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DEVELOPING ELECTRONIC ANIMATED MEDIA TO HELP STUDENTS OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOL UNDERSTAND MOTION PREPOSITIONS

Lusia Eni Puspandari

Surabaya Shipbuilding Institute of Polytechnic

luciaeni@yahoo.com

 

Abstract This paper is directed to find out an alternative way for students of Elementary School in understanding motion prepositions. The result of this study is in form of courseware which is directed to overcome learners’ difficulties in understanding and using motion prepositions. This study is used as an adjunct to English learning processes and this courseware can be accessed every time in indefinite pace as self-learning media based on the learners’ own ability.

In developing attractive learning media, the concept of independent learning and instructional animation are the basis of the study. It is supported by some components namely: attention-gaining material, pretest/posttest, instructional objectives, tutorial, content, exercises, and feedback.

The result of the try out shows that most of the students become more understand the uses and the differences of the motion prepositions in sentences.

 

Key words: Motion Prepositions, E-Learning Animated Media, Attention-gaining material, Instructional Objectives, Courseware

 

Introduction

In some developing countries, English is considered as second language or as foreign language. It is the principal language chosen for international business and for communication between countries all over the world. English is also used in all sides of human activities in that country, from science, education, entertainment, politics and others. All sides of human life are related to English as the International Language.

Indonesia, as one of developing country, considered English as a language that should be known by all people in the early ages. Previously, English was originally first taught in high schools, and it has been taught in primary or even pre-primary schools in the last decade. In addition, parents have introduced English to their children in their early ages by given them simple instruction or simple vocabulary. Some of them also send their children to language institutions to learn English at an age earlier then ever before. It is supported by Indonesia’s Minister of Education in his statement that English is intended to provide students an opportunity to gain science and at the same time develop their knowledge of English in anticipation of the environmental condition which has been influenced by the development of science, technology, arts, and cultures such that the knowledge of English is a demand.

The fact that English has been taught to the earlier ages created the English teachers to be more creative. A great deal of effort has been trying to make English teaching and learning interesting, especially for children. So many books are written in attractive way in order to attract learners’ motivation and attention to learn English. Firstly, the existence of children English books has accommodated the learners’ need of English but together with the advance of technology, they can not accomplish the learners’ needs. The role of teachers in creating good environment to learn English, and the teachers’ creativity become the most important thing for children in learning English.

Beside the creativity and the attractive books used in English learning, the used of technology is also has an important role in achieving successful English learning. Computer as a means of Information Technology development has proven that it holds a significant role in teaching learning process, especially in language learning.. Many language institutions and schools use computers as a supporting means in language teaching and in learning process. It is supported by the fact that computer can be used as a medium of real communication in the target language, including composing and exchanging messages with other students in the classroom or around the world (Oxford, 1990, p.79). The abundant research, studies, and class experiments in the use of information technology in language learning reported that technology brought more advantages and development than disadvantages.

The technology that has been used mostly by educators and trainers is internet which is created on the concept of web. Using internet as learning resources has some advantages such as: (1) it can be accessed by many people in the same time in unlimited time; (2) it can be used as distance learning which is used individually based on their own level or capability, and (3) it can be responded via e-mail to the trainers or educators. Beside the advantages, there are some disadvantages of using internet as learning resources, such as it must be connected to the internet which means that it can not be used on stand-alone computer.

Considering that using internet can not be used for stand-alone computer, there are many educators and trainers who have created and designed learning materials in the form of software which can be accessed by all computers without connecting to internet to be used as an alternative media. This kind of software is preferred by learners and is even more popular among students because they are associated with fun and games or because they are considered to be fashionable. The learners’ motivation therefore increases, especially whenever a variety of activities are offered, which make them feel more independent.

The existing learning software is to improve the conventional methods in language learning which primarily depend on the presence of teachers in the classroom to convey the material. The teaching learning process which relies on books often causes students’ lack of interest as well, especially when there is no instructional objectives provided in the book and it easily generates students’ boredom in learning language. Besides, the use of books for teaching learning have some weaknesses such as there are no varieties tests provided to measure the students’ achievement in learning, and the feedback given by the book is very limited or not given at all. The most apprehensive thing in conveying conventional teaching learning method is that it must be held in a classroom setting.

The electronic learning material that is effectively designed will facilitate the achievement of desired learning outcomes (Pramono, 1996:124). In addition, learning using computer will equip learners with a skill to choose the desired topic, based on their level of ability and will improve the learners’ motivation in learning. It is emphasized by Kweldju (1995:37) who argued that computer has self-access procedure which is completed with eye-catching color and animation to increase the users’ attractiveness.

Realizing that the numbers of electronic learning software are so many, the teachers and educators must be more selective in choosing the most suitable e-learning materials because not all the software are carefully designed and are provided with adequate feedback. Feedback in the software becomes the most important thing because without feedback, a learner is left to perform with no sense of direction or measure of correctness. (Cates, 1988:115).

