Posts Tagged ‘polinema’

PENGARUH STRATEGI PEMBELAJARAN (STAD VS KONVESIONAL) DAN MODALITAS BELAJAR TERHADAP HASIL BELAJAR VOCABULARY DALAM BERBICARA BAHASA INGGRIS

Imam Mudofir

Program Studi Teknik Elektronika Jurusan Teknik Elektro, Politeknik Negeri Malang

imammudofir76@yahoo.com

 

ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to examine (1) the differences vocabulary English speaking learning outcome taught by Student Teams Achievement Division (STAD) and the conventional learning strategies, (2) student differences vocabulary in English speaking learning outcome that have different learning modalities (visual, auditory, kinesthetic) gain different result in English speaking skill vocabulary, and (3) the interaction effect between learning strategies and learning modalities (visual, auditory, kinesthetic) towards vocabulary English speaking learning outcome.This research was conducted in the second semester of academic year 2012-2013 of Electronics Engineering Department, State Polytechnic of Malang, which consists of 44 students of experimental class and 44 students of control class. This studyis designed by using quasi-experimental research designs (quasi -experiment) with the model design is Nonequivalent Pretest – Posttest Control Group Design. Based on data analysis, the results of the study (1) there are differences in learning outcome between groups of English speaking students taught by learning strategy STAD with a group of students who are taught by conventional learning strategies (F = 68.344, p = 0.000), (2) there are differences in English speaking learning outcome between the students who have different learning modalities (F = 13.022, p = 0.000), and there is no interaction effect between learning strategy STAD and conventional and learning modalities (visual, auditory and kinesthetic) on English speaking learning outcome (F = 0.783, p = 0.499).

 

Keywords: Students Team Learning Achievement Division (STAD), Conventional, Learning Modality, Learning outcome, vocabulary English Speaking Performance.

 

ABSTRAK: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji (1) perbedaan hasil belajar vocabulary dalam berbicara Bahasa Inggris antara mahasiswa yang diajar dengan strategi pembelajaran Student Teams Achievement Division (STAD) dan strategi pembelajaran konvensional, (2) perbedaan hasil belajar Bahasa Inggris mahasiswa yang mempunyai modalitas belajar berbeda (visual, auditory, dan kinestetik) memperoleh hasil belajar vocabulary dalam berbicara Bahasa Inggris berbeda, dan (3) pengaruh interaksi antara strategi pembelajaran dan modalitas belajar (visual, auditory, kinestetik) terhadap hasil belajar vocabulary dalam berbicara Bahasa Inggris. Penelitian ini dilakukan di Program Studi Teknik Elektronika, Politeknik Negeri Malang semester II tahun akademik 2012-2013, yang terdiri dari 44 mahasiswa kelas eksperimen dan 44 mahasiswa kelas kontrol. Penelitian ini menggunakan strategi penelitian yang dirancang dengan menggunakan desain penelitian eksperimental semu (quasi experiment) dengan model rancangan yang digunakan adalah Nonequavalent Pretest-Postest Control Group Design. Hasil penelitian sebagai berikut. (1) ada perbedaan hasil belajar berbicara Bahasa Inggris antara kelompok mahasiswa yang belajar dengan strategi pembelajaran STAD (PKs) dengan kelompok mahasiswa yang belajar dengan strategi pembelajaran konvensional (PKv) (F = 13.022, p = 0.000), (2) ada perbedaan hasil belajar berbicara bahasa Inggris antara kelompok mahasiswa yang memiliki modalitas belajar berbeda (MB) (F = 68.344, p = 0.000), dan (3) tidak ada pengaruh interaksi antara strategi pembelajaran STAD dan konvensional dan modalitas belajar (visual, auditory dan kinesthetik) terhadap hasil belajar berbicara Bahasa Inggris (F = 0.783, p = 0.499).

 

Kata kunci: Students Team Achievement Division (STAD), konvensional,   modalitas belajar, hasil belajar, dan vocabulary dalam berbicara Bahasa Inggris

 

Salah satu strategi pembelajaran kooperatif tipe Student Teams Achievement Division (STAD)dapat digunakan sebagai alternatif pembelajaran yang menarik bagi mahasiswa dan bisa menanamkan aspek-aspek soft skills pada mahasiswa (Setyasari, 2009). Hasil penelitian Kendek & Ardhana (2004) menyatakan bahwa pembelajaran kooperatif tipe Students Teams Achievement Division (STAD) lebih baik hasilnya dari strategi pembelajaran konvensional. Strategi pembelajaran kooperatif tipe Students Teams Achievement Division (STAD)dapat meningkatkan pemahaman materi yang diajarkan, dapat meningkatkan hasil belajar mahasiswa, dapat meningkatkan aktivitas mahasiswa, interaksi mahasiswa, pembelajaran yang menyenangkan, bertanggungjawab, inovatif, dan kompetitif untuk belajar (Arnidah dkk., 2005). Dalam referensi dan hasil penelitian, pembelajaran yang menarik dapat meningkatkan motivasi belajar mahasiswa (Degeng, 1997). Pembelajar dituntut mampu menyelenggarakan pembelajaran yang inovatif (Ardhana dkk., 2004). Proses pembelajaran inovatif ditandai oleh pembelajaran yang tidak semata-mata memberikan pengetahuan dengan caranya sendiri sebagai perwujudan terhadap tugas dan tanggung jawab (Gredler, 1992). Adapun yang dimaksud dengan efektif adalah “how well the instruction work”, efisien adalah “the effectiveness of instruction divided by time and/or cost of the instruction”, dan menarik adalah “the extent to which the learners enjoy the instruction” (Reigeluth, 1999).

Hasil observasi peneliti menunjukkan bahwa target sasaran mata kuliah Bahasa Inggris di Politeknik Negeri Malang yang belum tercapai. Hal ini disebabkan karena penerapan strategi pembelajaran yang tidak sesuai dengan tujuan mata kuliah dan belum optimalnya praktek Bahasa Inggris dalam proses pembelajaran mata kuliah Bahasa Inggris. Hal ini disebabkan penggunaan komunitas berbahasa Inggris dan budaya kurangnya penggunaan Bahasa Inggris (Chaer & Leonie, 2006) menyatakan bahwa Bahasa Inggris dapat digunakan dan diaplikasikan meskipun secara tata bahasa mahasiswa tidak terlalu menguasainya. Selanjutnya, permasalahan lain dalam proses belajar mengajar Bahasa Inggris di Politeknik Negeri Malang yaitu dosen belum menggali bagaimana mahasiswa belajar sesuai dengan modalitas belajar yang mereka miliki. Modalitas belajar menurut DePorter dkk. (2000) dan DePorter & Hernacki (2007) yaitu visual, auditory, dan kinestetik.

Adapun target mata kuliah Bahasa Inggris di Politeknik Negeri Malang adalah mahasiswa mampu berkomunikasi lisan untuk mampu bersaing dalam dunia kerja. Hal ini di dukung bahwa dalam bursa kerja sering kita menemukan suatu lowongan pekerjaan yang mempersyaratkan penguasaan Bahasa Inggris aktif (speaking) dalam wawancara pekerjaan (Tim BAN PSTE, 2012); (Sriwahyuni, 2006) dan (Brown, 2007). Berbicara Bahasa Inggris dalam prakteknya mahasiswa membutuhkan penguasaan vocabulary yang cukup. Mahasiswa yang mempunyai vocabulary yang banyak akan mampu memproduksi kalimat yang banyak dan begitu sebaliknya.Belajar vocabularyBahasa Inggris merupakan sebuah hal yang amat penting di dalam pembelajaran. Tanpa pembendaharaan vocabulary yang cukup banyak, seseorang akan kesulitan dalam berbicara, mengerti maksud, dan menulis dalam bahasa Inggris.Dengan memperhatikanperanan penguasaan komunikasi bahasa maka dirasa perlu untuk memahami pengertian vocabulary.(Khanafi, 2015; Nurgiyanto, 1987; Setiadi;Solihin, 2013; Subekti, 2015; dan Witkin 1974).

Dari berbagai analisis masalah dalam penguasaan vocabularyberbicara Bahasa Inggris dalam proses belajar dan mengajar Bahasa Inggris di Politeknik Negeri Malang perlu adanya penerapan teori belajar yang cocok untuk pendekatan ini dengan teori pemerolehan bahasa ke dua dengan menggunakan teori strategi pembelajaran Student Teams Achievement Division (STAD) dan modalitas belajar dengan tujuan penguasaan Bahasa Inggris secara lisan (speaking) dalam menghadapi wawancara pekerjaan. Sehingga mahasiswa lulusan Politeknik Negeri Malang dapat diterima di perusahaan yang mereka idam-idamkan. Hal ini diperkuat dengan hasil penelitian Naghavi & Nakhel (2003) yang menyebutkan bahwa strategi pembelajaran Cooperative Learning dengan tipe Students Teams Achievement Division (STAD) dapat meningkatkan kemampuan berbicara Bahasa Inggris dari hasil kerjasama kelompok. Selain kooperatif mempunyai kelebihan dalam pengajaran EFL, kooperatif juga mempunyai kekurangan dalam pengajaran EFL ( Mudofir, 2006).

Penelitian ini ditekankan pada keahlian berbicara Bahasa Inggris (speaking) dikuatkan dengan hasil pra-kuesioner bahwa dari 180 mahasiswa di Program Studi Teknik Elektronika Politeknik Negeri Malang mengatakan bahwa 121 mahasiswa mengatakan bahwa pembelajaran Bahasa Inggris ditekankan pada penguasaan keahlian berbicara (speaking), 35 mahasiswa mengatakan bahwa pembelajaran Bahasa Inggris ditekankan pada penguasaan keahlian membaca (Reading), 19 mahasiswa mengatakan bahwa pembelajaran Bahasa Inggris ditekankan pada penguasaan keahlian mendengarkan (listening), dan 5 mahasiswa mengatakan bahwa pembelajaran Bahasa Inggris ditekankan pada penguasaan keahlian menulis (writing). Sehingga dapat disimpulkan bahwa mayoritas mahasiswa di Program Studi Teknik Elektronika Politeknik Negeri Malang mengatakan bahwa pembelajaran Bahasa Inggris ditekankan pada berbicara (speaking).

Selain itu juga, penelitian ini menerapkan strategi pembelajaran konvensional dalam proses belajar mengajar Bahasa Inggris di Politeknik Negeri Malang, Jurusan Teknik Elektro, Program Studi Teknik Elektronika untuk meningkatkan kemampuan berbicara Bahasa Inggris sebagai perbandingan hasil pembelajaran berbicara Bahasa Inggris untuk wawancara kerja dengan menggunakan strategi pembelajaran Student Teams Achievement Division (STAD).

Rumusan masalah penelitian ini adalah: 1) Apakah ada perbedaan hasil belajar vocabularyberbicara Bahasa Inggris antara mahasiswa yang diajar dengan strategi pembelajaran Student Teams Achievement Division (STAD) dan strategi pembelajaran konvensional? 2) Apakah mahasiswa yang mempunyai modalitas belajar berbeda (visual, auditory, kinestetik) memperoleh hasil belajar vocabularyberbicara Bahasa Inggris berbeda? 3) Apakah ada pengaruh interaksi antara strategi pembelajaran dan modalitas belajar (visual, auditory, kinestetik) mahasiswa terhadap hasil belajar vocabularyberbicara Bahasa Inggris?

Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menguji: 1) Perbedaan hasil belajar vocabulary berbicara Bahasa Inggris antara mahasiswa yang diajar dengan strategi pembelajaran Student Teams Achievement Division (STAD) dan strategi pembelajaran konvensional, 2) Perbedaan mahasiswa yang mempunyai modalitas belajar berbeda (visual, auditory, kinestetik) memperoleh hasil belajar vocabularyberbicara Bahasa Inggris berbeda, 3) Pengaruh interaksi antara strategi pembelajaran dan modalitas belajar (visual, auditory, kinestetik) mahasiswa terhadap hasil belajar vocabularyberbicara Bahasa Inggris.

 

Kajian Kepustakaan

Pembelajaran kooperatif merupakan suatu pembelajaran kelompok dengan jumlah peserta didik 2-5 orang dengan gagasan untuk saling memotivasi antara anggotanya untuk saling membantu agar tercapainya suatu tujuan pembelajaran yang maksimal. Suprijono, Agus (2010:54) “Model pembelajaran kooperatif adalah konsep yang lebih luas meliputi semua jenis kerja kelompok termasuk bentuk-bentuk yang dipimpin oleh pengajar atau diarahkan oleh pengajar”. Slavin (1995) “In cooperative learning methods, students work together in four member teams to master material initially presented by the teacher”. Ini berarti bahwa cooperative learning atau pembelajaran kooperatif adalah suatu model pembelajaran dimana sistem belajar dan bekerja kelompok-kelompok kecil berjumlah 4-5 orang secara kolaboratif sehingga dapat merangsang peserta didik lebih bergairah dalam belajar. Dari beberapa pengertian menurut para ahli dapat disimpulkan bahwa pembelajaran kooperatif adalah cara belajar dalam bentuk kelompok-kelompok kecil yang saling bekerjasama dan diarahkan oleh guru untuk mencapai tujuan pembelajaran yang diharapkan”.

Selain menggunakan strategi pembelajaran cooperative learning, pengajar menggali modalitas belajar mahasiswa untuk meningkatkan vocabulary bahasa Inggris mahasiswa. Gaya belajar atau modalitas belajar adalah cara seseorang menginterpretasi dunia sekitarnya melalui penginderaan. Setiap anak punya penginderaan yang paling domininan. Indera yang dominan inilah yang menjadi andalan seseorang untuk memproses sebuah informasi. Penginderaan yang dimaksud adalah Visual. Seseorang dengan gaya belajar visual, belajar menggunakan indera penglihatan. Anak dengan gaya belajar ini sangat menyukai gambar, ilustrasi, grafik, kartu dan warna. Kelak saat si kecil sudah dapat menulis, dia akan belajar dengan cara membuat catatan-catatan. Atau, dia akan sering memejamkan mata untuk membuat gambar dalam benaknya. Auditory adalah gaya belajar auditif, belajar dengan menggunakan indera pendengaran. Dia senang bicara sendiri, mengulang apa yang dikatakan orang lain sebagai sumber informasi. Ketika mendengarkan orang lain berbicara, anak dengan gaya belajar ini akan menirukannya untuk memproses informasi. Semakin keras suara yang dikeluarkannya, semakin mempermudah dia untuk mengingat. Kalau Anda sering mendapati anak bercerita dengan cara melagukannya alias nge-rap, pertanda dia pemilik gaya belajar auditif. Kinestetik adalah gaya belajar dengan menggunakan indera peraba, yaitu  menyentuh. Anak dengan gaya belajar ini adalah pembelajar yang aktif dan butuh banyak bergerak. Dia akan menggunakan tangannya untuk membuat apa saja. Anak yang punya gaya belajar ini mudah terganggu konsentrasinya. Karena itu, anak dengan gaya belajar ini kelak harus duduk di barisan paling depan di kelasnya. (DePorter dkk, 2000 dan DePorter & Hernacki, 2007).

Penggunaan strategi pembelajaran dan modalitas belajar digunakan untuk meningkatkan vocabulary bahasa Inggris mahasiswa. Vocabulary sangat penting dalam pembelajaran bahasa, sehingga pengajar harus menggunakan metode yang baik dalam mengajar vocabulary. Hal ini bertujuan untuk meningkatkan vocabulary yang dikuasai mahasiswa. Menurut Webster (1992) vocabulary merupakan elemen yang sangat penting dari bahasa.

Vocabulary adalah dasar yang harus dipelajari terlebih dahulu oleh peserta didik. Ini akan membantu pelajar dalam belajar bahasa Inggris dengan baik. Oleh karena itu dapat dikatakan vocabulary adalah komponen inti dari kemampuan bahasa bagi peserta didik untuk memproduksi kalimat dalam berbicara, mendengarkan, membaca dan menulis. 1) Vocabulary dalam membaca adalah seseorang dapat mengenali kata-kata ketika membaca, 2) vocabulary dalam mendengarkan adalah seseorang dapat mengenali kata-kata dalam mendengarkan pelafalan bahasa, 3) vocabulary dalam menulis adalah seseorang dapat menggunakan vocabulary secara tertulis, 4) vocabulary dalam berbicara adalah seseorang dapat menggunakan vocabulary dalam berbagai bentuk berbicara. Dari kegunaan vocabulary dalam empat keahlian bahasa maka vocabulary sangat penting dalam pembelajaran bahasa.

 

Metode Penelitian

Rancangan Penelitian

Penelitian ini dirancang dengan menggunakan desain penelitian eksperimental semu (quasi experiment), alasan digunakannya eksperimen ini karena dalam penelitian bidang pendidikan (ilmu sosial) sangat sulit melakukan keketatan kontrol seperti pada penelitian bidang eksakta. Desain quasi experimental berupaya untuk mengungkapkan hubungan sebab akibat dengan cara melibatkan kelompok kontrol di samping kelompok eksperimen, namun pemilahan kedua kelompok dilakukan dengan menggunakan dengan purposive random sampling dengan penentuan sampel dengan 1) mengambil responden yang pada saat ini sedang menempuh mata kuliah Bahasa Inggris, 2) mengambil responden yang pada saat ini sedang menempuh mata kuliah Bahasa Inggris di semester dua.

 

Rancangan faktorial penelitian ini adalah (3 x 2) (Tuckman, 1999).

Tabel 1. Rancangan Penelitian

MODALITASBELAJAR STRATEGI PEMBELAJARAN
STAD KONVENSIONAL
Visual Y111, Y112,…Y11n. Y121, Y122,… Y12n
Auditorial Y211,Y212,… Y21n Y221, Y222,… Y22n
Kinestetik Y311,Y312,… Y31n Y321, Y322,… Y32n

 

Keterangan:

Y111, Y112,…Y11n. = Kelompok mahasiswa yang memiliki modalitas belajar visual diberikan perlakuan dengan strategi pembelajaran Student Teams Achievement Division (STAD)

Y121, Y122,… Y12n = Kelompok mahasiswa yang memiliki modalitas belajar visual diberikan perlakuan dengan strategi pembelajaran konvensional

Y211,Y212,… Y21n= Kelompok mahasiswa yang memiliki modalitas belajar auditory diberikan perlakuan dengan strategi pembelajaran Student Teams Achievement Division (STAD)

Y221, Y222,… Y22n= Kelompok mahasiswa yang memiliki modalitas belajar auditory diberikan perlakuan dengan strategi pembelajaran konvensional

Y311,Y312,… Y31n= Kelompok mahasiswa yang memiliki modalitas belajar auditory diberikan perlakuan dengan strategi pembelajaran Student Teams Achievement Division (STAD)

Y321, Y322,… Y32n= Kelompok mahasiswa yang memiliki modalitas belajar auditory diberikan perlakuan dengan strategi pembelajaran konvensional

 

Subjek Penelitian

Subjek penelitian ini adalah di POLINEMA (Politeknik Negeri Malang). Secara populasi penelitian ini dilakukan di Progam Studi Teknik Elektronika, Jurusan Teknik Elektro, Politeknik Negeri Malang untuk angkatan 2013 sebanyak 4 kelas untuk D3 dan 2 kelas untuk D4, dengan jumlah mahasiswa 150 mahasiswa. Penentuan kelompok mahasiswa dengan mengadakan tes vocabulary berbicara dengan cara1) mahasiswa di wawancarai dengan menggunakan tes wawancara pekerjaan “job interview”, 2) dosen menilai penampilan tes wawancara pekerjaan “job interview” mahasiswa pada komponen vocabulary, 3) dosen mengelompokkan mulai nilai yang tetinggi sampai terendah (total skor 0 – 100), 4) dosen membentuk beberapa kelompok dengan 4 anggota setiap kelompoknya secara acak dengan mencampur antara nilai tertinggi dan terendah.

 

Variabel Penelitian

Variabel dalam penelitian ini adalah 1) Variabel bebas: Strategi pembelajaran yang terdiri dari Student Teams Achievement Division (STAD) dan Konvensional, 2) Variabel moderator: Modalitas belajar (visual, auditory, dan kinestetik) yang diukur dengan menggunakan instrument yang dikembangkan dari DePorter dan Hernacki (2007), 3) Variabel terikat: Hasil belajar vocabularyberbicara Bahasa Inggris.Hasil belajar dalam penelitian ini diperoleh dengan menggunakan tes vocabularyberbicara (speaking) untuk wawancara kerja setelah pelaksanaan strategi pembelajaran Student Teams Achievement Division (STAD).

Dari empat kelas yang terpilih sebagai subyek penelitian selanjutnya diberikan tes modalitas belajar. Pada pertemuan berikutnya diberikan pre-test untuk mengetahui kemampuan awal mahasiswa. Subyek yang telah memiliki kondisi kemampuan belajar Bahasa Inggris yang diasumsikan sama atau homogen diberikan perlakuan strategi pembelajaran Student Teams Achievement Division (STAD) yang dialokasikan waktu 8 kali pertemuan (1 kali pertemuan adalah 2 jam dengan alokasi waktu 1 jam perkuliahan adalah 45 menit).

 

Prosedur Penelitian

Tahap persiapan ekperimen: 1) melakukan studi pendahuluan, 2) Menentukan waktu pelaksanaan eksperimen, 3) mempersiapkan semua instrumen penelitian, 3) mengadakan diskusi dengan dosen pengampu mata kuliah Bahasa   Inggris, 4) menyiapkan perangkat pembelajaran: a) Langkah-Langkah Umum Strategi Pembelajaran STAD dan Konvensional b) Skenario Strategi Pembelajaran STAD dan Konvensional, 3) RPP Strategi Pembelajaran STAD, 4) RPP Strategi Pembelajaran Konvensional, 5) Bahan Ajar, 6) Kisi-Kisi Ulangan Harian, 7) Kisi- Kisi Soal Pre-test dan Post-test, 8) Instrumen Evaluasi VocabularyBerbicara Bahasa Inggris, 9) Instrumen Modalitas Belajar.

Tahap pelaksanaan eksperimen: 1) memberikan tes modalitas belajar mahasiswa, 2) memberikan pre-test vocabulary berbicara untuk wawancara kerja, 3) Melaksanakan perlakuan pembelajaran (eksperimen) menggunakan Student Teams Achievement Division (STAD) dan Konvensional, 4) melakukan evaluasi (post-test) untuk strategi pembelajaran Student Teams Achievement Division (STAD) dan Konvensional

Tahap pasca eksperimen: Langkah terakhir setelah memberikan perlakuan, maka kedua kelompok diberi tes akhir atau post-test vocabularyberbicara untuk wawancara kerja, bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh perlakuan pada kelompok eksperimen dan kelompok kontrol terhadap hasil belajar mahasiswa dalam vocabularyberbicara untuk wawancara kerja, serta interaksi pengaruh antara variabel bebas dan variabel moderator terhadap hasil belajar vocabularyberbicara Bahasa Inggris untuk wawancara kerja. Prosedur pelaksanaan penelitian eksperimen tergambar pada bagan 1 sebagai berikut:

Mudof1

Bagan Prosedur Pelaksanaan Penelitian Eksperimen

Keterangan:

PKs     : Pembelajaran STAD

PKv     : Pembelajaran Konvensional

MB      : Modalitas Belajar

MBv    : Modalitas Belajar Visual

MBa    : Modalitas Belajar Auditory

MBk    : Modalitas Belajar Kinestetik

Pada bagan 1 di atas dapat dijelaskan bahwa penelitian ini berlangsung selama 8 kali pertemuan, baik kelompok pembelajaran STAD maupun pada kelompok pembelajaran konvensional. Rincian pelaksanaan pembelajaran adalah: Pertemuan 1 (Penentuan kelas yang menjadi kelompok PKs dan                                   kelompok PKv), pertemuan 2 (pelaksanaan pengumpulan data siswa yang memiliki modalitas belajar) pertemuan 3 – 6 (Pre-test), pertemuan 7 – 14 (pelaksanaan eksperimen dilakukan pada kelompok PKs PKv), pertemuan 15 (peer Assessment, persiapan post-test), pertemuan 16 – 19 (Post-test)

 

Teknik Pengumpulan Data

Pengumpulan data penelitian ini dilakukan dengan melalui langkah-langkah sebagai berikut: 1) memberikan kuesioner modalitas belajar untuk mengetahui modalitas belajar mahasiswaserta pre-test pada semua kelas subyek untuk mengetahui kemampuan awal pemahaman bahasa Inggris, 2) melaksanakan intervensi pembelajaran (eksperimen), dan 3) memberikan post-test pada semua mahasiswa pada semua kelas subyek penelitian untuk mengetahui hasil belajar setelah eksperimen.

 

Teknik Analisis Data

Sesuai dengan jenis variabel penelitian ini teknik analisis data yang digunakan adalah Analisis of Varians (ANOVA) dua jalur interaksi. Hal ini sejalan dengan pendapat Tuckman (1999) analisis varians memberikan peneliti untuk mempelajari pengaruh secara simultan dari beberapa variabel bebas namun penerapannya memiliki ciri khusus (dua, tiga atau empat). Penggunaan desain penelitian faktorial di dalamnya terdapat variabel bebas, variabel moderator dan variabel terikat. Variabel bebas dan variabel moderator disebut faktor. Teknik analisis data pada penelitian ini dilakukan dengan statistik deskriptif dan inferensial. Untuk pengujian hipotesis penelitian dilakukan melalui dua tahap, yaitu tahap uji asumsi analisis dan tahap uji hipotesis. Keputusan yang digunakan untuk menyatakan adanya pengaruh variabel bebas terhadap variabel terikat di dasarkan pada taraf kesalahan 5% atau taraf keyakinan 95%.

Hasil Analisis

Tabel 4.4   Hasil Perbandingan antara Nilai Hasil Belajar Siswa PostTestdengan Menggunakan Metode Konvensional

Pre-test Post-test
Skor Nilai Skor Nilai
Vocabulary 2.22 22.20 2.47 24.68

 

Hasil belajar vocabulary berbicara Bahasa Inggris mahasiswa Politeknik Negeri Malang Semester II Program Studi Teknik Elektronika yang menggunakan metode pembelajaran konvensional sebelum dilakukan bimbingan belajar Bahasa Inggris dengan menggunakan metode pembelajaran metode konvensional diperoleh rata-rata nilai yang cukup baik yaitu sebesar 22.20. Namun setelah dilakukan bimbingan belajar Bahasa Inggris menggunakan metode pembelajaran metode konvensional diperoleh rata-rata nilai yang lebih tinggi daripada saat sebelumnya, yaitu sebesar 24.68. Hal ini dapat menjadi indikasi bahwa bimbingan belajar Bahasa Inggris dengan menggunakan metode pembelajaran konvensional dapat meningkatkan nilai hasil belajar vocabulary berbicara Bahasa Inggris mahasiswa Politeknik Negeri Malang Semester II Program Studi Teknik Elektronika.

Tabel 4.8   Hasil Perbandingan antara Nilai Hasil Belajar Siswa PostTestdengan Menggunakan Metode STAD

 

Pre-test Post-test
Skor Nilai Skor Nilai
Vocabulary 2.41 24.11 2.93 29.32

 

Hasil belajar vocabulary berbicara Bahasa Inggris mahasiswa Politeknik Negeri Malang Semester II Program Studi Teknik Elektronika menggunakan metode pembelajaran STAD sebelum dilakukan bimbingan belajar Bahasa Inggris menggunakan metode pembelajaran metode STAD diperoleh rata-rata nilai yang cukup baik yaitu sebesar 24.11. Namun setelah dilakukan bimbingan belajar Bahasa Inggris menggunakan metode pembelajaran metode STAD diperoleh rata-rata nilai yang lebih tinggi daripada saat sebelumnya, yaitu sebesar 29.32. Hal ini dapat menjadi indikasi bahwa bimbingan belajar Bahasa Inggris menggunakan metode pembelajaran metode STAD dapat meningkatkan nilai hasil belajar vocabulary berbicara Bahasa Inggris mahasiswa Politeknik Negeri Malang Semester II Program Studi Teknik Elektronika.


Tabel 4.18   Tabel Hasil Uji ANOVA 2 Jalur dengan Interaksi

Tests of Between-Subjects Effects
Dependent Variable:Score
Source Type III Sum of Squares df Mean Square F
Corrected Model 6276.708a 5 1255.342 29.181 .000
Intercept 102346.913 1 102346.913 2379.089 .000
MB 560.179 1 560.179 13.022 .000
SP 5880.253 2 2940.126 68.344 .000
MB * SP 67.389 2 33.695 .783 .459
Error 7313.292 170 43.019
Total 119234.000 176
Corrected Total 13590.000 175
a. R Squared = .462 (Adjusted R Squared = .446)

 

Hipotesis 1: Berdasarkan hasil ANOVA di atas dapat diketahui bahwa untuk perbandingan rata-rata nilai skor hasil belajar vocabulary berbicara Bahasa Inggris mahasiswa berdasarkan metode pembelajaran menunjukkan adanya perbedaan yang bermakna (signifikan) pada rata-rata nilai skor hasil belajar vocabulary berbicara Bahasa Inggris mahasiswa antara metode pembelajaran konvensional dan metode pembelajaranStudent Teams Achievement Division(STAD). Hasil uji pembandingan berganda (shceffe Test) pada metode pembelajaran konvensional berbeda signifikan dengan rata-rata nilai skor hasil belajar vocabulary berbicara Bahasa Inggris mahasiswa (posttest) pada kelompok yang diajarkan dengan metode pembelajaranStudent Teams Achievement Division(STAD) (p=0.000<0.05). Perbedaan tersebut disebabkan rata-rata nilai skor hasil belajar vocabulary berbicara Bahasa inggris pada kelompok yang menggunakan metode pembelajaran konvensional tersebut sebesar 24.682 mempunyai selisih yang cukup jauh dengan rata-rata nilai skor hasil belajar vocabulary berbicara Bahasa inggris pada kelompok yang menggunakan metode pembelajaran Student Teams Achievement Division (STAD) dengan rata-rata nilai 29.318.

Hipotesis 2: Untuk perbandingan rata-rata nilai skor hasil belajar vocabulary berbicara Bahasa Inggris mahasiswa berdasarkan modalitas belajar dari tabel ANOVA di atas menunjukkan adanya perbedaan yang bermakna (signifikan) pada rata-rata nilai skor hasil belajar Bahasa Inggris mahasiswa antara yang mempunyai Modalitas Belajar secara kinestetik, auditory, dan visual. Hasil uji pembandingan berganda (multiple comparisons) dengan uji Scheffe (Scheffe Test) sebagai salah satu uji pembandingan berganda yang mempunyai sensitivitas cukup tinggi dalam menguji adanya perbedaan antar perlakuan dalam multiple comparisons. Dengan metode ini akan dilakukan pembandingan berganda terhadap rata-rata nilai skor hasil belajar vocabulary berbicara Bahasa Inggris mahasiswa (posttest) antara setiap modalitas belajar. Hasil uji pembandingan berganda (Scheffe Test) antara rata-rata nilai skor hasil belajar vocabulary berbicara Bahasa Inggris mahasiswa dengan modalitas belajarkinestetik adalah 28.90, auditoy adalah 18.14, dan visual 33.52, sehingga dapat dikatakan bahwa nilai skor vocabulary berbicaraBahasa Inggris mahasiswa dengan modalitas belajar mahasiswa berbedahasilnya adalah berbeda signifikan (p=0.00). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa modalitas belajar secara visual, auditory, dan visual memberikan pengaruh yang berbeda terhadap hasil belajar vocabulary berbicaraBahasa Inggris mahasiswa Politeknik Negeri Malang Semester II. Modalitas belajar secara visual memberikan rata-rata hasil belajar vocabulary berbicara Bahasa Inggris yang paling besar dibandingkan modalitas belajar secara auditory dan kinestetik, sedangkan modalitas belajar secara auditory memberikan rata-rata hasil yang lebih rendah dibandingkan dengan secara visual maupun kinestetik.

