabulary using mind mapping and Buzan’s five reviewing patterns strategy. It can be seen from the result of the four statements given related to it. For the first statement (item no. 1) “I am very eager to learn vocabulary using mind mapping and Buzan’s 5 reviewing patterns”, 30 (85.7%) students chose “absolutely agree” and 5 (14.3%) students “agree”.

Moreover, 29 (82.9%) students state “absolutely agree” and the rest 6 (17.1%) students state “agree” for the statement (item no. 2): “Learning vocabulary using mind mapping and Buzan’s 5 reviewing patterns is an interesting and enjoyable activity”. On the other hand, in the third statement for this variable, statement no. 6, “It is difficult for me to learn vocabulary by mind mapping and Buzan’s five reviewing patterns”, 2 (5.7%) students state “not sure”. Moreover, 4 (11.4%) students state “not agree”, and the rest 29 (82.9%) students state “absolutely not agree”. Meanwhile, for the next statement (item no 7), “Learning vocabulary using mind mapping and Buzan’s 5 reviewing patterns strategy is a worthless and time consuming activity”, 6 (17.1%) students state “not agree” while the rest 29 (82.9%) students state “absolutely not agree”.

The data on the second variable “learning result” also showed satisfactory response. There are 4 indicators representing this variable. The first indicator is statement (item no. 3) “In my opinion learning vocabulary using mind mapping and Buzan’s reviewing patterns can increase my vocabulary”. 29 (82.9%) students chose “absolutely agree”, 6(17.1%) students chose “agree”. Second is statement no. 4, “Mind mapping and Buzan’s 5 reviewing patterns help me learn and memorize new words”.  30 (85.7%) students’ state “absolutely agree” and 5 (14.3%) state “agree”. The next is statement no. 5, “Learning vocabulary using mind mapping and Buzan’s five reviewing patterns enabled me to learn words and their meaning in comprehensible way”. 28 (80%) students state “absolutely agree” while the rest 7 (20%) students state “not sure”. And the last indicator is statement (item no 10), “Learning vocabulary through mind mapping makes me brave to express idea or asking and answering the question”. For this 29 (82.9%) students state “absolutely agree” and 6 (17.1%) students state “agree.”

The third variable “task achievement” also showed good response. As it can be seen in statement no. 8, “Using mind mapping and Buzan’s 5 reviewing patterns makes me motivated to do the class tasks or take-home tasks“, 30 (85.7%) students state “absolutely agree” and 5 (14.3%) students sate “agree”

The last variable “social relationship” also showed acceptable response. It can be seen from the result of statement no. 9, “Learning vocabulary using mind mapping and Buzan’s 5 reviewing patterns promotes the togetherness among students”. 29 (82.9%) students choose “absolutely agree”, and 3 (8.6%) students state “agree”, while 3 (8.6%) students state “not sure”.

 

Reflection

Based on the result of the analysis both the teacher teaching-learning process and students’ learning result in cycle I, it was shown that the students made an improvement in learning vocabulary. This improvement could be seen from indicator of success achieved as follows. The obtained mean score was 80.57 was higher than the standard minimum mean score (70.00). Therefore, it was decided that the next cycle was not necessary. In addition, that result was supported by the result of teaching learning process which was derived from observation checklists and field note in which the teaching learning process in that class was very good/ excellent and it was also supported by the students’ positive responses toward the use of mind mapping and five reviewing patterns in learning vocabulary as presented previously. The following figure is the description of students’ improvement in learning vocabulary by using mind mapping and 5 reviewing patterns

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 2: Students’ Improvements

 

The result of the research that was presented above was in line with Indah ‘s experimental research result on the use of mind mapping to teach vocabulary, in which she reported that the vocabulary achievement of the students of IKIP PGRI Palembang increased after being taught using mind mapping. She recorded that the calculation result of the matched t-test formula was 2.396. It indicated that the calculated t obtained was greater than the critical value (1.725). The finding of her study showed that mind mapping is effective in teaching vocabulary to the tenth year of SMUN 15 Palembang.

Moreover, the researchers’ result was also in line with Yusuf’s experimental research result entitled “The Effectiveness of Mind Mapping Technique In Increasing the Second Year Students’ Reading Comprehension at SLTPN 43 Palembang” The result of the calculation of the t-test formula was 4.19. It indicated that the t value was higher than the critical value (02.021). The findings of his research showed that mind mapping is significantly effective in teaching reading comprehension to the subject of SLTP Negeri 43 Palembang.

In addition, the researchers’ result was in line with experimental research result by Hermalasari entitled “Teaching Writing Paragraphs by Using Mind Mapping to The Eleventh Year Students of SMA Negeri 14 Palembang in which she reported that the students’ average score in pre-test was 59.68 and the average score of post-test was 67.85. It indicated that calculated t value was higher than the t value on the table (1.684). It means that mind mapping is effective to teach writing paragraphs at the eleventh grade in that school. And now, with this current research mind mapping is also proved effective to teach vocabulary

 

The Strength and the Weaknesses of Mind Mapping and 5 Reviewing Patterns

There is no perfect thing. Besides having some strengths mind mapping and 5 reviewing patterns also have some weaknesses. The strengths include (1) leading the students to have better memory, (2) easy to apply in the classroom as media to present the material, media to do the task, media to review the lesson, and media to assess the students’ achievement, (3) interesting, and attractive media to teach all themes or sub-theme.

Further, mind mapping and 5 Buzan’s reviewing patterns were a pairs of strategies which support each other. As Buzan (2009:39) argue the best way to review the lesson is using mind mapping. With mind mapping to review the lesson, students will have better memory of the materials they have learnt. Better memory will make them easier in doing the test. It was proved by the students’ vocabulary mean score after applied with those strategies in this research.

