Posts Tagged ‘jlt polinema’

INDIRECT CRITICISMS IN MR. PECUT’S CORNER OF JAWA POS DAILY NEWSPAPER

(Kutipan referensi/citation: Jurnal Linguistik terapan Vol 3/1, Mei 2013)

Andi Muhtar

Universitas Negeri Malang

 

ABSTRACT

There are three theories of meaning, namely, the mentalistic theory, the behaviorist theory, and the use theory. Criticisms, which are given to show dislikes toward another person’s or other people’s actions/utterances, contain meanings. Criticisms in Mr. Pecut’s corner, which appear in the form of responses to statements made by public figures, are bitter but, by and large, humorous. This article will analyze the criticisms in Mr. Pecut’s corner of Jawa Pos daily newspaper and relate them with theories of meaning in linguistic philosophy.

Keywords: philosophy of language, theories of meaning, criticism

 

When a person communicates, he communicates meaning by realizing it through phonological representations. What is communicated is then accepted by the listener or the interlocutor in the form of phonological representations and then changed into semantic representations. Based on the meaning understood, the listener may respond back to the message. In this case the two people exchange messages or meanings. The messages communicated are of various kinds. Likewise, the responses given are various, one of the kinds of which is criticisms. This paper will analyze the criticisms which are found in Jawa Pos daily newspaper, especially those found in Mr. Pecut’s corner of the paper.

 

THEORIES OF MEANING

According to Cooper (1973: 14-16), there are three theories of meaning in the philosophy of language. The first is the mentalistic theory. This theory holds that an expression is meaningful if and only if it is associated, in some manner, with a certain mental item – an image, say, or thought, or an idea. Correspondingly, the theory holds that two expressions are synonymous if and only if they are associated with the same mental item. So, for example, it might be held that ‘puppy’ is meaningful because it is connected with a certain mental image; and that ‘puppy’ is synonymous with ‘young dog’ because both are connected with the same image. On this view to examine meaning is essentially to examine people’s mental states or processes.

The second is the behaviorist theory. This theory holds that an expression is meaningful if and only if utterances of it produce certain behavioral responses in people and/or are produced in response to certain stimuli. Two expressions will be synonymous, correspondingly, if and only if utterances of them produce the same responses and/or are produced in response to the same stimuli. On this view, examining meaning is essentially a matter of examining the behavior connected with utterances of expressions.

The third is the use theory. This theory holds that an expression is meaningful if and only if people can use it for certain purposes, and in certain ways. Two expressions, correspondingly, will be synonymous if and only if they can be used in the same ways, for the same purposes. On this view, examining meaning is essentially a matter of examining the role that expressions have in human activities.

 

LANGUAGE IN ITS DIVERSITY

Lehmann (1983: 217-224) discusses five types of language use. Each of the types is explained below.

 

The Politician’s Use of Language

Political use of language is often highly ambiguous. Politicians flourish by devising Expressions that their audiences interpret as favorable to themselves. An example of this ambiguity use of language is given be Lehmann (1983: 217) as follows:

According to Herodotus, when Croesus, King of Lydia, asked the oracle at Delphi whether he should attack the Persians, the oracle answered ambiguously, that if he did he would destroy a great empire. Croesus, as a confident ruler, misinterpreted the reply. The attack resulted in the destruction of his own empire rather than that of the Persians.

 

The Poet’s Use

While the politician seeks ambiguous language, the poet aims at precision. For Pope in his “Essay on Criticism”:

 

True wit is Nature to advantage dressed,

What off was thought, but ne’er so well expressed.

 

Ambiguous and meaningless words are avoided. A poet has a specific concept; the poem is designed to have the reader understand this directly, as though images. Pope does not say: an actual insight corresponds to reality in the world; rather, he directly confronts two concepts presented in concrete images with nature.

 

The Scientist’s Use

Scientists also insist on precision in use of language. But they emphasize facts, not people and their feelings. Moreover, the facts must speak for themselves. Ideas are not to be conveyed through images or affected by human origins. Even living beings are stripped of their animation, including the scientists themselves. These aims lead to characteristic scientific styles of expression.

 

The Priest’s Use

The priest on the other hand employs many pragmatic devices, directing his message to a specific audience. This aim encourages patterns comparable to the poet’s. Sequences are repeated, often exactly, as in Matthew 5:7-9:

 

Blessed are the merciful: for they shall obtain mercy.

Blessed are the pure in heart: for they shall see God.

Blessed are the peacemakers: for they shall be called

The children of God….

 

The repetitions engage the attention of the audience, as well as their participation, through established sequences, such as amen; hallelujah; Glory, glory, hallelujah. The priest raises emotions, though with somewhat different aims and devices from those of the poet.

 

The Average Speaker’s Use

Few of us use language as effectively as the consummate poet, politician, scientist, or priest; yet we employ the same devices as they, and we apply language in accordance with their various purposes.

 

CRITICISM

Criticism is the expression of disapproval of someone or something by stating an opinion on their faults, weaknesses, or disadvantages in speech or writing (Collins Cobuild English Language Dictionary, 1987: 336). Criticism can be divided into two kinds. The first is direct criticism. This criticism is given directly by the critic to the criticized. The second is indirect criticism. This kind of criticism is directed to the criticized, but it is given publicly through mass media. The target of criticisms is either an individual or an institution, or both an individual and an institution.

mr pecut

Mr. Pecut

Mr. Pecut is the name of a rubric in Jawa Pos daily newspaper. It is situated in the upper-left-hand corner of page four. Under the title Mr Pecut there is a picture of a person covering his two ears using his index fingers. The word pecut, which means a whip, is very suitable with the function of the criticisms. Criticisms are expressions which are not nice to our ears although they are actually useful in that they make us aware of our mistakes. Mr. Pecut will always remind us to always behave well. In each issue Mr. Pecut highlights three pieces of news and gives three comments or criticisms.

Although most of the criticisms are bitter, they are always communicated in humorous ways. The humor sense appears because of the evidence of the unexpected twist of the comment or criticism in response to the news. Tresnadewi (2005: 20) states that “What makes people laugh at a joke is usually the unexpected twist at the end of the joke.” Similarly, what makes a criticism humorous is the unexpected twist of the comment.

Let’s read the example below:

 

Pollycarpus divonis 14 tahun penjara.

(Pollycarpus was sentenced of 14 years imprisonment)

 

Dan tanpa ditemani pramugari

(And without being accompanied by stewardesses).

 

To understand the sense of humor in this statement-and-comment pair, we have to understand the background of the statement or the news. Pollycarpus was a pilot of Garuda Indonesian Airlines. The sentence was imposed because he was accused of murdering a well-known human rights activist Munir. Munir died, according to a laboratory report in the Netherlands, because of arcenicum poison which, according to the judge, was poured by Pollycarpus into Munir’s glass. Munir died while he was on the plane taking him from Singapore to the Netherlands. Because he was a pilot, he must have had a lot of friends who are stewardesses. However, the stewardesses would not accompany him in prison. Clearly, the comment is unexpected.

 

 

DETAILS OF CRITICISMS

The data were chosen randomly from Jawa Pos daily newspaper available. Criticisms in Mr. Pecut’s corner can be classified into five types: authority-directed, individual-directed, illogical, humorous, and common. In the following section, criticisms in the form of single sentences are explained. Explaining a sentence is part of philosophy, as stated by the Australian positivist philosopher, Schlick, as follows: “philosophy is an activity through which the meanings of statements is asserted or explained.”

 

Authority-directed Criticisms

  1. Tahun depan akan ada gelar kota terkotor.

(Next year there will be an evaluation in terms of the dirtiest towns)

 

Pasti kota yang banyak koruptornya

(They must be towns with the most corruptors)

 

We expect that the comment will deal with efforts used to make cities free from garbage. The comment is really unexpected because it talks about corruptors, those who abuse the authority given to them. The critic regards corruptors as something which dirties towns.