Hipotesis 3: Hasil perbandingan rata-rata nilai skor hasil belajar vocabulary berbicara Bahasa Inggris mahasiswa berdasarkan interaksi antara kelompok perlakuan metode pembelajaran (konvensional dan STAD), serta modalitas belajar (kinestetik, auditory, dan visual) dari hasil ANOVA menunjukkan adanya perbedaan yang bermakna (signifikan) pada rata-rata nilai skor hasil belajar vocabulary berbicara Bahasa Inggris mahasiswa berdasarkan interaksi antara kelompok perlakuan metode pembelajaran (konvensional dan STAD), serta modalitas belajar (kinestetik, auditory, dan visual).

Berdasarkan paparan di atas dapat diketahui bahwa dalam penelitian ini: 1) terdapat perbedaan yang bermakna (signifikan) pada rata-rata nilai skor hasil belajar vocabulary berbicara Bahasa Inggris mahasiswa antara metode pembelajaran konvensional dan metode pembelajaran STAD, 2) terdapat perbedaan yang bermakna (signifikan) pada rata-rata nilai skor hasil belajar vocabulary berbicara Bahasa Inggris mahasiswa antara yang mempunyai modalitas belajar secara kinestetik, auditory, dan visual, 3) tidak terdapat perbedaan yang bermakna (signifikan) pada rata-rata nilai skor hasil belajar vocabulary berbicara Bahasa Inggris mahasiswa berdasarkan interaksi antara kelompok perlakuan metode pembelajaran (konvensional dan STAD), serta modalitas belajar (kinestetik, auditory, dan Visual).

 

Pembahasan

Strategi Student Teams Achievement Division (STAD) berhasil memberikan pembelajaran yang membuat mahasiswa Politeknik Negeri Malang Semester II aktif dan berminat untuk mengikuti pembelajaran tersebut dibandingkan strategi pembelajaran konvensional.Slavin (1995) mengemukakan bahwa metode kooperatif Student Teams Achievement Division (STAD) berpengaruh positif terhadap hasil belajar ilmu-ilmu eksakta, sosial dan bahasa.

Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa modalitas belajar secara visual, auditory, dan kinestetik memberikan pengaruh yang berbeda terhadap hasil belajar vocabulary berbicaraBahasa Inggris mahasiswa Politeknik Negeri Malang Semester II. Modalitas belajar secara visual memberikan rata-rata hasil belajar vocabulary berbicaraBahasa Inggris yang paling besar dibandingkan modalitas belajar secara auditory dan kinestetik, sedangkan modalitas belajar secara auditory memberikan rata-rata hasil yang lebih rendah dibandingkan dengan secara visual maupun kinestetik. Vermunt & Vermetten (2004) mengatakan bahwa siswa yang memiliki dan merefleksikan modalitas belajar (learning style) akan berprestasi lebih baik daripada tidak memperhatikan modalitas belajar.

Interaksi antara strategi pembelajaran dan modalitas belajar memberikan pengaruh yang berbeda-beda terhadap hasil belajar vocabulary berbicara Bahasa Inggris mahasiswa Politeknik Negeri Malang Semester II Program Studi Teknik Elektronika. Hal ini dibuktikan oleh hasil penelitian yang menyatakan bahwa Strategi pembelajaran Student Teams Achievement Division (STAD) secara visual menghasilkan nilai belajar vocabulary berbicaraBahasa Inggris mahasiswa Politeknik Negeri Malang Semester II Program Studi Teknik Elektronika yang paling tinggi dan berbeda dengan interaksi strategi belajar dengan modalitas belajar lainnya. Sedangkan strategi belajar konvensional secara auditory dan kinestetik, serta STAD secara auditory menghasilkan nilai belajar vocabulary berbicaraBahasa Inggris mahasiswa Politeknik Negeri Malang Semester II Program Studi Teknik Elektronika yang sama dan paling rendah dibandingkan interaksi lainnya.

 

Simpulan

Simpulan dari penelitian ini, sebagai berikut:

  1. Pembelajaran vocabulary berbicaraBahasa Inggris yang dilaksanakan oleh dosen kepada mahasiswa Politeknik Negeri Malang Semester II Program Studi Teknik Elektronika dilakukan dengan strategi dasar (konvensional) dan strategi Student Teams Achievement Division (STAD) menghasilkan pengaruh yang berbeda terhadap hasil belajar mahasiswa tersebut, implementasi strategi Student Teams Achievement Division (STAD) memberikan nilai yang lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan hasil pembelajaran konvensional.
  2. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa modalitas belajar secara visual, auditory, dan visual memberikan pengaruh yang berbeda terhadap hasil belajar vocabulary berbicara bahasa inggris mahasiswa Politeknik Negeri Malang Semester II. Modalitas belajar secara visual memberikan rata-rata hasil belajar vocabulary berbicara Bahasa Inggris yang paling besar dibandingkan modalitas belajar secara auditory dan kinestetik, sedangkan modalitas belajar secara auditory memberikan rata-rata hasil yang lebih rendah dibandingkan dengan secara visual maupun kinestetik.
  3. Penerapan strategi pembelajaran konvensional maupun Student Teams Achievement Division (STAD) dan modalitas belajar diidentifikasi memiliki pengaruh dalam proses pembelajaran vocabulary berbicaraBahasa Inggris. Dengan demikian dapat dinyatakan bahwa terdapat interaksi antara strategi pembelajaran dan modalitas belajar mahasiswa terhadap hasil belajar vocabulary berbicara Bahasa Inggris. Interaksi antara strategi pembelajaran dan modalitas belajar memberikan pengaruh yang berbeda-beda terhadap hasil belajar mahasiswa Politeknik Negeri Malang Semester II Program Studi Teknik Elektronika. Strategi pembelajaran Student Teams Achievement Division (STAD) secara visual menghasilkan rata-rata hasil belajar vocabulary berbicaraBahasa Inggris yang paling tinggi, sedangkan strategi pembelajaran konvensional secara auditory menghasilkan rata-rata belajar vocabulary berbicaraBahasa Inggris yang paling rendah dibandingkan dengan interaksi lainnya

Saran

Saran-saran untuk pemanfaatan hasil penelitian dan penelitian lanjutan:

  1. Saran-Saran untuk Pemanfaatan Pembelajaran

            Berdasarkan hasil penelitian yang dipaparkan pada kesimpulan, berikut ini diajukan beberapa saran kepada:

  1. Dosen bahasa Inggris Politeknik Negeri Malang dapat menggunakan Student Teams Achievement Division(STAD) dapat dilakukan dengan baik dengan memperhatikan modalitas belajar mahasiswa
  2. Ketua Program Studi Teknik Elektronika mengadakan perbaikan pembelajaran bahasa Inggris dengan menyediakan fasilitas pembelajaran untuk kelancaran pembelajaran kooperatif STAD dan meningkatkan mutu, pengetahuan dan ketrampilan dosen dalam mengelola pembelajaran.
  3. Temuan penelitian ini dapat memberi masukan dan pertimbangan dalam perbaikan desain pembelajaran, pengorganisasian pembelajaran, pengelolaan pembelajaran dan penyampaian materi pembelajaran

2. Saran-saran untuk penelitian lanjutan

  1. Dosen dapat memilih metode pembelajaran yang tepat, yang dapat meningkatkan hasil belajar. Dan disarankan pula untuk diadakan penelitian lanjutan dengan cakupan materi yang lebih luas dan metode pembelajaran yang lebih banyak.

b. Variabel-variabel moderator (selain modalitas belajar) yang diduga juga berpengaruh terhadap hasil belajar vocabulary berbicara Bahasa Inggris, disarankan untuk diadakan penelitian lebih lanjut dan dikombinasikan dengan metode pembelajaran kooperatif.

c. Perlu menguji keefektifan pembelajaran kooperatif model STAD dalam pengajaran bahasa Inggris Program Studi Teknik Elektronika, Jurusan Teknik Elektro, Politeknik Negeri Malang dengan menggunakan angket pada mahasiswa terhadap keterlaksanaan pembelajaran.

 

 

 

Daftar Rujukan

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DEVELOPING ELECTRONIC ANIMATED MEDIA TO HELP STUDENTS OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOL UNDERSTAND MOTION PREPOSITIONS

Lusia Eni Puspandari

Surabaya Shipbuilding Institute of Polytechnic

luciaeni@yahoo.com

 

Abstract This paper is directed to find out an alternative way for students of Elementary School in understanding motion prepositions. The result of this study is in form of courseware which is directed to overcome learners’ difficulties in understanding and using motion prepositions. This study is used as an adjunct to English learning processes and this courseware can be accessed every time in indefinite pace as self-learning media based on the learners’ own ability.

In developing attractive learning media, the concept of independent learning and instructional animation are the basis of the study. It is supported by some components namely: attention-gaining material, pretest/posttest, instructional objectives, tutorial, content, exercises, and feedback.

The result of the try out shows that most of the students become more understand the uses and the differences of the motion prepositions in sentences.

 

Key words: Motion Prepositions, E-Learning Animated Media, Attention-gaining material, Instructional Objectives, Courseware

 

Introduction

In some developing countries, English is considered as second language or as foreign language. It is the principal language chosen for international business and for communication between countries all over the world. English is also used in all sides of human activities in that country, from science, education, entertainment, politics and others. All sides of human life are related to English as the International Language.

Indonesia, as one of developing country, considered English as a language that should be known by all people in the early ages. Previously, English was originally first taught in high schools, and it has been taught in primary or even pre-primary schools in the last decade. In addition, parents have introduced English to their children in their early ages by given them simple instruction or simple vocabulary. Some of them also send their children to language institutions to learn English at an age earlier then ever before. It is supported by Indonesia’s Minister of Education in his statement that English is intended to provide students an opportunity to gain science and at the same time develop their knowledge of English in anticipation of the environmental condition which has been influenced by the development of science, technology, arts, and cultures such that the knowledge of English is a demand.

The fact that English has been taught to the earlier ages created the English teachers to be more creative. A great deal of effort has been trying to make English teaching and learning interesting, especially for children. So many books are written in attractive way in order to attract learners’ motivation and attention to learn English. Firstly, the existence of children English books has accommodated the learners’ need of English but together with the advance of technology, they can not accomplish the learners’ needs. The role of teachers in creating good environment to learn English, and the teachers’ creativity become the most important thing for children in learning English.

Beside the creativity and the attractive books used in English learning, the used of technology is also has an important role in achieving successful English learning. Computer as a means of Information Technology development has proven that it holds a significant role in teaching learning process, especially in language learning.. Many language institutions and schools use computers as a supporting means in language teaching and in learning process. It is supported by the fact that computer can be used as a medium of real communication in the target language, including composing and exchanging messages with other students in the classroom or around the world (Oxford, 1990, p.79). The abundant research, studies, and class experiments in the use of information technology in language learning reported that technology brought more advantages and development than disadvantages.

The technology that has been used mostly by educators and trainers is internet which is created on the concept of web. Using internet as learning resources has some advantages such as: (1) it can be accessed by many people in the same time in unlimited time; (2) it can be used as distance learning which is used individually based on their own level or capability, and (3) it can be responded via e-mail to the trainers or educators. Beside the advantages, there are some disadvantages of using internet as learning resources, such as it must be connected to the internet which means that it can not be used on stand-alone computer.

Considering that using internet can not be used for stand-alone computer, there are many educators and trainers who have created and designed learning materials in the form of software which can be accessed by all computers without connecting to internet to be used as an alternative media. This kind of software is preferred by learners and is even more popular among students because they are associated with fun and games or because they are considered to be fashionable. The learners’ motivation therefore increases, especially whenever a variety of activities are offered, which make them feel more independent.

The existing learning software is to improve the conventional methods in language learning which primarily depend on the presence of teachers in the classroom to convey the material. The teaching learning process which relies on books often causes students’ lack of interest as well, especially when there is no instructional objectives provided in the book and it easily generates students’ boredom in learning language. Besides, the use of books for teaching learning have some weaknesses such as there are no varieties tests provided to measure the students’ achievement in learning, and the feedback given by the book is very limited or not given at all. The most apprehensive thing in conveying conventional teaching learning method is that it must be held in a classroom setting.

The electronic learning material that is effectively designed will facilitate the achievement of desired learning outcomes (Pramono, 1996:124). In addition, learning using computer will equip learners with a skill to choose the desired topic, based on their level of ability and will improve the learners’ motivation in learning. It is emphasized by Kweldju (1995:37) who argued that computer has self-access procedure which is completed with eye-catching color and animation to increase the users’ attractiveness.

Realizing that the numbers of electronic learning software are so many, the teachers and educators must be more selective in choosing the most suitable e-learning materials because not all the software are carefully designed and are provided with adequate feedback. Feedback in the software becomes the most important thing because without feedback, a learner is left to perform with no sense of direction or measure of correctness. (Cates, 1988:115).

In order to create ideal learning software, some aspects should be considered, such as: (1) the software must be designed to support the available curriculum, (2) the software must contain the learning objectives, (3) the software must use multimedia animation, (4) the product software must be analyzed and must be tested by the experts of subject material, learning technology and computer graphic.

Those statements inspired the writer as an English teacher to develop an innovative and attractive electronic learning media as a means to convey a material in computer based learning with the aim to provide an interactive instruction in a specific area which is delivered on a CD-ROM by using Macromedia Flash. It is expected that by using the interactive media, the learners’ imagination and understanding will be facilitated in learning a certain material.

She believes that using computers in education through Computer Assisted Learning (CAL) is more effective than using Internet based technologies. CAL is run either straight from a CD or flash disk or over local network so the constraint of the internet –slow download times for multimedia materials may not apply. It means that it has the potential to offer more advanced, interactive, multimedia learning experiences than it is currently reasonable to expect from the Web.

Based on the reality that learning is a systematic process with some components which influence each other in achieving learner’s successful learning, the writer recognized that in a learning process there must be an interaction between learner and the learning resources to achieve the ideal learning objectives. The writer believed that using interactive electronic media in the form of computer in learning language will create more advantages in learning process as stated by Harmanto (2002) that Learning using computers can be accessed by anyone in anytime and it can be applied individually based on their own ability (Harmanto, 2002).

As an English teacher which has been teaching English both for adult and for young learners for ages, she has so many experiences in dealing with students. Using an interactive and attractive ways in teaching English can reduce learner’s bored in learning for the first time, but if it is not combined with the use of technology it will be disastrous, especially in teaching motion prepositions which need real movement of object.

It is supported by Tomasello who said that learning to use prepositions is fundamentally important in young learners’ grammatical development (Tomasello, 1987). It is also supported by the reality that the students’ mistakes in understanding preposition in YPPI I Elementary school are often happened, especially in motion preposition even though it has been aided by pictures.

The above reasons generate the writer to be more creative in finding out interactive material to assist learners in understanding preposition, especially motion preposition. It is caused by her experience when she taught prepositions to young learners using a picture on white board, and it doesn’t help them to be comprehensible with the meaning of those prepositions.

Knowing about the difficulties, the writer anxious to create an attractive learning media using computer to learn English prepositions. . It is also supported by Pramono’s research (2004,p.3) which is said that the visual representations are intrinsically effective in supporting language learning.. Those reasons accentuated the writer to create and develop the interactive media in a form of CD-ROM.

The decision in developing materials in the form of CD-ROM has been made based upon some considerations as follows:

a. The development must have many advantages for learners such as it must help them to learn the subject matter (motion prepositions) easier, so that they will not get confused in understanding the meaning of and using motion prepositions in sentences. Ultimately, it must support learners to be more independent learners.

b. The development of materials for motion preposition needs to be done in order to facilitate English learners who find difficulties in grasping the meaning and function of motion prepositions.

c. The development media of using computer in understanding motion prepositions are extremely suitable by using animated visualization as stated by Galton that the most appropriate illustrative scenarios to present to subjects in an experimental investigation of motion preposition would be animated sequences. (Galton, 2002)

The above considerations underline the reasons of using animation in learning motion preposition, which is clarified as follows:

  1. Animation has “translation” characteristics that involves “the movement of whole entities from one location to another and can be perceived with respect to the border of the animation or other material within the animated display”. (Lowe, 2002, p.3)
  2. Understanding concepts using animation was significantly improved if verbal explanation ran concurrently with the animation.
  3. Animations have the potential to be especially beneficial for instruction presenting dynamic contents because animated pictures can show information about two important visual attributes: motion and trajectory (Pramono, 2005,p.22)
  4. Animated illustrations seem to be superior for the visualization of spatial aspect and dynamic process in preposition learning because a preposition usually indicates the spatial and temporal relationships of its object to the rest of the sentence.

 

Literature Review

There are some theories which support the study of developing e-learning media to facilitate learners in learning motion preposition, such as: Computer-Based Learning, Designing E-Learning Software, Characteristic of E-Learning Software, Using Animation in Learning Motion Preposition.

Computer- Based Learning

According to Hick and Hyde a teaching process directly involving a computer in the presentation of instructional materials in an attractive mode to provide and control the individualized learning environment for each individual student (Joiner, 1982:29)

It is stated that in learning using computer students interact with computer directly. The interaction between students and computers are in individual setting, based on their own language capacity and ability, so that the computer usage in language learning can be arranged by the students itself.

Based on the above reasons, the interactive method of teaching learning process in class cannot be done maximally. As the consequence, computer is designed to overcome those problems by creating some interactive programs inorder to attract students’ attention to increase their motivation in learning. It is hoped that using computer as an alternative teaching and learning media will increase students’ motivation because it is designed attractively by involving students’ or learners in the program so that there is an extensive interaction between computer and students.

The Advantages of Computer Based Learning/Teaching

The advantages of the use of computers in lecture theatres are caused by a few factors. The most important one is that simple large problems can be solved in a straightforward way in front of students’ eyes.(Miller, 98). Some advantages of using computer in learning are:

  1. Computers are able to give information about mistakes and the total time of learning spent by learners to do the exercises.
  2. Learning by using computer train students to be skilful tochoose the material they want to learn.
  3. Learning by using computer will help students who find difficulties in class meeting to review the material again individually.
  4. By using computer, the weak students who cannot follow the material and shy to ask the teacher will have a chance to repeat the material by themselves as many as they want.
  5. Computer Based Learning supports the individual learning which is suggested in modern education (Tsai and Pohl, 1981).
  6. Computer-based learning enable students to be accustomed with computer which is become important thing in this era and it will support many contributions for training and carrier in the future (Dhaif, 1989:13)
  7. The research shows that computer is an effective learning media (Kearsey, 1976 as quoted by Thompson, 1980:40).

 

The Form of Computer-Based Learning

According to Kemp and Dayton (1985:246) there are five forms of learning using computer: tutorials, drill and practice, problem solving, simulations, and games. Tutorial learning is a process of conveying new information to students in forms of explanation, exercises, and branching. Drill and practice is given to measure the students’ ability to understand certain knowledge. Problem solving is a process to give a solution about certain problem happened in teaching learning process. Games is one teaching forms which is given in order to increase students motivation and competition to learn something in a fun way.

Interaction between computer and learner is an individual interaction (Pramono, 1996). A teaching process is directly involving a computer in the presentation of instructional materials in an interactive mode to provide and control the individualized learning environment for each individual student.

 

Characteristics of Computer-Based Software Product

In order to improve the learning quality, Computer-Based Software must be designed through good learning principle. Besides, the designed of computer-based learning software must enclose the characteristics programmed instruction. The main characteristics of programmed instruction according to Burke (1982:23) are: (1) small steps, (2) active responding, and (3) immediate feedback.

 

Benefits of Animation in Learning Motion Preposition

The number of English prepositions often causes difficulties for learners to distinguish the kinds and the meaning of preposition, especially if the preposition is related to motion preposition, because there is only few lines to distinguish them.

Animation is one of media which is able to convey a vast amount of information in a very short period of time, and can be a powerful method of reinforcing concepts and topics first introduced to students through text, discussion, or other media. Though still in its fledgling stage, animation holds the promise of allowing visual learners and those with special needs new and powerful ways to comprehend complex phenomena.

The design of animations involves manipulation of various dynamic characteristics. Animation has “translation” characteristics that involves “the movement of whole entities from one location to another and within the animated display (Pramono: 2004: 21).

 

Types and Usage of Prepositions

Prepositions denote spatial relations, which are principally used to predicate constraints on such attributes as location, orientation, and disposition. (Hersekovits, 1997: 160). Preposition expressing spatial relations are of two kinds: prepositions of location, which is called prepositions of place (static) and prepositions of direction, sometimes called motion prepositions (Purdue University, 2002).

According to Linstromberg a preposition expresses a relationship between a subject and a landmark. Landmarks and Subjects are often (but not always) nouns, noun phrases, or pronouns.(Linstromberg: 1997: 15).

Preposition of direction are dynamic and have a directional meaning, such as to, from, up, down, through, towards, and appear with verbs of motion (movement) such as roll, walk, swim, come, go, etc.        Every motion preposition fits in a syntactic frame:

NP [activity verb] Preposition NP

as with      The ball      rolled across    the street

                   Figure                                     Ground

                  Moving Object                      Reference Object

Here the Figure is the moving object; the Ground is still the referent of the object of the preposition; the preposition constrains the trajectory; or path of the Figure.(Herskovits, 1997:162)

 

Expected Product specification

The CD-ROM that will be produced in this study is the actualization of Computer Assisted Learning product. It has some specifications as follows:

–            It can be used to convey a new material but it is as an alternative media because the major media is still based on books.

–            It can be used as an individualised learning media because:

–            It can be accessed in unlimited time and space without depending on the Internet facility.

–            It is the realisation of self-learning material which has instructional objectives in it.

–            There are a summary and exercises which are completed with the feedback.

–            It gives a chance to learners to study the material freely based on their own capacity.

–            The material has specific components which can assist learners to learn easily, as follows

 

Benefits of Software Development

Developing this e-learning media is directed to overcome learners’ confusion and learners’ mistake in understanding motion preposition. This study belongs to developing domain, especially in developing learning resources in order to enrich the learning media in computer based technology.

This study is also intended to improve English learning process which relies on the book with the presence of a teacher in the classroom to the computer based technology which can be accessed every time in indefinite space based on their own capability as self-learning media.

 

Assumption and Development Limitation

Developing e-learning media to help students in understanding motion preposition is based on the related assumption, as follows:

–     An attractive learning resources will arouse students’ learning motivation

–     Developing animated media is required to develop the education quality

–     This development study is intended to design a self-learning media through CD-ROM

–     A learning process using CD-ROM is properly used for computer literacy students

 

Discussion

Computer-Based Learning Software Development

Developing media in teaching learning technology is the implementation of a design which has been made. It cannot be separated from designing, managing, and evaluating as said by Seels & Richey (1994:9) that instructional teaching is a theory and practice of design, development, utilization, management and evaluation processes and resources for learning.

In order to create interactive and innovative learning software, there must be designing and developing procedures that must be passed obviously. The procedures that must be overtaken to assist the writer in developing qualified e-learning material software are known as ADDIE or Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation and Evaluation (Sambel, Developing and Evaluating E-learning, 2005).

 

Analysis

The first step is analyzing the learners’ characteristic which are going to use the e-learning material. The learners’ characteristics that should be identified are the level of learners, whether the program is used in class or not, and whether the program is used as individual learning or not. Then, it is continued by designing and organizing the learning software.

 

Design

Determine the design of the software

There are three kinds of design to be used according to Burke (1982), functional design, physical design, and logical design. Functional design is related to the function of the software as media to introduce new material and to convey it in order to strengthen learning motivation. Physical design is related to the type of the design, which is divided into linear, branch and repetition. Logical design covers the mode of the design, which is divided into deductive (rules and followed by examples) and inductive mode (examples and followed by rules).

As a developer, the writer must choose one of those design mode in order to be applied in the software development.

Developing Flowchart

Flowchart is used to communicate the ideas of the developer and the graphic designer. It is used to describe the main parts of the software and to arrange the steps of designing the courseware. See the flowchart in Appendix 1.

Writing Storyboard

Storyboard is a media which is used by developer and graphic designer to communicate about the form of material and the activity that will be appeared in the software.

 

Learning Media Development

Developing learning media in the form of software is the realisation of learning technology application especially for developing learning resources. It is expected to reduce the obstacles of limitation in finding learning resources. See Appendix 2.

 

Try-out and Evaluation

The next step which must be done is doing the trial test or user acceptance test which will evaluate the e-learning media. The material must be tested in order to verify the validity of the material. The processes of verifying the validity are through trial test which is done by group of students to represent some students to use the software development. The result of the trial test will be evaluated. The steps of evaluating learning software can be seen in Appendix 3.

After the media is created, the next step is try-out and evaluation. The tryout and evaluation is needed in order to measure whether the product can achieve the set specification, i.e.

–  It can be used to convey a new material but it is as an alternative media because the major media is still based on books.

–  It can be used as an individualized learning media because:

–  It can be accessed in unlimited time and space without depending on the Internet facility.

–  It is the realization of self-learning material which has instructional objectives in it.

–  There are a summary and exercises which are completed with the feedback.

–  It gives a chance to learners to study the material freely based on their own capacity.

–  The material has specific components which can assist learners to learn easily, as follows.

The result of try out shows the following:

(1) Attention Gaining Material could gather an average score of 100 %. The result showed that the component of attention-gaining material could attract the students’ attention at the start and could motivate them to learn.

(2) The Instructional Objectives of this courseware could gather an average score of 88.9 %; that means the students under­stood the objectives of learning using this developed courseware.

(3)  The clarity of doing the pretest and the understanding of the students on pre-test items and the appropriateness of animation with the items got an average score of 70.4 %. It can be concluded that the pre test components were good.

(4) The clarity of the tutorial and the attractive­ness of the explanation could get an average score of 100%.  It can be concluded that the tutorial component of this product was very good.

(5) The content with respect to the com­prehensibility of the material, the appro­priateness of the animation with the story, and the attractiveness of the animated pictures got an average score of  88.9 %, therefore, it can be considered that the content of this developed product was good.

(6) The exercises of this product got an average score of 74.1 % with respect to the   attractiveness of the items, the quality of the animations used, and the appropriateness of the items.

(7) The average score of the feedback is  88.9% with respect to the effectiveness and appropriateness of the feedback.

(8) The practicality to operate this courseware, the benefits of using this courseware, and the possibility to use this courseware without the help of teachers got an average score of 88.9%. It can be concluded that this courseware development can be used as an individual learning to enrich the learners’ competence on motion prepositions.

Based on the data above, it can be concluded that this courseware develop­ment obtains good response from learners and has good quality as an alternative learning resource. The main interface can be seen in Appendix 4.

References

Armstrong, K.M. & Yetter-Vassot, C. (1994). Transforming teaching through technology. Foreign Language Annals, 27(4), 475-486.

Brown, Andrew R.(2005) Elements of Effective e-Learning Design

Burke, R.L. 1992, Computer Assisted Instruction. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, Inc

Cates, J.S. 1988. Delay Feedback and Cognitive Task Level in Practice Exercises. A paper Presented at the 1988 Annual Convention of the Association for Educational Communication and Technologies, New Orleans. L.A., USA

Dick, W and Carey, L. 1985. The systematic Design of Instruction (2nd edition) London: Scott, Foresman and company

Galton, Antony. 2002. www.dcs.ex.ac.uk/studyRes/COM3401/ag.html

Hersekovits, A. 1997. Language, spatial cognition, and vision. In O. Stock (Ed), Spatial and Temporal Reasoning, 155-202

International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, Retrieved from http://www.irrodl.org/content/v6.1/brown_voltz.html

Kemp, J.E. and Dayton, D.K. 1985. Planning and Producing Instructional Media. Cambridge: Harper & Row, Publisher,

Kurtus, Ron. 2004. What is eLearning? www.warwick.ac.uk/services/cap/resources/guides/elearning/overview

Kweldju, S. 1985. SMA Teachers’ Performance in Using English as Medium of S-1 Graduates of IKIP Malang in Kodya Malang. Thesis PPS IKIP MALANG: Unpublished

Lindstromberg, Seth. 1998, English Prepositions Explained, Philadelphia: John Benjamins North America

Littlewood,W.1997. Autonomy and independence in language learning. Harlow: Addison Wesley Longman 79-91.

Lowe, R.K. 1999. Extracting Information from an Animation during Complex Visual Learning. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 14, 225 – 244

Miller, Karol. 1998. Computer-based teaching but pen-and-pencil examination? Retrievedfromhttp://lsn.curtin.edu.au/tlf/tlf1998/miller.html

Pramono, Harto. 2004. Picture-Text Complementarily in English Language Learning by Primary School Students in Indonesia, Thesis Curtin University of Technology.

Purdue University, 2002. Preposition of Direction: To, On(to), In (to). http://owl.english.purdue.edu/handouts/esl/eslprep.html

Rieber, L.P. 1996. Animation as feedback in a computer-based simulation: The Representation matters. Educational Technology Research and Development, 5-22

Salaberry, R. (1999). ‘CALL in the year 2000: still developing the research agenda’. Language Learning and Technology 3/1: 104-107.

Sambel, Sandra. 2005. Developing and Evaluating E-learning, 2005.

Seels, B.B. and Richey, R.C. 1994. Instructional Technology: The definition and Domains of the field. Washington, DC: Association for educational Communication and Technology

Stock, Oliviero, 1997, Spatial and Temporal Reasoning, Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers

Swan, Michael. 2001. The Good Grammar Book, OxfordUniversity Press

Tomasello, M. 1987, (PR.9) Learning to use prepositions: a case study. Journal of Child Language, 14, 79-96

 APPENDICES

 Appendix 1

Flow chart used in the development stage

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APPENDIX 2

 Steps of Media Development

 Luci-append2a

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Appendix 3

Product Evaluation Steps

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Appendix 4

The Main Interfaces

Luci1

Pre-Test screenshot

Luci2

Reading menu screenshot

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 Speaking Menu Screenshot

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Exercise Menu Screenshot

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STRATEGI BELAJAR TEKNIK MNEMO DALAM PEMBELAJARAN BAHASA JERMAN

Sri Prameswari Indriwardhani, M.Pd.
(Jurusan Sastra Jerman Universitas Negeri Malang)

 

Abstract: One of the communicative languange competences is called strategic competence. Language learning strategies explain how a language can be learned and how mental concepts can be created to reach a certain language competence. Mnemotechniques are part of cognitive learning strategies. They enable the student to systematically store new vocabulary in his or her brain which can be accessed easily at any time. Mnemotechniques consist of, a)mnemonic rhymes, acronyms, b) storytelling technique, c) visualization.

Key Words: learning strategies, mnemotechniques

 

Menurut Brown (2000:7), belajar dan mengajar saling berhubungan karena belajar adalah mendapatkan atau memperoleh suatu pengetahuan dari suatu bahan atau keterampilan melalui pengalaman dan instruksi. Belajar merupakan perubahan tingkah laku yang relatif permanen sebagai hasil dari latihan yang matang. „ Learning is relatively permanent change in a behavioral tendency and is the result of reinforced practice“. Mengajar adalah menunjukkan atau membantu seseorang untuk belajar bagaimana mengerjakan sesuatu, memberikan instruksi-instruksi dan membimbing dalam belajar sesuatu. Mengajar merupakan pembimbingan dan menfasilitasi belajar, dan menyediakan kondisi yang kondusif untuk belajar.

Pembelajaran bahasa khususnya bahasa asing sekarang ini berdasarkan pada metode komunikatif. Metode ini mengembangkan beberapa kompetensi. Menurut Bachman dalam Brown (2000:248-249), dalam Communicative Language Competence dan Bimmel (2000:39), kompetensi komunikatif meliputi kompetensi linguistik dan kompetensi strategi. Kompetensi linguistik meliputi kompetensi tatabahasa, yang di dalamnya terdapat kosakata, morfologi, sintak, fonologi, kompetensi memahami teks, kompetensi pragmatik, dan sosiokultural. Kompetensi Strategi meliputi kompetensi menggunakan bahasa (strategi komunikasi) dan kompetensi menggunakan strategi belajar.