However, mind mapping and five reviewing patterns also have weaknesses such as: (a) Mind mapping and 5 reviewing patterns need consistency as well as continuity of implementation either in the for of classroom implementation by teachers or at home reviews by students following the procedures given. Especially for the strategy of reviewing the lesson, it must be done seriously based on Buzan’s 5 reviewing patterns. Buzan’s 5 reviewing required teachers and students to review the lesson until 5 times based on these following rules: (a) one hour after the first learning, (b) one day after the first learning, (c) one week after the first learning, (d) one month after the first learning and, (e) three up to six months after the first learning. Those reviewing procedures may be difficult to do for students at the first time. Besides, with five time review, the teacher must provide and prepare more tasks, and of course it needs additional cost to prepare them as well as need additional time to do. In addition, it is not easy to change the habitual linear note writing in preparing teachers’ teaching materials or presentation. While with mind map, teachers need to be creative in making mind maps and present them in the class. If they don not have creativity and a good understanding about the material, the teachers would have problems in translating the materials into mind maps. Mind map reflects the materials to teach in the class. Therefore, before teachers make mind maps, they must understand the materials well so that they can generate the good key words. Otherwise, the mind map would be confusing for the students. Further, some teachers may not have a good ability to use multimedia or technology in teaching and learning such as in operating computer, laptop or internet applications. Or it can be said that mind map is still difficult to make for some teachers who did not have computer mastery or creativity to draw it.

In mind maps, everything is supposed to be provided on a single page. This is a tough challenge for teachers who have comprehensive and complex topic to deal with in the classroom. A mind map which is made carelessly or which is too ambitious to cover all aspect would look so crowded and this might cause students difficult to understand.

 

 

Conclusion and Suggestions

Mind mapping and 5 reviewing patterns proposed by Buzan (2009) can improve the tenth year students’ vocabulary achievement. Therefore, the English teachers are recommended to apply this model as one of alternatives teaching technique to teach vocabulary in the classroom. Besides that, the English teachers are also suggested to inform or discuss this model of vocabulary teaching through teachers’ forum such as workshop and seminar.

It is suggested that parents with elementary, junior or senior high school sons or daughters practice Buzan’s 5 reviewing patterns as strategy to review their lesson in order to improve their learning achievement. Furthermore, the students are also recommended to make mind map of their lessons at home after school and do the review 5 times based on the certain procedures as Buzan proposed. So, the students must be active both in the classroom and outside of the classroom for reviewing their lessons, for example, by summarizing, mapping, re-reading the material by themselves or by reviewing them in peer learning, and group learning at home.

In addition, this research is an action research in which the result cannot be generalized. It is advisable or recommended that future researchers would conduct the research with different design for example experimental research to know the effectiveness of Buzan’s 5 reviewing patterns on certain skills or subjects. Such research would be useful to strengthen or reject this research result.

 

 

 

 

References

 

Arikunto, S. 1993. ProsedurPenelitian; SuatuPendekatanPraktek. Jakarta: PT. RinekaCipta.

Burden, P.R. and Byrd, D.M. 1999.Method for Effective Teaching. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, Inc.

Brown, J.W, et.al. 1997. Instruction: Technology, Media, and Method. New York: McGrow Hill Company

Brown, H.D. 2000. Principles of Language Learning and Teaching. New York: Pearson

Brown, H. D. 2007. Teaching by Principles: an Interactive Approach to Language Pedagogy. New York: Pearson

Buzan, T. 2007. Buku Pintar Mind Map untuk Anak : Agar Anak Mudah Menghafal dan Berkonsentrasi. Jakarta. PT. Gramedia Pustaka Utama

Buzan, T. 2008. Buku Pintar Mind Map untuk Anak : Agar Anak Lulus Ujian dengan Nilai Bagus. Jakarta: PT. Gramedia Pustaka Utama.

Buzan. T. 2009. BukuPintar Mind Map. Jakarta: PT GramediaPustakaUtama.

Buzan, T. http://www.usingmindmaps.com/ what-is-a-mind-map.html. Accessed on April 18th, 2012

Casco, M. (2009). The Use of “Mind Maps” in the Teaching of Foreign Languages. http://www.madycasco.com.ar/articles/mindmaps.PDF Accessed on May 16th 2012

Celce,Murcia, M., &Ohlstain, E. 2000. Discourse and Context in Language Teaching: A Guide for Language Teachers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Choyimah, N. 2011. Teaching Vocabulary through Discourse: The Step to Improve Students’ Productive Vocabulary in Cahyono, B.Y., Mukminatien, N., (Eds.), Techniques and Strategies to Enhance English Language Learning. Malang: State of University of Malang Press.

DePorter, Bobbi and Mike Hernacki. 2008. Quantum Learning: Membiasakan Belajar Nyaman dan Menyenangkan. Jakarta: Kaifa

DePorter, Bobbi; Mark Reardon, and sarah-Nourie Singer.1999.Quantum Teaching: Orchestrating Students’ Success.Boston: A Pearson Education Company.

Effendi, Yusuf. 2004. The Effectiveness of Mind Mapping Technique in Increasing the Second Year Students’ reading Comprehension at SLTP Negeri 43 Palembang.” Unpublished Undergraduated Thesis. Palembang: Faculty of Teacher Training and Education University of PGRI Palembang

Elliot, J. 2005.Action Research for Educational Change. Bristol: Biddles Ltd, Guilford and King’s Lynn

Harmer, J. 1991.The Practice of English Language Teaching (rev ed.). London: Longman

Heaton, J.B. 1987. Writing English Language Test. London: Longman Group Ltd.

Hermalasari. 2008. Teaching Writing Paragraphs Using Mind Mapping Technique to the Eleventh Students of SMA Negeri 14 Palembang. Unpublished Undergraduate Thesis Palembang: Faculty of Teacher Training and Education University of PGRI Palembang.

Hughes, A.1996.Testing for Language Teachers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Indah. 2010. Teaching Vocabulary trough Mind Mapping Technique. http://abuafeefah.files.wordpress.com/2010/08/thesis-indah.doc Accessed on 2 January 2012

Kasbollah, K. 2002. Penilitian Tindakan Kelas. Malang: Depdikbud

Kemmis, S., &McTaggart. 1994. The Action Research Planner. Deakin University.

Kristiana, T. 2011. Improving Students’ Vocabulary Mastery to the Seventh year Students at SMP Negeri 3 Blitar through Team Game Tournament.Unpublished Thesis. Malang: Postgraduates Program Islamic University of Malang

Latief, Mohammad Adnan. 2010. Tanya Jawab Metode Penelitian Pembelajaran Bahasa. Malang: UM PRESS

Mistar, J. 2010. Pedoman Penulisan Tesis Program Pascasarjana Universitas Islam Malang. Malang: Pogram Pascasarjana Universitas Islam Malang.

Nation, I. S. P. 2001.Learning Vocabulary in Another Language.

Oxford, R. L. & R. C. Scarcella. 1994. Second language vocabulary learning among adults: State of the art in vocabulary instruction System 22 (2): 231–43.

Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionaries. 1995. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Schmitt, N. and McCarthy, M. 1997. Vocabulary: Description, Acquisition and Pedagogy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Sudjana, N. 1990.Penelitian Proses Hasil Belajar Mengajar. Bandung: PT. Remaja Rosda Karya.

The American Heritage Dictionary of English Language. 1968. Boston: Hughton Mifflin

Trianto, M.Pd.2009. Mendesain Model Pembelajaran Inovatif: Konsep, Landasan, dan Implementasinya pada Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan Dasar Pendidikan (KTSP). Jakarta. Kencana.

Wallace, M. 1982. Teaching vocabulary.London: Heinemann Educational Books

Wilkins, David A. 1972. Linguistic and Language Teaching. London: Edward Arnold.

Windura, Sutanto. 2008. Mind Map: Langkah Demi Langkah. Jakarta: PT. Elex Media Komputindo.

Enhancing Students’ Listening Skill Through Podcasts

by Oktavia Widiastuti

State Polytechnic of Malang (Polinema)

Abstract

Applying podcast as an appropriate multimedia can be very potential and practical as a tool to enhance listeningskill.Students and teachers can download podscast easily and freely as source of their listening materials. Listening materials presented through Podcast is possible to increase students’ listening skill as Podcast provides students with authentic and contextual material. Podcast offers an ideal tool for the creative expression of knowledge preferred by today’s students, and provides an exciting way for students and teachers to explore and discover listening content or material.

Podcasts are particularly suited for extensive listening, for the purpose of motivating students’ interest in listening to English and providing them with exposure to native speakers’ speech (Rost, 1991). Stanley (2006) points out that podcasts offer students a wide range of possibilities for extra listening both inside and outside of the classrooms. The outside classroom listening activity effectively bridges the gap between the formal English which dominates most English language classrooms and the informal English used in real-life communication events.Podcast as a new technology has huge potential in enhancing students’ listening skill.The ease of downloading podcasts to MP3 players and iPods means that students can now engage in plenty of listening practice in any condition.

 

Key words: Listening skills, podcast, Information technology in ELT

 

Listening in language learning has undergone several important stages, from being assumed “acquired through exposure but not really taught” (Richard, 2002) to be viewed as “a primary vehicle for language learning” (Rost, 2001). During the decades, developments in education, linguistics and sociology have led to the powerful theories of the nature of language comprehension and the active interest in the role of listening comprehension in second language acquisition.

In daily communication, listening plays an important role. Research has demonstrated that adults spend 40-50% of communication time listening, 25-30% speaking, 11-16% reading, and about 9% writing (Vandergrift, 1999). Listening, the most widely used language skill, is often used in conjunction with the other skills of speaking, reading and writing. It is not only a skill area in language performance, but also a critical means of acquiring a second and foreign language.

In the late 1960s and early 1970s, applied linguistics recognized that listening was the primary channel by which the learner gained access to L2 data, and that it therefore served as the trigger for acquisition (Rost, 2001). Krashen (1982) claimed that “comprehensible input” was a necessary condition for language learning. In his input hypothesis, Krashen said further development from the learner’s current stage of language knowledge could only be achieved by the learner’s comprehending language that contained linguistic items (lexis, syntax, morphology) at a level slightly above the learner’s current knowledge (Rost, 2001). According to this theory, the more language we expose students to, the more they will acquire, and the better they get in listening activities

In general, provided the listening materialappropriate to their level is a very significant point. However, the reality of the teaching of listening in Indonesian’s classrooms is that students have only one hour to learn listening in the language laboratory every week, which is far from satisfactory. Hence, extensive listening must go along with intensive listening. Extensive listening, where a teacher encourages students to choose for themselves what they listen to and to do so for pleasure or for general language improvement can also have a dramatic effect on a student’s language proficiency (Harmer, 2001).

Applying appropriate multimedia in Extensive Listening activity can be one of the solutions to improve students’ listening skill and their motivation (Juniardi, 2008). By using multimedia students not only hear the sound but also can capture the pictures, moreover by using multimedia students can download native voices as source of their listening materials. One of the programs that can be applied is podcast program. By using Podcast, the students can listen to music, news, TV program etc. Podcast has two files audio (MP3) and video (MP4). These files can be down loaded free of charge from www.cnn.com. One of the Podcast examples which can be free down loaded is, CNN Larry King Live Podcast (Paul, 2007).

Another example, which is also interesting to be used as the listening material, is taken from www.invisiblechildren.com . There are many videos which can be downloaded by subscribing to the website using iTunes (Stanley, 2006).

These two examples are few of many others materials that can be freely downloaded from the internet by subscribing to the website using iTunes. The capacity of each file is varied (about 3 to 100 Mb) according to duration of the podcast. For instance, it takes at least one and a half hour to download a 15 minutes Larry King Live Podcast (McCarty, 2005).

Based on the explanation above, listening materials presented through Podcast is possible to increase student listening comprehension as Podcast provide students with authentic and contextual material and it can improve students’ knowledge because students are able to share their Podcast. Podcasting offers an ideal tool for the creative expression of knowledge preferred by today’s students, and provides an exciting way for students and educators to explore and discover listening content or material (McCarty, 2005). Podcasts are audio or video files that are automatically delivered over a network, and then played back on any Mac, PC, or iPod. When students create a Podcast for class, they not only learn the content in a creative way, they learn 21st-century communication skills at the same time.

 

Listening

Language learning depends on listening since it provides the aural input that serves as the basis for language acquisition and enables learners to interact in spoken communication. Listening is the first language mode that children acquire. It provides the foundation for all aspects of language and cognitive development, and it plays a life-long role in the processes of communication. A study by Wilt (1950), found that people listen 45 % of the time they spend communicating.

Since listening is, according to Wang Shouyuan (2003), the most important component in the five aspects of overall English competence he suggests as listening, speaking, reading, writing and translation, it deserves particular attention. Teachers must actively explore the nature and process of listening comprehension and study the theory and methodology of listening comprehension in order to improve listening teaching outcomes and make students recognize that listening comprehension is the crucial aspect of English learning.

From the point of view of constructivist linguistics, foreign language teaching should focus on language form and structure, thus, listening teaching is undertaken in each of the four aspects of language form. When students are taught to understand a passage of text, teachers first let them discriminate between the pronunciation of vowels and consonants, then understand vocabulary, sentences and discourses. The goals of this listening teaching model from the “bottom-up” is to help students understand the meaning of vocabulary by discriminating sounds, to understand sentence meaning, and to monitor and control the meaning of discourses by understanding sentence meaning (Feyten, 1991).