 

  1. Hermawan Kertajaya: Kepala daerah adalah pemasar.

(Hermawan Kertajaya: Heads of districts are marketing people)

 

Tapi, sebelumnya adalah pembeli, pembeli suara

(But, previously they were buyers, buyers of votes).

 

The news implies that Heads of districts should promote their districts in order that more businessmen invest their capital in the areas. In other words, they must ‘sell’ their areas.

The critic reminds us that the Heads of Local Governments bought votes in order to become Heads of Local Governments. This is what is called ‘money politics’. This accusation is not easy to prove, however.

 

  1. Rapat paripurna setelah Lebaran, separo lebih anggota dewan bolos.

(General Meeting (of the House of Representatives) was held after Idul Fitri break; more than half of the members were absent)

Meski Lebaran, kelakuan ini tidak perlu dimaafkan.

(Despite Lebaran (Holiday atmosphere), this attitude cannot be forgiven!)

 

The news implies that members of the House of Representatives are not responsible because they did not do what they should have done namely attending meeting. They may have though that they might be excused or forgiven because it was still holiday atmosphere.

The response or criticism says that the members’ attitude should not be forgiven. Working for other people must be prioritized.

 

  1. Noordin M. Top pernah sembunyi dekat markas Polwil Pekalongan.

(Noordin M. Top, once, hid near the Head Quarter of Police District in Pekalongan.)

 

Dan terbukti aman

(And they were proved to be save)

 

The news shocks us because Noordin is a number-two wanted person and he hid near the police station.

The response saying that he was safe shows that the police are not very sensitive to their environment.

 

  1. Penyimpangan keimigrasian dinilai sangat serius.

(The immigration anomaly is evaluated to be very serious)

Begitu seriusnya, sampai sudah jadi kewajara …

(It is so serious that it has become a common place)

 

The response shows that it seems hopeless to return the situation into a normal one. It indirectly suggests that this situation cannot be tolerated any longer.

 

  1. Kepala BIN: Teroris berencana culik pejabat.

(Head of National Intelligence Body: Terrorists plan to abduct officials of high ranks)

Kalau pejabat yang korup, silakan!

(If they are corrupting ones, please do!)

 

It is the duty of the police to protect officials of high ranks. However, if the officials are those who corrupt, the police should not protect them. Let them be abducted by the terrorists.

 

  1. Ketua DPR kecewa kunjungan BURT ke Mesir.

(Chair of the House of Representatives is disappointed with the visit of BURT (the Body of Logistic Affairs) to Egypt).

 

Mestinya ngelencer ke mana, dong?

(Where should they have gone for a vacation, then?)

 

The news implies that BURT should not have gone to Egypt. The visit is in vain. The response implies that it is alright to go for a vacation although it actually supports the Chair.

 

  1. Parpol dan DPR lembaga terkorup di Indonesia.

(Political parties and the House of Representatives are institutions which are the most corrupt in Indonesia)

 

Lembaga lain, lumayan korup …

(Other institutions are not very corrupt)

 

The response shows that corruptions also take place in other institutions though not the worst.

 

  1. Pimpinan DPR: Kunjungan anggota BURT ke Mesir sudah sesuai rencana.

(Heads of House of Representatives: The visit of the members of BURT to Egypt has been in accordance with the plan)

 

Rencananya memang mau ngelencer, kok!

(The plan was that they wanted to go for a vacation!)

 

The plan was to meet members of the House of Representatives of Egypt in order to know how Egypt deals with laws concerning gambling. The response shows that the main objective of visiting Egypt was having a vacation.

  1. Rencana impor beras Januari dibatalkan.

(The plan to import rice in January has been dropped).

 

Itu yang resmi, yang nggak resmi jalan terus …

(That is what is legal, the illegal is going on)

 

The response shows the weakness of the government because the policy is not carried out perfectly. The authority does not seem to do anything to prevent the influx of rice illegally)

 

  1. Usman Hamid: Kasus Munir, Polri belum serius.

(Usman Hamid: Munir case, the Police have not been serious)

 

Takut barangkali …

(They may be afraid …)

 

The criticism says that the police are afraid. The police should be serious in fighting crime whatever the risk they may find. They should not be afraid. They are paid to protect the citizens, aren’t they?

 

  1. Parpol ramai-ramai berkurban sapi dan kambing.

(Political parties sacrifice cows and sheep demonstratively)

 

Setahun sekali, bukan rakyat yang dikorbankan.

(Once a year, it is not people who are sacrificed)

 

The response shows that political parties usually take advantage of their positions while making the people victims.

 

  1. Masa kerja KPU diperpanjang.

(The working term of KPU (General Election

Committee) is lengthened.)

 

Wah, bisa korupsi lagi, dong?

(Then, they can commit corruption again?)

The response implies that KPU is the place where corruptions often take place and are not detected. This is actually also a warning that the police should be alert toward wrongdoings done by those given authority to carry out government matters.

 

Individual-directed criticisms

  1. Puluhan dokter di Kediri tak punya izin praktek.

(Tens of doctors in Kediri do not have permission letter.)

 

Nggak beda dong, dengan dukun!

(Not different from astrologers, then!)

 

The response implies that doctors are jobs which need proficiency and professionalism. They have to obtain a certificate from the government before they treat patients. Otherwise, they are the same as astrologers.

 

  1. Akbar: Kalla jangan ceplas-ceplos.

(Akbar: Kalla, don’t speak without evidence.)

 

Kalau ngak begitu, nggak ngetop, Bung!

(If I don’t, I won’t become a celebrity, Friend!)

 

Akbar’s advice is wise, that is, Kalla should think first before he speaks. The comment implies that it is by speaking whatever is in his mind that makes Kalla popular.

 

  1. Djoko Edhi: Kunjungan BURT ke Mesir sia-sia

(Djoko Edhi: The visit of BURT to Egypt was in vain)

 

Kunjungannya sis-sia, tetapi ngelencer-nya tidak.

(The visit was in vain, but the vacation was not.)

 

Edhi’s statement implies that he was disappointed with his visit. The response implies that he was not disappointed because he had the opportunity to go abroad and have a vacation with some of the members of the House of Representatives.

  1. Paskah Suzzeta: Jadi menteri, bobot turun 3 kilo.

(Paskah Suzzeta: Becoming a minister, his weight drops 3 kilograms)

 

Jangan kuatir, toh bobot kantong nambah!

(Don’t worry. The weight of the pocket increases, doesn’t it?)

 

Suzetta’s statement implies that because he has to work hard as a minister, he loses weight, which means that something he does not want happens. The comment however, reminds him that he is richer now!

 

  1. Amien: Lawan koruptor sejati butuh keberanian

(Amien: To fight against true corruptors needs courage)

 

Sebenarnya butuh Pak Amien, gitu loh.

(Actually, Mr. Amien is needed. That’s it.)

 

The statement implies that Mr. Amien is a courageous man. The comment implies that people should choose Mr. Amen to fight the crime of corruption because he is brave. It sounds that Mr. Amien is disappointed for not being chosen as president the last presidential election.

 

Illogical criticism

  1. Diusulkan ada tempat penitipan anak di DPR.

(Proposed: There is a crèche in the House of

Representatives)

 

Lama-lama bakal ada usul penitipan WIL, nih!

(Slowly but surely, there will be a proposal for a crèche for WIL (Other Adored Women), right?

 

The proposal in the statement was made in  conjunction with the increasing bad treatment to children by their family. It is Illogical to set up a crèche in the House of Representatives. Responding to the illogical proposal, the critic also proposes a more illogical proposal, that is, having a crèche for Other Adored Women, who are likely possessed by some members of the House of Representatives.