Menurut Neuner (1991:76), mengajarkan strategi belajar dalam pembelajaran bahasa sangatlah penting, karena dengan mengajarkan strategi belajar maka pembelajar dalam belajar bahasa akan menjadi lebih mandiri. Salah satu strategi belajar bahasa adalah dengan strategi belajar teknik Mnemo.

Mnemoteknik merupakan salah satu strategi belajar kognitif. Strategi belajar kognitif adalah menghubungkan apa yang sudah ketahui dengan konsep atau gagasan-gagasan baru, sehingga konsep atau gagasan itu mempunyai tambatan dalam ingatan sehingga tidak akan mudah untuk dilupakan. Ada dua proses yang sangat menentukan dalam otak yaitu: asosiasi dan penyortiran. Kata-kata dalam ingatan merupakan simbol-simbol yang mempunyai elemen-elemen yang saling berhubungan. Elemen-elemen itu bersifat semantis, morfologis, sintaktis, fonetis dan afektif. Jika semua elemen itu dihubungkan maka kata-kata itu akan tersimpan dengan baik dan dapat dengan mudah diingat. Penyortiran adalah proses pemilahan kata-kata dalam pikiran (Bohn, 2000: 82-84).

Teknik ini sudah ada sejak zaman dulu, akan tetapi bisa dikatakan bahwa penemunya adalah penyair Yunani Simonides, yang hidup pada tahun 556 – 468 sebelum Kristus lahir. Dalam suatu peristiwa pembantaian pada acara pesta makan malam di Thessalien, dia adalah satu-satunya orang yang selamat dalam pembantaian itu karena dia meninggalkan acara jamuan itu lebih awal dan dia dapat menceritakan secara detail korban pembantaian itu berdasarkan tempat duduknya. Teknik ini dinamakan Loci (tempat). Hal ini merupakan dasar dari teknik Mnemo (Sperber, 1989: 16-17)

Pada awal abad ke 16 sampai abad ke 17 sejalan dengan adanya zaman Reformasi dalam gereja, teknik ini digunakan untuk menghafalkan isi bibel dan pada zaman itu sudah ada Professor Mnemoteknik yang berkeliling untuk menyebarkan ilmunya dan karya-karyanya sudah dipublikasikan. Teknik Mnemo yang terkenal waktu itu adalah Kennworter yaitu pada setiap huruf mengandung kata tertentu, salah contoh dalam bahasa Indonesia adalah untuk mengingat warna pelangi dengan singkatan mejingkuhibiniu (merah, jingga, kuning, biru, nila, ungu).

Pada awal abad ke 20 dan abad 20 sudah banyak peneliti yang menghubungkan teknik ini dengan psikologi belajar dan efektifitas belajar. Menurut Levin dalam Sperber psikologi dalam belajar ialah Recoding, relating dan retrieving. Teknik Mnemo menghubungkan kata-kata yang akan dipelajari dengan pengetahuan sebelumnya (relating) melalui proses recoding.  Retrieving atau pengingatan kembali merupakan hasil dari kedua proses tersebut (Sperber,1989:22-29). Pada 20 tahun terakhir ini faktor-faktor dalam belajar seperti kenyataan (Konkretheit), kegairahan (Lebhaftigkeit), keanehan (Bizarrheit), emosi (Emotion), warna (Farbe) yang mempunyai pengaruh dalam belajar. Dalam Mnemoteknik faktor-faktor ini mendukung ingatan visual. Dalam mengingat suatu kata ada dua proses yaitu proses mengingat secara visual dan verbal. Proses ini akan saling menguntungkan apabila informasi itu diberikan secara gambar dan akustik motorik secara bersama-sama, sehingga apa yang telah diingat tidak akan mudah dilupakan. (Sperber,1989:83-84).

Menurut Brown (2000: 119) dan Pohl dalam www.pohl.de/lernen/index, fungsi otak bagian kanan adalah menyimpan informasi secara visual baik gerak tubuh dan gambar, intuisi, perasaan, kreatif dan spontan, suka akan musik dan seni, tergantung pada ruang/tempat dan menyimpan informasi secara global dan garis besar. Sedangkan fungsi otak kiri adalah menyimpan informasi secara verbal, matematis, rasional/logik, teratur, analisis dan sangat detail, tahap demi tahap dan tergantung pada waktu.

Pembahasan

Teknik Mnemo dalam Pembelajaran Bahasa Jerman

Syarat dari penerapan teknik Mnemo agar efektif menurut Mjima dalam www.mjima.de/mnemotechnik adalah dengan terlebih dahulu mengaktifkan minat pembelajar, menggunakan semua panca indera dan perasan pembelajar dan informasi yang akan diberikan sedapat mungkin secara visual. Menurut Sperber (1989: 10-16) dan Bohn (2000:95-100) yang termasuk strategi belajar teknik Mnemo adalah:

  1. Eselsbrücken/Merkverse und Akronym (titian ingatan dan akronim). Yang terpenting dalam titian ingatan ini adalah adanya kombinasi keseragaman rima dengan visual, motorik dan ritmik, sehingga informasi yang dipelajari akan tersimpan dengan baik. Contoh: untuk mengingat preposisi dalam bahasa Jerman bisa dengan menyanyikannya, aus,bei,mit,nach,seit,von,zu,seit,von zu alle haben Dativ (melodi lagu ini seperti lagu Brother John dalam bahasa Inggris).

Huruf awal sebuah kata dapat dijadikan sebagai titian ingatan. Akronim ini sangat individualis tergantung pembelajar itu sendiri. Misalnya seorang pembelajar mengemudi akan selalu ingatkata Wolke karena kata ini merupakan akronim dari:

Wasser (air)

Oel (minyak)

Licht (lampu)

Kraftstoff (Benzin)

Elektrik (elektrik/bertenaga listrik)

 

2. Schlüsselwortmethode(keyword method/Kata Kunci)

Proses metode ini adalah menghubungkan kesamaan bunyi antara bahasa Ibu dengan bahasa yang dipelajari/bahasa sasaran. Sperber (1989:11) mengatakan bahwa metode ini mendukung interaksi visual dalam ingatan. Contoh: pembelajar bahasa Jerman dari Ceko menghubungkan kata spáti – dengan bahasa Jerman spät (terlambat). Padanan dalam bahasa Indonesia masih belum diketemukan.

 

3.   Metode Loci

Loci berasal dari bahasa Yunani berarti tempat. Metode ini menggunakan ingatan ruang/tempat yang telah dikenal dengan baik sebagai tempat untuk menyimpan dan mengingat kosakata yang akan dipelajari. Proses metode ini adalah:

  1. pembelajar membayangkan suatu jalan, misalnya jalan menuju rumah atau jalan menuju tempat kerja.
  2. kemudian pembelajar berjalan melalui jalan itu dengan menghubungkan kata-kata yang ingin dipelajari. Dengan kata lain, pembelajar meletakkan kata-kata yang ia pelajari di tempat-tempat yang dia kenal dengan baik, sehingga menjadi suatu situasi yang tidak lazim. Situasi yang tidak lazim ini sangat mendukung ingatan.

c. pembelajar melalui jalan itu dalam pikiran dan menemukan benda-benda yang tidak lazim di tempat yang dia sudah kenal dengan baik.

Pengaruh dari teknik ini adalah menghubungkan apa yang pembelajar sudah ketahui dengan baik dengan suatu yang baru/ kata baru. Sehingga kata baru itu tidak akan mudah dilupakan. Akan tetapi untuk konsep-konsep yang abstrak teknik ini sulit untuk dilakukan.

Contoh: pada gambar berikut ini digambarkan penerapan metodi Loci. Kata bak mandi (Badewanne) ditempatkan di depan rumah, kata kapal (Schiff) diletakkan di depan garasi (Garage), kata Harimau (Tiger)diletakkan di atas Pagar (Zaun), dan kata berlian (Diamant) ditempatkan dia atas pohon Ek besar (Eiche), kemudian kata-kata itu dirangkai menjadi sebuah kalimat.

Sri-Laci

Gambar. Metode Loci (Bohn, 2000:97)

 

  1. Teknik bercerita (die Geschichtentechnik)

Proses teknik ini adalah pembelajar diminta untuk mengingat 10 kata dan membuat cerita dari 10 kata tersebut. Sebagai contoh: dalam suatu eksperimen, salah seorang pembelajar membuat cerita dari 10 kata berikut ini   Ente (angsa), Hausfrau (nyonya rumah), Hecke (pagar), Holzfäller(penebang kayu), Kissen (bantal), Kolonie (sekumpulan), Möbelstück (mebel), schlitten(terpeleset), Strümpfe(kaos kaki/stocking), stürzen(berlari kencang).

Menjadi “ Der Holzfäller stürzte aus dem Wald, schlitterte um eine Hecke hinter einer Kolonie von Enten. Er stolperte über ein Möbelstück, zerriss sich seine Strümpfe, während er zu dem Kissen hastete, auf dem die Hausfrau lag.”(seorang penebang kayu berlari kencang dari hutan kemudian dia tersangkut di pagar tanama yang di belakangnya ada sekumpulan angsa. Dia tersandung sebuah mebel, hingga kaus kakinya robek, dan terjatuh di atas bantal yang di atasnya berbaring sang nyonya rumah).

5.   Visualisasi

Contoh dari visualisasi adalah permainan ingatan atau “ Memoryspiel”. Dalam permainan ini pembelajar mencocokkan kata dengan gambar atau menghubungkan kata dengan warna. Contoh: rot wie Blut (semerah darah), weiß wie Schnee(seputih salju), blau wie Meer(sebiru laut). Visualisasi dapat berbentuk diagram tata bahasa untuk memudahkan dalam mengingat kaidah bahasa. Visualisasi dapat memperjelas fenomena kaidah bahasa Jerman, sebagai contoh kata kerja disimbolkan dengan bentuk ellips dan subjek dengan bentuk segi empat.

Sri-gbr3

 

Gambar. Teknik Visualisasi untuk Preposisi (Wolf,1988:11)

 

6. Gute Freunde (teman baik)

Teknik ini menghubungkan suatu kata dari bahasa ibu yang mempunyai hampir kesamaan tulisan dan pengucapan akan tetapi mempunyai arti/makna yang berbeda dengan bahasa sasaran. Teknik ini sangat cocok untuk bahasa yang serumpun. Contoh: kata come (dalam bahasa Inggris) dengan kommen, kedua kata ini menpunyai arti yang sama (Bohn, 2000:98-102 & Sperber, 1989: 113-140).

7. Menggunakan Flash cards yaitu menulis kata kata di kartu dan menggaris bawahi kata kata yang dianggap penting, membuat catatan sendiri tentang kaidah tata bahasa. Di balik kartu, siswa dapat menuliskan terjemahannya. Akan lebih bagus jika kartu disusun dalam 3 bagian, dengan sususan bagian pertama untuk kartu yang baru dipelajari, bagian kedua adalah kartu yang sudah dipelajari satu kali, dan bagian ketiga untuk kartu yang sudah kita pelajari secara mantap. Kartu dapat disusun secara abjad.

Sri-kartukosa kata

Gambar 2.13. Kartu Kosakata (Bohn.2000)

 

 

Simpulan        

Strategi belajar teknik Mnemo bukan merupakan strategi belajar yang baru, terlebih strategi akronim kita telah mengenalnya sejak di sekolah dasar ketika kita menghafal warna pelangi. Tidak ada salahnya dan bahkan dianjurkan dalam belajar bahasa asing, pembelajar menggunakan strategi belajar yang telah dikenalnya sehingga belajar itu menjadi lebih baik dan bermakna, seperti yang dikatakan oleh Neuner yaitu man lernt besser wenn man weisst.

 

Daftar Pustaka

Bimmel, Peter., Kast, Bernd., Neuner, Gerd. 2003. Deutschunterricht planen Arbeit mit Lehrwerkslektionen Fernstudieneinheit 18. München: Uni Kassel, Goethe Institut & Langenscheidt

Bimmel, Peter & Rampilon, Utte.2002. Lernstrategien und Lernautonomi Fernstudieneinheit 23. Muenchen: Uni Kassel, Goethe Institut & Langenscheidt

Funk, Hermann. 2000. The Learner’s Handbook, Learning Strategies, German Phrases, German Grammar. Berlin: Cornelsen

Bohn, Rainer, 2000. Probleme der Wortschatzarbeit Fernstudiemeinheit 22. München: Uni Kassel, Goethe Institut & Langenscheidt

Brown, H.Douglas. 2000. Principles of Language Learning and Teaching, second edition. New Jersey:Prentice Hall inc

Heyd, Gertraude. 1990. Deutsch Lehren Grundwissen für den Unterricht in Deutsch als Fremdsprache. Frankfurt am Main: Diesterweg

Neuner, Gerhard. 1991. Lernerorientierte Wortschatzauswahl und –vermittlung. Majalah Deutsch als Fremdsprache. Edisi 2/1991 hal: 76-83. München: Goethe Institut

Sperber, G Horst. 1989. Mnemoteknik im Fremdsprachenerwerb. München:Iudicium Verlag

www.mjima.de/mnemotechnik, diakses pada 27.04.2011

Language Use and Choice in Jember- Javanese Speakers A Study on Intercultural Communication

by Alies Poetri Lintangsari

University of Brawijaya, Malang

 

Nowadays, we cannot put stereotype on people based on culture since we are tangled into various discourse systems. Culture is no longer considered as a product of people’s life, it goes further to the latest notion that culture is a heuristic, “a tool for thinking”, by this; our culture cannot be formulated based on our ethnicity. Culture on this definition is not only reflecting the communal identity but also individual identity.

Language as one of cultural tools also play role in shaping people identity. People, since they share many discourse systems, also acquire many languages that can be picked up to communicate and they may pick the tools as their necessity to use it. Language works two functions in communication, to convey information or to express relationship. Language choice is critical to fulfill both of function. Jemberan speakers in this discussion are the ones who consider themselves as Jember people intertwined by various cultural identities such as Madura, Chinese, Javanese and Arabic. This paper aims to study language choice used in Jemberan speakers’ communication to know the motives behind.

LITERATURE REVIEW

Language Use and Choice in Intercultural Communication

                The term ‘Intercultural Communication’ as explained by Scollon and Scollon (2000,2001) is how persons manage to come the complexity of various different systems faced during communication. Those complexities come from various backgrounds such as gender, social political background, geographical background, educational background, and religious background, people live in it, and they develop and learn the acceptable pattern to be involved in society. They learn languages and varieties in their development, and then lead them to the cyclical question, how they navigate their identity through membership? Language use and choice might be raised as an answer.

Language use and choice is unavoidably in intercultural communication since it entails the use of various languages or language varieties and there are many differential accesses for speakers to enjoy them. Language use is critical in achieving effective understanding on linguistic situation in a multilingual discourse system like Jemberan speakers. When those speakers have access of two or more languages, they make choices as to when, where, how and to whom they use a certain language. The choices speakers make will determine their capability in using language to fulfill its two functions, first is showing their identity in membership, and second is to shape their membership identity.

Bahasa Jemberan: Linguistic Varieties of Pandalungan

In doing communication people are using a code; they share their codes into their addressee as the communicative tools. Therefore, code can be meant as the system of communication that has a function as communicative tools. As communicative tools, code cannot solely be meant as a ‘Language’, as explained by Duranti, in his book entitled Linguistic Anthropology (1997) that today we have to be careful in defining between Language and a language:

“It is important to distinguish between “language” and “a language.” The former refers to the human faculty to communicate using particular types of signs (e.g. sounds, gestures) organized in particular types of units (e.g. sequences) and the latter refers to a particular sociohistorical product, identifiable with a label such as “English,” “Tok Pisin,” “Polish,” “Swahili,” “Chinese,” “American Sign Language,” “Sign English.”” (Duranti, 1997)

 

The first definition lead us to understand Language as the ability of doing communication while a language refers to specific communicative tools on the basis of social and cultural context. A language is not only considered as the cultural product but also the cultural agent that builds the identity of a certain community, the college students for instance, though they are involved to the same community, there will be a different code between male and female students. Those differences are not merely due to the language, but also due to dialect, register, and even style as sociolinguist call it as linguistic varieties (Andersen 1990; Biber and Finegan 1994 in Duranti 1997).

The term variety will lead us to the study of linguistic repertoire and speech community. As originally introduced by Gumperz (1964: 137), linguistic repertoire refer to “the totality of linguistic forms regularly employed in the course of socially significant interaction. “ (Duranti, 1994). Repertoire is considered as the speaking properties owned by all speakers by regarding one life’s experience.

Jember is known as melting pot regency where many ethnic groups are mingled. Most of Jember population are Javanese and Madura people and small percentage of Tionghoa, Osing, Arabic and Indian. It includes to Pandalungan culture since its most population are Javanese and Madura people. Etymologically, referring to Bausastra Jawa Indonesia II (Prowiroatmojo, 1985), Pandalungan is a Javanese word for dalung which means periuk besar (big pot). Symbolically, ‘periuk besar’ can be defined as a place where all kinds of society groups are mingled and living together. According to the illustration above, it can be imagined how many linguistic varieties may develop in Jember.

Pandalungan refers to the mixing of two big cultures, Javanese and Madura, remembering that both cultures are majority in the referred areas.   There is no certain time when Pandalungan is used to represent the hybrid cultures of Javanese and Madura, but the society commonly call people as ‘orang pandalungan’ when s/he is grown up in that hybrid circumstance. Hary Yuswadi (2005:101) defined Pandalungan as : (1). Sebuah percampuran antara budaya jawa dan Madura, (2). Masyarakat Madura yang lahir di Jawa dan beradaptasi dengan budaya Jawa.

Javanese and Madura as the majority ethnic in Pandalungan society in Jember contribute more to the language in daily use. Bahasa Jemberan is socially known as the daily language of Jember people, it is created by the combination of Javanese and Madura language. Bahasa Jemberan may be classified into dialect rather than language since the words come as the combination of Javanese and Madura, such as Koen (you) which is the combination of Kowe (Javanese) and Be’en (Madura). The characteristic of Bahasa Jemberan dialect (usually pronounced in Madura accent) deals with the ethnic identity, such as Javanese with Jemberan dialect,   Chinese with Jemberan dialect, Arabic with Bahasa Jemberan and so on. As the majority, Javanese and Madura language are most used in daily life. The words are hybrid of Javanese at most than Madura while the variety of the language usage is close to the Madura (i.e. by repeating the last syllable in the preceding words such as nak kanak) . Here below some examples of Bahasa Jemberan dialect:

METHODOLOGY

                It is a case study on Jemberan speakers which is analyzed qualitatively. Since it is qualitative research, researcher is the main instrument; other instruments are recording tool and transcribing software. The basic questions raised in this study are:

  1. Which languages are used in language contact, Jemberan, Javanese, Indonesia, Madura or English?
  2. What is the language choices found in the conversation?
  3. What are the motives behind the language use and choice?
  4. What is the influence of social factors on the language use and language choice?

This study will be discussed through following steps:

  1. Transcribing the audio data from conversation record.
  2. Analyzing the differences of participants’ background.
  3. Breaking down the grammar of context
  4. Analyzing aspects of discourse system occurred in conversation.
  5. Analyzing the speech events occurred in conversation.
  6. Analyzing the face system existed in the conversation.
  7. Analyzing language use and choice.

DISCUSSION

PARTICIPANTS’ BACKGROUND

                The participants of this discussion have different background, but they share the same discourse system namely they were English department of Faculty of Letters in Jember University and they grown up in Jember. Here below the details information:

  1. Arif : 27, Male, University Student, active speaker of Madura, Javanese, and Bahasa Indonesia, Use English as Educational purposes.
  2. Yofan : 26, Male, University Student, active speaker of Javanese, and Bahasa Indonesia, passive speaker of Madura, Use English as Educational purposes.
  3. Lintang: 26, Female, University Student, active speaker of Javanese, and Bahasa Indonesia, passive speaker of Madura, Use English as Educational purposes

GRAMMAR OF CONTEXT

Scene    : Scene is considered as the most obvious aspect of context. Scene is consisted into some aspects, the first is setting that can be meant as physical location, time, place, and use of space.   The second is the purpose or the function. The third is topic, and the last is genre.

The setting of this conversation is in kedai kopi cak wang, at night (from 21.00 to 24.00 WIB). Kedai Kopi Cak Wang is a café coffee designed traditionally as the common kedai kopi in Indonesia, such as there is no aesthetic touch in this kedai kopi, the interior is so simple with long bench and big table that allow the customer sit in group. The interior design is different to modern café coffee that most adapted from European design. Although Kedai Kopi Cak Wang is traditionally designed, but they use the modern concept of transaction, they adopted fast food way in doing the transaction. The customer should come to the cashier to order the beverage and also pay their bill, after that they can find a set, do some chat while waiting their coffee come.

As one aspect of communication, spaces used in this conversation is more to have the characteristic of egalitarian, everyone has their own spaces and freedom to occupy the spaces. Everyone in this conversation has had the same understanding of what topic will be discussed since they have communicated before the meeting happens. The form of speech events in this conversation is informal meeting, in Javanese this activity usually called as ngopi (having coffee time). Though ngopi refers to the activity of drinking coffee, this kind of activity is not merely signified by that. The activity is more to the discussion or having a light chat. Since it is informal meeting, there is no conventional rules to start the meeting, but youths usually starts the meeting by ordering the coffee and waste their waiting time by chatting.

Key        : It refers to the tone or mode of communication. Since it is informal meeting, the key of this conversation is relaxed. There are no certain rules to involve to the conversation; everyone/every group usually have their own unwritten rules just for improving intimacy. This kind of mode usually involves the real face of the participant since every members of speech events are close each other.

Participants        : There are three speakers in this conversation; Arif, Yofan and I. Participants are not merely the matters of whom are they but also how they play or take roles in conversation. According to this conversation, I am the one who lead the topic while my two other friends responding my initial speech. But when the conversation went on, Arif dominated the conversation more than me and Yofan, he wanted to be heard more than to hear.

Message Form  : This conversation took form in oral conversation.

Sequence            : It is an open agenda since it is an informal meeting, there are no specific sequences that tied the activity. Though there are no specific sequences tied the activity, the understanding of conventional sequence to this activity is needed to help us to be well involved to the activity. For new comer like me, be there is a kind of confusion, at first I thought that it will be like ngopi in other places, but since the place is designed traditionally, I thought there will be the same sequence as I did ngopi in other traditional kedai kopi. When we ngopi in traditional kedai kopi, the seller will offer us the menu while she/he revealing some jokes or just asking how’s life, there is communicative communication between the seller and the customer. As I had that thought, so the first thing I did was finding my seat until my friend Yofan, asked me to go to the cashier first, he asked me to choose my beverage and pay it, after that we find our seat and have some chat while waiting our coffee. As a new comer, I was confused because my shared knowledge of ngopi in kedai kopi.

Co-occurrence pattern  : I can consider that this speech event is unmarked since everything run as predicted. When people go to have ngopi time, they will have some prediction that ngopi in this kind of kedai kopi will end up with chatting, laughing, and smoking and of course, drinking coffee.

Manifestation   : Those communication components above are manifested tacitly. Every members of the group who was familiarized with ngopi activity will understood the components since they belong to. New comer will also recognize the sequence of ngopi easily though it is unwritten.

ASPECTS OF DISCOURSE SYSTEM

                Discourse System has 4 aspects as outlined by Scollon, Scollon and Jones (2012). To make the dialogues go together, a Discourse System should be tied in coherence. There are 4 components that tie the cohesiveness in Discourse System. First is a cohesive device that has function to cover any aspect of language or context that a speaker can use to indicate connection among elements (Scollon, Scollon and Jones, 2012). Second is called as adjacency sequences, it is regular sequencing pattern that is learnt, predicted, and expected from a Discourse System. Third is prosodic patterning, which makes oral Discourse, become so oral by considering intonation and timing. The fourth component is conversational inference (Gumperz in Scollon, Scollon and Jones, 2012) that shape Discourse into logical or cognitive Structure. The analysis on coherence will be drawn below:

Cohesive Devices            : Lexical and Grammatical

Cohesive devices which will be discussed cover some components, namely Reference, Verb Form, Conjunction, and Causal Conjunction. Some references found in the dialogues emerge in Bahasa Indonesia. The reference ini found in speech act 1 until 4 refer to the same subject, kopi banjir. In the second speech act, the word ada is elliptically replacing the reference ini since the speaker using his finger pointing to the coffee.

                Giving information about Kopi Banjir Speech Event 1
Lintang Oh ini kopi banjir(Oh.. so it is called kopi banjir (flood Coffee) Speech Act 1
Yofan Ada dimalang?(Can you find it in Malang?) Speech Act 2
Lintang Ada, ini kan gaya French Press.(Yup, it is called French Press style). Speech Act 3
Arif La ini nanti kalo mau minum taruh bawah aja dibalik(If you want to drink, put it under) Speech Act 4

Reference used also found in Javanese, the word ngunu which means that in English refers to the word ceritamu (story).

Lintang Yak ceritamu, ceritamu(How is your story?) Speech Act 1
Yofan Hehe.. yo ngunu, di bully(hehe.. my story was about bullying) Speech Act 2

Since in Bahasa Indonesian and Javanese we do not have tense, there is no critical impact of the usage of verb form in the dialogue, we just add the tense by adding time signal such as kemarin (yesterday), besok (tomorrow), and others without any verb formation. Such us the word kemaren in speech act below refers to the examination which has been done previous weeks ago.

Arif Gak opo yo, lek yang, yang, opo, bu supik itu kan ngomong, jadi kan mas Arif, ini kan kemaren….(pause)(No, emm.. Bu Supik has said, “So, Mas Arif has got..(pause)

 

Conjunction found in the dialogue emerges in various languages such as English, Bahasa Indonesia, and Javanese. Such as the word mbek Arif uttered mean and. But the word mbek has multiple meaning, in some context it can be meant with.

Arif sing jenenge pak eko mbek pak imam ngguya ngguyu ae ndelok i aku(Pak Eko and Pak Imam just laughed aloud looked at me) The word mbek in this speech act means and and play as additive conjunction.
Arif yo nyanyi lagu metal iku, nyanyi mbek berok berok ngunu, guyon wong wong iku(I sung metal song, sung loudly, he joked me) The word mbek in this speech act means with and play as adverb.

 

Cognitive Schemata and Scripts: As a new comer, I failed in understanding the script of ngopi activity in kedai kopi cak wang. My world knowledge according to ngopi activity in kedai kopi (traditional coffee café) is different to the real script I had. Though the processes are the same, but they had some difference in sequential order as described here below:

Steps My Expectation based on my world knowledge The real Script I faced
I Find a seat I went to the cashier
I determine my order I determined my order
I let waiter to note my order I told the waiter about my order
I wait my order I paid my order
I receive my order I find a seat
I enjoy my order I wait my order
I pay my order I receive my order

 

Adjacency Sequences: Since the dialogues happen sporadic, it is hard to find the adjacency sequences in dialogue. The one can be figured out is in question mark expression. It is expected that answer comes up as question be raised, but sometimes the answer was postponed since there were speaker who jumped into another topic. The adjacency sequences in this dialogue are unpredictable since we do not have any fixed sequences. Although the sequences in this dialogue are unpredictable, but it is not influencing the degree of coherence massively though sometimes among speakers should confirming their understanding on each other utterances.

Prosodic Patterning        : Most of the mood of intonation and timing in the dialogue are in relaxed. Sometimes the intonation that stressing to some expression happen when the speakers quoting or recount their experience in facing their final examination. The intonation more tends to imitate rather that to express their personal feeling.

               

Speech Event in Jemberan speakers’ language contact

                Some speech event has been discussed in the previous discussion; some other will be discussed in the following discussion. Since speech events and speech act is the source of data, it will be attached to other discussion. Speech events in this conversation generally can be called as ngopi. It consists of several speech events such as the speech events of opening the meeting, recount the story and gossiping. The rest of speech events will be discussed in the discussion of Language use and choice.

Opening Ngopi Speech Event 1
Lintang Ayo!!, lapo awakmu beban kok entok A?.(C’mon,,!! How could getting A be a burden for you? Speech Act 1
Arif Gak opo yo, lek yang, yang, opo, bu supik itu kan ngomong, jadi kan mas Arif, ini kan kemaren….(pause)(No, emm.. Bu Supik has said, “So, Mas Arif has got..(pause) Speech Act 2
Lintang Oh ini kopi banjir(Oh.. so it is called kopi banjir (flood Coffee) Speech Act 3
Yofan Ada dimalang?(Can you find it in Malang?) Speech Act 4

 

The recording was recorded for about two months ago when I went home. I initiated the meeting to have some stories from my friends since they just finished their under graduate students for 7 years. Since it is informal meeting, everything flows without any definite sequence. Lintang was the first person who initiated to open ngopi activity by saying Ayo!! Lapo awakmu beban kok entok A. The exclamation Ayo means let’s talk your story about the final examination. For us, the graduation story is worthwhile to be heard. The second speech act was the response of Arif to the first questions, he started to tell his graduation story when my order came and I changed the topic from graduation to coffee. My comment to my coffee was responded by Yofan by asking Ada di Malang? (Can you find it in Malang?). The shifting topic happened when my order came and it became new topic to discuss since I found that kopi banjir was out of my expectation. I expected that kopi banjir should be more phenomenal than only the other name of coffee served with French press style.

FACE SYSTEM AND STRATEGIES:

                Face is considered as paradoxical concepts; it cannot solely meant by keeping the ‘honor’ or the effort of making assumption of speakers’ meaning by predicting their face made, another concept refers to face as the self manifestation of the speakers to be judged as their expectation through the face made. Face is intertwined on those concepts. Face in communication show two sides, involvement and independence. Since the participants are close friends, there is no independence strategies found in the dialogue. The involvement aspect of face is concerned with the persons’ right and need to be considered a normal, contributing, or supporting member society. Some strategies used in showing involvement by paying attention to others, show strong interest in the affairs, and using nick name or just name without any title such as mbak or mas. (in English they usually using first name to show intimacy). In my cases, people who just meet me usually call me by my first name Alies, when they feel comfort and pretty close with me, they will call me by my nick name, Lintang. In this dialogue all participants used given names/nick name to address each other.

Some strategies found in the dialogue according to involvement such as noticing and attending to the speakers shown by the rapid dialogue and some changing in small topic. It also found claim in group membership by the Javanese word awakdewe which means all of us (Table 1). Another strategy found is claim common opinion and attitude. When I told my story, both of my addresses claim my opinion and attitude toward my stories (Table 2).

Table 1.

Arif Asline, opo sing awakdewe entok dino iki iku, yo kelakuane awakdewe wingi wingi. Arif consider that what happens to him is a communal problem that also happens to us (I and Yofan).

Table 2.

Lintang intine semua pertanyaan bisa kujawab dengan baik, baringono wes maringono, pak karno takon, apa bedanya a, an, the dan tidak pake artikel(The point is I passed all the questions well until Pak Karno asked what are the differences among a, an, the and no article?) I told my story to my addresses that I thought I failed my exam because of the article question.
Yofan Hahahahhahha (Laughing loudly) Claim in my stupidity by laughing loud and consider that as a silly one rather than stupid.
Lintang lo gak ngerti ta lah aku lo, wes lali(I don’t know, I forgot) Confirming my stupidity
Arif Wes lali ta la, iku wes skip telong (3) semester koyok e yo,(Sure you forgot, it has been taught in 3rd semester I think) Claiming my stupidity as a common thing remembering that the lesson has been taught in the early semester and it is ok if I forgot it.

 

LANGUAGE USE AND CHOICE

                This discussion will be started by classifying the topics occurred in the dialogue, there are 6 topics occurred in the dialogues;

  1. Arif’s story
  2. Yofan’s Story
  3. Lintang’s Story
  4. Gossiping

The shifting topic will influence the language use and choice. Some choices are using code switching and code mixing. The language use and choice determines the purpose of the speakers to stress their feeling of the story. They usually use English when they recount their story about their final examination, then shifted into Javanese or Indonesia when they started to gossiping. Some word and phrases used Madura or the equivalence reasons.