Since the 1970s, with the development of functional language theory, there has been an emphasis on the research of language function in society. Functional linguistic experts recognize language as a communicative tool, but not an isolated structure system. Consequently the teaching of listening is not simply intended to make students hear a sound, a word or a sentence, rather, the goal is to cultivate students’ abilities to understand speakers’ intentions accurately and communicate with each other effectively (Lihua, 2002).

Different from the traditional theory that listening is a passive activity, now we have realized that listening is a complicated process that involves many factors. Rost (2002) suggests that “listening is a process involving a continuum of active processes which are under the control of the listener.” It is different from hearing which is “the primary physiological system that allows for reception and conversion of sound waves that surround the listener” (Rost, 2002).

A thorough definition of listening, thus, should include at least four factors: receptive, constructive, collaborative, or transformative (Rost, 2002). Receptive means receiving what the speaker actually says while constructive suggests constructing and representing meaning. Collaborative, on the other hand, shows negotiating meaning with the speaker and responding while transformative requires creating meaning through involvement, imagination and empathy.

            In summary, effective listening involves the listener taking an active role in constructing meaning with the speaker. Speaker must be aware of the deixis, speaker intention, implicit meaning and strategy use. In addition, effective listening will involve attention to cooperative social interaction, as that is where conversational meaning is monitored and negotiated (Rost, 2002).

The notion of involvement, engagement, and negotiation is related to pragmatic approach to listening. The pragmatic point of view of listening is an intention to complete a communication process. In order to occur this pragmatic completion, there must be engagement, in which a listener switches from becoming a mere ‘presence’ to an interpreter (Verschueren, 1999 in Rost, 2002).

 

Listening and Technologies

A prominent artefact of older beliefs concerning the role of listening in language learning is the language laboratory. The rationale for language laboratories is tied to the belief that individual listening practice with audiotape can help build a learner’s overall ability in the target language through self instructed comprehension practice. Technology continues to be perceived as an enhancement to the process of language acquisition. The large-scale infusion of computers in language instruction programs in the past decade attests to this belief. The rationale behind what is now growing support for Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) is not unlike earlier enthusiasm for audiotape-based technologies. That is, individualized access to target language material under learner control provides needed exposure to and practice in the target language (Meskill, 1993).

Enthusiasm for CALL in general and multimedia in particular, however, differs from that of the audiotape laboratory as regards the breadth of expectations concerning technology’s role and potential. Fast and powerful computational capacity in conjunction with the orchestrated video, text and graphics of today’s multimedia learning systems would predict more sophisticated paradigms for interaction with the target language and, consequently, more effective learning (Jung, 1990).

Arguments supporting multimedia for education of this kind have rung loud and clear over the past decade. Praises for the medium are, however, based largely on intuition: learning a language via individualized instruction with the computer especially when audio and video are involved is an extremely appealing proposition, one that has sold to many an administrator in search of instructional panaceas (Jonassen, 1993). Thus far, however, the extent of multimedia’s impact on the language acquisition process remains an open issue. Is there evidence to suggest that listening skills development can be enhanced through this medium? The following section treats this question by examining potential correspondence between multi modal processing opportunities for language learners and how these can interact to complement listening skills acquisition (Garza, 1991).

Puspitasari (2010) in Cahyono (2010) in her article “Using Podcast as a Source of Material for Teaching English” informed what a podcast is. By the guidance of the teacher, the students can experience learning authentically through podcasts. The strategy described in this article is how to use podcast as a source material. Having listened to podcast, students are assigned to do several tasks in worksheets. Then, they can finish their final project by submitting the worksheets and a written recount text.

Other sources of the use of technology in English language learning and teaching are Murtado (2010) in Cahyono (2010), he used mailing lists in the English classroom where students can read other people’s questions and comments, and they can also give their comments. Samsuli (2010) in Cahyono (2010) proposed teaching English in a virtual classroom. As a teaching environment, virtual classroom provides a set of tools and features to facilitate teachers for delivering course materials and structuring learning experiences. The virtual learning gives teachers an experience in the new teaching atmosphere and environment and makes them change the way to teach. It will improve their face to face interaction with more effective questioning techniques.

 

Podcasts

Podcasts are audio (sometimes video) programs on the Web which are usually updated at regular intervals. New episodes can be listened to on the computer, or downloaded to an MP3 player or iPod for later listening. Although audio programs have existed on the Web for a few years already, what makes podcasting unique is its capacity for subscription through an RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed, listeners can subscribe to their favorite Podcasts. Their computer will then receive alerts when new episodes have been posted. Podcatcher software programs, such as iTunes, will even download the latest episodes automatically once the program is opened. In other words, instead of having to visit individual Websites regularly for updated episodes, listeners can now have the latest episodes of their favoriteprograms delivered to their computer (Stanley, 2006)

 

Types of Podcast

Podcasts available on the Web fall broadly into two types: “radio Podcasts” and “independent Podcasts.” Radio Podcasts are existing radio programs turned into Podcasts, such as those produced by BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation) and RTHK (Radio Television Hong Kong). “Independent Podcasts” are Web-based Podcasts produced by individuals and organizations (Lee, 2007).

It is the second type of Podcast which has huge potential for ELT because these can be perfect to suit the needs of different learners. They can be created by learners themselves with utmost ease.

 

ELT Podcasts

The first Podcasts appeared in early 2005. ELT educators soon joined the movement, and since the second half of 2005, there has been an upsurge in the number of ELT Podcasts on the Web. Teachers have three ways to look for suitable ELT Podcasts for their students. They can start with general Podcast directories. A Podcast directory is a searchable database which is linked to the Podcast sites. Teachers can type in a search term like “English,” “ELT,” “ESL,” and “TESOL,” and they will be given a list of ELT Podcasts. An example of a general Podcast directory is http://www.podcastalley.com/ (Lee, 2007).

To narrow down their search, teachers may go directly to directories of educational Podcasts. One well-known educational Podcast directory is the Education Podcast Network: http://epnweb.org/. A recent new directory is http://recap.ltd.uk/podcasting/, which claims to be the first U.K directory of educational Podcasts (Lee, 2007).

There is now such an abundance of ELT Podcasts on the Web that Podcast directories specializing in ELT are also available. These are directories which cover ELT podcasts only. One example is http://iteslj.org/links/ESL/Listening/Podcasts/ maintained by the Internet TESL Journal (McCarty, 2005).