 

  1. Golkar gelar donor darah masal.

(Golkar held mass blood donation)

 

Darahnya pasti kuning!

The blood must he yellow!

 

The response that the blood is yellow is wrong.

However, because Golkar is synonymous with yellow, the color of the flag, people will remember that the community service is worth doing.

 

Humorous criticisms

  1. SBY perintahkan Kapolri ungkap dalang pembunuh Munir.

(SBY ordered the Chief of the Police to reveal the mastermind behind Munir murder)

 

Yang jelas bukan Pak Manteb!

(Obviously, he is not Mr. Manteb!)

 

The statement uses the word dalang a person who performs leather puppets, and Mr. Manteb is a dalang. However, dalang in the statement is different from what the profession of Mr. Manteb is. Dalang in the statement refers to the person who is most responsible for the Munir murder; it does not have anything to do with the show of leather puppets.

 

  1. Kepala Bea Cukai Manado terlibat penyelundupan HP.

(Head of Customs in Manado is involved in HP smuggling)

 

Ketik A (spasi) copot saja!

(Type A (space) dismiss him. That’s all!)

 

The way the response is written is unique. The type of writing the response resembles that of sending answers to TV quizzes. However, the content is very firm and direct.

 

  1. Pimpinan Jemaah Eden mengaku sebagai Malaikat Jibril.

(Head of Eden Congregation acknowledges that she is Angel Gabriel).

 

Malaikat kok digerebek …

(Angel, but how could she be attacked?)

 

Angel belongs to creatures who cannot be touched. If she were an Angel, the police would not have been able to catch her!

 

Common criticisms

  1. Bentrok antarmahasiswa terjadi lagi di Makassar.

(A brawl among university students broke again in Makassar)

 

Status mahasiswa, otak masih TK!

(The status is university student, the brain is still kindergarten!)

 

It is a shame that university students are involved in a fight using physical strengths, not intellectual power. Their brain is the brain of kindergarten pupils!

 

  1. Bantuan langsung tunai tahap kedua diperkirakan tertunda.

(It is predicted that the second phase of direct aid will be delayed.)

 

Berarti keruwetan tahap kedua masih agak lama.

(It means that irregularities of the second phase are still relatively long to come.)

 

It implies that we did not anticipate problems arising out of the new policy. The problems will happen again in the future.

 

 

 

CONCLUSION

Indirect criticisms which appear in the rubric Mr. Pecut of Jawa Pos daily newspaper are very concise and direct in their efforts to change people’s behavior. The criticisms can be classified as authority directed, individual directed, illogical, humorous and common. In one of his opinions, Mochtar Lubis, a well-known Indonesian laureate, says that ‘no criticism is bad’. Therefore, we must be open to criticisms if we want to maintain our loyalty to truth and justice. Related to diversity in language use which is discussed by Lehmann, we propose one more type, namely, the critic’s use of language.

 

 

REFERENCES

Collins Cobuild English Language Dictionary. 1987. London: Harper Collins Publishers.

Cooper, David E. 1973. Philosophy and the Nature of Language. London: Longman.

Jawa Pos daily newspaper.

Lehmann, Winfred P. 1983. Language: An Introduction. New York: Random House.

Tresnadewi, Sintha. 2005. Jokes: The Twisting of the Theories of Meaning. In Syahri and Tresnadewi (Eds.) The Power of Meaning. Malang: Syahri Press.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Data sources

 

  1. 18 June 2005
  • Tahun depan akan ada gelar kota terkotor

Pasti kota yang banyak koruptornya.

  • Pengacara Hendropriyono menilai undangan TPF Munir tidak sopan.

Padahal, tak menyebut hantu beliau ..

  • Hermawan Kertajaya: Kepala daerah adalah pemasar.

Tapi, sebelumnya adalah pembeli, pembeli suara.

 

  1. 15 November 2005
  • Rapat paripurna setelah Lebaran, separo lebih anggota dewan bolos.

Meski Lebaran, kelakuan ini tidak perlu dimaafkan!

  • Bungker di Bojonegoro ternyata milik lembaga Javanologi.

Wah, bisa kualat kalau dibongkar!

  • Noordin M. Top pernah sembunyi dekat markas Polwil Pekalongan.

Dan terbukti aman.

 

  1. 19 November 2005
  • Burhanuddin: Serahkan Kalla, reshuffle pasti segera beres.

Wah, bisa-bisa jadi kabinet Golkar!

  • Bantuan langsung tunai tahap kedua diperkirakan tertunda.

Berarti keruwetan tahap kedua masih agaklama …

  • Puluhan dokter di Kediri tak punya izin praktik.

Nggak beda dong, dengan dukun!

 

  1. 20 December 2005
  • Mega yakin Pemilu 2009 PDIP kalahkan Golkar.

Caranya, bikin posko yang banyak!

  • Penyimpangan keimigrasian dinilai sangat serius.

Begitu seriusnya, sampai sudah jadi kewajaran …

  • SBY: Kita harus menjadi the winner, bukanthe looser.

Sudah Pak, khususnya untuk urusan korupsi!

 

 

  1. 21 December 2005
  • Kepala BIN: Teroris berencana culik pejabat.

Kalau pejabat yang korup, silakan!

  • Ketua DPR kecewa kunjungan BURT ke Mesir.

Mestinya ngelencer ke mana, dong?

  • Akbar: Kalla jangan ceplas-ceplos.

Kalau nggak begitu, nggak ngetop, Bung!

 

  1. 22 December 2005
  • Djoko Edhi: Kunjungan BURT ke Mesir sia-sia.

Kunjungannya sia-sia, tapi ngelencernya tidak.

  • Pollycarpus divonis 14 tahun penjara.

Dan tanpa ditemani pramugari.

  • SBY perintahkan Kapolri ungkap dalang pembunuh Munir.

Yang jelas bukan Pak Manteb!

 

  1. 23 December 2005
  • BIN juga diperintah presiden tuntaskan kasus Munir.

Kalau nggak bisa, ya kebangetan!

  • Jika tak hati-hati, diprediksikan 2006 kredibilitas SBY-Kalla bisa jatuh.

Jika mau hati-hati, ya agak lama dikitlah …

  • Aa Gym rekrut 1.000 mantan anggota GAM.

Sekarang boleh dipanggil Aa GAM!

 

  1. 24 December 2005
  • Kasat Narkoba Polres Sumbawa mati overdosis.

Benar-benar narkoba makan tuan!

  • Kasus Munir, SBY minta Kapolri serius ungkap pelaku lain.

Pelakunya sedang serius berusaha agar tidak terungkap.

  • Parpol dan DPR lembaga terkorup di Indonesia.

Lembaga lain, lumayan korup …

 

  1. 27 December 2005
  • Pimpinan DPR: Kunjungan anggota BURTke Mesir sudah sesuai rencana.

Rencananya memang mau ngelencer, kok!

  • Paskah Suzzeta: Jadi menteri, bobot turun3 kilo.

Jangan kuatir, toh bobot kantong nambah!

  • Pollycarpus mengajak tiga anaknya surati SBY.

Mbok ya SMS saja …

 

  1. 28 December 2005
  • Pramono Anung: Saat ini PDIP sedangsolid-solidnya.

Buktinya, pada keluar sama-sama dan bikinpartai baru!

  • Manipulasi pulsa, Telkomkebobolan triliunan rupiah.

Bisa jadi alasan untuk naikkan tarif, nih!

  • Prihatin judi, Rhoma Irama temui Kapolri.

Judi No! Dangdut Yes!

 

  1. 29 December 2005
  • Rencana impor beras Januari dibatalkan.

Itu yang resmi, yang nggak resmi jalan terus…

  • Usman Hamid: Kasus Munir, Polri belum serius.

Takut barangkali…

  • Kepala Bea Cukai Manado terlibat penyelundupan HP.

Ketik A (spasi) copot saja!