Data as the basis of discussion is served in tables below. The blue color indicates the usage of Javanese and the red one indicates the usage of English, while the black is the usage of Bahasa Indonesia. In the Topic 1 dialogue, Arif used some code switching to address some academic terms such as thesis and report. While in topic 2, we can see that Javanese used to commenting or responding the story while the speaker (Yofan) narrated his own story, while he used English when he recounted his story to simulate his real condition when face the examination. In topic 3, such previous pattern of the code switching used also found with the same purpose, to recount. The Javanese word used by Yofan showed solidarity to what I have experienced. For gossiping, the speakers tend to use Javanese and Bahasa Indonesia. In term of gossiping, speakers used Jemberan word such as Koen (acronym of Kowe/Javanese and Be’en/Madura). The rest speech events are uttered in code switching and mixing among Javanese, Jemberan, Madura and Bahasa Indonesia. Such as the word gengguk said by Arif that means trivial or unimportant, he thought that the word gengguk cannot be represented with any language. He also used English word Catchy to explain his reason of using the word gengguk instead of iseng.

Table. 3 . Shifting Topic in Dialogue

Topic 1 : Arif’s Story
Arif       : yo tang, jadi bu supik ngomong, ini kan kemarin sidang mas Arif dapet A, jadi mau gak mau segala bentuk report yang ada di thesis ini harus semuanya perfect, jareneLintang : Segala bentuk opoArif        : Segala bentuk reportLintang : Report?

Arif        : thesis ini kan report kan, hasil kan?. Jadi koyo penggunaan kata will itu di coret semua, di coret, trus opoan ada beberapa tadi sing tak benerin

 

Topic 2 : Yofan’s Story
Yofan    :yo, sing pertama langsung penguji 2 kan, penguji pertama aku pak sam, pas sam nguji dulu. hari jumat nyaLintang :oh sendiriYofan    :ditanya, iso gak eroh opo sing tak omong no koen.Nggak tau apa yang akan aku katakan pas di tanyain pertanyaan pertama, why do you choose this topic,   wes onok mbak, cuman akhire mbulet, ngomong ndek tengah, mandek, i.. i.. need more time to answer, aku di bantu sama bu riskia, di pancing pancing ngunu lo mbak, cek eleng aku, trus eleng aku wes. maringono gilirane bu indah penguji 3..di takoni, what is conjucntion, trus mintak contoh mbak, can you show me the example of the using of conjunction in target language, yes i can, i will give you the example mam, i have the sentence in appendix, nah appendix ku itu g ada halamannya mbak, may i say it mam, di buka halamannya, nah kalimatku itu di halaman belakang sendiri, nah yang dibuka bu indah itu halaman pertama, yang mana? katanya, you need to open the page mam, nda gelem mbak, ndak gelem .

 

Topic 3 : Lintang’s Story
Yofan    :Takon opo ae tapi?Lintang: Takon konsep, takon teori, takon sembarang kalir, sesuatu yang ketika bimbingan beliau tidak pernah ungkit, begitu di ruang sidang, ditakoni kuabeh dari awal sampe akhir. wes mari, jare pak karno, kan onok aqua nang ngarepku yo, sampek, misale, bener bener gak ono rehat iku, rehat iku gak ono, jadi misale bu mei nanya aku jawab, aku jawab bu mei nanya lagi, ngunu terus uncal uncalan, dan beliau sama sekali ga ngasih waktu sama yang lain, trus pas wes kate mari, kate takon meneh, mbek pak karno di potong, aku di kongkon ngombe disek, please drink your water, tak ombe,Yofan    : hahha, sakno (pity you)   à Javanese to Show solidarity Lintang : wes mari kan, di takoni mene mbek bu mei, srettt, aku cuman mikir ngene, wadoh rek, kok iso e, beliau kan pembimbingku ya, dari sekian banyak orang, kok malah beliau yang menghabisi, trus mari bu mei, bu supik takon, ngomong opo yo? bu supik ngomong i think bu mei has asked all the questions, i have nothing to ask.

 

Topic 4 : Gossiping 1
The dialogue was interrupted while Yofan recognized a sexy girl passed in front of us,Arif                         : Koen lak nggudoi iku, perkorone, ndek ranah pengadilan agamaYofan                    : wah..Lintang                                 :kok isok?

Yofan                    :Wes nikah..

Lintang                                 : Hah?

Yofan                    :Wes nikah berarti.

Lintang                 : Oh..

Topic 4 : Gossiping 2
Arif         :lak pas enak enak ngomong jowo nang jember, trus aku ngomong iseng, aneh tang dadine,Lintang :iseng iku gengguk iku?Lintang: Jadi tujuane karena kebiasaan atau?Arif         : koyok kegiatane ibu ibu rasan rasan iku jenenge kegiatan gengguk.

Lintang : Seandainya kamu ke malang atau ke surabaya masih menggunakan kata gengguk atau tidak?

Arif         : koyok e se sek tak gawe dan bakalan ditanyain artinya apa

Lintang : trus kenapa? karna tidak sadar atau sengaja?

Arif         : tidak sadar koyok e, soale lak aku ngomong nang omah iku gae bahasa indonesia mbek wong tuwoku mbek adekku iku gawe bahasa indonesia, cuman di beberapa diksi, tetep meduro, kata kata meduro, mungkin karna catchy yo bagi keluargaku, kata kata

 

CONCLUSION

This study comes up with some questions; Which languages are used in language contact, Javanese, Indonesia, Madura or English?; What is the language choices found in the conversation?; What are the motives behind the language use and choice?; What is the influence of social factors on the language use and language choice?

From the discussion above, I can draw a conclusion for answering every questions. Most of language used in dialogue is Jemberan such as the usage of koen and awakdewe refers to pronoun you and us. Javanese also used in the dialogue, but it is hard to recognize it as high or low Javanese, so I prefer to call it as Jember Javanese. Bahasa Indonesia also mostly used in dialogue and also English. Some motives found of the usage the language choice by code switching and code mixing, the topic shifting signalize the shifting of language. For instance, if the speakers recounted their story, they tended to use Bahasa Indonesia, while they tried to quote and imitate their lecturers they would choose Bahasa Indonesia or English. And when the topic shift into commenting or gossiping, they tended to use Jember Javanesse, in some cases, Jember Javanesse also used to show solidarity. Some influence factors influencing language use and choice relied on the participants’ background, since three of them are powering English for educational purposes, they used it to recounted and simulated their story which was uttered in English, in this term language has fulfilled its function to convey information. Jember Javanesse and Bahasa Indonesia is their social and cultural background, they use both languages on the daily basis. It is the reason why they feel more comfortable to use Jember Javanese and Indonesia Javanese to express relationship.

REFERENCES:

Duranti, Alessandro. (2004). A Companion to Linguistic Anthropology. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, Ltd.

Lintangsari, Alies. (2012). How Jember- Javanese speakers represent their world. On college assignment.

Lintangsari, Alies. (2014). Code-Switching as a Conversational Strategy in Jemberan Multilingual Conversation. On college assignment

Meyerhoff, Miri. (2006). Introducing Sociolinguistics. London and New York: Routledge.

Prawiroatmodjo, S.1985. Bausastra Jawa—Indonesia I. Jakarta: Gunung Agung.

Scollon, Scollon, & Jones. (2012). Intercultural Communication: A Discourse Approach 3rd Edition. Wiley Blackwell

Wardhaugh, Ronald. (2003). An Introduction to Sociolinguistics. 5th Ed. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.

Yuswadi, Harry. 2005. Melawan Demi Kesejahteraan, Perlawanan Petani Jeruk terhadap Kebijakan

Pembangunan Pertanian. Jember: Kompyawisda.

NON EQUIVALENCE AT WORD LEVEL IN THE ENGLISH TRANSLATION OF ANWAR FUADI’S RANTAU 1 MUARA

(Kutipan referensi/citation: Jurnal Linguistik terapan Vol 3/1, Mei 2013)

Iwik Pratiwi

 

 

by Iwik Pratiwi

SMK Negeri 2 Malang

Master’s candidate in Applied Linguistics at FIB of Brawijaya University

 

ABSTRACT

Rantau 1 Muara is the the last novel of the trilogy is the last trilogy of Negeri 5 Menara, written by Anwar Fuadi. The novel settings include, one of them, the unique life of pesantren. Because it is so unique, the translation into English may face problems as many of the concepts talked about are bound to Javanese or Islamic culture. Thus, it can be predicted that some problems should appear. To prove this, the writer translates one chapter and report the problem and how to solve the problems. This “translator reseacher” kind of research shows that the problems of non-equivalence are resulted from not only the author’s uses of local dialects and Arabic Islamic terms also the lexical and semantic field of the source words or expressions. More specifically the problems include cultural specific context, source text not lexicalized in target text, semantically complex source text, source text and target text making different distinction in meaning, differences in expressive meaning, differences in form, and loan words in source text. To make the translation of the text into English readable and relatable as possible, syntactic, semantic and pragmatic strategies, are adopted.

Keywords: Source Text (ST), Target Text (TT), equivalence, semantic field, lexical set, strategies

 

In Translation Studies, equivalence is an important concept. There are many levels of equivalence, and word level equivalence is the lowest level. Although translators do not normally work on word-for-word equivalence, the discussion may serve as the basic step in dealing with non equivalence found in the source text.

EQUIVALENCE AT WORD LEVEL

Baker (1992) defines word as the smallest unit of language which we would expect to possess individual meaning. In translation, everything would be easier if there were a one-to-one relationship between words and meaning in the various languages. But it isn’t so.

According to Cruse, in Baker (1992), there are four types of meaning on words and utterances: propositional meaning, expressive meaning, presupposed meaning and evoked meaning. Presupposed meaning arises from selectional and collocational restrictions, while evoked meaning arises from dialect and register variation which covers field, tenor and mode of discourse. All types of the above lexical meaning contribute to the overall meaning of utterance or a text. In case of problems of non equivalence, Baker suggests that it is useful to view the semantic fields and lexical sets of a language. Understanding the semantic field and lexical sets can be useful to appreciate the value that a word has in a given system and to develop strategies for dealing with non equivalence.

 

CONCEPTUAL AND LEXICAL SEMANTIC ASPECTS OF THE SOURCE TEXT (ST)

General Overview of the Novel

Rantau 1 Muara is the last trilogy of Negeri 5 Menara, written by Anwar Fuadi, whose writing has inspired millions of people. The trilogy is inspired by the author’s enlightening education experience at Pondok Modern Gontor, an Islamic boarding school in East Java The first novel has been translated into English by Angie Kilbane and published in 2011. The translation of the second and third sequels are still in question. Part 17, Maghrib Terhebat, describes Alif’s first meeting with Dinara, the girl he falls in love with. The author of the novel who puts himself as the main character, is a member of Islamic community and spent some years in Islamic boarding school or pesantren. His utterances are mostly informal mixed with Islamic terms. He also uses many highly expressive items in this part, such as : enaknya, sebel, lega, salah sendiri, ini gawat, gombal, hebat juga dia, etc.

Concept of Islamic Prayers

The title of part 17, The Greatest Maghrib, refers to one of five most well-known Islamic prayers performed daily : at dawn (shubuh), midday (zuhur), afternoon (‘asr), sunset (maghrib) and evening (‘isha). At the five appointed times, a muazin announces a call to prayer (azan), traditionally from a mosque’s minaret. Shalat must always be preceded by ablutions (wudu’) of ritually washing the face, hands, and feet. This can be done with sand when water is not available. (Qur’an 5:6; also 2:222, 4:43.) Shalat is always directed in the direction (qiblat) of the Ka’ba shrine in Mecca. It may be performed individually, but it carries special merit when done with other Muslims (jama’ah). A prayer mat (sajada) is commonly used during the shalat.

When performing salat jama’ah at the mosque, worshippers are aligned in parallel rows behind the prayer leader (imam), who directs them through the rak’as (prescribed postures and recitations). Islamic prayer begins in a standing position with a glorification to God which called takbir, then moves through several simple postures until the supplicant is kneeling.

Specified recitations are said in each posture. The content of prayer is glorification of God, recitations of the Qur’an, and blessings on the Prophet. Shalat concludes with the taslima (greeting), “Peace be upon you,” even when praying alone.

Shalat and other Islamic rituals and practices can be easily observed in various aspect of Indonesian culture. As many other Islamic countries, Indonesian selectional and collocational restrictions are also typical and need to be treated carefully to avoid awkward wording in English, since English does not normally have equivalence for: memimpin doa, shalat berjamaah, mengirim doa, membaca tartil, mengambil wudhu, etc.

Differences in the structure of semantic field in Indonesia and English is notably challenging, therefore, assessing the value of given item in a lexical set is always desirable. The word malu in ST, for example, has at least three different meanings in TT: shy, embarrassed, ashamed. Also, while ST differs sholat from doa, TT has a single equivalent: prayer.

 

RESEARCH METHODS

This paper is a report of a small research. This is a kind of annotated translation, where the translator reports the translation problems and how to solve them while she was translating. The data are taken from a novel by Anwar Fuadi, namely Part 17 of the novel: Rantau 1 Muara, by Anwar Fuadi, which entitled Maghrib Terhebat. Because the novel is so unique, the translation into English may face problems as many of the concepts talked about are bound to Javanese or Islamic culture. Thus, it can be predicted that some problems should appear. To prove this, the writer translates one chapter and report the problem and how to solve the problems.

Then, the writer discusses the problems of non-equivalence at word level in the translation she did as well as some strategies for dealing with them. The discussion of the translation is mainly referring to equivalence presented by Baker (1992) in her book, In Other Words, providing the background knowledge and approaches related to non-equivalence before contrasting some typical conceptual and lexical semantic fields to prove that there is a considerable linguistic gap between Indonesian and English. The proposed strategies for dealing with problems of non equivalence are mainly adopted from Chesterman (1997) in Hariyanto (2013). Finally, the writer also presents the result of the translation to show the different side of pesantren that are not widely seen by people throughout the world, especially in the post 9-11 world, when pondok or pesantren often gets unfairly stereotyped.

 

DISCUSSION

Problems of Non Equivalence in the Translation

The local dialects and the uses of Arabic widely used in the novel are the main challenge due to non equivalence at word level in the translation of the text into English, that is to say that the TT has no direct equivalent for a word which occurs in ST. The followings are the problems of non equivalence found in ST, referring to Baker’s classification:

  1. Cultural specific context, i.e.: kampungan, bukan basa basi, mengirim doa, membaca secara tartil, sandal jepit, etc.
  2. Source Text (ST) is not lexicalized in Target Text (TT), i.e.: shalat, azan, wudhu, mukena, etc.
  3. The ST is semantically complex, i.e. : saling menjajaki, gombal, enaknya, etc
  4. ST and TT make different distinction in meaning, i.e. : malu (may means shy, ashamed or embarrassed in TT)
  5. Differences in expressive meaning: menambat hatiku, mencuri pandang, bergelung etc.
  6. Differences in form : narasumber, berpikir ulang, kampungan, malasmalasan, etc.
  7. Loan words in ST : Maghrib, tartil, jamaah, (borrowed from Arabic)

 

TRANSLATION STRATEGIES

To deal with the above problems of non equivalence, syntactic, semantic and pragmatic strategies, following Chesterman (1997) in Hariyanto (2013), are adopted to make the translation of the text into English readable and relatable as possible. The discussion is presented in a table of three columns consisting strategy, hint and example of language item found on ST. The examples are provided with the line number of the language items to provide easier review on the text development. Although only strategies used for dealing with non equivalence at word level will be presented,  a full linguistic account of its meaning is somehow desirable.

Syntactic Strategies

Following Chesterman (1997) ten syntactic strategies which involve pure syntactic changes 1) literal translation, 2) loan: Calque, naturalization, 3) transposition, 4) unit shift, 5) phrase structure change, 6) clause structure change, 7) sentence structure change, 8) cohesion change, 9) level shift and 10) scheme change), the translation of the text applies the followings:

Table 1: Samples of Syntactic Strategies

Iwik 1

 

Iwik 2

 

Semantic Strategies

Chesterman suggests changes mainly related to lexical semantics and sometimes aspects of clause meaning such as emphasis which includes:  1) synonyms, 2) antonyms, 3) hyponyms, 4) converses, 5) abstraction change, 6) distribution change, 7) emphasis change, 8) paraphrase, 9) trope change and other semantic changes.

Table 2: Samples of Semantic Strategies

Iwik 3

Iwik 4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pragmatic Strategies

Unlike the previous strategies which manipulate meanings, these strategies manipulate message and tend to involve bigger from the ST, and typically involve syntactic and /or semantic changes as well. Chesterman (1997) categorizes pragmatic strategies into : 1) cultural filtering, 2) explicitness, 3) information change, 4) interpersonal change, 5) illocutionary change, 6) coherence change, 7) partial translation 8) visibility change, 9) transediting, and 10) other pragmatic changes.

Table 3. Samples of Pragmatic Strategies

Iwik 5

 

CONCLUSIONS

The translation of part 17 : Maghrib Terhebat, under the principles of equivalence is basically aimed at producing the English version of the text that is equivalent with the source text which is written in Indonesian. The problem of equivalence in translating this novel into English is quite significant not only because the author uses a lot of local dialects and Arabic Islamic terms in his novel, but the lexical and semantic field of the ST also has all kinds of non equivalence. Retaining it as much of the original flavor would be impossible without adequate insight about culture and ability to choose the most equivalent language items.

Although the strategies dealing with the problems of non equivalence is adopted for word level, the discussion of sentence level is unavoidable, since translators are not normally looking at every word in isolation and always expected to present the translation with a full linguistic account of meaning. Other strategies and differences between the ST and TT are preferably studied for further discussion.

REFERENCES

Baker, M. 1992. In Other Words: A Coursebook on Translation. Routledge: London.

Grundy, P .2000 Doing Pragmatics. Oxford University Press: New York

Halliday, Mathiessen, 1985. Systemic Functional Linguistics.Hodder Education Publisher, New York. Halliday, Mathiessen. Systemic Functional Linguistics.Hodder Education Publisher, New York.

Hariyanto, Sugeng.2007. Globalization and Web Site Translation. Paper presented at the national Seminar and Workshop on Translation in the Globalized World. Politeknik Negeri Malang, 8 December 2007)

Hariyanto, Sugeng.2013. Translation Theoretical Overview and Practical Pointers. Unpublished Handbook.

Fuady, Anwar. 2011. The Land of Five Towers. Translated by Angie Kilbane. Gramedia Pustaka Utama.Jakarta.

Fuady, Anwar. 2013. Ranau Satu Muara. Gramedia Pustaka Utama. Jakarta

 

 

APPENDIX

Iwik 6Iwik 7Iwik 8Iwik 9Iwik 10

Risk-Taking as a Contributing Factor to Make Learning English a Success

(Kutipan referensi/citation: Jurnal Linguistik terapan Vol 3/1, Mei 2013)

Ermyna Seri

Politeknik Negeri Medan

 

ABSTRACT

The success of language learning can be affected by internal and external factors. One of the internal factors is risk-taking. This factor drives learners to be able to gamble a bit, to be willing to try out hunches about the language and take the risk of being wrong. This article elaborates the characteristics of risk-taking learners on learning English, the learners’ personal learning problems on learning English, and the methods of increasing risk-taking ability. The methods discussed here directly address the learners’ personal learning problems which include inhibition to speak, low self-esteem, lack of motivation, and low risk-taking ability. Considering the significant role of risk-taking to the success in learning English, language teachers should establish an encouraging class atmosphere or a nonthreatening classroom climate in their classes to reveal risk takers.

Keywords: success, English learning, risk-taking

 

English is one of the languages widely used in the world by the speakers whose first language is not English. Besides its function as a means of communication with other speakers, it is also used as a medium to get some information or read materials in English about issues, advancement of technology and knowledge, and understand about different nation or people’s culture.

In Indonesia English is often considered as a foreign language or second language. English is one of the subjects taught in school starting from primary to university level. English is the subject on the school curriculum, and it is compulsory for students to take and pass the examination in order to be graduated from school.

To pass from this period, students have to go through the process of learning. Learning process is the path to reach success in which the students have to go through several stages in order to understand something that he or she has not known yet before. Furthermore a student who can carry out the learning activity can be assumed that he understands about something he or she has learnt about something (Rooijakkers, 1991:14). One individual’s learning process is called internal process. This internal process can be seen from the student’s individual behavioral change or action that reflects the learning (Rooijakkers, 1991:5).

Some students learn English faster and more easily than the others in school and they tends to be more .successful than the others. Success is perceived from two perspectives, namely the internal and external factors, but in this article, the internal factor would be discussed. Therefore the title chosen is “Risk-Taking as Contributing Factor To Make Success Of Learning English”.

THEORETICAL REVIEW

Learning according to Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary is knowledge obtained by study. Dimiyati and Mudjiono (2006) said that this knowledge obtained by study, or done through a learning activity in any places such as at school, or out of school. Learning can be seen from two perspectives. The first perspective is from teacher’s side and it is designed through learning instructions, while from the student’s side, it comes from the student’s desire to learn.

Dimiyati and Mudjiono define learning is an student’s act and student. As an act, learning is only experienced by the student himself/ herself, and determined by the student whether the learning process happens or not (Dimiyati and Mudjiono 2006:7). Furthermore they say that the learning process happens because the student gets something from his/ her learning environment, and this can be seen from the act of learning from outside (Dimiyati and Mudjiono 2006:7).

According to Djamarah (2008:15) learning is an activity that we do to gain knowledge).

Jakobovits (1970:44) learning a language means learning the whole new pattern of habits,….. A little learning like to play the piano or the violin, except that it is easier. Therefore, it is important to practice, to practice, and to practice. The practice should be intensive and enthusiastic in class and out silently to oneself while reading or to fellow students. Involve all your senses as you learn a language by using your ears, mouth, eyes, fingers and use your imagination.

According to Brown learning is a relatively permanent change in a behavioural tendency and is the result of reinforced practice. The components of the definition of learning are : learning is acquisition or getting, retention of information or skill, retention implies storage system, memory, cognitive organization, active, conscious, focus on and acting upon events outside or inside the organism, relatively permanent but subject to forgetting, involves some form of practice, perhaps reinforced practice, change in behavior (Brown, 1994:7).

 

Definition of Success

Success by the Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary definition is the achievement of a desired aim (Hornby 1995 : 1193). Success in learning interpreted as a student’s desire to achieve something. Key to get a success in learning is to study harder and sacrifice for something to reach the goal (Djamarah 2008, 10-11).

 

Risk-Taking as a contributing factor to make a success of learning English

Many researches show, the key point to accomplish second language learning depend on the personality differences among learners. There are two contributing factors to make a success of learning the language such as internal and external. The internal factors consist of natural talent, age, exposure to native speakers, high motivation, risk-taking, strong self-confidence, high self-esteem. Brown uses the term as the affective domain (Brown 1994:134). Obviously students who have these factors are better than the students who do not.

Whereas the external factors are teachers, instructional materials, approach, method, teaching strategies (Shoebottom 1996-2012). According to Walqui, Internal factors deal with personality and motivation. They vary from one student to another. External factors refer to the institutional contexts in which language learning takes place; contextual factors in second language acquisition.

According to Brown, there are two aspects contributing to the success of language learning such as of the cognitive and affective domains. The first aspect of the affective domain is called intrinsic that deals with the personality factors within a person and the second aspect is that encompasses extrinsic factors such as socio-cultural variables that emerge as the second language learner brings not only the two languages into contact but also the two cultures, and in some sense, he/she must learn a second culture along with a second language (Brown 1994:134).

Affective domain according to Brown is the emotional side of human behavior, and it may be juxtaposed to the cognitive side (Brown 1994:135). Further Brown says the development of affective states of feelings involves a variety of personality factors, feelings both about ourselves and about others with whom we come into contact.

According to Djamarah, there are some factors contribute to the success of learning such as : (A) obeying learning guide : regularity, be discipline and have a good motivation, focus, good time management such as to rest and to sleep (Djamarah, 2008:15-27); (B) avoiding learning difficultness : determining the learning objective, recognizing the remembering system, recognizing the remembering system range, recognizing the learning type, recognizing the rate of difficulties of book read, avoiding laziness, fulfilling recent wish, note taking for the future wish, writing any unfinished assignments, not to push yourself to study if you are not ready, staying healthy, taking a rest whenever necessary, emptying any unnecessary memory, mastering the language (Djamarah, 2008:28-42); (C) having intellectual mentality : be honest in any way, smart in thinking and action, reliable, self confidence, optimistic, not to hesitate in taking action, be brave to face the challenge, patience and never give up, take a change in any opportunity, willing to do something in any circumstances, learning effectively, learning while praying, never get satisfied easily on success achieved; (D) mastering the learning method well (Djamarah, 2008: 43-58).

Jakobovits a psycholinguist cited that the Modern Language Association of America sponsored a conference in 1964 which resulted in a statement entitled “Advice to Language Learners” in which consists of ten statements. Then these statements were revised by teachers and linguist. The ten claims about the psychology of foreign learning have been extracted from the 1966 revised statements (Jakobovits 1970:43).

The extracts of statements related to the language learning are : (1)learning a FL facilitates subsequent learning of another FL; (2)any intelligent student can learn a FL provided there are present ‘hard work’, a good teacher, and a good textbook; (3)a helpful strategy in learning FL is to avoid making direct comparisons between it and English; (4)learning a language means a whole new pattern of habits… a little like learning to play the piano or the violin. Therefore, it is important to practice, to practice, and to practice. Practice should be intensive and enthusiastic in class and out, silently and loudly, to oneself while reading, and to fellow students; (5)there are three techniques in language learning : imitation, analogy, and analysis. Imitation consists of repeating what you hear as closely as you can by listening carefully to your teacher and the other models. Learning how to create by analogy is the purpose of pattern drills and other exercises. (6) As one grows older, he/she begins to lose capacity for easy imitation but he/she gains the advantage of being able to reason: to analyze language, information of this sort given in grammatical explanations or rules can help you to learn the language faster; (7)memorizing sessions should be broken up into several intense short periods; (8)reading and writing are learned more easily if one first learns to speak the language; (8)practicing to speak should be done right from the start; (9)when reading a FL, one should at first read only what has been previously practiced, and do so out loud; (10)English translation of words or phrases should never be written on the page in the reading book (Jakoboits, 1970:43-45)

Theoretical Approach

There are two theoretical approaches in relation with the success of learning the language as proposed by Brown and Jakobovits discussed in this article. Brown outlines a risk-taking factor as part of aspect of the affective domain or called intrinsic and how this factor influences the success of the language learning. Whereas Jakobovits  a psycholinguist outlines learning theory from psycholinguistic perspective adopted in the discussion of the techniques in language learning this article are points (4) and (5) as mentioned above.

 Personality Factor

Personality is the characteristics and qualities of a person seen as a whole. An individual’s personality is the complex of mental characteristics that makes her/him unique from other people and the qualities make somebody different from other people and interesting.

Personality factors according to Brown is the intrinsic side of affectivity that affects in learning English are self-esteem; inhibition risk – taking; anxiety; empathy; extroversion; motivation (Brown 1994:136-156). But in this article, I will focus on the risk-taking as contributing factor to make a success of learning English.

 

DISCUSSION

In this article, I would focus on one particular psychological dimension such as risk-taking. To improve students’ learning process towards success, I outlined three components that involved in the discussion of this article such as the first part of this article presents the overview of characteristic risk-taking learners on learning English and its effects. The second part is personal learning problems on learning English, The third part is the Method of increasing risk-taking ability

 Overview of the Characteristic of Risk-taking Learners on Learning English and Its Effects

The literature review of risk-taking behavior appeared in the literature of psychology in 1960s (Kogan & Wallach, 1967), and 1970s ;(Bem, 1971) and it appeared in literature of linguistics and English as a Second Language (ESL) in 1960s, (Labov, 1969), 1980s, (Beebe, 1983, Ely, 1986a). Kogan and Wallach correlated two personality dimensions, motivation and risk-taking behavior to this basis McClelland –Atkinson position, which is a theory of achievement motivation developed by McClelland, Atkinson, Clark and Lowell in 1953, (cited in Beebe, 1983).

Risk-taking is an important characteristic of successful learning of a second language. Learners have to be able to gamble a bit, to be willing to try out hunches about the language and take the risk of being wrong (Brown 1994:140). Related to the characteristics of a “good” language learner, risk-taking is also recognized as important factor in successful language learning. Risk-taking is not only one of the dimensions of individual differences (IDs), but also, it is one of the important parts in second language learning process; moreover, it is a language learning strategy for good language learners who are willing to take risks (cited in Gass & Selinker, 2000).

A risk-taking student is typically student who actively participate in discussion in the class room and answer the questions without being waited to be called by the teacher. This type of student is usually not afraid of speaking in front of his/her classmates and not afraid of making mistakes, and they are willing to take part in class discussions without any fear and they also get involved in language learning activities very quickly and easily. This involvement helps them to learn more and better and more successful. Besides, risk-taking students usually speak more, and talk much in the classroom and therefore they are better than shy students. Furthermore, risk-taking typical students are willing to make a try to produce words or sentences or guess and not be discouraged by making mistakes and   being appeared foolish in order to progress. By this way these students will improve their learning from the mistake they made. So the key to the success in second language learning is the students should be willing to make a try or guess and not be discouraged by making mistakes and being appeared foolish.

 

Personal Learning Problems on Learning English

I taught my students in Banking and Finance study program at Politeknik Negeri Medan in the semester 6. On the first day of the week in the beginning of the semester my students and I just met in the classroom. At the first meeting I introduced about the syllabus ,methods, communicative activities and other rules and regulations in class room and then started my lesson with the topic of ‘Introduction’ . In this topic, the students talked about making a self-introduction. Before it got started, I introduced my self then I called their name one by one to know them better then I introduced the syllabus and topics to be discussed within the semester. After a few weeks, I got to know the students better by their names and started to observe their characters.

In general I found the students have diversities in characters among other students in many individual characteristics. Mostly the students, were very quiet, shy, inhibited, low learning ability and were passive learners and listeners. The students only listened to the lecturer and were not even brave enough to give opinion or to put comments or to raise questions. They waited for the Lecturer to call their name in order to speak. I tried to find out why they behaved in this way. Through my observation in class, later I identified some problems faced by the students such as : (1) the students were inhibited; (2) the students had low self-esteem; (3) the students were lack of motivation; (4) had low risk-taking ability in a spoken language.

 

Method of increasing risk-taking ability

After I identified the students’ learning problems. I tried to solve their problems. The following learning problems are presented and methods used :

(1)   the students were inhibited to speak

Inhibition by the Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary definition is a feeling that makes one nervous and embarrassed, and unable to relax or behave in a natural way (Hornby 1995:613).

Brown said Anyone who has learned a foreign language is acutely aware that second language learning actually necessitates the making of mistakes; If we never ventured to speak a sentence until we were absolutely certain of its total correctness, we would likely never communicate productively at all (Brown 1994:139).

I found from several students why the students were inhibited to speak because they were afraid of making mistakes. The classmates often laughed at the student who made mistake in pronouncing the words, and this has made the students were lack of confidence. So the mistake was often viewed as threats. This student was descended from Batakist ethnic group who came from the village where they always use Batakist language ethnic group every day. This student usually has very accent of first language. This strong accent had influenced him from pronouncing the word in English. For example : What are the requirements to open a new bank account ? The word open phonetically must be pronounced as [əupən] but it was pronounced [əupæn]. Batakist has strong phonetically sound of [æ] instead of [ə]. This strong accent of his/her first language had influenced his/her speech production of how the word is supposedly pronounced. As the result, the pronunciation sounded awkward and funny to the other students’ ears. This condition made the students laughed at their classmate. Therefore, the student were inhibited to speak because they didn’t want to be looked stupid, or being embarrassed by their classmates when making mistakes.

In the condition of this problem, I told the students not to laugh because they might make the same mistake. I encouraged the students in their learning to be brave to speak out and neglects what ever circumstances his/her classmates may behave. I drilled the students to practice the pronunciation and gave more examples of words which have similar sounds until they pronounced the word correctly. I told the students not to worry making mistakes, because learners learn from mistake. If the students never tried, they would never know they made mistakes and never know how to improve.