 

Contents of ELT Podcast

ELT podcasts cover a wide range of subject matter. A brief survey of ELT podcasts reveals the following content types:

  • Comprehensive (e.g., http://www.englishteacherjohn.com/podcast/).

These are Podcasts that cover a wide range of content types, such as traditional listening comprehension activities, interviews, and vocabulary. A well-known comprehensive Podcast is the one quoted above, created by “Teacher John,” who teaches ESL in Japan.

  • Whole lessons (e.g., http://www.breakingnewsenglish.com/).

These are whole lessons based on a Podcast. The Podcast quoted above, for example, makes use of a news story in each episode. The text of the news story is provided, and is accompanied by the audio file. There is then a lesson plan with accompanying worksheet materials. In effect, these are ready-made lessons based on Podcasts which teachers can use in the classroom directly.

  • Vocabulary, idioms, etc. (e.g., http://englishteacherjohn.com/).

This is a popular type of Podcast, probably because it is easy to produce. In this kind of Podcast, the host chooses some vocabulary items and explains their usage. The example presents a few idioms in each episode.

These Podcasts contain conversations between native speakers to help less proficient learners, each episode is accompanied by the script, for learners to refer to while listening to the conversation.

These are Podcasts containing jokes because they usually play on language, they encourage careful listening by the learner.

  • Songs (e.g., http://englishpodsong.blogspot.com/)

These Podcasts contain songs for ESL learners. The songs are either traditional children’s songs, or authentic popular songs for teenagers. They are also often accompanied by the text of the lyrics.

  • Phonetics, pronunciation (e.g., http://phoneticpodcast.com/)

Podcasts are obviously highly suited for teaching phonetics and pronunciation. These Podcasts are lessons which focus on specific phonemes and pronunciation problems in English.

  • Stories (e.g, http://www.englishthroughstories.com/)

These are usually reading aloud story. They may or may not be followed by listening comprehension questions.

  • Listening comprehension (e.g., http://mylcpodcasts.blogspot.com/)

These Podcasts provide conventional listening comprehension practice.

In conclusion, computerized media and a multimedia environment can be helpful for English language learning and teaching and it has been asserted that internet sources and internet-based teaching are an excellent medium and strategies for generating social construction of knowledge. Information and communication technology can be used by adopting variant methods that could encourage students in developing independent learning strategies. In this study, the use of webblog and internet mail (e-mail) as learning medium and the use of podcast as a listening source material hopefully can make the students improve their listening skill and motivation.

 

Podcasts and Listening Activities

Teaching listening by using Podcast is possible to increase student listening comprehension as Podcast provide students with authentic and contextual material and it can improve students’ knowledge because they share their Podcast (Earp, 1998). Podcasting offers an ideal tool for the creative expression of knowledge preferred by today’s students, and provides an exciting way for students and teachers to explore and discover listening content or material. Podcasts are audio or video files that are automatically delivered over a network, and then played back on any Mac, PC, or iPod. When students create a Podcast for class, they not only learn the content in a creative way, they learn 21st-century communications skills at the same time (McCarty, 2005).  Podcasting allows teachers to take their students beyond traditional assignments by allowing them to include voice recordings, photos, movies, and sound effects to share their knowledge. For example, students can draft and perform scripts as a writing assignment, create a visual progress report for an ongoing project, or submit a recorded version of a science presentation (Ge, 2005).

Podcasting is also a great way for teachers to deliver listening content to their students. They can distribute homework assignments, record book narration for beginning readers to read along with, or create foreign language lessons that students can review at their own pace (Lee, 2007).

ELT Podcasts can be used for intensive and extensive listening activities. However, ELT Podcasts are particularly suited for extensive listening, for the purpose of motivating student interest in listening to English, and providing them with exposure to native speakers’ speech (Rost, 1991). Stanley (2006) points out that Podcasts offer students a wide range of possibilities for extra listening both inside and outside of the classroom:

 “Supplementing the (often) scripted and stilted textbook listening with the real life authentic conversations we can find on many Podcasts is an attractive option for language teachers chosen carefully, extracts can bring a range of different voices and varieties of English into the classroom.”

More advanced learners can be encouraged to listen to authentic podcast. This activity effectively bridges the gap between the formal English which dominates most second language classrooms and the informal English used in most real-life communication events.

The key to help students improve their listening skills is to convince them that they can finish the job. This is more of an attitude adjustment than anything else, and it is easier for some students to accept than others. Another important point is that teachers should convince their students to listen to English as often as possible. As to the listening material, the more material they get touch with, the more progress they will make (Nunan and Miller, 1995).

In conclusion, as we all know, for the students of English as a foreign language, there are usually intervals between the perceptions of sounds by their ears and understanding the words, phrases and sentences. This kind of intervals often makes students have more troubles in listening comprehension. So it is essential for them to have more chances to contact with different kinds of listening materials and let their ears be familiar with different sounds of English words. In classroom activities, teachers can also give students some advice about improving listening competency, one of the useful suggestions, that is, extensive listening. The best source for extensive listening is podcast material from the internet.

 

Conclusion

Having observed all the results of the studies mentioned above, it can be concluded that internet podcast is a great multimedia to improve students’ listening skill. Podcast allows students to download or subscribe to audio programs in the form of MP3 files which is very easy to apply and they can select appropriate podcast materials which they need and like. The material is then easily be transferred to a portable MP3 player. Moreover, Intensive and Extensive Listening Activity using podcast is able to overcome students’ low ability in listening comprehension and is able to fulfill their need to have extra time to improve their listening skill with appropriate and interesting listening materials.

 

 REFERENCES

Cahyono, B. C. 2010. Teaching English by Using Internet Resources. Malang: State University of Malang Press.

Earp, S. 1998. More Than Just the Internet: Technology for Language Teaching. ERIC Digest .http://www.ericdigests.org/1998-2/internet.htm.

Garza, T. 1991. Evaluating the Use of Captioned Video Materials in Advanced     Foreign Language Learning.Foreign Language Annals, 24, 3, 239-258.

Harmer, J. 2001.The Practice of English Language Teaching (3rd Edition). Harlow: Longman

Jung, U. 1990. The Challenge of Broadcast Video Text to Applied Linguistics.IRAL, 28, 3.