In order to create ideal learning software, some aspects should be considered, such as: (1) the software must be designed to support the available curriculum, (2) the software must contain the learning objectives, (3) the software must use multimedia animation, (4) the product software must be analyzed and must be tested by the experts of subject material, learning technology and computer graphic.

Those statements inspired the writer as an English teacher to develop an innovative and attractive electronic learning media as a means to convey a material in computer based learning with the aim to provide an interactive instruction in a specific area which is delivered on a CD-ROM by using Macromedia Flash. It is expected that by using the interactive media, the learners’ imagination and understanding will be facilitated in learning a certain material.

She believes that using computers in education through Computer Assisted Learning (CAL) is more effective than using Internet based technologies. CAL is run either straight from a CD or flash disk or over local network so the constraint of the internet –slow download times for multimedia materials may not apply. It means that it has the potential to offer more advanced, interactive, multimedia learning experiences than it is currently reasonable to expect from the Web.

Based on the reality that learning is a systematic process with some components which influence each other in achieving learner’s successful learning, the writer recognized that in a learning process there must be an interaction between learner and the learning resources to achieve the ideal learning objectives. The writer believed that using interactive electronic media in the form of computer in learning language will create more advantages in learning process as stated by Harmanto (2002) that Learning using computers can be accessed by anyone in anytime and it can be applied individually based on their own ability (Harmanto, 2002).

As an English teacher which has been teaching English both for adult and for young learners for ages, she has so many experiences in dealing with students. Using an interactive and attractive ways in teaching English can reduce learner’s bored in learning for the first time, but if it is not combined with the use of technology it will be disastrous, especially in teaching motion prepositions which need real movement of object.

It is supported by Tomasello who said that learning to use prepositions is fundamentally important in young learners’ grammatical development (Tomasello, 1987). It is also supported by the reality that the students’ mistakes in understanding preposition in YPPI I Elementary school are often happened, especially in motion preposition even though it has been aided by pictures.

The above reasons generate the writer to be more creative in finding out interactive material to assist learners in understanding preposition, especially motion preposition. It is caused by her experience when she taught prepositions to young learners using a picture on white board, and it doesn’t help them to be comprehensible with the meaning of those prepositions.

Knowing about the difficulties, the writer anxious to create an attractive learning media using computer to learn English prepositions. . It is also supported by Pramono’s research (2004,p.3) which is said that the visual representations are intrinsically effective in supporting language learning.. Those reasons accentuated the writer to create and develop the interactive media in a form of CD-ROM.

The decision in developing materials in the form of CD-ROM has been made based upon some considerations as follows:

a. The development must have many advantages for learners such as it must help them to learn the subject matter (motion prepositions) easier, so that they will not get confused in understanding the meaning of and using motion prepositions in sentences. Ultimately, it must support learners to be more independent learners.

b. The development of materials for motion preposition needs to be done in order to facilitate English learners who find difficulties in grasping the meaning and function of motion prepositions.

c. The development media of using computer in understanding motion prepositions are extremely suitable by using animated visualization as stated by Galton that the most appropriate illustrative scenarios to present to subjects in an experimental investigation of motion preposition would be animated sequences. (Galton, 2002)

The above considerations underline the reasons of using animation in learning motion preposition, which is clarified as follows:

  1. Animation has “translation” characteristics that involves “the movement of whole entities from one location to another and can be perceived with respect to the border of the animation or other material within the animated display”. (Lowe, 2002, p.3)
  2. Understanding concepts using animation was significantly improved if verbal explanation ran concurrently with the animation.
  3. Animations have the potential to be especially beneficial for instruction presenting dynamic contents because animated pictures can show information about two important visual attributes: motion and trajectory (Pramono, 2005,p.22)
  4. Animated illustrations seem to be superior for the visualization of spatial aspect and dynamic process in preposition learning because a preposition usually indicates the spatial and temporal relationships of its object to the rest of the sentence.

 

Literature Review

There are some theories which support the study of developing e-learning media to facilitate learners in learning motion preposition, such as: Computer-Based Learning, Designing E-Learning Software, Characteristic of E-Learning Software, Using Animation in Learning Motion Preposition.

Computer- Based Learning

According to Hick and Hyde a teaching process directly involving a computer in the presentation of instructional materials in an attractive mode to provide and control the individualized learning environment for each individual student (Joiner, 1982:29)

It is stated that in learning using computer students interact with computer directly. The interaction between students and computers are in individual setting, based on their own language capacity and ability, so that the computer usage in language learning can be arranged by the students itself.

Based on the above reasons, the interactive method of teaching learning process in class cannot be done maximally. As the consequence, computer is designed to overcome those problems by creating some interactive programs inorder to attract students’ attention to increase their motivation in learning. It is hoped that using computer as an alternative teaching and learning media will increase students’ motivation because it is designed attractively by involving students’ or learners in the program so that there is an extensive interaction between computer and students.