I also recommended the students to use English-English dictionary. The students can look up the word and learn how the word is read and pronounced with its phonetically transcriptions. Other than that, I instructed the students to participate in the discussion when they were given tasks to do in class.  I told the students that I would ask them after they had finished discussing. if the first student could not answer the questions, the other students will be given a turn to answer. I rewarded the students’ when they could answer the questions and did well and made improvement in their study. I assured this atmosphere in their class happened. With this learning condition I made, the students could be risk-takers in many situations, because the students now became relax and not nervous anymore when they talked and expressed their ideas. As the result the students were willing to take part in the class and did well on learning English unconsciously.

(2)   the students had low self-esteem

Self-esteem is according to Coopersmith cited by Brown , it expresses an attitude of approval or disapproval, and indicates the extent to which an individual believes himself to be capable, significant, successful and worthy. In short, self-esteem is a personal judgment of worthiness that is expressed in the attitudes that the individual holds towards himself (Brown 1994:137).

In general, I found the students had low self-esteem and were lack of self-confidence . Mostly these students who were weak in structure or grammar and had limited vocabulary. For example the students did not know how the sentence(s) constructed correctly and this had made them were not able to produce sentences correctly, and also the students had limited vocabulary, and knowledge. All of these students’ weakness had made them lack of confidence.

In the condition of this problem, I was patience and reviewed the structure and grammatical explanations or rules in which area the students were not capable to do the communicative activities. I wrote some points where the students made mistakes. I explained the structure and grammar after the students had finished practicing the conversation. This way aims to refresh students’ mind as they have actually learned it before at school. In doing this review, I demonstrated the use and the usage of the language expressions through its communicative functions and I gave them varieties of sentence pattern related to its communicative functions. I always encouraged the students to try out what they knew and took the risk of being wrong. By practicing the conversations with their pairs, the students may increase their self-confidence, because the students were given the opportunity to speak their learned language in English in real life situations. Because of these important reasons, as Woolfolk (2001) noted and advised that activities can be done in order to increase the confidence of silent students in the classroom; give plenty of practice in the class room.

In order to increase students’ self-esteem, I asked the students to practice by using the imitation technique. With this technique the students repeated what they heard and the models of sentence pattern learned. When the students were capable enough to do the activities then I asked them to continue the practice by making analogy. With this analogy technique, the students were asked to create sentences by using the learned pattern drills. At last I asked the students to practice activities with analyzing technique. With this technique, the students were asked to create sentences and use the language of giving reasons. With these given techniques, I helped the students to rebuild their self-confidence and gradually they gain knowledge and skills and developed self-confidence. Finally, the students were able to produce words and sentences correctly and learned the language faster.

(3)   the students were lack of motivation;

Motvation by the Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary definition is to cause somebody to want to do something (Hornby 1995 : 758). According to Brown, motivation is commonly thought of as an inner drive, impulse, emotion, or desire that moves one to a particular action (Brown 1994:152). Robert Gardner and Wallace Lambert (1972) had made studies of foreign language learners in Canada, United States and Phillipines in an effort to determine how attitudinal and motivational factors affect language learning success. Motivation was examined as a factor of a number of different kinds of attitudes. They had put two clusters of attitudes divided two basic types of motivation: instrumental and Integrative motivation. Instrumental motivation refers to motivation to acquire a language as means for attaining instrumental goals such as furthering a career, reading technical material, translation, and so forth. An integrative motive is employed when learners wish to integrate themselves within the culture of the second language group, to identify themselves with and become a part of that society (cited by Brown, 1994:153-154).

I found the students were lack of motivation. This problem was caused of the students were in semester 6 and they were tired and bored a little bit after they passed five semesters studied and were busy writing reports after doing their on the job trainings and started again writing final assignments before they were graduated. Having this kind of condition, the students were lack of motivation in learning English.

In the condition of this problem, I stimulated their motivation again by telling them if they have capability in English, they would be able to work in International organizations. I also gave them a suggestion of learning strategies and tried to create a good encouraging class atmosphere in the class to reveal risk takers. I gave challenging communicative activities for speaking in the forms of role-plays or simulation. These communicative activities gave the unmotivated students to participate from passive into active learners. I encouraged students to take risk by asking the students to practice the conversation. Before I conducted the communicative activities, I gave them the example. This example of the conversation I put in one particular situation and context, so the students can use their learned knowledge in real life situations. I picked up one topic related to the banking and finance context. Then next I asked the students to choose one of the topics listed in their hand outs such as : Opening a new bank Account; Withdrawing Money; Making a Deposit; Enquiring about credit facilities, requirements and procedures; Applying for a credit card; Buying travelers’ cheques; Exchanging foreign currencies. These activities, especially to improve students’ oral skills, reduce anxiety level, and risk-taking ability improves. During the students practiced the dialogues with their partners, they were looked more relax and not worried or nervous, because they had more freedom to express out what they knew and thought. I walked around the class and took note for any area the students might make mistakes. After the practice, I wrote the mistakes on the whiteboard and asked if any student might know the answer. I encouraged the students to speak and say what they knew and thought about the answers. All the students’ answer were written on the whiteboard and to be checked together. If they got stuck with the choice of words or sentence patterns   and were not able to express out in a correct English grammar, then I helped. Finally, I wrote the correct answer on the whiteboard and the students copied. That was the way they increase again their motivation. If they got motivated, they would increase their risk-taking ability and became good risk-takers. Then I gave them language learning techniques, strategies, styles, and conducted the classroom as the student-centered and I told them being a risk taker in many situations would advantage the students in learning the language.

By doing this practice through the communicative activities, the students who never spoke in class or during conversational and oral practice before then became motivated. I also conducted quiz and told the students if they could answer they would be given an additional score of English Subject. More students participated to answer the questions. I think this competition also has an important role to play in the development of oral skills, motivation during the language learning process. Over all activities, I gave the students feedback and specific praise.

I also asked the students to do assignments for the project work by interviewing the tourists. The students worked in group of 4 people. They conducted an interview to the tourists and recorded the conversation. The students were motivated to speak with the native speakers than with their classmates. The reason is because they were more relax and not to be looked stupid when making mistakes.

However, some of the students still were not motivated, I tried to identify the students’ learning problem specifically concerning about their learning situation. After I found the problem, I used another method to help them and encouraged students to take risk (Oxford, 1992). I didn’t scold the students, and didn’t put them in embarrassment or punishment and I also told the students not to sneer their classmates.

(4)   had low risk-taking ability in a spoken language.

I found the students had a low risk-taking ability in a spoken language. This situation happened because they didn’t get enough practice and practice the language.

In the condition of this problem, I practically observed the students’ behavior among some students in the speaking class. There were a few students were silent and looked like stressful throughout the lesson. After the lesson, I asked the reason, why they did not participate the conversations, their explanation was that their friends might laugh at them and this situation could disturb their psychology and learning enthusiasm. This is a common student thought about them.

I also found some students were talkative and sociable ones in their peer group. They were quiet because they didn’t have ability to express out their ideas correctly and appropriately. Therefore they didn’t dare enough to take a high risk in speaking with their lecturer or teacher or because the students did not want to be looked foolish in the classroom. I made sure to call on everyone, and gave each student a chance to practice until the students mastered how  to use and know the usage of the language.

Beebe (1983) states that all of these three strategies are related to risk-taking, for example willing to guess is a part of risk-taking and willingness to appear foolish is willing to take risk. Therefore, I reinforced the students to be risk-taking, Furthermore, Beebe made another study about classroom participation and risk-taking ability, and tried to find the reason why L2 learners are shyer a second language around peers or classmates from their mother tongue group than around native speaker and teachers is that they perceive the risk of looking foolish as a greater in the presence of peers from their own country.

 

CONCLUSION

In the conclusion, risk-:taking has a significant role to the success in learning English. Risk-taking is a contributing factor hat associated with willing to make a try or experience, or to be wrong or to be embarrassed, or to gamble, and not to be shy, be active learners, learn from mistakes, not to be discouraged by making mistakes and being appeared foolish.

Language teachers should be aware of who their students are, what are the individual differences among their students. Language teachers should establish an encouraging class atmosphere or a nonthreatening classroom climate in their classes to reveal risk takers. Language teachers should reward and respect to boost the students learning style. Language teachers should encourage students to be risk-takers in many situations and classroom should be student-centered. Language teachers should be patient to review the structure and grammar such as the use and usage of the language. The language teachers should stimulate the students’ motivation by telling them if they have capability in English, they would be able to work in International organizations and give a suggestion of learning strategies and try to create a good encouraging class atmosphere in the class to reveal risk takers, and conduct communicative activities for speaking in the forms of role-plays or simulation. Language teachers should give each student a chance to practice until the students mastered how to use and the usage of the language.

 

REFERENCES

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Bem, D.J. (1971). The concept of risk in the study of human behavior. In R.E. Carvey (Ed.), Risktaking behavior, Springfield, III : Charles, C. Thomas.

Brown, Douglas. 1994. Principles of Language Learning and Teaching. Third Edition. Prentice Hall Regents, Englewood Cliffs, NJ

Brown-Mollie Immel. Key Factors in Language Learning Success. 11/13 2006

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Dimyati and Mudjiono.2006. Belajar dan Pembelajaran. Jakarta : Penerbit Rineka Cipta

Djamarah, Syaiful Bahri. 2008. Rahasia Sukses Belajar. Penerbit : Rineka Cipta, Jakarta

Effects of Attitude towards Language Learning and Risk-taking on EFL Student’s Proficiency

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Ely, C. (1986a). An analysis of discomfort, risk taking, sociability and motivation in L2 classroom. Language learning36: 1:25

Emerson D. C., Ph.D. (Oct. 22, 2005). English 418-Course Notes. Session Twelve. Retrieved Oct. 31, 2005 from California State University Bakersfield

Gass, S.M., & Selinker, L. (2000). Second language acquisition: An introductory course (2nd Ed.). Retrieved March 25, 2010.

Hornby, AS. 1995. Editor Jonathan Crowther. Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English. Fifth Edition.Oxford : Oxford University Press

Jakobovits, Leon A. 1970. Foreign Language Learning. A Psycholinguistic Analysis of the Issues. Newbury House Publishers, Rowley, Massachusetts.

Kelly, M. (2004). Taking account of affective learner differences in the planning and delivery of language courses for open, distance and independent learning. Retrieved April 14, 2010 from University of Southampton website: http://www.lang.ltsn.ac.uk/resources/resourcesitem.aspx.resourceid=1315,

Klinger, Walter. Factors for Success in Second Language Learning http://www.usp.ac.jp/english/pdf/wk02-factors.pdf

Kogan, N. & Wallach, M. A. (1967). Risk Taking as afunction of the situation, the person, and the group. New directions in psychology III.New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

McClelland, D. C., Atkinson, J. W., Clark, R. A., 4 Lowell, E. L. (1953). The Achievement Motive. New York: Appleton:Century:Crofts,

Norris, Holt Jacquelinne Norris, Motivation as a Contributing Factor In second Language

Acquisition. The Internet TESL Journal, Vol.VII, No.6, June 2001, http://iteslj.org/Articles/Norris-Motivation.html

Mc Donough,Jo and Shaw, Christopher.2003. Materials and Methods in ELT, second edition. Blackwell Publishing

Oxford, R. (1992). Who are our students? A synthesis of Foreign and Second Language Research on Individual Differences with Implications for Instructional Practice. TESL Canada Journal, 9, 2: 30:48.

Risk-taking and Anxiety http://www.language.com.hk/articles/anxiety.html

Shoebottom, Paul 1996-2012  The Factors That Influence The Acquisition of a Second Language, http://esl.fis.edu/teachers/support/factors.htm

Woolfolk, A. (2001). Motivation: issues and explanations. In educational psychology(8thEd.), Needham Heights, MA: Pearson Education Company.

Learner’s memory and learner’s success

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Trimpop, R. M. (1994). Advanced in psychology, the psychology of risktaking behavior. Holland: Acid Free Paper: 48:51.

Ir.Deel. Some Topics for Conversations 20-91. IR.DEEL.WWW http://deel.blogfa.com/

Online Resources and Learner’s Autonomy

oktaviaKutipan refernsi: Jurnal Linguistik terapan Vol 3/1, Mei 2013)

by Oktavia Widiastuti

UIN Maulana Malik Ibrahim, Malang

 

ABSTRACT

There is a perceived relationship between technology and learner autonomy in the language teaching community. Students become increasingly empowered when using technology as they develop self-discipline and confidence through increased responsibility for their own learning processes. For language learning, computers offer rich volumes of text, pictures, sound, and video, they are also interactive, available at any time and place for individual or collective learners. It also facilitates learner autonomy, which is understood as the learner’s learning capacity displayed both in the way the learner learns and in the way he or she transfers what has been learned to wider contexts. It involves the learner, teacher, materials, learning context, and what students want in an online environment.

Online learning offers many opportunities for students. Some research results showed that the students responded positively to this means of communication. The students’ way of learning interaction is enriched through the computerized media. Furthermore, it can enhance their learning as it strengthens their understanding toward the language they learn and their self study, meaning that it makes this type of language learners more motivated than the non-autonomous ones. At present, however, there is a great need for research that focuses on the relationship between particular forms of practice and the development of autonomy.

 

Keywords: learner autonomy, online resources, learning process, self-study

 

There is a perceived relationship between technology and learner autonomy in the language teaching community. Learner empowerment is a prominent feature of integrating the technology of online resources in a foreign language curriculum. Students are seen as becoming increasingly empowered when using such technology because they develop self-discipline and confidence through increased responsibility for their own learning processes (Warschauer, Turbee, and Roberts, 1994). Benson and Voller (1997) discussed these issues stating that “Computer software for language learning is an example of a technology which claims to promote autonomy simply by offering the possibility of self-study. Such claims are often dubious because of the limited range of options and roles offered to the learner”. Benson and Voller go on to argue that all educational technologies including the textbook and the computer can be perceived to be more or less supportive of autonomy.

Computers have often been viewed as the perfect independent learning tool rather than simply a part of the autonomy/independence bigger picture. Why is that, and can technology really offer learners something unobtainable by other means? It could be argued that online resources are the ultimate engine for language learning. They offer volumes of text, pictures, sound, and video. They are also interactive and increasingly offer ready made self-access materials available at any time and place for individual or collective learners.

Defining Learner Autonomy

Autonomy has been described as “a capacity – for detachment, critical reflection, decision-making, and independent action. The capacity for autonomy will be displayed both in the way the learner learns and in the way he or she transfers what has been learned to wider contexts” (Little, 1991, p. 4). When the instructor’s role is examined within a certain educational setting, it would indicate whether a particular teacher tends to control the behavior of students or support their autonomy (Deci et al., 1981). Some other terms such as ‘self-access,’ ‘independent learning,’ ‘open,’ ‘distance,’ and ‘flexible’ learning have often been used to describe similar activities in which the teacher has more or less input in what goes on in the classroom. (The bottom line in all these uses is that teachers are encouraged to turn some power over to the learners and simultaneously take such roles as bystander, facilitator, guide, or helper.) One should be cautious, however, not to assume that all individuals are equally receptive to the notions of autonomous/independent learning.

The Learner Autonomy Picture

There are four players in the learner autonomy picture: the learner, the teacher, the materials, and learning the context. Here is a look at each one of them in detail.

1. The Learner

Obviously, autonomous learners are perceived to possess unique characteristics that make them independent, self-efficient, and willing to take the risk and responsibility of relying more on themselves than on others. Dickinson (1993) identifies five characteristics of independent learners:

1. they understand what is being taught, i.e. they have sufficient understanding of language learning to understand the purpose of pedagogical choices;
2. they are able to formulate their own learning objectives;
3. they are able to select and make use of appropriate learning strategies;
4. they are able to monitor their use of these strategies;
5. they are able to self-assess, or monitor their own learning (Dickinson, 1993, pp. 330-31).

2. The Teacher

A variety of new roles have been proposed for teachers to play in autonomous or independent learning. These roles include bystander, facilitator, guide, helper, counselor, and mentor. For example, an activity in which the instructor’s role is to monitor the students’ activities in pairs or small groups discreetly could be introduced to encourage learner autonomy. In such case, intervention is unnecessary unless learners need assistance. However, some teachers find these changes to be challenging and do not necessarily accept these new ideas easily. This is also a mistake that is commonly made in materials design for independent learning.

3. The Materials

Designing suitable materials for the autonomous learner can be a challenge. Motteram (1997) wrote about the many years teachers spend developing materials for their classrooms and adapting their teaching styles to that environment. He wrote that when teachers switch to an independent learning environment, they might expect the immediate transferability of the previous skills to the new learner-centered environment. This never happens because the nature of independent learning materials is different. Consequently, teachers may feel threatened that they have lost the value of their hard earned skills. Motteram added that many learners will feel cheated if they find that the material they are presented with in a so-called independent learning environment is the same as that presented in a regular class.

4. Learning the Context

Individuals are unique and their uniqueness should be emphasized because of their sociocultural background and the significance of allowing social reality to be a part of classroom teaching and learning. Social reality is not stable and because learners influence it, teachers cannot teach everything about a language. Learners influence the social context and the language in turn, or at least its use. For this reason, learners become more important members of a classroom. Therefore, classroom learning should take learners’ backgrounds into account in order to provide a meaningful and stimulating learning environment. This view of social reality is consistent with the constructivist movement in cognitive psychology, which shows that individuals gradually build their own understanding of the world through experience and maturation (Bruner, 1986).

Benson (1997, p.1-2) notes that the term learner autonomy can have at least five different connotations:

a. for situations in which learners study entirely on their own

b. for a set of skills which can be learned and applied in self-directed learning

c. for an inborn capacity which is suppressed by institutional education

d. for the exercise of learners’ responsibility for their own learning

e. for the right of learners to determine the direction of their own learning (Benson, 1997, pp. 1-2).

We often hear the term self-direction in connection with learner autonomy. This term refers to the type of learning that occurs when the learner makes a decision regarding the setting and content of the learned subject matter. While this could happen unconsciously, other learners consider self-directed learning as a conscious form of learning, thereby equating it with autonomous learning (Hammond & Collins, 1991). In sum, autonomy is a social construct that includes the ability to function effectively as a cooperative member in a group. Learning takes place in a social context and it is this context that learners have to be aware of and assume a role in.

5. What students want in an online environment?

The idea of a learner-centered environment is still unfamiliar to many students who grew up in a teacher-centered classroom. Asking those students to suddenly shift to a new setting that is totally or partially electronic might lead to a shock and great resistance. In order to ensure a smooth transition to a new reality, students should be asked what they want in the new environment. If adapting to a technologically enhanced classroom is inevitable in this era, researchers, curriculum designers, administrators, and teachers should obtain the students’ feedback on what features of online resources appeal to them and are most helpful in their education. In addition, we know very little about how students actually use online resources. Students may not use the resources in the ways that the teachers had envisioned.

The Advantages of Using Online Resources as an Educational Tool in Language Programs

Much of the published research on this topic shows that the advantages of using online resources as an educational tool far outweigh the disadvantages. Several researchers have mentioned many advantages. For example, according to Berge and Collins (1995), many opportunities are offered through online learning for such endeavors as course management, information retrieval, peer review, project-based instruction, personal networking, mentoring/tutoring, interactive chat, professional growth, and experience in using modern technology. Berge and Collins added that by writing online for an authentic purpose, students are motivated to communicate with a broader audience than what they are used to- the classroom. In addition, the digital revolution of the late 20th and early 21st has shifted the focus in the classroom from the teacher to the learner. In the new environment students are helped through online learning to find the necessary resources to carry on their learning outside the classroom and thus become lifelong learners.

Interaction was also discussed by many researchers. For example, Vilmi (1995) said that cultural awareness among students in different parts of the world is enhanced by the opportunities for interaction offered by online resources. Moreover, in searching for and retrieving information online, students have greater interaction with the course materials, providing them with a sense of ownership (Shetzer, 1995), as well as enjoyment of the course content (Opp-Beckman, 1995). In discussing the interaction of text and context, Kramsch and Andersen (1999, p. 31) said that using multimedia technology in teaching languages presents a double challenge for learners to observe and select “culturally relevant features of the context” and put linguistic features in context to understand language in use. The kinds of reflectiveness and interactivity that are mediated through asynchronous conferencing have also been researched. Lamy and Goodfellow (1999) concluded in their study of French learners that such an environment has “created the possibility for learners to interact with each other and with teachers and native speakers–thus providing opportunities for practice and intrinsic feedback” (p. 43). Lamy and Goodfellow go on to argue that conscious reflection is still necessary even in such an interactive learning environment and that it should be combined with spontaneous interaction. In another study about computer mediated communication, Blake (2000), in a study on L2 Spanish interlanguage, found that “CMC can provide many of the alleged benefits ascribed to the Interaction Hypothesis” (p. 120), which states that the conditions for SLA are crucially enhanced by having L2 learners negotiate meaning (i.e., resolve their miscommunications) with other speakers, native or otherwise Long & Robinson, 1998), but with more possibilities for access out of the classroom. Blake added that “incidental negotiations commonly occurred in networked learner/learner discussions as well, especially with respect to their lexical confusions” (p.120). Blake’s study showed “the value of synchronous chat records as a window for investigating interlanguage” (p.120).

Computer-assisted classroom discussion using networked computers was the topic of Healy Beauvois’ (1992) dissertation. In her study, she explored the “interaction intermediate French students using a Local Area Network (LAN) for synchronous classroom discussion in French” (p. v). The findings suggested that student contributions in French fit “sound language learning pedagogy” where code switching and teacher intervention instances were low, whereas discourse was high in both quantity and quality, and students responded positively to this means of communication. Moreover, the effects of the communication context of synchronous interaction tools, such as Web chat between English non-native and English native speakers, on the process of acquiring a second language was studied by Negretti (1999). The main purpose of the author was to discover “patterns and conversational strategies used by participants in this on-line context” as well as “the machinery and the structure of social action in language”. The study also analyzed whether Web chat implied a “reduction of the range in interactional practices, actions performance, sense making, and meaning negotiation, thus affecting the SLA process”. The analysis focused on “the overall structure of interaction and sequence organization in connection with the on-line communication setting features”. It then passed to “turn-taking organization, with attention to recurrent structures and patterns as in openings and closings; turn design (or packaging of actions); expression of paralinguistic features in this on-line context; and some (interlanguage) pragmatic variables”.

Computer-mediated communication was also studied by Sengupta (2001) who stated that it can be “a powerful tool towards literacy development as its text-based nature supports sustained reflection on classroom exchanges”. Sengupta described how students completing a BA in Contemporary English Language used “the available technology to interact with peers and their comment on how this mode of delivery extended their traditional notions of learning”. Sengupta’s data showed that the students were personally accountable due to their elevated exposure online- an issue viewed as an exceptional but intimidating part of this approach. This study evaluated how powerful online exposure can be in showcasing the students’ experiences and comments. Collaborative Internet projects were studied by the EFL study of Braunstein et al. (2000). It was found that those projects provided “students with opportunities for completing authentic reading and writing tasks, for learning about other cultures, and for developing useful technical skills”. In a paper examining “the two tenets of communicative language teaching– authenticity of the input and authorship of the language user–in an electronic environment”, Kramsch et al. (2000) concluded, in their study of Spanish and English, that “a communicative approach based on the use of authentic texts and on the desire to make the learners author their own words has been changed by the physical properties of the electronic medium and the students’ engagement with it”.

Learner empowerment is another feature of integrating online resources in a foreign language curriculum. Students become empowered as they develop self discipline and confidence by being more responsible for their own learning processes (Warschauer, Turbee, and Roberts, 1994). In addition, students are judged by their production, not what their appearance or how they sound, thus making them more confident when communicating in the target language. Online learning can provide students with new, exciting, and challenging resources (Barron and Ivers, 1998). It creates opportunities for multicultural education, establishes authentic learning experiences, supports higher-order thinking skills, improves writing skills, and boosts motivation, achievement, and positive behavior. Reading and writing skills are promoted through electronic discussion lists, email key pals, and projects online by providing an authentic audience for students’ writing (Gaer, 1999). In addition to having the flexibility to be used with students at any grade level and any proficiency level, these projects also help students develop computer literacy and online skills as they use the computer for authentic purposes. Online resources also provide an excellent language learning environment especially for the autonomous learner. This environment was described in Egbert, Chao, and Hanson-Smith (1999) and it listed eight conditions including opportunities interaction with an authentic audience to perform authentic tasks, encouraging learners to be creative, providing enough time and feedback for learners, guiding learners to be fully attentive during the learning process, having an ideal level of stress and anxiety, and supporting learner autonomy.

The Disadvantages of Online Resources as an Educational Tool in Language Programs

As with any teaching tool, along with the benefits come some drawbacks as well. A challenge facing teachers is the time requirements in learning new ways to give feedback online, teaching software programs to students (Opp-Beckman, 1995), and facilitating and participating in online projects which are just getting started (Vilmi, 1995). Shetzer (1995) also warned that the interaction between the student and text (or computer) might overwhelm that among students themselves. Learning and teaching online require great tolerance of ambiguity and even of chaos (Warschauer, Turbee and Roberts, 1994). In addition, students with low proficiency in keyboarding, reading and writing might find it difficult to remain motivated, perceiving the virtual classroom as a hindrance to learning more than a benefit (Hiltz, 1990). Learning online was not designed to be, and is not, a complete language learning tool; it is merely one of many ways that we can learn and practice a foreign language. In particular, the material available on the Internet, with the exception of material produced for language learners, is not graded. Beginning students can easily be overwhelmed with the rich vocabulary and colloquial expressions that they find there. It is therefore an important task for instructors to guide students to material that not only is of interest to them, but also manageable at their current level of language proficiency. Using online resources is not one thing with narrow, uniform, and readily predictable outcomes. In practice, it is many things with many possible outcomes for different students. Furthermore, even a single category of using online resources, such as using them as an information archive, can produce tremendous variation in likely consequences. Schofield and Davidson (2002) looked at six kinds of outcomes of use of online resources that students experienced:

enhanced enjoyment and motivation, a better understanding of both computing and the Internet, a greater ability to produce work of quality, more access to career information and opportunities, exposure to a broader range of perspectives and experiences, and improved reading skills in both English and foreign languages (Schofield and Davidson 2002, p. 209).

As a result of the widespread effects of technology throughout the world, college-level educators are being challenged to rethink and revise their approaches and goals in teaching in order to effectively prepare students for what will be expected of them in the real world. Black et al. (1995) summarized the importance of using computers as educational tools because students like working on them and are motivated by the use of real data and the fact that this is a skill they will need in the future. Because the way in which we retrieve and interpret information is changing and evolving, so must the education which prepares students to successfully accomplish these tasks.

The Educational Applications of Online Resources in Language Programs: communication and Research

According to Barron and Ivers (1998), the educational applications of online resources can be divided into two very broad areas: communication and research. The communication category includes asynchronous communications such as e-mail and electronic publishing, and synchronous communications such as chat rooms, audio conferencing, and video conferencing.

The research category includes basic, advanced, and original research. Basic research involves finding, comparing, and reporting facts from one or more preselected sources. Advanced research includes a wider variety of sources such as several online sites in addition to print or CD-ROM sources. Another difference is that the sources are not preselected. Original research can be done using surveys and collaborative experiments.

After the information is compiled, it can be graphed, analyzed, and reported. Online resources can connect the teaching and learning of languages as described in Shetzer and Warschauer (2001) who state that learners should be taught the type of language that they would eventually use and that the learner’s motivation increases if there is informational content being taught. They added that in order for teaching to be effective, prior knowledge, existing knowledge, the total academic environment, and learners’ linguistic proficiencies should be taken into consideration and that that contextualized language use should be the focus of language teaching. Finally, they wrote that what benefits learners most is a focus on significant and relevant content.

Language students’ attitudes toward and perceptions of online resources

As to the attitudes of L2 learners toward the use of technology, Yang (2001), in a study about EFL students, reported that the experience was generally positive for learners. On the other hand, negative attitudes had to do with technical difficulties and information overload. Yang also reported that using online resources often stimulated incidental learning and that seeking information online triggered both anxiety and excitement in learners at the same time. In concluding the study, Yang stated that computer networks could empower students especially in well-designed language learning environments and that providing scaffolding to guide learners in using online applications and orient them to the task is essential for the success in implementing and integrating technology into the curriculum. Researchers also studied student perceptions. In an important article, Stepp-Greany (2002) presented survey data from beginning Spanish classes using a combination of technologies: Internet activities, CD-ROM, electronic pen pals, and threaded discussions. Goals of the study were to determine students’ perceptions of (a) the role and importance of the instructor in technology-enhanced language learning (TELL), (b) the accessibility and relevance of the lab and the individual technological components in student learning, and (c) the effects of the technology on the foreign language learning experiences. Students attributed an important role to instructors and perceived that cultural knowledge, listening and reading skills, and independent learning skills were enhanced but were divided in their perceptions about the learning or interest values of the individual components.

In addition, Kung and Chuo (2002) investigated the potential role of ESL/EFL Web sites as a means to supplement in-class instruction. They evaluated a program in which forty-nine students enrolled in a high-beginner EFL class were introduced to five Web sites and instructed to use them for a homework assignment and for selfstudy. The data revealed that despite some difficulties encountered, students had an overall positive attitude to using the teacher-selected Web sites in their learning of English. The students found that learning English through ESL/EFL Web sites was interesting and that the teaching strategies used by the teachers were effective and necessary.

The relationship between using online resources and enhancing the learning of language skills

Many researchers have studied the relationship between using online resources and enhancing the learning of language skills. This line of research has established a high correlation between using this technology in the language classroom and high achievement in language proficiency. In the reading comprehension area, for example, Lomicka (1998) wrote about “how computerized reading with full glossing may promote a deeper level of text comprehension” (p. 41) for students of French. Moreover, reading comprehension practice and production practice in Japanese were studied by Nagata (1998) who investigated input versus output practice in educational software for second language acquisition. In addition, De Ridder (2002) found that when reading a text with highlighted hyperlinks, her subjects, native Dutch speakers learning French, were significantly more willing to consult the gloss. However, this increased clicking does not slow down the reading process, does not affect text comprehension, and does not increase the vocabulary learned incidentally. The reading task does not seem to alter the clicking behaviour of the students but seems to influence the reader’s vocabulary learning: A content-oriented reading task decreases the reader’s attention for vocabulary (De Ridder, 2002, p. 123).

With regard to grammar, Collentine (2000), studying foreign-language learners of Spanish, demonstrated “how computer-assisted language learning (CALL) software containing user-behavior tracking technologies can provide important insights into the construction of grammatical knowledge” (p. 44). This satisfies the constructivist premises that are increasingly compelling teachers to employ exploratory and inductive tasks, stipulating that students should be “agents” who manufacture rather than receive knowledge. Sotillo (2000) investigated “discourse functions and syntactic complexity in ESL learner output obtained via two different modes of computer mediated communication: asynchronous and synchronous discussions” (p. 82). The results showed that asynchronous and synchronous CMC have different discourse features which may be exploited for different pedagogical purposes. In the hands of experienced teachers, both modes of CMC can be used as novel tools to enhance the language acquisition process by encouraging interaction among participants, collaborative text construction, and the formation of electronic communities of learners (Sotillo, 2000, p. 82).