Juniardi, Y. 2008. Improving Students Listening Skill through Podcasting Program. Paper presented in Asia TEFL Conference Bali, 23rd August.

Krashen, S. D. 1982. The Input Hypothesis. London: Longman

Lee, B. 2007.Podcasts Transforming Campus Life.The Monterey County Herald.

McCarty, S. 2005. Spoken Internet To Go: Popularization through Podcasting. JALT CALL, 1(2), 67-74.

Meskill, C. 1993. ESL and Multimedia: A Study of the Dynamics of Paired Student Discourse. System, 21, 3, 323-341.

Meskill, C. & Shea, P. 1994. Multimedia and Language Learning: Integrating the Technology Into Existing Curricula. Proceedings of the Third Conference on   Instructional Technologies. State University of New York: FACT.

Nunan, D. 1999. Second Language Teaching and Learning.Boston: Heinle&Heinle.

Nunan, D. and Miller, L. 1995. New Ways in Teaching Listening. Washington DC: TESOL.

Richards, J.C. 2002. Listening Comprehension: Approach, Design, Procedure. ESOL Quarterly, 17 (2): 29-240.

Rost, M. 1991. Listening in Action: Activities for DevelopingLlistening in Language Teaching. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Rost, M. 2002. Teaching and Researching Listening. London: Pearson Education.

Stanley, G. 2006. Podcasting: Audio on the Internet Comes of Age.TESL-EJ, 9(4).

Stoks, G. 2005. Podcasts: New Materials for Teaching Listening Comprehension. Retrieved from www.babylonia.ch: 26 April 2006.

Thorne, S. and Payne, J. 2005.Evolutionary Trajectories, Internetmediated Expression, and Language Education.CALICO, 22(3), 371-397.

Vandergrift. 1999. Facilitating Second Language Listening Comprehension: Acquiring Successful Strategies. http://docutek.Canberra.edu.au/coursepage

Wills, R. 2002.An Investigation of Factors Influencing English Listening

Comprehension and Possible Measures for Improvement. Australia: University of Tasmania.

Yumarnamto. 2008. Podcasts and Videocasts from the Internet to Improve Students’ Listening Skill. Paper presented in Asia TEFL Conference Bali, 1st-3rd August.

Stimulating Positive English Speaking Class Environment

Oleh: Ani  Purjayanti

Bogor Agricultural University (IPB)

 

Abstract

Despite the fact that the skills to communicate in English are crucial in the globalization era, the majority of students in Bogor Agricultural University encounter problems to speak this language appropriately and fluently. When asked to elaborate the inhibiting factors, students generally point out both linguistic and non-linguistic factors. Accordingly, not only do students need to be equipped with adequate knowledge of grammar, a sufficient range of vocabulary, and pronunciation knowledge but their confidence and willingness to take the risk also need to be provoked as well. In fact, the latter points, namely, building confidence and risk-taking willingness generally require hard efforts on the part of the teachers. Practice, is indeed viewed as the best way in such an English teaching-learning process, although, inevitably, there are often questions concerning the HOW this process is able to provide prominent and meaningful inputs to the students. This paper is written as an attempt to elicit students’ opinions on speaking classroom environment which can stimulate and foster students to speak appropriately and fluently. 100 students of Bogor Agricultural University (of Diploma level) who had taken reading class prior to the Speaking I, were randomly selected to be the subjects of the study. Besides completing questionnaires focusing on classroom arrangement and environment, participants were interviewed for further clarification. Results show that teachers play the most prominent role in creating classroom environment, including creating comforting but challenging classroom environment and providing appropriate teaching materials.

 

Key words: classroom environment, friendly speaking environment

Although teaching speaking skill does not completely differ from teaching other language skills, it apparently requires greater endeavors as students are driven to produce sentences in an active way. Meanwhile, being in a new speaking class – where one has to express ideas and opinions – is not always a pleasant experience for students. Quite often, a series of queries appears in a student’s mind: whether they will have an interesting class, a good teacher, nice friends, and so forth. Others might think whether they will be able to accomplish all of their classroom activities, and go through all of the tasks in the learning process for the whole semester. Still, some others wonder whether they are far behind their friends in terms of ability or the same. Such worries may, unfortunately, result in the decline of students’ guts and confidence so that their performance is far below optimum.

It is in such a case, learning environment becomes paramount. If the environment is dreary and discouraging, things will lead to a strenuous and boring situation though the lessons offered are tremendous. If the environment is tempting and motivating, on the other hand, learning may take place more easily as having safe and comfortable feelings, learners will eagerly open themselves to be involved and actively engage in the learning activities. By doing so, they are expected to be able to absorb and master the materials and skills given. But, the questions arisen here is “Who is responsible to create such a stimulating learning environment?”

This paper is written to elicit students’ opinion on “Who” or/and “What” can stimulate learners to speak in the speaking classroom.

 

Learning Environment

The term “Learning Environment” has apparently drawn a relatively wide attention from teachers of languages who then react in different ways as their follow-up actions. A some papers  discuss that many language teachers immediately direct their concentration on the physical setting of the classroom – where and how specific things must be placed and arranged as such an organization is believed to benefit young learners in their brain development  (Church, 2010). He goes on by mentioning other factors that may affect the classroom environment; namely, material choices as well as provided activities.  Byanderzee (2010), furthermore forward the idea that a positive classroom environment can be created by taking learners’ preferences and view points in the design of classroom materials, and this can be covered in specific classroom curriculum design. One specific goal for this is to ensure that students’ individual needs will be fulfilled. A larger coverage of the conception of learning environment is not only the “physical” environment but also the emotional feelings of learners created by particular people in a classroom: the teacher, classmates, etc that play a prominent role in stimulating positive learning environment. The feeling of being secure and excited when entering the classroom and conducting all the activities, is one of the examples of desired classroom environment.

 

Methods and Procedures

100 students of Diploma Program in IPB (from 6 different classes from two semesters) were asked to fill in a questionnaire “Stimulating Classroom Environment for English Speaking Learners”. They are free to give more than one answers when describing the preferred teacher, teaching materials, classmates, etc. In order to explore true responses from participants, Indonesian is used, but answers were given in English.

Responses were then tabulated and analyzed to obtain a clear depiction of students’ preferences. Words of similar meaning are classified into one to make the grouping easier. Some of these findings some were put into graphs.

In-depth interviews were conducted in order to get clarification of participants’ responses on the questionnaire.