 

  1. 30 December 2005
  • Alasan berobat, Tommy Soeharto ke Jakarta lagi.

Ah, paling juga mau tahun baruan!

  • Good Governance, Indonesia terendah di Asia.

Good… Good… Good…!

  • Pimpinan Jemaah Eden mengaku sebagai Malaikat Jibril.

Malaikat kok digerebek …

 

  1. 9 January 2006
  • Gus Dur: Soros sekarang beda dengan yang dulu…

Iya, dulu George yang bikin soro (sengsara)…

  • Di Malang, seorang pemancing tewas tertimbun tanah longsor.

Bencana kok rutin…

 

  • KRHN: 95 persen hakim agung tak layak.

5 persen sisanya di bawah standar, ya?

 

  1. 10 January 2006
  • Penggantian pimpinan TNI, 11 panglima minta tidak dipolitisasi.

Ah, mana mungkin?

  • Ketua PC NU Jember: Jangan tutupi penyebab banjir.

Toh penyebabnya sudah jelas: Air!

  • Menteri Kehutanan: Hutan lindung di Jawa kritis.

Nggak bias buat sembunyi penjahatnya Unyil lagi…

 

  1. 11 January 2006
  • Palsukan faktur pajak, tiga petugas pajakdiperiksa.

Yang belum ketahuan masih serombongan!

  • Kasus bom Palu masih gelap.

Semoga tidak habis gelap terbit bom lagi!

  • Parpol ramai-ramai berkurbansapi dankambing.

Setahun sekali, bukan rakyat yang dikorbankan.

 

  1. 13 January 2006
  • Denny lndrayana: Korupsi sudah masuk kejahatan luar biasa.

Yang ditangkap yang kelas biasa-biasa saja…

  • Diusulkan ada tempat penitipan anak di DPR.

Lama-lama bakal ada usul penitipan WIL, nih!

  • Ketua DPR dinilai kurang tegas menyikapi impor beras.

Kalau tegas, ya bukan ketua DPR, dong!

 

  1. 31 December 2005
  • Prediksi 2006, Kamtibmas berat, tapi kondusif.

Jangan-jangan, kondusif juga buat teroris?

  • BLT tahap II mulai 2 Januari.

Selamat datang kaum miskin baru!

  • Golkar gelar donor darah masal.

Darahnya pasti kuning!

 

 

  1. 2 January 2006
  • Pelaku bom Palu konon teroris lama.

Lama atau baru yang jelas harus ditangkap!

  • Amien: Lawan koruptor sejati butuh keberanian.

Sebenarnya butuh Pak Amien, gitu loh…

  • Garuda maskapai terlemah di Asia.

Wah, nomor satu lagi kita…

 

  1. 3 January 2006
  • Ketua MPR minta SBY evaluasi kinerja BIN.

Kalau perlu, ya di-reshuffle saja!

  • Pembayaran BLT tahap II dimulai.

Musim kaum kere berebut lagi…

  • Kasus formalin dinilai karena keteledoranpemerintah.

Dan kelihaian tukang bakso!

 

  1. 4 January 2006
  • Longsor dan banjir bandang Ianda Jember.

Tahun baru, bencana baru…

  • Solidaritas longsor Jember, pimpinan MPR-DPR potong gaji.

Kok cuma pimpinan, anggotanya mana, dong?

  • BPOM janji tindak tegas penyalahgunaan formalin.

Baru sekarang. Kemarin-kemarin ke mana?

 

  1. 5 January 2006
  • Kontras: Polisi peringkat kesatu pelaku tindak kekerasan.

Dan paling sering lolos…

  • Amien: Sutanto capres kuat 2009 mendatang.

Pak Amien sendiri masih kuat nggak?

  • Penulisan sejarah G 30 S PKI berjalan alot.

Minta petunjuk Pak Harto, dong!

 

  1. 6 January 2006
  • Bentrok antarmahasiswa terjadi lagi di Makassar.

Status mahasiswa, otak masih TK!

  • Tujuh wilayah rawan bencana karena cuaca buruk.

Tapi yang pasti, karena nasib buruk…

 

  • SBY: Inflasi 2005 lebih baik dari 1966.

Korupsinya juga jauh lebih hebat!

 

  1. 7 January 2006
  • Direktur LBH: Hak perempuan masih diabaikan.

Maklum, masih dijajah pria sejak dulu…

  • Masa kerja KPU diperpanjang.

Wah, bisa korupsi lagi, dong?

  • DPR pastikan tolak impor beras.

Mending impor beras, daripada ngelencernggak jelas!

NON EQUIVALENCE AT WORD LEVEL IN THE ENGLISH TRANSLATION OF ANWAR FUADI’S RANTAU 1 MUARA

(Kutipan referensi/citation: Jurnal Linguistik terapan Vol 3/1, Mei 2013)

Iwik Pratiwi

 

 

by Iwik Pratiwi

SMK Negeri 2 Malang

Master’s candidate in Applied Linguistics at FIB of Brawijaya University

 

ABSTRACT

Rantau 1 Muara is the the last novel of the trilogy is the last trilogy of Negeri 5 Menara, written by Anwar Fuadi. The novel settings include, one of them, the unique life of pesantren. Because it is so unique, the translation into English may face problems as many of the concepts talked about are bound to Javanese or Islamic culture. Thus, it can be predicted that some problems should appear. To prove this, the writer translates one chapter and report the problem and how to solve the problems. This “translator reseacher” kind of research shows that the problems of non-equivalence are resulted from not only the author’s uses of local dialects and Arabic Islamic terms also the lexical and semantic field of the source words or expressions. More specifically the problems include cultural specific context, source text not lexicalized in target text, semantically complex source text, source text and target text making different distinction in meaning, differences in expressive meaning, differences in form, and loan words in source text. To make the translation of the text into English readable and relatable as possible, syntactic, semantic and pragmatic strategies, are adopted.

Keywords: Source Text (ST), Target Text (TT), equivalence, semantic field, lexical set, strategies

 

In Translation Studies, equivalence is an important concept. There are many levels of equivalence, and word level equivalence is the lowest level. Although translators do not normally work on word-for-word equivalence, the discussion may serve as the basic step in dealing with non equivalence found in the source text.

EQUIVALENCE AT WORD LEVEL

Baker (1992) defines word as the smallest unit of language which we would expect to possess individual meaning. In translation, everything would be easier if there were a one-to-one relationship between words and meaning in the various languages. But it isn’t so.

According to Cruse, in Baker (1992), there are four types of meaning on words and utterances: propositional meaning, expressive meaning, presupposed meaning and evoked meaning. Presupposed meaning arises from selectional and collocational restrictions, while evoked meaning arises from dialect and register variation which covers field, tenor and mode of discourse. All types of the above lexical meaning contribute to the overall meaning of utterance or a text. In case of problems of non equivalence, Baker suggests that it is useful to view the semantic fields and lexical sets of a language. Understanding the semantic field and lexical sets can be useful to appreciate the value that a word has in a given system and to develop strategies for dealing with non equivalence.

 

CONCEPTUAL AND LEXICAL SEMANTIC ASPECTS OF THE SOURCE TEXT (ST)

General Overview of the Novel

Rantau 1 Muara is the last trilogy of Negeri 5 Menara, written by Anwar Fuadi, whose writing has inspired millions of people. The trilogy is inspired by the author’s enlightening education experience at Pondok Modern Gontor, an Islamic boarding school in East Java The first novel has been translated into English by Angie Kilbane and published in 2011. The translation of the second and third sequels are still in question. Part 17, Maghrib Terhebat, describes Alif’s first meeting with Dinara, the girl he falls in love with. The author of the novel who puts himself as the main character, is a member of Islamic community and spent some years in Islamic boarding school or pesantren. His utterances are mostly informal mixed with Islamic terms. He also uses many highly expressive items in this part, such as : enaknya, sebel, lega, salah sendiri, ini gawat, gombal, hebat juga dia, etc.