The Advantages of Computer Based Learning/Teaching

The advantages of the use of computers in lecture theatres are caused by a few factors. The most important one is that simple large problems can be solved in a straightforward way in front of students’ eyes.(Miller, 98). Some advantages of using computer in learning are:

  1. Computers are able to give information about mistakes and the total time of learning spent by learners to do the exercises.
  2. Learning by using computer train students to be skilful tochoose the material they want to learn.
  3. Learning by using computer will help students who find difficulties in class meeting to review the material again individually.
  4. By using computer, the weak students who cannot follow the material and shy to ask the teacher will have a chance to repeat the material by themselves as many as they want.
  5. Computer Based Learning supports the individual learning which is suggested in modern education (Tsai and Pohl, 1981).
  6. Computer-based learning enable students to be accustomed with computer which is become important thing in this era and it will support many contributions for training and carrier in the future (Dhaif, 1989:13)
  7. The research shows that computer is an effective learning media (Kearsey, 1976 as quoted by Thompson, 1980:40).

 

The Form of Computer-Based Learning

According to Kemp and Dayton (1985:246) there are five forms of learning using computer: tutorials, drill and practice, problem solving, simulations, and games. Tutorial learning is a process of conveying new information to students in forms of explanation, exercises, and branching. Drill and practice is given to measure the students’ ability to understand certain knowledge. Problem solving is a process to give a solution about certain problem happened in teaching learning process. Games is one teaching forms which is given in order to increase students motivation and competition to learn something in a fun way.

Interaction between computer and learner is an individual interaction (Pramono, 1996). A teaching process is directly involving a computer in the presentation of instructional materials in an interactive mode to provide and control the individualized learning environment for each individual student.

 

Characteristics of Computer-Based Software Product

In order to improve the learning quality, Computer-Based Software must be designed through good learning principle. Besides, the designed of computer-based learning software must enclose the characteristics programmed instruction. The main characteristics of programmed instruction according to Burke (1982:23) are: (1) small steps, (2) active responding, and (3) immediate feedback.

 

Benefits of Animation in Learning Motion Preposition

The number of English prepositions often causes difficulties for learners to distinguish the kinds and the meaning of preposition, especially if the preposition is related to motion preposition, because there is only few lines to distinguish them.

Animation is one of media which is able to convey a vast amount of information in a very short period of time, and can be a powerful method of reinforcing concepts and topics first introduced to students through text, discussion, or other media. Though still in its fledgling stage, animation holds the promise of allowing visual learners and those with special needs new and powerful ways to comprehend complex phenomena.

The design of animations involves manipulation of various dynamic characteristics. Animation has “translation” characteristics that involves “the movement of whole entities from one location to another and within the animated display (Pramono: 2004: 21).

 

Types and Usage of Prepositions

Prepositions denote spatial relations, which are principally used to predicate constraints on such attributes as location, orientation, and disposition. (Hersekovits, 1997: 160). Preposition expressing spatial relations are of two kinds: prepositions of location, which is called prepositions of place (static) and prepositions of direction, sometimes called motion prepositions (Purdue University, 2002).

According to Linstromberg a preposition expresses a relationship between a subject and a landmark. Landmarks and Subjects are often (but not always) nouns, noun phrases, or pronouns.(Linstromberg: 1997: 15).

Preposition of direction are dynamic and have a directional meaning, such as to, from, up, down, through, towards, and appear with verbs of motion (movement) such as roll, walk, swim, come, go, etc.        Every motion preposition fits in a syntactic frame:

NP [activity verb] Preposition NP

as with      The ball      rolled across    the street

                   Figure                                     Ground

                  Moving Object                      Reference Object

Here the Figure is the moving object; the Ground is still the referent of the object of the preposition; the preposition constrains the trajectory; or path of the Figure.(Herskovits, 1997:162)

 

Expected Product specification

The CD-ROM that will be produced in this study is the actualization of Computer Assisted Learning product. It has some specifications as follows:

–            It can be used to convey a new material but it is as an alternative media because the major media is still based on books.

–            It can be used as an individualised learning media because:

–            It can be accessed in unlimited time and space without depending on the Internet facility.

–            It is the realisation of self-learning material which has instructional objectives in it.

–            There are a summary and exercises which are completed with the feedback.

–            It gives a chance to learners to study the material freely based on their own capacity.

–            The material has specific components which can assist learners to learn easily, as follows

 

Benefits of Software Development

Developing this e-learning media is directed to overcome learners’ confusion and learners’ mistake in understanding motion preposition. This study belongs to developing domain, especially in developing learning resources in order to enrich the learning media in computer based technology.