 

Findings and Discussion
It was found that according to the students, the salient factors that have great roles in stimulating positive classroom environment so as to make them willing and encouraged to speak in English are in the following order:

 

Figure 1: The most influential factor in creating positive learning environment

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Results indicated that the majority of the participants (68%) pointed out “the teacher” as the most crucial factor in making them speak, compared to other factors such as materials (10%), classmates (10%), learning situations (7%)  and learning activities (5%). Teacher factor is evidently far above the other choices, meaning that teachers  are viewed to have a vital role in providing valuable learning environment.

Regarding detailed teachers’ characteristics, teaching materials, classmates’ characteristics, and so forth that students preferred in-depth interviews were conducted. Responses mentioned by participants in each category are discussed individually.

 

1. Teacher (as the Most Influential Factor)

What are the aspects of an influential teacher brought up by the students in the questionnaire and interview?

Regarding teachers’ characteristics that students preferred, students raised teachers’ being friendly, supportive and giving respect as the highest in frequency. Responses students raised in the questionnaire are as described in the following:

  1. 1.      Being friendly

The most outstanding teachers’ characteristic raised by the majority of the students (89 %) – which also means what students concern the most about their teacher – is “friendliness”. Although it is described in a variety of words; including, being friendly, always smiles, always shows friendly face, the body language shows friendliness, and the like, students point out that this characteristic has a great impact on their feelings towards the classroom environment. This can make them feel at ease and comfortable and also reduce their nervousness so that they can enjoy the lesson and find it easier to express their opinions.

  1. 2.      Being supportive

Similar to the first characteristic, this second one was also written by 77% students as one of the teacher’s ideal characteristics. They have more courage if the teacher always provides support for his/her students, particularly when they make mistakes or do not know what to say. Thus, expressions such as “That’s good, so what about …“ in order to remind them of what they have to focus on, or “Right, but how do you pronounce …” when trying to correct their pronunciation can make them keep going.

Another expression that students use in the response is that they like to have a teacher who always gives motivation so that they feel the need to learn more and more. This can be conducted when giving them assignment or at the end of the lesson, for instance, depending on the classroom situation. Saying “Practice again and again so that in the next meeting you can speak much better than this time…” can give a significantly positive impact on the students.

  1. 3.      Giving respects

Although it is not mentioned as often as the above two characteristics, more than half of the respondents (57%) mention that they need to be given respects by their teacher. A teacher who respects students, listens to what they say, provides the same opportunities for all students to speak or ask questions, and does not criticize nor give bad judgment in front of others is sincerely appreciated. A teacher should also be able to accept students’ weaknesses wisely.

  1. 4.      Being  eager in correcting students’ mistakes

Both eagerness and willingness of a teacher to address students’ mistakes in a positive way is another concern (51%) since students believe that they still make lots of mistakes when speaking. A teacher, accordingly, is expected to show and correct these mistakes, as by doing so, students will be aware of their mistakes in the hope that they can avoid making the same mistakes at other times.

  1. 5.      Being kind-hearted

In addition, many students (46%) would like to have a teacher who has genuine understanding upon his/her students’ level of English proficiency, including understanding their difficulties and anxiety while learning English. In their words, they like a teacher who “can understand students’ situations” and do not become furious easily. A teacher has to have a great patience in her/himself.”

 

  1. 6.      Being creative and innovative

To a smaller extent (11%), students stated that a creative and innovative teacher can create good environment in the classroom since he/she can make classroom alive with the materials and activities provided for the students.

  1. 7.      Other characteristics

There are, still, other teachers’ characteristics preferred by students  though only in a very small number (7%). These include being able to explain clearly and become a role model, having sense of humor, being professional, and  close to the students. Moreover, teachers should also be serious in a friendly manner.

From the findings, it revealed that only a very few number of the participants point out teacher’s intelligence, knowledge, and smartness as profound aspects in creating friendly speaking environment. These cognitive characteristics were not as highly favoured as affective characteristics as discussed above. It is definite, therefore, that to provide friendly speaking environment, teachers’ personalities have to be given more attention. This is a great input for language teachers to introspect and check whether the above points are built in themselves.

The above-mentioned findings are, in fact, in line with previous studies (eg., Purjayanti, 2008). Similar hints to teach speaking class are also stated by Kelly (2010) who points out that both “teacher’s behaviors” and “teacher’s characteristics”, particularly “teacher’s personalities” have a great impact on how a learning environment is created. Whether or not a teacher is even-tempered, sarcastic, serious, patient, or optimist, is viewed to be the most important factor in creating a stimulating classroom environment as it appears that every student mentions this in their response.

What needs to be done then? Personalities, indeed, have to come first. Giving genuine smile and showing a happy face can be the first thing a teacher has to perform. Language teachers do not only assist students but also learn from others; sharing both knowledge and experience with students at the same time may help language teachers maintain the positive environment.

Included in the personalities that a language teacher needs to posses is the choices of words he/she uses in the classroom. Words of appreciation, inspiration as well as keenness are always good to use. A list of word choices and expressions used by language teachers in the classroom is proposed by Andrew (2009:1); he mentions that saying “raise a hand if in need of assistance” creates a more positive environment than saying “do not call out answers”.

Regarding teacher’s attempt to correct students’ mistakes which is very common to occur in a speaking class, again, words play a great role. Suess (2010); therefore, suggests that a teacher should conduct this activity wisely:

Always start with positive statement; praise them for trying. Praise is a powerful positive motivation tool” (Mc-Daniels in Suess, 2010:2)

Above all, a more crucial tip for teacher’s personalities is provided by Suess who states that the heart of creating stimulating classroom environment is teachers’ “enthusiasm” as well as “excitement” towards the lesson being taught. Teachers should always try to be enthusiastic and eager with the valuable job being conducted. It is this excitement   that will finally spread throughout the whole classroom and spark students’ enthusiasm to learn.

It is, definitely, a big fortune if all the characteristics and behaviors that students preferred become the parts of language teachers’ daily life in order to make students feel the comfort, respect, and even love from teachers. The most important questions that need to be addressed now is probably, “Are language teachers able to keep up the same performance from time to time?”, or “Can they always control their emotion in all kinds of situations?” Whatever the answer it takes, it is always good to take Kelly’s affirmation into account:

your behavior is the one factor that you can completely control” (Kelly, 2010:1)

 

Materials

The second vital component that can stimulate learning environment, as the participants respond on the questionnaire includes are both teaching materials and classmates. These are discussed with teaching materials discussed first and followed with classmates.