Hoven (1999) proposed an “instructional design model appropriate for humanistic multimedia Computer-Enhanced Language Learning (CELL) in a self-access environment for second language learning through listening and viewing comprehension” (p. 88). Hoven’s model was “grounded in sociocultural theory, and set against a background of research into the complexities of listening and viewing, individual learner differences and learning styles, characteristics of self-directed and autonomous learning, and user-friendly instructional software design” (ibid.). Several researchers also highlighted the use of e-mail to promote foreign language learning in general and the writing skill in particular. When compared with oral production, L2 use generated through the electronic medium has several features according to González-Bueno (1998), who studied Spanish students. Those features are: “(a) greater amount of language; (b) more variety of topics and language functions; (c) higher level of language accuracy; (d) more student-initiated interactions; and (e) more personal and expressive language use” (p. 55). However, Biesenbach-Lucas and Weasenforth (2001) questioned the potential of electronic mail writing in improving academic writing abilities for ESL students because email engenders features of both the written and spoken forms of the language. In a comparative study, there were no obvious differences found between students’ electronic mail and word-processed writing. However, the electronic mail texts were significantly shorter than the word-processed texts, and text-initial contextualization was more prominent in the word-processed than in the electronic mail texts. (Biesenbach-Lucas & Weasenforth, 2001). Other researchers were interested in investigating how the online resources would help in teaching culture. Osuna and Meskill (1998), for instance, concluded that the online environment was a suitable tool to increase language and cultural knowledge of Spanish, as well as a means to increase motivation. Furstenberg et al. (2001) presented a “Web-based, cross-cultural, curricular initiative entitled Cultura designed to develop foreign language students’ understanding of foreign cultural attitudes, concepts, beliefs, and ways of interacting and looking at the world” (p. 55). The participants were French and American students, and the focus was on the “pedagogy of electronic media, with particular emphasis on the ways in which the Web can be used to reveal those invisible aspects of a foreign culture, thereby giving a voice to the elusive silent language and empowering students to construct their own approach to cross-cultural literacy” (ibid.). In another culture-related study, Müller-Hartmann (2000) compared three email projects between EFL high school classes in Germany, and English and Social Studies classes in the United States and Canada. The researcher concluded that:

A comparison between intercultural learning in the actual reading process and the negotiation of meaning in the network phases shows a close resemblance in the structure and use of tasks. Task properties, such as activity, setting, and teacher and learner roles, as well as the personal level (i.e., non-thematic exchange of information) in the asynchronous e-mail exchange, proved to be especially influential for intercultural learning in the design and management of task structure (Müller-Hartmann, 2000, p. 129).

In testing, Roever (2001) argued that “Web-based language tests were most appropriate in low-stakes testing situations; but with proper supervision, they can also be used in medium-stakes situations although they are not generally recommended for high-stakes situations” (p. 84). Perez Fernandez (2000) examined how the use of the World Wide Web (WWW) as a tool may change the contents as well as the teaching procedures and the material covered. In class he used the WWW as a source of authentic material for the study of English in the field of psychology. His students had “access to current online material, and they can work with such diverse web sites as departments of psychology web sites, on-line atlases of the brain, resource web sites, career orientation and professional information web sites, etc.” (p. 257). He reported that the students became proficient in English and acquainted with vocabulary related to their main discipline, i.e. psychology. Perez Fernandez reported that the result was more dynamic approach to teaching English, so that the students gain autonomy, with the instructor acting only as coordinator, supervisor and tutor.

In another study on English for construction, Perez Fernandez (2001), studied the potential of the WWW to expand the possibilities of language teaching, particularly in the field of specific content areas, like engineering, architecture or the construction industry. He found that the Web facilitated “easy, instantaneous access to sources of information, specialized texts and data that were either unavailable in the past or took a considerable amount of time to access” (p. 119). He suggested that “in addition to providing these specific texts that can be used as teaching and practice  material, and serving as an electronic board with information on classes, deadlines, contents, syllabus, etc., the WWW should also affect the way languages are taught, as well as the learning styles of the students” (ibid.). Perez Fernandez concluded that because online resources are being increasingly used as a teaching resource, “we should move from a phase of simply using the new media with the old content, on to developing not only new contents but also new teaching procedures and strategies based on these new media”.

This line of research still has a number of open questions about how to optimally utilize this modern technology and incorporate it into foreign language programs. LoCastro (2001), for example, recommended that this area especially needed more qualitative or multi-dimensional research learn more about learners’ perceptions of the incorporation of online resources. She further suggested that future studies focus on individual learners’ accounts without interference from the researcher. Moreover, Stepp-Greany (2002) concluded that more research is needed on student perceptions of multimedia instruction and the teacher’s role in such environments. It is also hoped that further research in this topic confirms the prediction that foreign language learners exposed to this learning tool would become lifelong learners of the foreign language beyond the classroom context (González- Bueno, 1998).

Fostering autonomy in language learning through using online resources

Technology-based approaches to autonomy development are similar in many areas to other resource-based approaches, but can be differentiated from them through their focus on the technologies used to access resources (Benson, 2001). As Motteram (1997) points out, new learning technologies have a long association with autonomy. Many technology-based projects have been reported incorporating student-produced video (Gardner, 1994), computer-enhanced interactive video (Gardner and Blasco-Garcia, 1996), electronic writing environments (Milton, 1997), concordancing (Aston, 1997), hypermedia systems (Mayes, 1994), e-mail language advising (Makin, 1994), and computer simulations (Mak, 1994). In these projects it is either the interaction with the technology itself or the potential of the technology to facilitate interactions that is seen to be supportive of autonomy. Since the establishment of learner autonomy research, a number of misconceptions have occurred. Benson (2001) summarized these misunderstandings in two points. First, learner autonomy is not the same as self-instruction as the latter often fails to provide successful results.

Second, learner autonomy does not mean that the teacher yields all his/her authority to the students. A major influence on learner autonomy is the work of Vygotsky. The central term in his theory is the zone of proximal development, defined as “the distance between the actual developmental level as determined by independent problem solving and the level of potential development as determined through problem solving under adult guidance or in collaboration with more capable peers” (Vygotsky, 1978, p. 85). Benson (2001) summed up the importance of Vygotsky’s theory in studying learner autonomy by stating the importance of social interaction and collaboration in the learning process, which means using alternative learning environments that are not teacher-centered and that encourage student collaboration and interaction. Thus, external social interaction and internal cognitive interaction become inseparable and mutually influential.

This way, the learning environment is broadened and now includes the learner’s responsibility for his or her own learning process as well as that of peers. Autonomy has been described as a capacity – for detachment, critical reflection, decision-making, and independent action (Little, 1991). The capacity for autonomy will be displayed both in the way the learner learns and in the way he or she transfers what has been learned to wider contexts (Little, 1991, p. 4). Egbert, Chao, and Hanson-Smith (1999) listed eight conditions that, when present in the language learning environment in some form and in some amount, seem to support optimal classroom language learning. Not surprisingly, supporting learner autonomy was one of those conditions.

In general, autonomous learners are more highly motivated than nonautonomous learners. In other words, autonomy leads to better, more effective work. The literature has provided evidence that learning autonomy increases motivation and consequently increases learning effectiveness. Knowles (1975), for instance, reported that “there is convincing evidence that people who take the initiative in learning (proactive learners) learn things and learn better than do people who sit at the feet of teachers, passively waiting to be taught (reactive learners). They enter into learning more purposefully and with great motivation,” (Knowles, 1975, p. 14). In addition, Wang and Peverly (1986) reviewed findings of strategy research (in subjects other than language learning) and concluded that independent or autonomous learners were those who had the capacity for being active and independent in the learning process; they were able to identify goals, formulate their own learning strategies, and monitor their own learning. The advantages of learner autonomy can be summarized in three points according to Dickinson (1995): learning is more focused, purposeful, and effective; there are no barriers between learning and living; and learners are able to transfer their autonomous behavior to other areas of their lives.

Conclusion

There is a great need for research that focuses on the relationship between particular forms of practice and the development of autonomy. The most pressing need is for empirical research that will support or undermine the theoretical assumptions on which forms of practice are based (Benson, 2001). There is also a gap in the literature in the areas of students’ self-perception as autonomous learners, the value of online resources as a learning aid for the autonomous learner, and the inherent features in online resources that empower the autonomous language learner.

 

References

Benson, P. (2001). Teaching and Researching Autonomy in Language Learning.

Benson, P. & Voller, P. (1997). Autonomy and Independence in Language LearningLondon: Longman.

Berge, Z., & Collins, M. (1995) Computer-mediated communication and the onlineclassroom in distance learning. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press.

Bruner, J. (1986). Play, thought and language.Prospects: Quarterly Review ofEducation, 16, 1, 77-83.

Deci, E. L., Schwartz, A. J., Sheinman, L., & Ryan, R. M. (1981). An instrument to assess adults’ orientations toward control versus autonomy with children:reflections on intrinsic motivation and perceived competence. Journal ofEducational Psychology, 73, 642-650.

Dickinson, L. (1993). Talking shop: aspects of autonomous learning.ELTJ, 47, 4,330-336.

Dickinson, L. (1995). Autonomy and motivation: a literature review. System, 23,165-174.

González-Bueno, M. (1998). The effects of electronic mail on Spanish L2 discourse.Language Learning & Technology, 1, 2, 55-70.

Hammond, M. & Collins, R. (1991).Self-directed learning: critical practice. NewJersey: Nichols.

Little, D. (1991).Learner Autonomy. 1: Definitions, Issues and Problems. Dublin:Authentik.

LoCastro, V. (2001). Individual differences in second language acquisition: attitudes, learner subjectivity, and L2 pragmatic norms. System, 29, 1, 69-89.

Motteram, G. (1997). Learner autonomy and the Web.In V. Darleguy et al. (eds)Educational Technology in Language Learning: Theoretical Considerationsand Practical Applications. Lyons: INSA (National Institute of AppliedScience), pp. 17-24.

Stepp-Greany, J. (2002). Student perceptions on language learning in a technologicalenvironment: implications for the new millennium. Language Learning &Technology, 6, 1, 165-180.

 

Warschauer, M., Turbee, L., & Roberts, B. (1994). Computer learning networks andstudent empowerment. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii, Second LanguageTeaching & Curriculum

Using Mind Mapping and Five Reviewing Patterns to Improve Senior High School Students’ Vocabulary Mastery

by Dian Fadhilawati

Islamic University of Balitar, Blitar, East Java, Indonesia

Abstract

This reported research was a collaborative action research to improve the vocabulary achievement of high school students using mind mapping and five reviewing patterns proposed by Buzan (2009). The subjects were 35 students of X-B class of MAN Kota Blitar, East Java, Indonesia, in 2011/2012 academic years. The data of the research included qualitative data (observation result and field note) and quantitative data (test result). This research was conducted in one cycle which included 2 meetings. The first meeting was done at Tuesday, 7 February 2012. It was for teaching vocabulary about newspaper and publishing using mind mapping and review 1. The second meeting was done at Wednesday, 8 February 2012. It was for teaching vocabulary about radio and television as well as for the review 2 at the beginning of the meeting. At the end of the meeting, the teacher gave take home tasks for review 2 of meeting 2. Further, the third review (1 week after the first learning) was given at Wednesday, 15 February 2012. It was intended for reviewing both the materials in meeting 1 and 2. The forth review was a take home reviewing tasks given 1 month after the first learning and the fifth review was a take home review assigned 3 months after the first learning. After all of the five reviews, a vocabulary test was administered. The finding showed that the implementation of mind mapping and 5 reviewing patterns could improve the students’ vocabulary achievement, from the mean score of 55.66 to 80.57. The students also gave positive responses toward the strategies applied as reflected from the result of the questionnaire given.

 

Key words: mind-mapping, reviewing, vocabulary achievement

Based on the researcher’ preliminary observation at the first of February 2012, it was found the following weaknesses. First, teachers lacked of media in teaching and learning process (the teacher only used an exercise book called “LKS Aspirasi”). He did not use the language laboratory, chart, mind mapping, game, song pictures, or other media/facilities. Second, the students were lazy and unmotivated. Third, the students were passive in the classroom. Fourth, in teaching vocabulary the teacher only wrote down the vocabulary list on the white board and asked the students to find the meaning of the word in Indonesian. Therefore, the researcher assumed that instruction absolutely must be changed by the teacher by using appropriate method in order the students take apart to the lesson and got better achievement at the end of teaching learning process.

In addition, based on the result of the vocabulary test which administered to the students before the action, it could be said that the students’ English ability of X-B class was low, especially in understanding the meaning of words in context. The students’ mean score for the vocabulary test was 55.66, that was below the minimum school standard criterion of English mastery that required them at least have mean score 70.00.

Actually, there are a lot of interactive media or strategies to encourage students to take apart in the lesson especially in vocabulary teaching and learning. Since vocabulary teaching and learning aimed at enabling learners to understand the concepts of unfamiliar words, to gain a greater number of words, and to use words successfully for communicative purpose, it is necessary for the teacher to select and apply appropriate strategies in teaching vocabulary for the students which could improve their motivation to take apart in the lesson.

Mind mapping and five reviewing patterns proposed by Buzan (2009) can be applied by the teacher in teaching vocabulary. There are some reasons why the teacher may use mind mapping in teaching vocabulary, for example: (1) mind mapping is very appropriate and flexible to be applied for different levels of age, theme, subject, and situation either for whole class, group or individual, (2) mind mapping is a very good tool for creative thinking and problem solving, (3) in foreign language teaching and learning, mind mapping can improve memory recall of facts, words or images, (4) mind mapping is creative note taking method, which eases us to remember much information, and (5) mind mapping is colorful, uses pictures or symbols which leads the students’ interest to the subject (Deporter, Readon, and Nourie, 1997: 175). From the statement above, it can be concluded that mind mapping is potentially a good way to teach vocabulary to the students in senior high school.

In line with the previous statements, Buzan (1993:1) adds that mind mapping is a powerful graphic technique which provides a universal key to unlock the potential of brain. It imitates the thinking process, recording information through symbol, pictures, emotional meaning and colors, exactly the same like our brain process it. It means that mind mapping is very useful media for creating attractive, and enjoyable learning that lead the successfulness of the students in learning English vocabulary

In addition Buzan (2009: 39) also states that by using a mind mapping we can see what we are going to do and what we have done. It means, mind mapping may be used by the teacher or the students for planning the lesson, summarizing the lesson or recall to the lesson that the students have learnt. Moreover, Buzan (2009) also argues that mind mapping and 5 reviewing patterns will lead the students to achieve good scores in their examination test.

Talking about the success of the students’ in gaining good vocabulary achievement, it is crucial for the teacher to think deeply about how to implant vocabulary in the students’ mind for long term memory. In this case, the teacher may apply reviewing to facilitate the students with better memory to what they have learnt. It could be done at school or at home by giving tasks as a mean for reviewing the lesson that the students have learnt.

Usually many students are confused in deciding when they should start to review their school lessons, and most of them tend to postpone the reviews. As a result, in the time of final test, they often panic and study for their test immediately at the night before the examination with less sleep. As a result, at the examination day they lost concentration, were sleepy and, therefore, they failed or got poor scores. Actually, the best way to review lessons is step by step, little by little, day by day, and gradually until it becomes a habit in life (Buzan, 2009:38).

Furthermore, a good reviewing model was proposed by Buzan (2009) which is called 5 reviewing patterns. Buzan (2009:125) states that if students review the lesson 5 times such as: (1) 1 hour after the first learning, (2) 1 day after the first learning, (3) I week after the first learning, (4) 1 month after the first learning, and (5) 3 months up to 6 months after the first learning), they would have permanent memory of the lesson.

Therefore, the researcher and her collaborator assumed that the use of mind mapping and 5 reviewing patterns proposed by Buzan (2009) could improve the students’ vocabulary achievement and facilitate the students’ memory of the words or phrases they have learnt.

The studies on the use of mind mapping in teaching English have been performed by some researchers such as: Indah (2010), Effendi (2004), and Helmasari (2008). In this case, Indah (2010) proved that mind mapping was an effective medium to teach vocabulary to the tenth grade students of SMU Negeri 15 Palembang. Besides that, Effendi (2004) also found that mind mapping was effective to increase the second year students’ reading comprehension at SLTPN 43 Palembang. Further, Helmasari (2008) reported that mind mapping was effective to teach paragraph writing to the eleventh year students of SMA Negeri 14 Palembang.

 

 

Research Objective

The objective of this research is to use mind mapping and five reviewing patterns to improve the tenth year students’ vocabulary achievement at MAN Kota Blitar.

 

Research Design

In this research, the researcher employed collaborative classroom action research through mind mapping and Buzan’s 5 reviewing patterns to improve the students’ vocabulary achievement of X-B class of MAN Kota Blitar. In this case, the researcher’s collaborator was involved from the beginning up to the end of the research process. The action of teaching vocabulary through mind mapping and Buzan’s 5 times reviewing patterns is done by the researcher, and her collaborator acted as an observer of the teaching learning process. This idea is based on Calhoun’s principle (in Kasbollah, 2002:43) that argued “in collaborative action research, the researcher makes collaboration with the school teacher investigated as the researcher’s collaborator to do the research activities.”

 

Research Setting

The Research was conducted in MAN Kota Blitar starting from February to May 2012. The school is located at Jl. Jati 78 Sukorejo Blitar. This school was chosen because of some reasons such as: there are problems which need solution dealing English teaching learning process mainly on vocabulary achievement of X-B class which considered need to improve, and of course the permission from headmaster of MAN Kota Blitar.

 

Research Subjects

The research subjects of this research were the students of Class X-B of MAN Kota Blitar, consisting of 35 students (11 boys and 14 girls). The class was chosen as the subject because: (1) the class of X-B got the lowest achievement among the others class at the first semester (2) the students’ low vocabulary achievement (with the mean score of 55.66).

 

Research Procedure

The procedure of this Classroom Action Research was a modified version of Kemmis and Taggart (1997:27) model which covered some steps, namely preliminary study, planning of action, action, observing the action, and reflecting on the observation. This research was held from February to May 2012. The researchers conducted this study for one cycle that planning the action, implementing the action followed by 5 times reviewing, observation and evaluation, and analysis and reflection. This was only one cycle because the purpose has been achieved with only one cycle. Further, the description of the research procedures was presented on the following figure.

fig-1-dianfadila

Figure1: The Procedures of Classroom Action Research (CAR)

 

Research Instruments

1. Test

Vocabulary test was given after the implementation of the action. It was used to know the students’ development. The test consisted of 50 words about newspaper and publishing as well as radio and television in which it distributed as follows: (1) questions numbers 1-15 were in the form of multiple choice, (2) questions number 16-30 were in the form matching test, (3) question number 31-40 were in the form guided completion and (5) question number 49-50 were in form of rearranging the scrambled words into good sentences. To make the test administered valid and reliable, in this research the researcher and her collaborator conducted validity test to another class of the tenth grade students at MAN Kota Blitar (X-C) class. Furthermore, the researcher used content validity, the evidence based on content of the test’s and its relationship to the construct it was intended to measure. In this case, the researcher looked for evidence that the test represented a balanced and adequate sampling of vocabulary mastery. Moreover, the content validity of the test was based on the basic competence in the tenth grade of Senior High School’s curriculum.

Before the post test was given to the respondent. It was tried out first to other group of students who had the same level with the respondent to know the test items were too difficult or too easy, whether the time is enough or not and the respondents understood the instruction or not. It was tried out on 2nd May 2012 at the class X-C of MAN Kota Blitar consisting 35 students. The following is the vocabulary test that was given to the students either in preliminary test or after the action test.

 

2. Observations Checklist

            Observation checklist was used to get the data about the students’ activities during the teaching learning process. In this case the researcher provided 2 observations checklist; the first to observe the teacher’ preparation, presentation, teaching method, personal characteristic, and teacher-students interaction in the classroom. The second observation checklist was intended as media in observing the students’ activities in the classroom.

 

3. Questionnaire

            A questionnaire was used to collect the data about the students’ reaction toward mind mapping and Buzan’s 5 times reviewing patterns in learning vocabulary. The Questionnaire contained 10 items with Likert scale options: Absolutely Agree (AA), Agree (A), Not Sure (NS), Not Agree (NA), and Absolutely Not Agree (ANA). It was adopted from Kristiana (2011).

 

4. Field note

            To get the rich data, this research also used field notes to write down the activities of teacher and students in the classroom which are not covered in observation checklist. Further, field notes composed of the descriptions of what was being heard, seen, experienced and thought in the classroom. The recorded data dealt with the phenomenon such as: time allotment, classroom atmosphere, tasks organization, and teacher’s feedback.

 

Criteria of Success

            The criterion of success in this research was designed on the basis of the school criterion: the students are considered good or successful in their vocabulary achievement if they achieve at least 70 of the optimal score competence level of 100. It means that the students’ mean score of the post-test should equal to or is higher than 70. Moreover, beside the students’ score in vocabulary achievement, the result of questionnaire was used to support the explanation of the criteria of success.

 

Kinds of Data and Data Sources

 

There were two kinds of data in this research, namely quantitative data and qualitative data. Quantitative data in the research refer to the data acquired from the test and questionnaire. Moreover qualitative data refer to the result from observation, questionnaire and field notes.

 

Techniques of Data Collection

The data were collected by (a) conducting an observation, (b) making field note, (c) administering test, (d) distributing questionnaire.

 

Data Analysis

The data analysis was used by researcher in this research followed some procedure such as: classifying the data, presenting the data and the last was concluding the data.

 

1. Data Classification

In this research, the data were classified into two categories, the first was quantitative data and the second was qualitative data. The quantitative data referred to the data which was taken from the students score as well as the questionnaire. However, the qualitative data were taken from the observation and check list as well as field note.

 

2. Data Display

The classified data from observation result and field note were described qualitatively using categories of achievement such as: very poor, poor, fair, good, and very good. Moreover, the data taken from the test was presented in tables, and the data from the questionnaire was calculated in percentage.

Furthermore, the use of quantitative data analysis was classified as follow:

1. The rule to decide the accomplishment degree and the mean score

  • Rule to find an individual degree of mastery

 

 

(Adopted from Petunjuk Guru Bahasa Inggris for the Senior high school).

  • Rule to find mean score

 

M       =      Mean score

SX      =      the total scores of the students’ vocabulary test

N        =      the numbers of students

(Adapted from Beast, 1981). 

2. The rule of calculating the percentage of students’ questionnaires responses

 

 

 

 

Concluding the Data

Data conclusion was done after the researcher evaluated and interpreted the data. It is important to conclude the data to know whether another cycle was necessary. In this research, researcher stopped the action at cycle 1 because the students had achieved mean score 88.57. That result was higher than the minimum mastery criterion stated in that school (70.00). Moreover, that result was supported by the results of observations which indicated the improvement of the teaching learning process from teacher and students’ part and the result of questionnaire dealing the implementation of teaching learning vocabulary using mind mapping.

 

Reflection

Reflection is the most important part in Classroom Action Research, it is needed to evaluate whether another cycle to solve the problems is necessary or not. The number of cycles cannot be predicted in advance. A classroom action research may take only one cycle if after the first cycle, all the targeted criteria of success have been achieved. The researchers, in fact, have to do their best to plan their classroom action research as few cycles as possible.

If all of the problems in teaching vocabulary are solved, there is no need to conduct the second cycle. In reflection, the researchers consult the result of data analysis and compare it with the criteria of success. If the result of our first action fulfills the criteria of success, the action is stopped. If it does not fulfill the criteria of success, the researchers should continue to the second cycle by revising the lesson plan (Latief, 2010:87).

Furthermore, Mistar (2010:31) states that “reflection in a classroom action research is an effort to evaluate whether the teaching learning process succeeds or fails based on the criteria of succeed that have been decided before”.

The reflection in this research was done by the researcher and her collaborator after accomplishing each of the research steps in order to know whether we could stop the research or should continue to another cycle. In this case, they decide to stop this research in the first cycle, because the criterion of succeed of the research has been achieved by the students. The student’s mean score was 80.56; it was higher than the criterion of success of the research (70.00).

 

The Result of Teaching Learning Process Analysis

The analysis of the teaching-learning process was done based on the result of field notes and the observation checklist. Some findings show improvement from both the student and teachers’ parts. On the part of the students’ attitude towards the task, it was found that the students were actively involved and participated actively in the lesson. Further, the teacher’ ability in conducting teaching and learning process was observed and categorized as excellent and above average. Mostly, the indicators in observation checklist were rated 4 (excellent) and 3 (above average) by the collaborator researcher. In this case, the teacher was evaluated in the five points namely: (1) preparation, (2) presentation, (3) execution/method, (4) personal characteristics, teacher-students inter­action. Dealing with preparation, the teacher was well prepared and the lesson execution was good.

Further related to presentation, the teacher explained the materials well, smoothly, in sequence, and logically. Moreover the teacher also paced the lesson well, gave the lesson direction to the students clearly, for example in asking them to do the tasks, to play mind map, to do homework etc. Besides that, the teacher always tried to make the students talk or write for example by asking question, asking them to write the sentences, etc. Further, she also realized if there were some students who were having trouble in understanding the lesson. In this case, she asked the students the points they didn’t understand and she explained it again carefully. Further, in presenting the materials the teacher was very encouraging, full of enthusiasm, and showed the interest in the lesson,

Furthermore, dealing with execution or method, the teacher used various activities in during the class, reinforced the material, walked around the class, made eyes contact with the students, and knew the student’s name well. She also distributed the questions appropriately and used media in teaching. Contextual learning was used with clear example and illustration of the materials through mind mapping.

On the teacher’s personal characteristics, the teacher was patient in answering the students’ questions. She had audible voice for all students in the class. She also had a good appearance, initiative and was resourceful. She had appropriate and acceptable use of English while she is teaching the students.

The last point is related to teacher – student interaction in the classroom. Dealing with that point, the teacher tried to set the class into a student-centered class. She encouraged students’ participation in classroom by asking them to do activities or to raise or answer questions. Further, she was able to control and direct the class well; she sometime relaxed the students and made students work in group or individual. In conclusion teacher and the students had excellent interaction for enjoyable learning in the classroom.

An analysis of the result of the test given at the end of cycle 1 showed that an improvement of learning result was achieved. In this case, the mean score of the student’s in the vocabulary test after the action increased significantly after the implementation of mind mapping and 5 reviewing patterns proposed by Buzan (2009). The mean score of the students was 80.57. The students’ mean score was higher than the students’ mean score in vocabulary test before the action (55.66) and the minimum criterion mastery stated in the school (70.00).

 

The Students’ Questionnaire Result

The data on students’ opinion towards learning vocabulary using mind mapping and Buzan’s 5 reviewing patterns was obtained through a questionnaire with 10 statements given to 35 students of the tenth year of students in X-B class of MAN Kota Blitar. The questionnaire contained four variables to measure: (1) learning motivation, (2) learning result, (3) tasks accomplishment and (4) social relationship. The result showed that on the first variable “learning motivation”, the students are motivated to learn vocabulary using mind mapping and Buzan’s five reviewing patterns strategy. It can be seen from the result of the four statements given related to it. For the first statement (item no. 1) “I am very eager to learn vocabulary using mind mapping and Buzan’s 5 reviewing patterns”, 30 (85.7%) students chose “absolutely agree” and 5 (14.3%) students “agree”.

Moreover, 29 (82.9%) students state “absolutely agree” and the rest 6 (17.1%) students state “agree” for the statement (item no. 2): “Learning vocabulary using mind mapping and Buzan’s 5 reviewing patterns is an interesting and enjoyable activity”. On the other hand, in the third statement for this variable, statement no. 6, “It is difficult for me to learn vocabulary by mind mapping and Buzan’s five reviewing patterns”, 2 (5.7%) students state “not sure”. Moreover, 4 (11.4%) students state “not agree”, and the rest 29 (82.9%) students state “absolutely not agree”. Meanwhile, for the next statement (item no 7), “Learning vocabulary using mind mapping and Buzan’s 5 reviewing patterns strategy is a worthless and time consuming activity”, 6 (17.1%) students state “not agree” while the rest 29 (82.9%) students state “absolutely not agree”.

The data on the second variable “learning result” also showed satisfactory response. There are 4 indicators representing this variable. The first indicator is statement (item no. 3) “In my opinion learning vocabulary using mind mapping and Buzan’s reviewing patterns can increase my vocabulary”. 29 (82.9%) students chose “absolutely agree”, 6(17.1%) students chose “agree”. Second is statement no. 4, “Mind mapping and Buzan’s 5 reviewing patterns help me learn and memorize new words”.  30 (85.7%) students’ state “absolutely agree” and 5 (14.3%) state “agree”. The next is statement no. 5, “Learning vocabulary using mind mapping and Buzan’s five reviewing patterns enabled me to learn words and their meaning in comprehensible way”. 28 (80%) students state “absolutely agree” while the rest 7 (20%) students state “not sure”. And the last indicator is statement (item no 10), “Learning vocabulary through mind mapping makes me brave to express idea or asking and answering the question”. For this 29 (82.9%) students state “absolutely agree” and 6 (17.1%) students state “agree.”

The third variable “task achievement” also showed good response. As it can be seen in statement no. 8, “Using mind mapping and Buzan’s 5 reviewing patterns makes me motivated to do the class tasks or take-home tasks“, 30 (85.7%) students state “absolutely agree” and 5 (14.3%) students sate “agree”

The last variable “social relationship” also showed acceptable response. It can be seen from the result of statement no. 9, “Learning vocabulary using mind mapping and Buzan’s 5 reviewing patterns promotes the togetherness among students”. 29 (82.9%) students choose “absolutely agree”, and 3 (8.6%) students state “agree”, while 3 (8.6%) students state “not sure”.

 

Reflection

Based on the result of the analysis both the teacher teaching-learning process and students’ learning result in cycle I, it was shown that the students made an improvement in learning vocabulary. This improvement could be seen from indicator of success achieved as follows. The obtained mean score was 80.57 was higher than the standard minimum mean score (70.00). Therefore, it was decided that the next cycle was not necessary. In addition, that result was supported by the result of teaching learning process which was derived from observation checklists and field note in which the teaching learning process in that class was very good/ excellent and it was also supported by the students’ positive responses toward the use of mind mapping and five reviewing patterns in learning vocabulary as presented previously. The following figure is the description of students’ improvement in learning vocabulary by using mind mapping and 5 reviewing patterns

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 2: Students’ Improvements

 

The result of the research that was presented above was in line with Indah ‘s experimental research result on the use of mind mapping to teach vocabulary, in which she reported that the vocabulary achievement of the students of IKIP PGRI Palembang increased after being taught using mind mapping. She recorded that the calculation result of the matched t-test formula was 2.396. It indicated that the calculated t obtained was greater than the critical value (1.725). The finding of her study showed that mind mapping is effective in teaching vocabulary to the tenth year of SMUN 15 Palembang.

Moreover, the researchers’ result was also in line with Yusuf’s experimental research result entitled “The Effectiveness of Mind Mapping Technique In Increasing the Second Year Students’ Reading Comprehension at SLTPN 43 Palembang” The result of the calculation of the t-test formula was 4.19. It indicated that the t value was higher than the critical value (02.021). The findings of his research showed that mind mapping is significantly effective in teaching reading comprehension to the subject of SLTP Negeri 43 Palembang.

In addition, the researchers’ result was in line with experimental research result by Hermalasari entitled “Teaching Writing Paragraphs by Using Mind Mapping to The Eleventh Year Students of SMA Negeri 14 Palembang in which she reported that the students’ average score in pre-test was 59.68 and the average score of post-test was 67.85. It indicated that calculated t value was higher than the t value on the table (1.684). It means that mind mapping is effective to teach writing paragraphs at the eleventh grade in that school. And now, with this current research mind mapping is also proved effective to teach vocabulary

 

The Strength and the Weaknesses of Mind Mapping and 5 Reviewing Patterns

There is no perfect thing. Besides having some strengths mind mapping and 5 reviewing patterns also have some weaknesses. The strengths include (1) leading the students to have better memory, (2) easy to apply in the classroom as media to present the material, media to do the task, media to review the lesson, and media to assess the students’ achievement, (3) interesting, and attractive media to teach all themes or sub-theme.

Further, mind mapping and 5 Buzan’s reviewing patterns were a pairs of strategies which support each other. As Buzan (2009:39) argue the best way to review the lesson is using mind mapping. With mind mapping to review the lesson, students will have better memory of the materials they have learnt. Better memory will make them easier in doing the test. It was proved by the students’ vocabulary mean score after applied with those strategies in this research.