Concept of Islamic Prayers

The title of part 17, The Greatest Maghrib, refers to one of five most well-known Islamic prayers performed daily : at dawn (shubuh), midday (zuhur), afternoon (‘asr), sunset (maghrib) and evening (‘isha). At the five appointed times, a muazin announces a call to prayer (azan), traditionally from a mosque’s minaret. Shalat must always be preceded by ablutions (wudu’) of ritually washing the face, hands, and feet. This can be done with sand when water is not available. (Qur’an 5:6; also 2:222, 4:43.) Shalat is always directed in the direction (qiblat) of the Ka’ba shrine in Mecca. It may be performed individually, but it carries special merit when done with other Muslims (jama’ah). A prayer mat (sajada) is commonly used during the shalat.

When performing salat jama’ah at the mosque, worshippers are aligned in parallel rows behind the prayer leader (imam), who directs them through the rak’as (prescribed postures and recitations). Islamic prayer begins in a standing position with a glorification to God which called takbir, then moves through several simple postures until the supplicant is kneeling.

Specified recitations are said in each posture. The content of prayer is glorification of God, recitations of the Qur’an, and blessings on the Prophet. Shalat concludes with the taslima (greeting), “Peace be upon you,” even when praying alone.

Shalat and other Islamic rituals and practices can be easily observed in various aspect of Indonesian culture. As many other Islamic countries, Indonesian selectional and collocational restrictions are also typical and need to be treated carefully to avoid awkward wording in English, since English does not normally have equivalence for: memimpin doa, shalat berjamaah, mengirim doa, membaca tartil, mengambil wudhu, etc.

Differences in the structure of semantic field in Indonesia and English is notably challenging, therefore, assessing the value of given item in a lexical set is always desirable. The word malu in ST, for example, has at least three different meanings in TT: shy, embarrassed, ashamed. Also, while ST differs sholat from doa, TT has a single equivalent: prayer.

 

RESEARCH METHODS

This paper is a report of a small research. This is a kind of annotated translation, where the translator reports the translation problems and how to solve them while she was translating. The data are taken from a novel by Anwar Fuadi, namely Part 17 of the novel: Rantau 1 Muara, by Anwar Fuadi, which entitled Maghrib Terhebat. Because the novel is so unique, the translation into English may face problems as many of the concepts talked about are bound to Javanese or Islamic culture. Thus, it can be predicted that some problems should appear. To prove this, the writer translates one chapter and report the problem and how to solve the problems.

Then, the writer discusses the problems of non-equivalence at word level in the translation she did as well as some strategies for dealing with them. The discussion of the translation is mainly referring to equivalence presented by Baker (1992) in her book, In Other Words, providing the background knowledge and approaches related to non-equivalence before contrasting some typical conceptual and lexical semantic fields to prove that there is a considerable linguistic gap between Indonesian and English. The proposed strategies for dealing with problems of non equivalence are mainly adopted from Chesterman (1997) in Hariyanto (2013). Finally, the writer also presents the result of the translation to show the different side of pesantren that are not widely seen by people throughout the world, especially in the post 9-11 world, when pondok or pesantren often gets unfairly stereotyped.

 

DISCUSSION

Problems of Non Equivalence in the Translation

The local dialects and the uses of Arabic widely used in the novel are the main challenge due to non equivalence at word level in the translation of the text into English, that is to say that the TT has no direct equivalent for a word which occurs in ST. The followings are the problems of non equivalence found in ST, referring to Baker’s classification:

  1. Cultural specific context, i.e.: kampungan, bukan basa basi, mengirim doa, membaca secara tartil, sandal jepit, etc.
  2. Source Text (ST) is not lexicalized in Target Text (TT), i.e.: shalat, azan, wudhu, mukena, etc.
  3. The ST is semantically complex, i.e. : saling menjajaki, gombal, enaknya, etc
  4. ST and TT make different distinction in meaning, i.e. : malu (may means shy, ashamed or embarrassed in TT)
  5. Differences in expressive meaning: menambat hatiku, mencuri pandang, bergelung etc.
  6. Differences in form : narasumber, berpikir ulang, kampungan, malasmalasan, etc.
  7. Loan words in ST : Maghrib, tartil, jamaah, (borrowed from Arabic)

 

TRANSLATION STRATEGIES

To deal with the above problems of non equivalence, syntactic, semantic and pragmatic strategies, following Chesterman (1997) in Hariyanto (2013), are adopted to make the translation of the text into English readable and relatable as possible. The discussion is presented in a table of three columns consisting strategy, hint and example of language item found on ST. The examples are provided with the line number of the language items to provide easier review on the text development. Although only strategies used for dealing with non equivalence at word level will be presented,  a full linguistic account of its meaning is somehow desirable.

Syntactic Strategies

Following Chesterman (1997) ten syntactic strategies which involve pure syntactic changes 1) literal translation, 2) loan: Calque, naturalization, 3) transposition, 4) unit shift, 5) phrase structure change, 6) clause structure change, 7) sentence structure change, 8) cohesion change, 9) level shift and 10) scheme change), the translation of the text applies the followings:

Table 1: Samples of Syntactic Strategies

Iwik 1

 

Iwik 2

 

Semantic Strategies

Chesterman suggests changes mainly related to lexical semantics and sometimes aspects of clause meaning such as emphasis which includes:  1) synonyms, 2) antonyms, 3) hyponyms, 4) converses, 5) abstraction change, 6) distribution change, 7) emphasis change, 8) paraphrase, 9) trope change and other semantic changes.

Table 2: Samples of Semantic Strategies

Iwik 3

Iwik 4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pragmatic Strategies

Unlike the previous strategies which manipulate meanings, these strategies manipulate message and tend to involve bigger from the ST, and typically involve syntactic and /or semantic changes as well. Chesterman (1997) categorizes pragmatic strategies into : 1) cultural filtering, 2) explicitness, 3) information change, 4) interpersonal change, 5) illocutionary change, 6) coherence change, 7) partial translation 8) visibility change, 9) transediting, and 10) other pragmatic changes.

Table 3. Samples of Pragmatic Strategies

Iwik 5

 

CONCLUSIONS

The translation of part 17 : Maghrib Terhebat, under the principles of equivalence is basically aimed at producing the English version of the text that is equivalent with the source text which is written in Indonesian. The problem of equivalence in translating this novel into English is quite significant not only because the author uses a lot of local dialects and Arabic Islamic terms in his novel, but the lexical and semantic field of the ST also has all kinds of non equivalence. Retaining it as much of the original flavor would be impossible without adequate insight about culture and ability to choose the most equivalent language items.

Although the strategies dealing with the problems of non equivalence is adopted for word level, the discussion of sentence level is unavoidable, since translators are not normally looking at every word in isolation and always expected to present the translation with a full linguistic account of meaning. Other strategies and differences between the ST and TT are preferably studied for further discussion.

REFERENCES

Baker, M. 1992. In Other Words: A Coursebook on Translation. Routledge: London.

Grundy, P .2000 Doing Pragmatics. Oxford University Press: New York

Halliday, Mathiessen, 1985. Systemic Functional Linguistics.Hodder Education Publisher, New York. Halliday, Mathiessen. Systemic Functional Linguistics.Hodder Education Publisher, New York.

Hariyanto, Sugeng.2007. Globalization and Web Site Translation. Paper presented at the national Seminar and Workshop on Translation in the Globalized World. Politeknik Negeri Malang, 8 December 2007)

Hariyanto, Sugeng.2013. Translation Theoretical Overview and Practical Pointers. Unpublished Handbook.

Fuady, Anwar. 2011. The Land of Five Towers. Translated by Angie Kilbane. Gramedia Pustaka Utama.Jakarta.