It was found that the stimulating materials include real-life topics, interesting topics, simple (trivial-matter) topic), and others. Real life topic includes topics about daily life, current issues and situations, any other current issues appear in the society. Students perceived such topics to be un-threatening topics to discuss since they are mostly have the knowledge on them; thus, it is relatively challenging. Interesting topics include the ones providing new or more knowledge or information are also found interesting. On the other hand, the ones that students are not familiar with are more difficult to express. Third, simple topics are the ones related to the real-life topics. Topics on politics or laws, for instance, are fairly hard to discuss. Finally, other topics include  the ones which are challenging, of their own choice, and fun.

 

Classmate

Placed in the same rank as teaching materials, classmates were pointed out by 10% of the participants to be one of the factors influencing the learning environment. What kinds of classmates are they exactly expecting to make them encouraged to speak? The following characteristics of classmates are expected.

Being great motivators

85 % students affirmed that they are encouraged to speak when their classmates are the ones who can give them motivation. This kind of classmates are those willing to help and do not expect too much in return. These classmates also appreciate whatever their other friends performed and gave necessary suggestions.

Being active and responsive

58% students; furthermore, pointed out that these classmates are relatively active when conducting conversations with them, active asking questions and giving opinions during class presentation. Such classmates can radiate energy to them so that they finally become active.

Willing to give correction

Similar to the hope addressed to teachers, some students (27%) feel happy to be corrected by their friends. They found that most of the time, they forget grammar or certain pronunciation due to nervousness or concentration breakdown. Having correction from their friends will make them fresh again and able to carry out their speaking.

Possessing better skills

This finding was found relatively surprising. 16% of the participants stated that they can apparently have more courage when facing classmates with better ability. They revealed that these kinds of friends will indirectly radiate their great spirit to the others who realize that they have to learn more and more.

Others

What includes under this category are, among others, having sincere classmates – the ones who give their complete attention when others are carrying out their tasks – , can also provide the spirit for them to speak. They also like classmates who never laugh at their friends’ mistakes

It is worth noting that classmates can, indeed, have a relatively big influence in the learning environment, particularly in a speaking class. It is necessary, therefore, for all language teachers to give their attention to this matter. Mc-Daniels words, quoted by Suess (2010:2) can be used as a great reminder:

Make sure students respect one another by teaching them help rather than laugh at each other .They should be reminded how they would like to be treated, and should treat others that way.”

 

Learning/Classroom Situation

Although this is not discerned as a really influential factor in creating the learning environment, few students stated some preferences on the classroom situations. Apparently, they like the following (in order of preference):

  1. to have a life classroom where everyone can express their opinions without fear
  2. to be in a fun and relax but serious situation (as opposed to an intense classroom)
  3. to be in a warm, conducive, and communicative classroom
  4. to be given an opportunity to speak or ask questions
  5. to be placed in pairs or groups
  6. to be placed in a small class  ( not too many students in it)

It was found that students, indeed, like to take part by expressing ideas in their speaking classroom, whether they are as a presenter or audience. This is believed to be able to provide as pleasant classroom environment so as not to make students feel discouraged and disrespected.

It was also worth noting that – as mentioned by a number of students – placing students in pairs or small groups is one way to make students feel comfortable and relax (as opposed to be individual). The first reason might be because they know each other, and secondly they have more turn and opportunity to express their ideas. Having this, therefore, it is expected that students can have better involvement, and hopefully better learning results.

 

Learning Activities

Students revealed that activities they like to perform in a speaking class are:

  1. the ones involving asking and answering questions
  2. presentation
  3. group discussion
  4. graded level of difficulty (to start from the easiest then move to the next grades)

The above findings, in fact, confirmed students’ high desire to get more time to perform speaking in the classroom. Thus, the enthusiasm is there with the students. The question arisen will be “are students given a opportunity to carry out the real speaking? Or, instead, is their high spirit “killed” simply because  the language teachers  do not provide an environment that can keep students’ high desire?

 

Conclusion

Generating a stimulating learning environment means creating safe, comfortable, secure, and friendly situations where students feel welcome, accepted and respected. Nervousness, anxiety or even stress due to the fear to produce utterances may be reduced or even hampered by such a friendly environment. In this kind of environment, learners are put in the centre of the classroom activities where they can explore and share knowledge, information, and experience in their own way. It is expected that in this way, learners can build their confidence and grow their willingness to express their ideas in their speaking class so as to make them speak better.

Now, as previously discussed, it is the duty of the teacher as the “most influential” person – whom the students rely on – to make every effort in order to provide the above findings for students to learn more eagerly. As McDanniels (2012:1) stated:

All students, even those who have learning difficulties and extraordinary personal challenges can do well when they are physically comfortable, mentally motivated and emotionally supported”.

 

REFERENCES

Andrew, Tammy. 2009. Positive Learning Environment. http://suite101.com/article/positive-learning-environment-a97379

Office of Instructional Development (OID) UCLA. Improving classroom Interaction. http://www.oid.ucla.edu/units/tatp/old/lounge/pedagogy/interaction

Anonymous. 2005. How to Create Enriching Environments that Enhance Student Learning. v

Byanderzee. 2010. Creating a Positive Classroom Environment. www.ehow.com

Church, Ellen Booth. 2010.  Off to a Great Start: Creating an Effective Classroom. http://www.scholastic.com/teachers/article/great-start-creating-effective-classroom

Donato, Nanci. A  Discussion of a Positive Learning Environment and Classroom Management. www.clarion.edu/20715.pdf

Imel, Susan. 2011. Inclusive Adult Learning Environments. www.ericdigests.org/1996-2/adult.html

Kelly, Melissa. 2010. Creating a Positive Learning Environment: Dealing with Forces That Effect the Learning Environment. http://712educators.about.com/od/classroomhelpers/tp/Creating-A-Positive-Learning-Environment.htm

Lebednik, Christine. How to Have Stimulating Classroom Discussions. www.ehow.com.

McDaniels, Michelle McFarland. 2011. Children Respond to a Positive Learning Environment. http://www.brighthubeducation.com/classroom-management/13907-creating-a-positive-learning-environment/

Purjayanti, Ani. 2008. Good Language Teacher: Whose perceptions? Paper presented in 55th TEFLIN International Conference. Jakarta: UIN

Suess, Emily. 2010. A Positive learning Environment. http://www.selfgrowth.com/articles/a-positive-learning-environment