However, mind mapping and five reviewing patterns also have weaknesses such as: (a) Mind mapping and 5 reviewing patterns need consistency as well as continuity of implementation either in the for of classroom implementation by teachers or at home reviews by students following the procedures given. Especially for the strategy of reviewing the lesson, it must be done seriously based on Buzan’s 5 reviewing patterns. Buzan’s 5 reviewing required teachers and students to review the lesson until 5 times based on these following rules: (a) one hour after the first learning, (b) one day after the first learning, (c) one week after the first learning, (d) one month after the first learning and, (e) three up to six months after the first learning. Those reviewing procedures may be difficult to do for students at the first time. Besides, with five time review, the teacher must provide and prepare more tasks, and of course it needs additional cost to prepare them as well as need additional time to do. In addition, it is not easy to change the habitual linear note writing in preparing teachers’ teaching materials or presentation. While with mind map, teachers need to be creative in making mind maps and present them in the class. If they don not have creativity and a good understanding about the material, the teachers would have problems in translating the materials into mind maps. Mind map reflects the materials to teach in the class. Therefore, before teachers make mind maps, they must understand the materials well so that they can generate the good key words. Otherwise, the mind map would be confusing for the students. Further, some teachers may not have a good ability to use multimedia or technology in teaching and learning such as in operating computer, laptop or internet applications. Or it can be said that mind map is still difficult to make for some teachers who did not have computer mastery or creativity to draw it.

In mind maps, everything is supposed to be provided on a single page. This is a tough challenge for teachers who have comprehensive and complex topic to deal with in the classroom. A mind map which is made carelessly or which is too ambitious to cover all aspect would look so crowded and this might cause students difficult to understand.

 

 

Conclusion and Suggestions

Mind mapping and 5 reviewing patterns proposed by Buzan (2009) can improve the tenth year students’ vocabulary achievement. Therefore, the English teachers are recommended to apply this model as one of alternatives teaching technique to teach vocabulary in the classroom. Besides that, the English teachers are also suggested to inform or discuss this model of vocabulary teaching through teachers’ forum such as workshop and seminar.

It is suggested that parents with elementary, junior or senior high school sons or daughters practice Buzan’s 5 reviewing patterns as strategy to review their lesson in order to improve their learning achievement. Furthermore, the students are also recommended to make mind map of their lessons at home after school and do the review 5 times based on the certain procedures as Buzan proposed. So, the students must be active both in the classroom and outside of the classroom for reviewing their lessons, for example, by summarizing, mapping, re-reading the material by themselves or by reviewing them in peer learning, and group learning at home.

In addition, this research is an action research in which the result cannot be generalized. It is advisable or recommended that future researchers would conduct the research with different design for example experimental research to know the effectiveness of Buzan’s 5 reviewing patterns on certain skills or subjects. Such research would be useful to strengthen or reject this research result.

 

 

 

 

References

 

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Brown, H.D. 2000. Principles of Language Learning and Teaching. New York: Pearson

Brown, H. D. 2007. Teaching by Principles: an Interactive Approach to Language Pedagogy. New York: Pearson

Buzan, T. 2007. Buku Pintar Mind Map untuk Anak : Agar Anak Mudah Menghafal dan Berkonsentrasi. Jakarta. PT. Gramedia Pustaka Utama

Buzan, T. 2008. Buku Pintar Mind Map untuk Anak : Agar Anak Lulus Ujian dengan Nilai Bagus. Jakarta: PT. Gramedia Pustaka Utama.

Buzan. T. 2009. BukuPintar Mind Map. Jakarta: PT GramediaPustakaUtama.

Buzan, T. http://www.usingmindmaps.com/ what-is-a-mind-map.html. Accessed on April 18th, 2012

Casco, M. (2009). The Use of “Mind Maps” in the Teaching of Foreign Languages. http://www.madycasco.com.ar/articles/mindmaps.PDF Accessed on May 16th 2012

Celce,Murcia, M., &Ohlstain, E. 2000. Discourse and Context in Language Teaching: A Guide for Language Teachers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Choyimah, N. 2011. Teaching Vocabulary through Discourse: The Step to Improve Students’ Productive Vocabulary in Cahyono, B.Y., Mukminatien, N., (Eds.), Techniques and Strategies to Enhance English Language Learning. Malang: State of University of Malang Press.

DePorter, Bobbi and Mike Hernacki. 2008. Quantum Learning: Membiasakan Belajar Nyaman dan Menyenangkan. Jakarta: Kaifa

DePorter, Bobbi; Mark Reardon, and sarah-Nourie Singer.1999.Quantum Teaching: Orchestrating Students’ Success.Boston: A Pearson Education Company.

Effendi, Yusuf. 2004. The Effectiveness of Mind Mapping Technique in Increasing the Second Year Students’ reading Comprehension at SLTP Negeri 43 Palembang.” Unpublished Undergraduated Thesis. Palembang: Faculty of Teacher Training and Education University of PGRI Palembang

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Hermalasari. 2008. Teaching Writing Paragraphs Using Mind Mapping Technique to the Eleventh Students of SMA Negeri 14 Palembang. Unpublished Undergraduate Thesis Palembang: Faculty of Teacher Training and Education University of PGRI Palembang.

Hughes, A.1996.Testing for Language Teachers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Indah. 2010. Teaching Vocabulary trough Mind Mapping Technique. http://abuafeefah.files.wordpress.com/2010/08/thesis-indah.doc Accessed on 2 January 2012

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PENGKHIANATAN DEMI KESETIAAN: UPAYA MASUK AKAL UNTUK MENCAPAI TERJEMAHAN PUISI IDEAL

Sugeng Hariyanto

Politeknik Negeri Malang

 

Abstrak

Di dalam penerjemahan puisi sering dikatakan bahwa hasil terjemahan tidak sebaik puisi aslinya. Lebih jauh, ada tiga mitos tentang hasil penerjemahan puisi, yaitu: a) Puisi terjemahan lebih buruk daripada puisi aslinya, (b) penerjemahan puisi adalah pengkhianatan, dan (c) terjemahan yang cantik biasanya tidak setia, dan yang setia biasanya tidak cantik. Di dalam artikel singkat ini penulis berusaha menelusuri asal-muasal mitos di atas dan mencoba menyajikan pandangannya tentang kebenaran mitos tersebut.

Penulis juga menyinggung bagaimana penerjemahan puisi sumber yang sama bisa menghasilkan puisi-puisi yang berbeda jika penerjemahannya dilakukan oleh penerjemah yang berbeda. Keruwetan ini menjadi bertambah, menurut penulis, jika kritikus ikut mengomentari hasil terjemahan karena penerjemah dan kritikus mungkin sekali memiliki pengalaman dan latar budaya yang berbeda.

Akhirnya, penulis mengemukakan pendapatnya bahwa dalam penerjemahan puisi “kesetiaan” hendaknya dimaknai sebagai kesetiaan pada keindahan dan makna. Jadi, dari sudut pandang mitos lama dapat dikatakan bahwa penerjemahan puisi cenderung sebuah ‘pengkhianatan’ dari ekuivalensi bentuk linguistik, tetapi tetap bisa diupayakan untuk ‘setia’ pada keindahan dan makna dalam bahasa sasaran. Menurut penulis, inilah yang seharusnya diupayakan oleh penerjemah kalau ingin membuat karya terjemahan yang memenuhi kriteria terjemahan yang baik di dalam ilmu terjemahan.

 

Key-words: puisi, terjemahan, kesetiaan bentuk dan isi, keindahan, kritik terjemahan

 

Ada beberapa ‘mitos’ yang berkembang tentang menerjemahkan puisi. Yang saya maksud ‘mitos’ adalah kata-kata yang telah dipercayai kebenarannya tanpa harus dibuktikan secara empiris. Kadang hal ini juga kita sebut asumsi. Mitos-mitos atau asumsi-asumsi tersebut adalah: (a) Puisi terjemahan lebih buruk daripada puisi aslinya, (b) penerjemahan puisi adalah pengkhianatan, dan (c) terjemahan yang cantik biasanya tidak setia, dan yang setia biasanya tidak cantik.

Pencetus mitos pertama ini adalah Henri Gifford. Dia berpendapat bahwa sastra terjemahan diumpamakan sebagai reproduksi hitam putih dari lukisan cat minyak yang berwarna. Lebih jauh, karya terjemahan menurutnya tidak akan bisa menandingi kehalusan dan kelengkapan imajinasi penulis asli. Setiap upaya penerjemahan adalah sebuah upaya pemiskinan, dan taraf pemiskinan ini pada taraf yang tertinggi pada penerjemahan puisi (Gifford dalam Damono, 2003). Mungkin karena hal inilah, akhirnya Gifford berpendapat bahwa “Translation is resurrection, but not of the body…” (Gifford dikutip Tomlinson dalam Carter, 2005). Hal ini harus kita sikapi dengan pemahaman bahwa Gifford sendiri adalah seorang penerjemah. Jadi, pendapatnya ini bagi saya lebih merupakan ideologi penerjemahannya.

Karena itu penerjemahan puisi adalah pembangkitan nyawa di tubuh yang berbeda, maka wajar kalau kita tidak bisa mengharapkan kemolekan tubuh yang sama, bentuk linguistik yang sama. Ketidakpadanan bentuk linguistik atau makna itulah yang disebut pengkhianatan.

Mitos kedua, penerjemahan puisi adalah pengkhianatan yang kreatif. Pikiran ini berasal dari Prancis, yang di sana terjemahan karya sastra dianggap trahison creatice, pengkhianatan yang kreatif. Mitos ini juga tumbuh subur di Indonesian karena ada bukti-bukti yang dilakukan penyair hebat kita Chairil Anwar adalah trahison creatice. Masih terkait dengan mitos kedua, mitos ketiga adalah penerjemahan yang cantik pasti tidak setia, dan yang setia pasti tidak cantik. Sampai sekarang pun, banyak orang percaya bahwa yang cantik mesti tidak setia, dan yang setia selalu tidak cantik. Pernah dalam suatu seminar, Sapardi Joko Damono menunjukkan “kebenaran dua mitos terakhir ini” dengan puisi Huesca-nya Chairil yang dianggap pengkhianatan kreatif dari puisi asli “To Monnet Heinemman”.

Puisi sumber:

Heart of the heartless world,

Dear heart, the thought of you

Is the paint in my side,

The shadow that chills my view

 

The wind rises in the evening

Reminds that autumn is near.

I am afraid to lose you

I am afraid of my fear.

 

On the last mile to Huesca,

The last fence for our pride,

Think so kindly, dear, that I

Sense you at my side.

 

And if bad luck should lay my strength

Into the shallow grave,

Remember all the good you can;

Don’t forget my love.

 

Puisi ‘terjemahan’:

Jiwa di dunia yang hilang jiwa

Jiwa sayang, kenangan padamu

Adalah derita di sisiku,

Bayangan yang bikin tinjauan beku.

 

Angin bangkit ketika senja,

Ngingatkan musim gugur akan tiba.

Aku cemas bisa kehilangan kau,

Aku cemas pada kecemasanku.

 

Di batu penghabisan ke Huesca,

Pagar penghabisan dari kebangaan kita,

Kenanglah sayang, dengan mesra

Kau kubayangkan di sisiku ada.

 

Dan jika untung malang menghamparkan

Aku pada kuburan dangkal,

Ingatlah sebisamu segala yang baik

Dan cintaku yang kekal

Menurut Sapardi Djoko Damono, terjemahan ini adalah terjemahan yang cantik. Dan di antara terjemahan Chairil Anwar, ini termasuk yang paling setia. Mari kita cermati kesetiaannya.

Pada larik pertama “heartless world” diterjemahkan menjadi “dunia yang hilang jiwa”. Padahal “heartless” aslinya bermakna “kejam”. Apakah “hilang jiwa” berarti “kejam”? Menurut Sapardi Djoko Damono, Chairil menciptakan ungkapan baru yang tidak ada hubungannya dengan kekejaman. Pada larik kedua, “dear heart” diterjemahkan menjadi “Jiwa sayang”, demi memburu pengulangan kata “jiwa” (tidak diterjemahkan menjadi “kekasih”, “jantung hati”, dsb.)  Perhatikan juga “aku cemas” untuk ungkapan asli “I am afraid”. Aku cemas rasanya lebih kuat kandungan emosinya daripada “aku khawatir”, “aku takut”.

Perhatikan pula dua larik terakhir yang disatukan dalam TBSa-nya.

 

Remember all the good you can;

Don’t forget my love

 

Ingatlah sebisamu segala yang baik

Dan cintaku yang kekal

 

“Remember” dan “don’t forget” dirangkum menjadi “ingatlah”. Sementara itu “yang kekal” ditambahkan untuk memburu rimanya. Dengan contoh ini Sapardi seolah ingin menasbihkan bahwa yang cantik itu tidak setia, alias yang berkhianat. Kalau mau yang setia, carilah yang tidak cantik.

Dari paparan singkat di atas, kiranya dapat dimengerti kenapa asumsi-asumsi itu bisa terjadi. Sekarang, bagaimana pengkhianatan itu bisa terjadi? Dan benarkah mitos-mitos itu di dalam kenyataannya?

Untuk memahami masalah ini, ingin saya tawarkan kacamata teoritis. Kacamata pertama adalah teori polisistem. Di dalam teori polisistem, sebuah budaya merupakan serangkaian sistem dari banyak sistem yang bersifat hierarkis. Misalnya, kalau sastra di dalam sebuah budaya menempatkan sastra yang konvensional dalam posisi primer, maka sastra inovatif berada dalam posisi yang sekunder. Demikian juga sebaliknya. Lantas apa hubungannya dengan terjemahan sastra? Hubungannya terletak pada sikap masyarakat budaya terhadap sastra terjemahan. Kalau masyarakat budaya tersebut menempatkan sastra terjemahan dalam posisi primer, maka penerjemahnya akan berusaha sedekat mungkin untuk “setia”. Namun, kalau masyarakat mendudukkan sastra terjemahan dalam posisi sekunder, maka penerjemahnya harus tunduk pada aturan-aturan keindahan yang ada di dalam sastra sasaran. Menurut perkiraan saya, apabila BSa mempunyai genre/jenis sastra yang mantap untuk karya yang diterjemahkan, maka ada kecenderungan bahwa hasil terjemahannya akan tunduk pada poetika BSa. Namun, apabila jenis yang seperti itu belum ada di dalam BSa maka ada kecenderungan penerjemah untuk lebih setia pada TBSu.

Hal ini menjadi agak rumit jika karya tersebut akan diterbitkan. Karena ada pihak lain (yang disebut patron) yang mempengaruhi cara menerjemahkan. Lefevere (dalam Hoed) berpendapat bahwa ciri khas sastra di dalam sebuah budaya ditentukan oleh dua hal: Patron dan perilaku susastra masyarakat (code of behavior). Patron meliputi ideologi, ekonomi dan status seniman. Di dalam perilaku susastra ada kaidah-kaidah terkait genre, keindahan, dan fungsi sastra.

Lantas, saya menghipotesiskan adanya “pertarungan” pengaruh antara poetika, patron dan penerjemah. Bagi saya, ketiga pihak itu berbagi ruang pengaruh atas karya terjemahan. Apabila pengaruh salah satu pihak meningkat, pengaruh pihak lain akan menurun. Apabila patron sangat berkuasa (penerjemah di pihak yang lemah), maka hasil terjemahannya lebih diwarnai oleh ideologi penerjemahan dari patron. Jika pertimbangan poetika yang dipentingkan, maka pengaruh patron dan pertimbangan ideologi penerjemahan si penerjemah akan semakin kecil pengaruhnya. Demikian juga jika pengaruh patron yang mendominasi, maka kepentingan poetika dan ideologi penerjemah yang dikalahkan.

Saya menduga bahwa untuk para penerjemah besar, yang sangat mempengaruhi adalah ideologi penerjemahannya dan pihak patron mungkin dengan sukarela menyerahkan segalanya kepada penerjemah tersebut.

Kiranya pandangan saya tentang ‘perebutan’ ruang pengaruh ini bisa diperjelas dengan model penerjemahan usulan Bolaños (2002, 2008). Meskipun model ini disebutnya Model Penerjemahan Dinamis, tetapi sama sekali tidak ada kaitannya dengan konsep terjemahan dinamik gagasan Nida. Menurut gagasan Bolanos, pada bingkai terluar sebuah proyek penerjemahan ada pemrakarsa penerjemahan (initiator), yang saya sebit sebagai “patron” dan penerjemah (translator). Pemrakarsalah yang memerintahkan penerjemah untuk bekerja. Di dalam bekerja, penerjemah berusaha menangkap maksud sebuah teks dan itu dia lakukan dengan menganalisis dimensi pragmatik, semantik, sintaktik, atau kadang ditambah semiotik, dari teks bahasa sumber (TBSu) serta mempertimbangkan perintah dari pemrakarsa. Setelah makna dan pesan ditangkap, penerjemah melakukan tekstualisasi. Sebelum melakukan tekstualisasi, dia akan mempertimbangkan norma bahasa sasaran (BSa). Di sinilah, pertimbangan poetika masuk. Pada saat ini, dia juga memperhatikan kehendak pemrakarsa atau patron penerjemahan. Di sini jugalah pengaruh patron mempengaruhi.

Kembali ke perbincangan tentang ketiga asumsi di atas? Betulkah karya terjemahan selalu lebih buruk daripada karya aslinya? Secara teori hal ini bisa disanggah. Setiap budaya mempunyai norma-normanya sendiri, mempunyai kriteria sendiri sebagai ukuran keindahan sastra. Jadi, keindahan puisi terjemahan bisa menyamai keindahan puisi asli apabila ditakar dengan kriteria keindahan sastra BSa. Hal ini bisa dicapai apabila puisi terjemahan tersebut tidak memaksakan diri membawa masuk “tubuh” asing ke dalam BSa. Dengan kata lain, saya setuju dengan Ignas Kleden, saat dia menulis, “sebuah terjemahan biasanya lebih jelek atau lebih baik dari yang asli, dan tak mungkin sama dalam segala sesuatunya dengan sajak yang asli”.  Secara empiris, perhatikan terjemahan puisi “How Happy Is the Little Stone” ke dalam bahasa Jawa oleh Effendi Kadarisman ini (yang begitu cantik dan masih setia):

 

Puisi terjemahan:

 

WATU KLUNGSU

Saiba senenge watu klungsu

Dolan dhewekan satengahing dalan

Ora maelu sakehing gegayuhan

Ora kesamaran nandhang cingkrang

Nganggo jas warna soklat

Paringane jagat kang mbeneri liwat

Uripe merdhika kaya surya

Bisa bebrayan, bisa sumunar tanpa kanca

Anyanggemi patembayan sawiji

Kanthi prasaja, kanthi permati

 

Puisi sumber:

 

How happy is the little Stone

 How happy is the little Stone

That rambles in the Road alone,

And doesn’t care about Careers

And Exigencies never fears —

Whose Coat of elemental Brown

A passing Universe put on,

And independent as the Sun

Associates or glows alone,

Fulfilling absolute Decree

In casual simplicity

 

 Jika kita tidak diberitahu bahwa puisi itu adalah terjemahan dari “How Happy Is the Little Stone” atau tidak kebetulan menghadapi kedua puisi itu dalam waktu yang sama, mungkin kita tidak menyangka bahwa puisi tersebut adalah puisi terjemahan. Kata-kata yang digunakan khas bahasa Jawa, misalnya “watu klungsu” (batu sebesar biji asam) untuk menerjemahkan “little stone”, “gegayuhan” (keinginan) untuk “career”, “nandhang cingkrang” (mengalami kekurangan) untuk “exigencies”, “patembayan” untuk “decree”, dan begitu khasnya “kanthi prasaja, kanthi permati” untuk mengungkapkan “in casual simplicity”. Puisi terjemahan di atas begitu dekatnya dengan puisi asli, tetapi begitu “Jawa-nya” saat kita baca. Inilah yang menurut saya puisi terjemahan yang ideal, yang cantik dan setia. Ini artinya karya terjemahan tidak harus lebih buruk daripada karya aslinya.

Benarkah semua puisi terjemahan adalah pengkhianatan dan yang cantik mesti tidak setia? Ini tergantung pada definisi kata ‘setia’ dan ‘khianat’. Jika ‘setia’ dipahami sebagai kesepadanan (ekuivalensi) sepenuhnya (formal dan maknawi) dari TBSu dan TBSa, maka akan benar adanya bahwa terjemahan puisi yang baik adalah sebuah pengkhianatan. Namun apabila yang disebut kesetiaan mengacu pada keindahan, dan diakui bahwa tolok ukur keindahan dalam bahasa yang berbeda juga berbeda, maka yang ‘cantik dan setia’ akan dapat terwujud. Sekali lagi, sedikit ulasan puisi di atas adalah buktinya. Meskipun ini hanya satu puisi, paling tidak ini memberi bukti bahwa yang ‘cantik dan setia’ masih mungkin diwujudkan.

Ada kalanya, memang, penerjemah harus melepas sedikit makna untuk memburu keindahan (linguistic/literary form), di lain waktu dia mungkin mengorbankan keindahan untuk memburu makna. Selama ini, situasi dilematis ini yang dikedepankan sehingga seolah-olah mitos “cantik tidak setia’ itu menjadi semacam kutukan bagi penerjemahan puisi.

Yang perlu diingat lagi adalah kenyataan bahwa pemahaman penerjemah akan makna, pesan dan keindahan dari puisi aslinya juga sangat menentukan. Dua orang penerjemah mungkin menangkap makna/pesan yang berbeda dari puisi yang sama. Coba perhatikan terjemahan dari puisi “Hope” di bawah ini:

 

Asa

 Asa itu bagaikan burung dan sayapnya

yang bersemayam di jiwa,

dendangkan irama

tiada putusnya.

 

Dalam terpaan angin kencang kukecap merdunya

Dalam amukan badai serasa perihnya

namun si burung mungil tetap setia

tiada henti sebar hangatnya.

 

Kudengar suaranya di negeri paling gigil

dan di samudera paling musykil

namun tak sedikit pun dariku

ia pinta walau hanya secuil,

walau hanya secuil.

(terjemahan oleh Abdul Mukhid)

 

Harap

Harap ialah sesuatu bersayap

yang bertengger di jiwa,

dan berdendang tanpa kata,

dan tanpa putus-putusnya,

 

dan terdengar merdu di deru topan;

dan badai sungguhlah ganas

jika sampai mengusir burung kecil itu,

burung yang sebarkan hangat.

 

Pernah kulihat ia di sedingin-dinginnya daratan,

juga di seasing-asingnya lautan;

tapi, biar cuaca seganas apa, tak pernah

mulut menadah padaku, meski demi seremah.

(terjemahan oleh Wawan Eko Yulianto)

 

Dan berikut ini adalah puisi aslinya:

 

Hope     

 Hope is the thing with feathers

That perches in the soul,

And sings the tune–without the words,

And never stops at all,

 

And sweetest in the gale is heard;

And sore must be the storm

That could abash the little bird

That kept so many warm.

 

I’ve heard it in the chillest land,

And on the strangest sea;

Yet, never, in extremity,

It asked a crumb of me.

 

Jika kita simah hasil kerja dua penerjemah di atas, kita tahu bahwa mereka menunjukkan beberapa perbedaan. Pertama, Abdul Mukhid (AM) memandang bahwa “without words” (“tanpa kata”) tidak perlu dihadirkan, karena itu redundansi. Wawan Eko Yulianto (WEY) berpendapat bahwa itu perlu dihadirkan karena dengan demikian lebih dekat ke aslinya. Kedua, pemahaman kata “sore” juga berbeda. AB menekankan “perihnya”, sementara WEY menekankan akibat dari kata ini kepada si burung. Jadi, dia pilih ungkapan “ganas”. Sehingga bila AM menuliskan burung yang tiada henti berdendang, WEY mengungkapkan betapa ganas badai yang sampai mengusir burung itu.

Dalam contoh-contoh di atas kita simak karya tiga orang. Dua yang terakhir adalah karya dua penyair yang menerjemahkan puisi. Karena keduanya menerjemahkan puisi, keduanya saya sebut “penerjemah” (tidak harus dalam arti profesi penerjemah). Sementara itu Effendi Kadarisman adalah ahli linguistik dan penyair yang kesehariannya mengajarkan dan berdiskusi tentang ilmu linguistik dan etnopoetika kepada para mahasiswa.

Abdul Mukhid (sahabat saya) adalah penyair yang penerjemah. Selain menulis puisi dan menerjemahkan puisi, dia juga menerjemahkan manual-manual teknik yang nirgaya bahasa dan nir-alegori. Di dalam hal penerjemahan puisi ini, yang dikutip dalam artikel ini, semua penerjemah menerjemahkan puisi tanpa adanya pesanan penerbit. Jadi, dalam hipotesis saya patron “penerbit” yang biasanya sangat berpengaruh, sekarang menjadi nihil.

Posisi penerjemah/penyair menjadi dominan. Yang akan membedakan adalah pandangan penerjemah/penyair terhadap bagaimana terjemahan puisi yang baik (ideologi penerjemahan), karena sebagai penyair keduanya mempunyai pemahaman yang dalam tentang poetika sastra Indonesia. Apakah penerjemah memandang dirinya mempunyai tugas untuk menyampaikan makna asli dengan bentuk yang sedekat mungkin dengan bentuk aslinya, ataukah penerjemah barangkali mempunyai “pesan” yang sama dengan penulis puisi asli dan meminjam puisi asli tersebut untuk menyampaikan pesannya di dalam BSa. Golongan kedua ini akan menjadi sealiran dengan Gifford yang mengatakan bahwa penerjemahan puisi adalah pembangkitan nyawa ke dalam badan baru. Di dalam studi penerjemahan, aliran ini akan menyatu dengan “function-oriented approach” yang di masa pasca kolonialisme (PDII) dikembangkan oleh Reiss, Nord, dll., yang di Indonesia adalah segolongan dengan Chairil Anwar.

Sedangkan golongan pertama tadi akan sealiran dengan para teoretikus studi penerjemahan yang berpendapat bahwa penerjemahan adalah upaya mengalihkan pesan dari BSu ke dalam BSa dengan mempertahankan bentuk linguistiknya sebisa mungkin (Nida) atau penerjemahan adalah proses yang dipengaruhi oleh pemahaman budaya, bahasa dan norma-norma budaya (termasuk di dalamnya norma sastra) dari TBSu dan TBSa oleh penerjemahnya (Newmark, Bolaños).

 

Ruwetnya Jika Kritikus Ikut Nimbrung

Mari kita kembali ke perbedaan pilihan kata antara AM dan WEY di atas. Abdul Mukhid (AM) berpendapat bahwa “without words” (“tanpa kata”) tidak perlu dihadirkan dalam bahasa sasaran. Wawan Eko Yulianto (WEY) memandang bahwa ‘informasi’ itu perlu dihadirkan. Kedua, dari kata asli “sore” AB menekankan rasa “perihnya”, sementara WEY mengemukakan akibat dari kata ini kepada si burung, maka dia pilih kata “ganas”. Sehingga bila AM menuliskan burung yang tiada henti berdendang, WEY mengungkapkan betapa ganas badai yang bisa mengusir burung itu.

Saya adalah pembaca yang kebetulan sedikit mengerti BSu. Misalnya saja saya menjadi kritikus terjemahan. Saya berpendapat bahwa kata “mengusir” di dalam terjemahan WEY kurang tepat. Yang lebih tepat, menurut saya, adalah “membuat diam”. Dari contoh di atas, dapat dipahami bahwa masalah perbedaan tafsir makna/pesan asli ini semakin rumit apabila kritikus terjemahan ikut nimbrung. Perhatikan ilustrasi di Gambar 1 berikut ini.

turunan pesan terjemahan puissiGambar 1. Turunan makna/pesan dalam proses penerjemahan dan pengkritikan karya terjemahan

Dalam Gambar 1 diilustrasikan bahwa pada saat penerjemah membaca puisi aslinya (TBSu), maka dia berusaha menangkap makna dan pesannya. Seperti kita ketahui, makna dan pesan puisi sering kali samar. Hasil penangkapan makna yang samar ini akan dipengaruhi oleh beberapa aspek pribadi penerjemahnya, termasuk pengetahuan budaya dan penguasaan bahasa. Makna dan pesan itu dicermati dan kemudian ditulis ulang (tekstualisasi) ke dalam bahasa sasaran (BSa). Tekstualisasi ini sangat dipengaruhi oleh ideologi penerjemahannya dan penguasaan norma BSa, termasuk norma-norma keindahan sastra BSa. Dan apabila ada orang lain (mis, kritikus atau orang awam) membandingkan puisi terjemahan ini dengan puisi aslinya, maka sebenarnya dia membandingkan pemahamannya akan puisi asli dengan pemahamannya atas puisi terjemahan (BSa) yang merupakan tekstualisasi dari pemahaman penerjemahnya atas puisi asli (BSu). Jadi, puisi terjemahan merupakan ‘turunan’ kedua dari puisi asli. Pemahaman kritikus dari puisi asli adalah ‘turunan’ pertama melalui jalur dirinya. Dan pemahamannya atas puisi terjemahan adalah turunan ‘ketiga’ melalui jalur penerjemah. Sehingga perbandingan yang dilakukan oleh kritikus sastra terjemahan adalah perbandingan dari ‘turunan pertama’ dengan ‘turunan ketiga’. Setiap tahap turunan (derivasi) ada kemungkinan distorsi makna. Dapat dibayangkan betapa hal ini mendatangkan kemungkinan yang besar bagi ketidakpadanan (ketidaksetiaan menurut kaca mata kritikus). Oleh Ignas Kleden (2004), fenomena makna puisi yang sulit ditangkap ini digambarkan dalam ungkapan “a poem means all that it can mean” atau “puisi bisa bermakna apa saja”. Oleh karena itu kebanyakan orang (“kritikus”) akan berpendapat bahwa penerjemahan puisi adalah sebuah pengkhianatan. Sekali lagi, saya berpendapat bahwa hal ini tidak mutlak benar.

Ya, tentu saja, yang cantik tidak akan pernah setia jika definisi kesetiaan mengacu pada bentuk linguistik saja karena kriteria keindahan TBSu dan TBSa menuntut bentuk linguistik yang berbeda. Alhasil, benarlah apa yang dikatakan Benny H. Hoed (segera terbit) bahwa terjemahan suatu karya sastra tidak dapat sepenuhnya memenuhi persyaratan pengalihan pesan yang “sempurna”. Dan ini tampak nyata bila kita bandingkan dengan penerjemahan teks jenis informatif.[1] Maka, apabila persyaratan pengalihan yang “sempurna” untuk jenis teks informatif ini kita terapkan ke penerjemahan sastra, terutama puisi, hasilnya adalah adanya “pengkhianatan kreatif”.

Lantas, kenapa judul tulisan ini “pengkhianatan dalam kesetiaan”? Sebenarnya ini bertolak dari mitos itu, yang membatasi “kesetiaan” pada kesepadanan bentuk linguistik atau fisik. Kesetiaan saya maknai sebagai kesetiaan pada keindahan dan makna. Jadi, dari sudut pandang mitos lama dapat dikatakan bahwa penerjemahan puisi cenderung sebuah ‘pengkhianatan’ dari ekuivalensi bentuk linguistik, tetapi ini dilakukan dalam upaya menuju ‘kesetiaan’ pada keindahan dan makna dalam bahasa sasaran. Menurut hemat saya, inilah yang seharusnya diupayakan oleh penerjemah kalau ingin membuat karya terjemahan yang memenuhi kriteria terjemahan yang baik di dalam ilmu terjemahan.

 

Referensi

Carter, Peter. 2005. Review of Metamorphoses: Poetry and Translation, Same Difference. The London Magazine December / January 2005. Accessible from: www.carcanet.co.uk/cgi-bin/scribe?showdoc=365;doctype=review

Bolaños Cuellar, Sergio. 2002. Equivalence Revisited: A Key Concept in Modern Translation Theory. Forma Y Funcion 15 (2002), pp. 60-88. Departemento de Linguistica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota, D.C. (Retrieved from: http://redalyc.uaemex.mx, on 5 October 2006).