Fuady, Anwar. 2013. Ranau Satu Muara. Gramedia Pustaka Utama. Jakarta

 

 

APPENDIX

Iwik 6Iwik 7Iwik 8Iwik 9Iwik 10

The Effectiveness of Peer Tutoring to Teach Reading Viewed from Students’ Self-Esteem

(An Experimental Research in the Second Semester Students of English Department of UNISKA Kediri in the Academic Year of 2011/2012)

(Kutipan referensi/citation: Jurnal Linguistik terapan Vol 3/1, Mei 2013)

 

By Arina Chusnatayaini and Eka Wulandari

 

ABSTRACT

This research aims at finding out whether: (1) Peer Tutoring technique is more effective than Direct Instruction in teaching reading to the second semester students of English department of UNISKA in the Academic Year of 2011/2012; (2) the second semester students of English department of UNISKA who have high self-esteem have better reading skill than those having low self-esteem; and (3) there is interaction between teaching techniques and students’ self-esteem in teaching reading.

The method which was applied in this research was an experimental study. The research was conducted at UNISKA Kediri in the academic year of 2011/2012. The population of the research was the second semester students of UNISKA Kediri. Two samples were taken by using cluster random sampling technique. Class B1 was used as the experimental class and class B2 as the control class. Each class consists of 22 students. The steps for the research were: (1) distributing self-esteem questionnaire to know students’ self-esteem; (2) applying teaching techniques to the students; (3) distributing post test; and (4) analyzing the students’ reading ability. The data were obtained from self-esteem questionnaire and reading test. Furthermore, to analyze the data, the researcher applied descriptive and inferential statistics using ANOVA and Tukey’s test.

The result of the study leads to the conclusions that: (1) Peer Tutoring is more effective than Direct Instruction to teach reading for the second semester students of UNISKA Kediri in the Academic Year of 2011/2012; (2) The students who have high self-esteem have better reading ability than those who have low self-esteem; and (3) There is an interaction between teaching techniques and students’ self-esteem to teach reading at the second semester students of UNISKA Kediri. Finally, the results of this research imply that Peer Tutoring is more effective than Direct Instruction to teach reading.

Keywords: reading, peer tutoring, direct instruction, self-esteem

===

Reading is one of four skills that must be mastered by students of English Education program. Reading taught in university becomes a demanded skill which students have to master. Through reading, they are able to comprehend the content of the subject matters and catch the information. Thus, it is very important for advanced level students to master reading skill, because reading would give them knowledge, information, and indirect experience.

Therefore, students must have an ability to comprehend texts. The understanding of the text varies according to both one’s knowledge of the word and the purpose one has in reading. It also varies according to one’s knowledge of language and of text types. A reader has several possible purposes for reading, and each purpose emphasizes a different combination of skills and strategies. Reading emphasizes many criteria that define the nature of fluent reading abilities, it also reveals the many skills, processes, and knowledge bases that act in combination, and often in parallel, to create the overall reading comprehension abilities. It is necessary to have adequate understanding to suit a purpose since it is central to reading.

However, many students have low reading skill which can be seen from their achievement. They have difficulties to know the words in the text and they have low understanding of the message from the text. The students probably know the words but they do not know the meaning of the text. Some students may know the meaning of the words or vocabularies of the text but they cannot get the message of the text. Even, there are some students who do not know the meaning of the text at all.

There are many factors influence teaching learning. The first factor is the technique of teaching. Technique of teaching is one of the important factors in the teaching learning process. There are many kinds of techniques. One of them is Peer Tutoring technique. Peer tutoring technique can be applied in teaching reading. Peer tutoring is a collaborative learning strategy in which students alternate between the role of tutor and tutee in pairs or groups.

Peer tutoring refers to students working in pairs to help one another learn material or practice an academic task. Peer tutoring works best when students of different ability levels work together (Kunsh, Jitendra & Sood, 2010). During a peer tutoring assignment, it is common for the teacher to have students switch roles partway through. Since explaining a concept to another person helps extend one’s own learning, this practice gives both students the opportunity to better understand the material being studied.

In addition, peer tutoring is a type of instructional strategy in which students are taught by their peers, who have been trained and supervised by the teacher. Peer tutoring involves having students work in pairs, with another student of the same age or grade. Peer tutoring is an extremely powerful way to improve students’ academic, social, and behaviors (Gresham, 2010).

However, many teachers still apply direct instruction technique in teaching reading. The activity in direct instruction technique is teacher-centered. Direct instruction technique encourages one-way communication. Students just become the followers and depend on the teacher during the teaching-learning process. It makes the students passively participate the teaching learning process. The students just receive the materials from the teacher without any discussion or sharing with other students

The second factor that influences the learning process is the affective domain. Affective as stated by Brown (2000: 143) refers to emotion and feelings. It is considered as the emotional side of human behavior. Affective factors in reading include attitude, motivation, self-esteem, and self-actualization (Davies, 1995: 73). Brown in Aebersold and Field (2000: 8) details several individual factors that influence language learning, including self-esteem, inhibition, risk-taking, anxiety, and motivation. They can be positive or negative factors. All of these factors operate in reading classroom as well. For this reason, researchers call upon reducing anxiety and inhibition and enhancing students’ motivation and self-esteem in the classroom context.

Self-esteem is the evaluation which the individual makes and customarily maintains with regard to himself; it expresses an attitude of approval or disapproval, and indicates the extent to which an individual believes himself to be capable, significant, successful, and worthy (Coopersmith in Brown, 2000: 103). Such evaluation is built up through repeated experiences of success and failure, other people’s impressions, and the self-appraisals in relation to ideal selves.

Self-esteem plays a crucial role in learning since it is the best predictors of academic success. It appears that high self-esteem is both a cause and a consequence of better academic grades (Biggs and Watkins, 1995: 75). Educators have long realized that self-esteem plays a crucial role in learning. Students with high esteem forge ahead academically while those with low esteem fall behind (Atwater, 1990: 155).

To make the students achieve adequate skill in reading, the writer applies Peer Tutoring technique on the consideration that it can improve the students’ reading skill and encourage students’ active role in the teaching learning process. It also to know whether peer tutoring technique is suitable for students who have high self-esteem or those who have low self-esteem, and to know whether expository technique is suitable for students who have high self-esteem or those who have low self-esteem. Since students’ self esteem and the method of teaching applied by the teachers are important factors in teaching reading, the writers were interested in conducting a research entitled: THE EFFECTIVENESS OF PEER TUTORING TO TEACH READING VIEWED FROM STUDENTS’ SELF-ESTEEM.

 

RESERCH METHODOLODY

Research Objectives

This research is find out whether:

  1. Peer tutoring technique is more effective than direct instruction to teach reading in the second semester students of English Department of UNISKA Kediri in the academic year of 2011/2012
  2. The students who have high self-esteem have better reading skill than those who have low self-esteem in the second semester students of English Department of UNISKA Kediri in the academic year of 2011/2012
  3. There is an interaction between teaching techniques and self-esteem to teach reading in the second semester students of English Department of UNISKA Kediri in the academic year of 2011/2012

Research Design

Experimental study is chosen in conducting this research. The purpose of experimental study is to determine cause-and-effect relationship. Through experimentations, cause and effect relationship can be identified. Because of this ability to identify caution, the experimental approach has come to represent the prototype of scientific method for solving problems (Johnson and Cristensen, 2000: 23).

The experimental research in this study involves three kinds of variable. They are two independent variables and one dependent variable. The two independent variables are teaching techniques and the students’s self-esteem, and the dependent variable is reading skill.

Research Setting

This research was conducted in Universitas Islam Kadiri (UNISKA), Kediri which is located on Jl. Sersan Suharmaji no. 38 Kediri.