Bolaños Cuellar, Sergio. 2006. Source Language Text, Parallel Text, and Model Translated Text: A Pilot Study in Teaching Translation. (Article sent personally by the article writer through email on 8 October 2006).

Bolaños Cuellar, Sergio. 2008. Towards an Intergrated Translation Approach: Proposal of Dynamic Translation Model. Ph.D. Dissertation. Hamburg: Hamburg University.

Damono, Sapardi Djoko. 2003. Menerjemahkan karya Sastra. Makalah disajikan dalam Kongres Nasional Penerjemahan, UNS, Surakarta, 15-16 September 2003.

 

Hoed, Benny H. (akan terbit). Penerjemahan Karya Sastra.

 

Kleden, Ignas. 2004. Goenawan Muhammad Selected Poems: Resensi Buku. Majalah Tempo, Edisi 25/XXXIII/16-22 Agustus 2004.

 


[1] Katahrina Reiss berpendapat bahwa teks dapat dibedakan menjadi teks informatif, apelatif dan ekspresif. Jenis teks ekspresif (misalnya puisi) harus diterjemahkan dengan mementingkan bentuk dan pesannya, sementara teks informatif mementingkan pesannya saja.

 

IMPROVING READING AND SPEAKING SKILLS THROUGH PROJECT-BASED LEARNING FOR EFL STUDENTS IN THE FORM OF STUDENT-MADE MAGAZINE

 Lia Agustina

State Polytechnic ofMalang

  

ABSTRACT

Students of the Accountancy Department of the State Polytechnic of Malang had limited knowledge of English, and it was determined much by inadequate strategy applied. Students who are studying at the second year at this department were exposed to English texts provided by the teachers, therefore, they were not prepared to read authentic texts, longer passages or let alone reading them independently. Furthermore, students also found hindrances in expressing themselves orally. They were frequently reluctant to express their ideas, even when they were asked by the teacher. These students also admitted that their main problem was their limited vocabulary skill. In this department, reading, speaking, and structure were taught separately, not integrated while vocabulary had never been given priority, as it was taught during the teaching of other skills. This article is a report of a research to see how the students-made newsmagazine through project-based learning can be implemented effectively to develop their English reading and speaking skills.

This action research was implemented for one semester of 14 meetings. The students were assigned to have extensive reading through which they would experience authentic reading exposure and collect new words. Then, the new words should be learned and memorized by putting them in sentential contexts on their summaries and synthesis of the articles the students had chosen, read and produced the oral report of retelling activities. The students were assigned to summarize 3 authentic articles based on their interest and level of difficulty. This strategy was proved effective in improving students’ English reading and speaking skills. For further researchers, however, it is suggested that they conduct similar studies on integrated courses that emphasize on improving students English’ proficiency. They are also suggested to implement the project for two semesters.

Key-words:   extensive reading course, reading skill, speaking skill, individualized vocabulary learning, project-based learning, students-made magazine.

***

Perhaps the most important ability that non-English-speaking students need is reading.Reading is a crucial tool that aids the learning process. However, in some schools adequate strategies for teaching reading sometimes are not applied. Teachers who prefer traditional approach often stand in front of the class, enjoying their lectures but getting no feedback from the learners, as there is no interaction between the text and the learners or among the learners themselves. The teaching of reading may be viewed as a kind of dramatic monologue. This way, the teacher is the only speaker and the students are being passive recipients rather than active, who have got practically nothing to do other than listen to what the teacher says, whether they understand or not. The teaching strategy happens in grammar/translation classrooms. In these classrooms learners typically spent years of learning English and yet many of them were still unable to use the language effectively. They often knew a good deal about the language but were unable to use this knowledge to communicate appropriately and effectively outside the classroom. Students had a basic foundation of language knowledge but they did not know how to put that knowledge to active use.

A teacher, however, can create an ideal classroom situation by introducing a strategy in which the emphasis is on the student. As Collie and Slater (1987: 8 ) suggest, “Put fresh momentum into teaching of literature, by stimulating students’ desire to read and encourage their responses.” The use of the strategy would lead to greater sensitivity to the language learning process on the part of students and would  make students to be more independent, to be critical thinkers, and to be lifelong learners (i.e., students learn to take responsibility for their own learning that will be the basis for working cooperatively and effectively with others).

The use of adequate strategy also supports of the materials given by the teacher. As stated by Richards and Renandya (2002:122) “…. strategies can facilitate the internalization, storage, retrieval or use of the new language.” Strategies are tools for the self-directed involvement necessary for developing communication ability. Furthermore, they stated that language programs and the teachers who work in programs should therefore set out to provide learners with efficient learning strategies, to assist learners in identifying their own preferred ways of learning, to develop skills needed to negotiate the curriculum, to encourage learners to set their own objectives, to encourage learners to adopt realistic goals and time frames, and to develop learners’ skills in self-evaluation.

To accomplish the importance of applying adequate strategy, Nunan (1999) stated that learning strategies are the mental and communicative procedures learners use in order to learn and to use language. Richards and Rodgers (1986) cited in Nunan (1999) stated that teachers should teach students the language, not about the language. So adequate strategies are needed as the use of the strategies will arise students’ motivation in learning language. Motivation is another important aspect to be considered to achieve the goal of the course and to improve the students’ knowledge. As said by Dulay (1982), motivation in second language acquisition may be thought of as the incentive, the need, or the desire that the learner feels to learn the second language.Gardner, et al. (1972) cited inUr(1996) stated that various studies have found that motivation is very strongly related to achievement in language learning.

A lot of strategies could be implemented in the classroom.  Project-based learning is one of the models which are different from traditional teaching since the focus is put on the learners. Learners have the opportunity to work more autonomously and build their knowledge as they personally construct meaningful facts that are representations of their learning. Project-based learning provides learners the opportunity in depth investigations of worthy knowledge.

One of the more prominent benefits of the research is how projects are used to encourage active inquiry and empower students to take part in their own learning. A project allows students and teachers alike to focus and to study a central idea in depth. Content is more meaningful to students because it is real world learning and students can look at their work in a way that is interesting to them. Students can collaborate together to explore ideas. The process of working on a project will help students display independence and construct their own knowledge through questions that they have or developed with the class.

The students of the Accountancy Department- State Polytechnic of Malang are not motivated in learning English. Some students feel that they have limited knowledge and lack confidence in practicing English. They feel they cannot appropriately comprehend the materials that are delivered by their teachers.

A project allows students and teachers alike to focus and to study a central idea in depth. Content is more meaningful to students because it is real world learning and students can look at their work in a way that is interesting to them. Students can collaborate together to explore ideas. The process of working on a project will help students display independence and construct their own knowledge through questions that they have or developed with the class.

The students of the Accountancy Department- State Polytechnic of Malang are not motivated in learning English. Some students feel that they have limited knowledge and lack confidence in practicing English. They feel they cannot appropriately comprehend the materials that are delivered by their teachers.

A project allows students and teachers alike to focus and to study a central idea in depth. Content is more meaningful to students because it is real world learning and students can look at their work in a way that is interesting to them. Students can collaborate together to explore ideas. The process of working on a project will help students display independence and construct their own knowledge through questions that they have or developed with the class.

The students of the Accountancy Department- State Polytechnic of Malang are not motivated in learning English. Some students feel that they have limited knowledge and lack confidence in practicing English. They feel they cannot appropriately comprehend the materials that are delivered by their teachers. There are a lot of causes of the case above but one of the possible causes is the strategy applied is not adequate enough, since some of the teachers still maintain the traditional approach. Ironically, Polytechnics is designed to emphasize the practice rather than the theory. To face the global era, the paradigm that has been applied for years needs to be changed. Project-based learning as a modern approach should be a solution to solve the Polytechnic’s problem to exist and compete with other universities. The characteristics of the project-based learning are needed by Polytechnic students, because the projects allow students to empower their own learning. The project gives an opportunity to develop skills such as to work in a team, to solve problems, to do research, to manage times, to synthesize, to use technology tools, to be independent workers, to be critical thinkers and to be lifelong-learners; those skills  are quite appropriate with the Polytechnic-students working field later on. These difficulties were due to some factors, one of which was the inadequate teaching strategy applied in the classroom

A preliminary study was carried out to identify the students’ problems. It was done by doing an observation and informal interview during the learning process of the reading class. The second preliminary study was done by giving a pre-test to the students to see the students’ problem. From the data that have been taken it was found out that the students’ reading comprehension and speaking skills were still poor. It was proved by the result of the students’ pre-test which shows that all the subjects got below the score of 6 with the points 60 (for 23 students) and 80 (for 2 students). While the criteria of success of the reading and speaking’ score should be 7 with the total points 125. Seeing the result of the fact above the students’ ability has to be improved by employing an adequate strategy, and there a lot of strategies that could be implemented. Project-based learning is one of the models which are different from traditional since the focus is put on the learners.

 

PROJECT-BASED LEARNING

According to Bruner (1973) the basic ideas of project-based learning are based on various socio-constructivist schools of thought and other modern instructional theories. Socio-constructivism means an understanding of learning that stresses the importance of constructing knowledge based on previous knowledge and interaction with the social environment. Thomas, Mergendoller, and Michaelson (1999) said that socio-constructivism as a set of pedagogies uses strategies like project-based learning.

The Edu Tech Wiki online article (Project-based learning, 2007, 1-5) defines project-based learning as a model for classroom activity that shifts away from the classroom practices of teacher-centered lessons and emphasizes learning activities that are student-centered, and integrated with real world issues and practice. The projects usually require several steps and some duration-more than a couple of days and up to a semester. The projects also require cooperative group learning. The projects may focus on development of a product or performance and require students to conduct research, to solve problems, and to synthesize information. Although projects as a methodology are not a new concept, the model is an effective application to support many tasks facing teachers today by applying authentic assessment, infusing higher-order thinking skills, guiding life choices, and providing experiences that tap individual student interest.

Similar to the above definition, Collins, Brown and Newman (1989) define project-based learning as a project which allows learners to identify and formulate their own problems. The goals they set as well as the unexpected discoveries they will make during interaction with the environment serve as guides. To accomplish the definition of project-based learning, Blumenfield (1994:1) describes project-based learning as “activities…conducted…as a way for students to learn subject matter concepts in depth as well as promote other life skill objectives”. Chard (1995:2) explains that “the model for project-based learning is to shift away from the classroom practices of short, isolated, teacher-centered lessons and instead emphasizes learning activities that are long-term, interdisciplinary, student-centered, and hands-on”.

Project-based learning should be based on the curriculum, as it is said by    Thomas et al. (1999). Project-based learning is a teaching and learning model; it is a curriculum development and instructional approach that emphasizes student-centered instruction by assigning projects.

To get a clearer picture of the above definition, project-based learning is: engaging learning experiences that involve students in complex, real-world projects through which they develop and apply skills and knowledge. The learning require students to draw from many information sources and disciplines in order to solve problems. The outcomes can be identified up-front, but in which the outcomes of the student’s learning process are neither predetermined nor fully predictable. The outcomes are also experiences through which students would learn to manage and to allocate resources such as time and materials.

In this approach, students create knowledge and understanding through learning activities that built intellectual inquiry and a high degree of engagement with meaningful tasks. Within the context of this approach, projects take the role traditionally afforded to assessments such as tests and quizzes.

 

The importance To Incorporate Project-Based Learning Into Classroom Instruction

Project-based learning is a teaching strategy that emphasizes on the students. This model could be implemented on the learning strategy by assigning projects. It gives opportunities to students to work more independently and realistically to generate products. The activities enable students to synthesize knowledge and to individually solve problems in a curricular context (Project-based learning, 2007, 1-4). The project creates problems that function as a curriculum organizer and a instructional strategy that presents a problem that is relevant and related to the context where students are the stakeholders. Students develop strategies to enable themselves and to direct their own learning. When students experience a problem in context, they are more likely to make connection and thus see the value in what they are learning. Newberry and Hughes (2006) rigorously explain that project-based learning will:

  • Help students develop skills for living in a knowledge-based world and society. Solving highly complex problems requires that students to have skills on reading, writing and also foundation skills (teamwork, problem solving, research, time management, information synthesizing, and using technology tools).
  • Add relevance to the learning. By bringing real-life context and technology to the curriculum through project problems, teachers encourage students to become independent workers, critical thinkers, and lifelong learner. Students learn to take responsibility for their own learning. They will form the basis for working cooperatively and effectively with others in their adult life.
  • Challenge students to high rigor. When working toward a solution to a problem, students often find themselves acquiring higher levels of academic skills and knowledge than if they were taught such skills in isolation.
  • Promote lifelong learning. Exposure to activities, projects and problems teaches students to take control of learning, their first step as lifelong learners. Project-based learning promotes metacognition and self-knowledge. Student generate strategies for solving problems by gathering, analyzing, and testing their data, sharing their findings with determining solutions. Thus, students develop the abilities to work with peers, work in teams, and develop group skills.

Table 2.1 below shows a curriculum model that uses the three modalities. Students are engaged in three level thinking: the cognitive, the novice metacognition, and the expert metacognition. The curriculum is developed and designed to engage students in activities, projects, problems to incorporate all aspects that enable students to investigate and to explore the stated lesson. The best way for students to understand their learning is to experience the process in addressing the problem and in designing solution. For example, the direct experience of “walking in students’ shoes” is to solve problems and to design projects that help teachers to reflect on the learning activities and to prepare teachers for their own teaching.

 

EXTENSIVE READING

Palmer (1991 cited in Day & Bamford, 2000:5) defines extensive reading as “rapidly reading book after book”. In this reading activity readers’ attention should be focused on comprehending of the text. Extensive reading is different from intensive reading which means “take a text, study it line by line, referring at every moment to dictionary and grammar rules, translating and retaining every expression that it contains.”

Similar to Palmer’s definition, West  (1993 cited in Day & Bamford, 2000:6) defines “supplementary reading”, or extensive reading as a reading activity that aims at the development to the point of enjoyment of the ability to read the foreign language and that involves the methodology of taking care of individual differences and encouraging the reading habit.

As stated in Longman Dictionary of Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics, 1974, extensive reading is intended to develop good reading habits, to build up knowledge of vocabulary and structure, and to encourage a liking for reading. This definition implies that extensive reading also affects the increased general second language competence.

For the present study, encouraging students to read extensively and maximizing the extensive reading course would hopefully result in an increased general second language competence. To be more specific, this extensive reading course will aim to gain students’ comprehending, summarizing, synthesizing and finally students’ improvement in both reading and speaking skills.

 

The Role of Extensive Reading

Some experts propose strong reasons for defining the effectiveness of extensive reading. Nation (2000:150), for example, points out three reasons why learners can develop best through extensive reading. First, reading is essentially an individual activity, and therefore, learners of different proficiency levels could be learning at their own level without being locked into an inflexible class program. Second, having an extensive reading activity, students are allowed to follow their interests in choosing what to read, and, thus increase their motivation for learning. Third, extensive reading provides the opportunity for learning to occur outside the classroom.

Bell(1998) mentions ten roles of extensive reading, some of which are put in this section due to their relevance to this study. First, it can provide “comprehensible input”. An extensive reading activity will lead to language acquisition provided that certain conditions are met. These conditions include adequate exposure to the language, interesting material, and a relaxed learning environment. Second, extensive reading can enhance learners’ general language competence. Some studies that the source is taken from Online English teaching Forum (2007) have proven that through extensive reading students’ word cognition and reading skill as well as their oral and written skills are improved. Third, extensive reading can increase the students’ exposure to the language. An exposure to the language is seen important since learners can acquire new forms from the input, and this requirement is more essential for foreign language learners who usually lack natural exposure from their environment. Finally, extensive reading can as well motivate learners to read. The reading materials of an extensive reading program that address students’ needs, tastes, and interests will energize and motivate students to read the articles, and thus will advance the reading habit.

Because of the prominent roles of extensive reading, the present study tries to develop students’ reading and speaking skills through project-based learning using newsmagazine which is assigned as extensive reading materials.

2.3  Oral Reports

Oral reports as the follow-up activity of an extensive reading course is considered appropriate in the case that extensive reading is aimed to improve students’ production of spoken language. In this activity students were assigned to have an oral report on the articles they had read. The oral report was done in small groups.

To be a better speaker, a learner should practice speaking as much as possible. A rich input does not function effectively when it is not followed by a lot of speaking practice opportunities. Thus, in the present study, the follow up of the extensive reading course was an oral report that was expected to provide students with opportunities of speaking practice. Furthermore, as stated by Schmidt (1998), maximizing high interest input in any form is potential as a resource for communication in the classroom. When students spend their time for communicating, they need something to communicate about. Students’ own thoughts, feelings, and experiences are common sources whereas reading can expose students to new experiences and points of view that can be shared and discussed. Extensive reading, thus, not only contributes directly to acquisition but also aids skill development by providing content for meaningful interaction in the classroom.

Retelling as one form of the oral reports was employed in the present study. This technique was considered appropriate due to some reasons. First, retelling could solve the problem of “having nothing to talk about”. Students who hesitate to communicate would find retelling helpful since they did not need to make up their own stories; this activity could even enrich their schemata. Second, retelling could improve students’ speaking fluency. A study conducted by Revert and Nation (1991:84) reveals that retelling the same stories three times to different listeners with decreasing time for each retelling could make substantial gains in speed of speaking and reduce the number of hesitations in the retelling. Finally, this technique allowed learners to perform at a level higher than their normal level of fluency.

In the present study, the oral reports as the follow-up activity of the extensive reading were performed for four times. As the students were asked to find three articles, every article should be summarized in the form of written and oral reports. The synthesizing of the three articles was presented in the performance of small seminar. Every group that contains six members presented each of their synthesis of their made magazines. There would be a moderator who helped run the seminar.

 

RESEARCH DESIGN

Below is a short description of the research design.

The Problem and Objective of the Study

In line with the background of the study, the formulated research problem is

“How can the students-made newsmagazines through project-based learning be implemented effectively to improve English Foreign Language students’ reading and speaking skills?”

In accordance with the problem of the study, this study will be directed to develop a model of implementing students-made newsmagazines through project-based learning in improving EFL students’ reading and speaking skills effectively.

 

The Significance of the Study

This study is expected to give contributions as the following:

  1. The model will be used to improve EFL students’ reading and speaking skills and later to enhance further learning of English in general.
  2. Theoretically, the result of the study can enrich teachers’ knowledge of alternatives/variations in the teaching of extensive reading and speaking skills.
  3. Other classroom researchers could consider the implementation of this procedure in the years to come, and experimental studies are recommended to find out whether or not project-based learning could be more successful than conventional learning course.

English reading and speaking are taught separately at Accountancy Department-State Polytechnic of Malang. In the reading subject, the teacher creates questions to see the students’ comprehension and asks students to find some new vocabularies in the dictionary from the texts given. For in depth step, the teacher asks the students to memorize the new vocabularies and the teacher tests the students’ memorization, but sometimes the teacher asks the students to find the synonym/antonym and use the new vocabularies in the sentences.  While for the speaking subject, the students are given topics, such as the topic of likes, dislikes, preferences, and asked to practice the topic given with a partner or in a group of three.

Accountancy Department-State Polytechnic of Malang does not apply thematic or integrated method. The topics among the structure, reading, speaking and writing subjects do not relate to each other. Every subject works independently.

In the new model, the teacher-researcher proposes to ask students to be critical thinkers, to work independently, to work in teams, to share ideas, to appreciate some one’s ideas, to manage times, to do research, as well as to find problems and solutions. The result of the project given is reported in the form of written and oral report. From one project the students learn four skills in at time: reading, writing, listening and speaking as well as apply the skills at the same time.

 

This study is an action research, which focuses on a certain class. As defined by Carr and Kemmis (in Mc.Niff, 1993:2) action research is a form of self reflective inquiry undertaken by educational participants (teacher, student, or principals) in order to improve the rationality and justice of (a) their own educational practices, (b) their understanding of these practices, and (c) the situations in which these practices are carried out. The linking of the terms ‘action and research’ highlights the essential features of the approach: trying out ideas in practice as a means of improvement and as a means of increasing knowledge about the curriculum, teaching and learning.

Figure 3.1 Steps of the action research

Lewin (in Kemmis and Taggart 1992:8) described action research as proceeding in a spiral of steps, each of which is composed of planning, action and the evaluation of the result of the action. Kemmis and Taggart (1992:11) define planning as constructed action and by definition must be prospective to action-it must be forward looking. It must be recognized that all social action is to some degree unpredictable and therefore somewhat risky. The general plan must be flexible enough to adapt to unforeseen effects and previously unrecognized constraints. While action is deliberate and controlled-it is a careful and thoughtful variation of practice, and is critically informed. Furthermore, they mention that observation has the function of documenting the effects of critically informed action and reflection recalls action as it has been recorded in observation, but it is also active. The last step in a circle is reflection. Reflection seeks to make sense of processes, problems, issues and constraints made manifest in strategic action. Action research is a dynamic process in which these four moments are to be understood as moments in the action research spiral of planning, action, observing and reflecting.

Taking into consi  deration of the students’ poor  reading and speaking’ skill that the teacher-researcher’s face in the classroom, the present study tried to apply project-based learning to develop students’ reading and speaking skills. Thus, the classroom action research in this study was implemented for the purpose of improving the rationality and justice of the practice of project-based learning through students-made newsmagazine that can improve students’ reading and speaking skills, the understanding of this practice and the classroom situation in which this practice was carried out. This study was initiated with the general idea of how students’ reading and speaking skills could be improved. Then the reconnaissance (facts and findings analysis) was conducted. Following the reconnaissance was the designing of the general plan. The general plan then implemented and monitored.

Finally, the reflection was conducted in order to identify all facts including the success and the failure in the implementation as well as the effects of the teaching strategy.

Individual teacher-research approach was implemented in this action research. In this approach the teacher-researcher herself took the role as the classroom teacher.

 

THE ACTUAL CLASSROOM ACTION

This study was initiated with the general idea of how students’ reading and speaking skills could be improved. Then the reconnaissance (facts and findings analysis) was conducted. Following the reconnaissance was the designing of the general plan. The general plan was then implemented and monitored. Finally, another part of reconnaissance was conducted in order to identify all facts including the success and the failure in the implementation as well as the effects of the teaching strategy applied. The writer uses the action research procedure adapted from Elliot, 1992. The plan was implemented for one semester of 14 meetings with two meetings for doing the pre-test and four meetings for having the post test.

 

Figure 3.2 The Classroom Action Research Procedure.

 

The initial implementation of the plan was on the fourth meeting since the first and the second meetings were for the project information and the pre-test to see the students’ ability and the source problems. The third meeting was for informing the project-implementation. The result of the pre-test showed that the students ‘ability was in the level of very unsatisfactory either on reading skill or on oral report. The students got problems on comprehending texts and on delivering spoken language. One of the source problems of the students was on their limited vocabulary. To overcome this problem, the teacher-researcher initiated to apply word memorization based on the words-articles they had chosen and expected those words would be implemented on their summaries and oral report. The word memorization was initiated on the consideration that by having more vocabularies the students would find it easier to comprehend the articles and easier in producing spoken language. This idea worked well as the teacher-researcher also built the students ‘personal responsibilities for their own learning or developing students ‘long-term motivation to accomplish the tasks for the students’ own needs. This was in accordance withUr’s idea (1996) that teacher’s authoritative demand alone would not lead to higher motivation and better achievement. Teacher’s authoritative demands should be accompanied with students ‘involvement in the decisions.

The task of collecting at least 25 words for every meeting was successfully accomplished by the students. When they were absent, not attending the class on the session of the quiz, they would try to keep the target in the following meetings. This meant that the teacher-researcher was successful in motivating students to accomplish all of the given tasks. Furthermore, this good result could be the result of how the teacher-researcher gave reinforcement toward students’ work and of how she gave reward and punishment to her students. She rewarded her students’ good works by granting excellent scores and gave punishment in the form of warning and poorer scores. Getting good scores would increase the students’ motivation to accomplish the next tasks. In other words, the reinforcement became the new stimulus for the students to do better in the future. Brown (1980) suggested that “students who could not retrieve the meaning of certain words were allowed to see the context without seeing the meaning of those words.” It was used to keep the students’ motivation otherwise the students would get bored in opening the dictionary for every time the students faced new words.

The new words put in sentential contexts were also fruitful for the students to retrieve their memory. The students directly implemented what they had learned to the real practice, either in the written or spoken form.

Regarding the plan implementation in meeting four, all students found problems in reading authentic texts taken from English magazines or in the texts from the internet. Most of them could not summarize the news articles appropriately. In filling out the students- activities’ sheet they just quoted sentences from the authentic text. Thus, it could be concluded that these students were not capable enough to read authentic texts. Their language proficiency, in this sense, their reading ability was adequate for reading simplified materials only, and it was not for authentic texts. This finding motivated the teacher-researcher to ask the students to adopt the language of the authentic materials with the simplest language they could find in the English magazines or texts from the internet. This solution was in accordance with what was stated by Day and Bamford (2000) who said that when language learners found problems with difficult language in the reading text, simple language is considered the solution.

In the teacher-researcher’s mind authentic materials were considered important and needed to be continued on finishing the project because these authentic materials helped the students to improve their reading skills as well as to introduce them to content that was interest to the students. This finding is the same line with Wikipedia online article (Project-based learning, 2007, 1-4) that said that content is more meaningful to students because it is real world learning.

Applying the steps on developing students ‘reading skill in comprehending texts (including applying the technique of summarizing) was very fruitful to the students to keep their project. The students were really helped with that guidance. That guidance provides students with opportunities to practice a variety of reading subs skills as well as strategies for dealing with new topics, long passages, difficult passages, and unfamiliar vocabulary. Thus, the students could develop flexible reading skills and strategies that will vary according to the purpose of the reading task and the nature of the reading passage. The activities on the development of reading skills could also serve as a stimulus for the oral report they had to do.

Students’ interest in certain topic played important role in motoring them to keep on their project. All students completed the students- activities’ sheets happily. The sheets included short summary, students’ personal response toward the article to be read and the strategies used to develop reading skill. To the teacher-researcher’s detailed observation on the subjects’ summary in the project planning form (students- activities ‘sheets), it turn out that some students were good enough in writing the summary but some did not write the summary appropriately. The good point was that all students tried to write their own short summaries. This good point could be the result of students’ high enthusiasm in doing the tasks as well as the teacher-researcher’s success in motivating her students to work at their own attempt. Furthermore, this success was also the result of students-teacher close relationship that was believed able to increase students’ intrinsic motivation to learn (Brown, 2001).

Writing summary using new words memorization for extensive reading seemed to be a good practice as stated byBell(1998), summary writing in extensive reading was a valuable practice because it allowed learners to control both the main factual or fictional content of a story, and of the grammar and vocabulary used to express it. Moreover, this summary helped them elevating their speaking fluency since students already equipped themselves with correct content of the story as well the control of grammar and vocabulary to be used in the retelling activities.

The oral report activities as the following activity from the extensive reading were proven very effective in anticipating common problems encountered by students to produce oral language. First this technique could anticipate “the having nothing to talk about problem.” All students of the present study participated in the oral report activity since they always had report to be told either to the teacher, to the partner or to the audience. Second, all students did not hesitate to do the oral report since they did not need to make up their own stories. Third, by practicing at least 4 times to do the oral report, students had the chance to improve their speaking fluency. In short, to do the oral report as the follow –up activity of extensive reading was effective in improving students’ speaking’ skill. All of these findings were in the same line with Schmidt’ finding (1998) that discovered the success of extensive reading followed with conversation activities.

Students’ self confidence was believed influential to their speaking performance, and this was observed by the teacher-researcher. Some students who actually possessed good speaking skill could not perform adequately due to their poor self-confidence. To solve this problem, the teacher-researcher ensured all students that they actually could perform better when they possessed higher self-confidence. She further stated that to be able to improve their speaking skill, students should be brave enough to practice and should not be afraid of making mistakes. Mistakes were informed as common things that could be tolerated and even the students could learn from the mistakes made. In short, increasing students’ self-confidence was believed to be very essential in building their intrinsic motivation to learn (Brown, 2001).

Furthermore, based on what the teacher-researcher observed, giving a project to the students was the right strategy to be implemented. This is a learning strategy that gives opportunities to the students to work more independently and realistically to generate a product. These activities enabled students to synthesize knowledge and to solve problems individually. The students developed strategies to enable themselves and to direct their own learning. This finding is supported by Newberry and Hughes (2006) that said “when the students experienced a problem during the process of their learning, they were more likely to make connection and thus see the value in what they were learning.”

As stated, one of the criteria of the present study was that students’ reading and oral report scores should at least get 125 points with the score 7, the maximum criteria was 200 points and for the score 10. Then, when reflected to this criterion of the success of the present study, the results of the reading test revealed that twelve students met the target of the criteria while the rest of the students (thirteen students) met above the criteria. The students’ increased scores from the pre-test to the post-test indicate that this strategy was helpful to improve students’ reading and speaking skills. Thus, what these students really needed was a longer implementation of the plan.The Wikipedia online article (Project-based learning, 2007, 1-4) informs that there has been a lot of research conducted by researchers about project-based learning. One of the more prominent benefits is how projects are used to encourage active inquiry and empower students to take a part in their own learning. A project allows students and teachers alike to focus and to study a central idea in depth. Content is more meaningful to students because it is real world learning and students can look at their work in a way that is interesting to them. Students can collaborate together to explore ideas. Student ownership is the true drive of project work. The process of working on a project will help students display independence and construct their own knowledge through questions that they have or developed with the class.

The suggestion to prolong the implementation of the procedure to two semesters was considered important. Students started with very poor vocabulary and low exposure to reading and speaking experiences; thus they need more time to improve their skills. The procedure developed in the present study was considered effective to elevate both students’ reading and speaking skills, and this project needed to be implemented longer than one semester. Two-semester implementation was considered long enough to reach the predetermined criteria.

The subjects’ reflection as pictured in the questionnaire revealed that most of them believed the implemented plan was quite satisfactory to them. They were quite motivated in conducting the extensive reading, collecting new words, memorizing the collected words, summarizing, synthesizing and participating in the oral report activities. This confirms the filling of the first criterion of the present study.

The average total point of the students pre-test was 63, with the score below 6, while the total point of the criteria of success should be 125 with the score 7. In article 1 the students’ ability increase, the total point was 85 with the score still below 6. In article 2 the students’ total point was 91 with the score below 6. In article 3, the achievement of the total point was 106 with the score above 6. On the post-test the average of the total point was 141 with the score above 7.

 

CONCLUSION

 

Based on the discussion presented in the previous chapter, project-based learning in the form of students-made newsmagazine was done successfully; the model could improve the students’ reading and speaking ability, it might be caused by a) the students’ involvement on their own learning. Since the students function as the actor of the project who had responsible on generating products in this case producing students-made newsmagazine. b) the result of the products were very attractive, it might be caused by the students’ responsibility and the students’ great enthusiasm. c). the students great enthusiasm might be caused by the atmosphere conducted since the teacher-researcher function as a facilitator not a teacher who had  a big power in the class. d)  the product trained the students became independent students, critical thinkers and promote students to become life-long learner

 

RECOMMENDATIONS

There are some points worth considering the implementation of the plan of the present study or to conduct a similar study. The suggestions are presented below:

  1. Other classroom researchers could use this procedure of improving students’ reading and speaking skills through project-based learning in the form of student-made newsmagazine or using other variations with similar issues such as producing a wall magazine. A wall magazine would also be a worth doing.
  2. The result of the present study show that students ‘reading and speaking study was improved but not to a significant point. Thus, it is recommended, for the following study, to implement the plan in more than one semester.
  3. As it was evident in the present study that speaking and extensive reading could be taught in one integrated course, other classroom researchers could also set up an integrated course like this.
  4. The Accountancy Department of the State Polytechnic of Malang could consider the implementation of this procedure in the years to come, and experimental studies are recommended to find out whether or not project-based learning could be more successful than the conventional learning course.

 

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