 Research Subjects

The population of this research was all second semester students of English Department, UNISKA Kediri in the academic year of 2011/2012. The total number of the population in this research was 75 students who were divided into 3 classes, B1, B2, and B3.

Research Procedure

This research was conducted from January 2012 to July 2012. The factorial design was used in this experiment study because it allows the researchers to study the interaction of an independent variable with one or more variables. The factorial design is as follows:

ermyna-1

 

 

 

 

 

 

Research Instruments

1. Questionnaire      

Fraennkel and Wallen (1993: 79) say that questionnaire is an instrument that can be used for collecting data in a research. In a questionnaire, the subjects respond to the questions by writing or, more commonly, marking an answer sheet. The researchers gave a sheet of questionnaire dealing with students’ self-esteem. It is a cloze questionnaire, where the students must answer some statements by choosing alternative answer given by the researcher. The questionnaire consists of 50 statements with four-point rating scale measuring their self-esteem.

The questionnaire must be valid and reliable before it is administered in the experimental and control class. To check the validity and the reliability of the questionnaire, firstly, the researchers tried it out to the students of the class which does not belong to the experimental and control class.

  1. Validity

The validity of the questionnaire is analyzed by using the following formula (Biserial Point Correlation):

(Ary in Ngadiso, 2006: 2)

If ro is higher than rt, the item is valid.

 

  1. Reliability

O’Malley(1996: 19) states that reliability is the consistency of the assessment in producing the same score on different testing occasions or with different raters. Brown (2004: 20) states that a reliable test is consistent and dependable.

Then, to know the reliability of the questionnaire, the following Alpha Formula is used:

(Ary in Ngadiso, 2006: 2)

If rkk is higher than rt, the instrument is reliable.

The research uses a Likert scale using four points instead of five points, in which the interval between each point on the scale is assumed to be equal. The undecided point is omitted to avoid   neutral answers, since mostly students tend to choose the neutral answers. It is used to register the extent of agreement and disagreement to a particular statement.

The items of the questionnaire are in the positive and negative direction. The score is as follows:

Table 1.2. Likert Scale

Answer Positive Item Negative Items
SAADSD 4321 1234

 

Note: SA (Strongly Agree), A (Agree), D (Disagree), SD (Strongly Disagree)

 

  1. Reading Test

Arikunto (2010: 139) defines that test is a set of questions or exercises or other means used to measure skill, knowledge, intelligence, ability, or talent of an individuals or group of people. Based on the definition above, a test is a profile of the study results in the written form. This profile is then used to know standard of students’ achievement. For educators, this profile will be used to determine the next learning process. In administering a test, it is important to set and determine an understandable instruction.

The reading test is used to know the students’ ability in reading. The reading test is in form of objective test with four options. Instruments, questionnaire and reading test must be valid and reliable. Therefore, the questionnaire and reading test are tried out to know the validity and reliability at the first step. It is done before the treatment. The try out is done to the other class which doesn’t belong to experimental and the control one. At the end the valid and reliable items are used to get the data. The reading test is conducted after treatment.

The formula that is used to know the validity of reading test is:

If ro is higher than rt the item is valid.

Then, the reliability of the test is analyzed using the following formula:

rkk=

If rkk is higher than rt, the instrument is reliable.

After all instruments are valid and reliable, they can be used to get the data. The reading test was conducted after treatment as the post test.

 

Techniques of Analyzing the Data

The writers use a descriptive analysis and inferential analysis in this research. The descriptive analysis is used to know the mean, median, mode, and standard deviation of the score of reading. Meanwhile, the normality and homogeneity of the data should also be known, they must be done before testing the hypothesis.

Then, multifactor analysis of variance 2×2 (ANOVA 2×2) was used to test the hypothesis. Ho is rejected if Fo > Ft and if Ho is rejected the analysis is continued to know the difference of the groups by using Tukey Test. The design of multifactor analysis of variance is as follows:

 

Table 1.3. The Design of Multifactor Analysis of Variance or 2X2 ANOVA

 

         Teaching Technique Self-esteem Peer TutoringA1 Direct InstructionA2 Result
High B1 A1B1 A2 B1
Low B2 A1 B2 A2 B2
Result

 

Note:

A1B1: the mean score of reading test of students having high self-esteem who are taught by using peer tutoring

A2B1 : the mean score of reading test of students having high self-esteem who are taught by Direct Instruction technique

A1B2 : the mean score of reading test of students having low self-esteem who are taught by using peer tutoring

A2B2 : the mean score of reading test of students having low self-esteem who are taught by using Direct Instruction technique

A1   : the mean score of reading test of experimental class which is taught by using peer tutoring

A2          : the mean score of reading test of control class which is taught by Direct Instruction technique

B1        : the mean score of reading test of students having high self-esteem

B2        : the mean score of reading test of students having low self-esteem

After analyzing the data by ANOVA 2×2, the writer uses Tukey test to find the level of mean difference. The finding of q is found by dividing the difference between the means by the square root of the ratio of the within group variation and the sample size.

 

Statistical Hypothesis

The statistical hypotheses for this research were as follow:

a. The difference between Peer tutoring technique and Direct Instruction technique to teach reading to the second semester students of UNISKA Kediri

Ho: µ A1 = µ A2

H1: µ A1 > µ A2

 

Note:

Ho : There is no significant difference in reading ability between the students who are taught by using Peer tutoring tehnique and students who are taught by using Direct Instruction tehnique.

H1 : The students who are taught by using Peer tutoring technique have better reading ability than students who are taught by using Direct Instruction technique.

 

b. The difference in reading ability between students who have low level of self-esteem with the students who have high level of self-esteem in reading.

Ho: µ B1 = µ B2

H1: µ B1 > µ B2

Note:

Ho : There is no significant difference in reading ability between the students who have low level of self-esteem and students who have high level of self-esteem

H1 : The students who have high level of self-esteem have better reading than the students who have low level of self-esteem

c. The interaction between teaching techniques and students’ self-esteem in teaching reading.

Ho: µA × µB = O

H1 : µA × µB > O

Note:

Ho: There is no interaction between teaching techniques and students’ self-esteem in reading. It means that the effect of self-esteem level on writing ability does not depend on teaching technique.

H1: There is an interaction effect between teaching techniques and students’ self-esteem in teaching writing. It means that the effect of self-esteem level on reading depends on teaching techniques.

 

Result and Discussion

The data collected in this research were analyzed using ANOVA followed by Tukey Test. The hypothesis testing is to know whether the null hypotheses (Ho) will be rejected or accepted. The data analysis by using ANOVA can be summed up as follows:

  1. Fobservation (Fo) between columns,the comparative analysis between the effect of teaching reading using peer tutoring and direct instruction, shows the value of 6.86. The F table (Ft) at the level of significant α = 0.05 (Ft(.05)) is 4.08. Fo (6.86) is higher than Ft(.05) (4.08). Ho stating that there is no significant difference between Peer Tutoring and Direct Instruction is rejected. Then, a conclusion can be drawn that there is a significant difference between Peer tutoring and Direct Instruction to teach reading. The mean score of the students taught peer tutoring technique (62.09) is higher than the mean score of the students who are taught by using direct instruction (56.90). It means that peer tutoring technique is more effective than direct instruction to teach reading.
  1. The value of Fo between rows, the comparative analysis of the learning achievement between the students having high self esteem and those having low self esteem, is 123.77. Fo (123.77) is higher than Ft at the significance level α = 0.05 (Ft(.05)(4.08)). Ho stating that there is no significant difference between students’ high and low self-esteem upon the students’ reading skill is rejected. It means that there is a significant difference between students’ high and low self-esteem upon the students’ reading ability. The mean of reading scores of students who have high self-esteem (70.05) is higher than the mean scores of students who have low self-esteem (48.05). It can be concluded that students who have high self-esteem have better reading competence than those having low self-esteem.
  1. The value of Fo interaction, the interaction between teaching techniques and self esteem, is 42.61. So, Fo interaction (42.61) is higher than Ft at the significance level α = 0.05 (Ft(.05)(4.08)). Ho stating that there is no interaction between teaching technique and the self-esteem upon the students’ reading ability is rejected. It means that there is an interaction between the teaching techniques and self-esteem. It can be concluded that the effect of teaching techniques on the students’ ability in reading depends on students’ self-esteem.

From the findings above, it can be concluded that:

Peer tutoring is more effective than direct instruction to teach reading.

Peer tutoring is a type of collaborative learning strategy in which students support each other’s learning rather than relying solely on an adult teacher, it is one of the types of collaborative approaches where pairs of students interact to assist each other’s academic achievement by one student adopting the role of a tutor and the other has the role of a tutee. Peer tutoring has also been well validated for promoting the development of low-level skills, such as reading.

Peer tutoring can enhance learning by enabling learners to take responsibility for reviewing, organizing, and consolidating existing knowledge and material; understanding its basic structure; filling in the gaps; finding additional meanings, and reformulating knowledge into new conceptual frameworks. in either co-peer or near peer situations, both learners are likely to understand the material better by applying it in the peer tutoring setting.

When peer tutoring is used, the instructional environment usually becomes more learner (as opposed to the teacher) directed, and the learners have a more significant role in helping model of the learning. The teacher becomes a co-learner and facilitator, acting as a guide and a coach. The teacher is no longer the person with all answers; instead, the teacher talks with learners and offers opinions, explores strategies, and helps set goals.

In conclusion, peer tutoring gives teacher specific instructional techniques to helps students improve their skill and critical thinking abilities. It can become an important learning element that assist the students in learning how to solve problems, collaborate with others, and think creatively.

On the other hand, direct instruction is the oldest teaching technique. The activity in direct instruction technique is teacher-centered. Direct instruction technique encourages one-way communication. Students just become the followers and depend on the teacher during the teaching-learning process. It makes the students passively participate the teaching learning process. The students just receive the materials from the teacher without any discussion or sharing with other students. Since reading process requires the students for being active and not depending to the teacher, it will not gain best result if direct instruction is applied in the teaching reading because it does not give enough challenge for the students to develop their achievement. Finally, the result of this study shows that peer tutoring technique is more effective than direct instruction to teach reading.

 

The students who have high self-esteem have better reading ability than the students who have low self-esteem.

Self-esteem is the evaluation which the individual makes and customarily maintains with regard to himself; it expresses an attitude of approval or disapproval, and indicates the extent to which an individual believes himself to be capable, significant, successful, and worthy (Coopersmith in Brown, 2000: 103). Such evaluation is built up through repeated experiences of success and failure, other people’s impressions, and the self-appraisals in relation to ideal selves.

Self-esteem plays a crucial role in learning since it is the best predictors of academic success. It appears that high self-esteem is both a cause and a consequence of better academic grades (Biggs and Watkins, 1995: 75). Educators have long realized that self-esteem plays a crucial role in learning. Students with high esteem forge ahead academically while those with low esteem fall behind (Atwater, 1990: 155).

In addition, self-esteem is considered as one of the important affective factors because success or failure of a person depends mostly on the degree of one’s self-esteem. The students who have high self esteem will be encouraged if the teacher gives them a chance to involve in teaching learning process. They have better attitude in joining the teaching and learning process. They have high interest to pay attention to the teacher and all of the activities in the class and always do the reading task well. They are not bored in joining the class because they are more active than the students who have low self esteem. It means that the students who have high self esteem will have high ability in understanding the text.

The students who have low level of self esteem don’t have any interest in joining the learning process and they do so since they don’t have desire to learn more. They have little attention to the teacher and the material that is given. They are passive in the class and tend to listen the teacher’s explanation during the lesson rather than express the opinion and ask the question. Their low self esteem makes them unable to express their ideas better. This can be seen from the results of their reading ability in which the scores of both control and experimental groups are lower than those having high level of self esteem from both groups given treatment.

 

There is an interaction between teaching techniques and self-esteem in teaching reading.

In reading process, the teacher also needs to use suitable technique that motivates the students to join the class. Direct instruction can’t motivate the students because this technique just focuses on the academic content. The students are passive in learning. On the other hand, peer tutoring technique requires the students to be active in learning process.

In addition, peer tutoring is a type of instructional strategy in which students are taught by their peers, who have been trained and supervised by the teacher. Peer tutoring involves having students work in pairs, with another student of the same age or grade. Peer tutoring is an extremely powerful way to improve students’ academic, social, and behaviors.

The fact shows that the students having high self esteem perform very well in the class when they are taught by using peer tutoring, they attempt to be active in teaching learning process and do the task better. The students will not depend on the teacher and they try to find the meaning and messages from the text by themselves. This technique makes the students develop their social relation with other students. The students who have high level of self esteem will have high ability in reading many texts. They can read anything that the teacher gives to them. They will be active in joining the teaching learning process especially in reading because they have high level of self esteem. So, peer tutoring technique is more effective for the students having high self esteem in reading skill.

On the contrary, the students taught by using direct instruction learn reading material as usual. They don’t need to be more active, and just wait for their teacher’s translation and explanation to know the message of the text. They are passive in joining reading class and they are slower in doing the task. The students having low self esteem, therefore, will be suitable when they are taught using direct instruction in their classroom activity.

Finally, the result of this research shows that teaching techniques and self esteem play an important role to the students’ reading ability. This can be seen from the finding that the students who have high self esteem and who are taught by peer tutoring technique are able to get a better reading ability than those having low self esteem and taught by using direct instruction.

 

Conclusion

Referring to the result of this research, in general, Peer Tutoring is an effective technique to teach reading. Therefore, it is good to be applied in teaching reading for some reasons. First, Peer tutoring is very good way to get students involved in learning so that they are not just passive learners receiving the information. Second, students receive feedback and error correction immediately and more frequently. Third, students are able to work together in equal position and gain better understanding of the materials by learning from each other.

Self esteem determines the success of learning. Students with high self esteem perform better learning than those with low self esteem. This is because students with high self esteem perform harder effort to gain the goal of learning than those with low self esteem. Teachers, therefore, should always promote and stimulate students’ self esteem through various activities in which they can interact and share ideas with peer students.

Viewed from students’ self esteem, Peer tutoring is an effective technique of teaching reading for students with high self esteem. The students having high self esteem who are taught by using peer tutoring have higher score than the students having high self esteem who are taught by using direct instruction, while the students having low level of self esteem that are taught by using peer tutoring have lower score than the students having low self esteem who are taught by using direct instruction. It means that peer tutoring is well used for high self esteem and direct instruction is effective for low self esteem.

 

Suggestions

This research is expected to be useful for teachers, students, and future researchers, therefore, some suggestions are listed as follows:

For the teachers

Referring to the result of study, Peer Tutoring is effective for students’ reading skill. Teacher should use this model to improve the students’ reading skill. In choosing the technique of teaching, the teacher should consider some factors. One of the factors is students’ psychological condition including students’ self esteem. Self esteem influence the students in teaching learning process. The teacher has to know the students’ self esteem, so he/she can choose the appropriate technique for their students.

For the students

Students have to be more active in teaching learning process in order to improve their reading skill. For low self esteem student, they must be aware of the importance of active involvement in teaching learning process and their teacher is not only source in learning, then they have to encourage themselves. They also need to find other learning resources out of the given material in the classroom, such as from internet. This can be done by reading books related to the lesson or learning from electronic media such as TV, cassette, or CDs.

For the future researchers

A replication of this research design using Peer Tutoring can be done with some revisions. A similar research with different population characteristics is also possible. It may be worth while to have another research with different attributive variables such as students’ habit or interest.

 

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