This study is also intended to improve English learning process which relies on the book with the presence of a teacher in the classroom to the computer based technology which can be accessed every time in indefinite space based on their own capability as self-learning media.

 

Assumption and Development Limitation

Developing e-learning media to help students in understanding motion preposition is based on the related assumption, as follows:

–     An attractive learning resources will arouse students’ learning motivation

–     Developing animated media is required to develop the education quality

–     This development study is intended to design a self-learning media through CD-ROM

–     A learning process using CD-ROM is properly used for computer literacy students

 

Discussion

Computer-Based Learning Software Development

Developing media in teaching learning technology is the implementation of a design which has been made. It cannot be separated from designing, managing, and evaluating as said by Seels & Richey (1994:9) that instructional teaching is a theory and practice of design, development, utilization, management and evaluation processes and resources for learning.

In order to create interactive and innovative learning software, there must be designing and developing procedures that must be passed obviously. The procedures that must be overtaken to assist the writer in developing qualified e-learning material software are known as ADDIE or Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation and Evaluation (Sambel, Developing and Evaluating E-learning, 2005).

 

Analysis

The first step is analyzing the learners’ characteristic which are going to use the e-learning material. The learners’ characteristics that should be identified are the level of learners, whether the program is used in class or not, and whether the program is used as individual learning or not. Then, it is continued by designing and organizing the learning software.

 

Design

Determine the design of the software

There are three kinds of design to be used according to Burke (1982), functional design, physical design, and logical design. Functional design is related to the function of the software as media to introduce new material and to convey it in order to strengthen learning motivation. Physical design is related to the type of the design, which is divided into linear, branch and repetition. Logical design covers the mode of the design, which is divided into deductive (rules and followed by examples) and inductive mode (examples and followed by rules).

As a developer, the writer must choose one of those design mode in order to be applied in the software development.

Developing Flowchart

Flowchart is used to communicate the ideas of the developer and the graphic designer. It is used to describe the main parts of the software and to arrange the steps of designing the courseware. See the flowchart in Appendix 1.

Writing Storyboard

Storyboard is a media which is used by developer and graphic designer to communicate about the form of material and the activity that will be appeared in the software.

 

Learning Media Development

Developing learning media in the form of software is the realisation of learning technology application especially for developing learning resources. It is expected to reduce the obstacles of limitation in finding learning resources. See Appendix 2.

 

Try-out and Evaluation

The next step which must be done is doing the trial test or user acceptance test which will evaluate the e-learning media. The material must be tested in order to verify the validity of the material. The processes of verifying the validity are through trial test which is done by group of students to represent some students to use the software development. The result of the trial test will be evaluated. The steps of evaluating learning software can be seen in Appendix 3.

After the media is created, the next step is try-out and evaluation. The tryout and evaluation is needed in order to measure whether the product can achieve the set specification, i.e.

–  It can be used to convey a new material but it is as an alternative media because the major media is still based on books.

–  It can be used as an individualized learning media because:

–  It can be accessed in unlimited time and space without depending on the Internet facility.

–  It is the realization of self-learning material which has instructional objectives in it.

–  There are a summary and exercises which are completed with the feedback.

–  It gives a chance to learners to study the material freely based on their own capacity.

–  The material has specific components which can assist learners to learn easily, as follows.

The result of try out shows the following:

(1) Attention Gaining Material could gather an average score of 100 %. The result showed that the component of attention-gaining material could attract the students’ attention at the start and could motivate them to learn.

(2) The Instructional Objectives of this courseware could gather an average score of 88.9 %; that means the students under­stood the objectives of learning using this developed courseware.

(3)  The clarity of doing the pretest and the understanding of the students on pre-test items and the appropriateness of animation with the items got an average score of 70.4 %. It can be concluded that the pre test components were good.

(4) The clarity of the tutorial and the attractive­ness of the explanation could get an average score of 100%.  It can be concluded that the tutorial component of this product was very good.

(5) The content with respect to the com­prehensibility of the material, the appro­priateness of the animation with the story, and the attractiveness of the animated pictures got an average score of  88.9 %, therefore, it can be considered that the content of this developed product was good.

(6) The exercises of this product got an average score of 74.1 % with respect to the   attractiveness of the items, the quality of the animations used, and the appropriateness of the items.

(7) The average score of the feedback is  88.9% with respect to the effectiveness and appropriateness of the feedback.

(8) The practicality to operate this courseware, the benefits of using this courseware, and the possibility to use this courseware without the help of teachers got an average score of 88.9%. It can be concluded that this courseware development can be used as an individual learning to enrich the learners’ competence on motion prepositions.

Based on the data above, it can be concluded that this courseware develop­ment obtains good response from learners and has good quality as an alternative learning resource. The main interface can be seen in Appendix 4.

References

Armstrong, K.M. & Yetter-Vassot, C. (1994). Transforming teaching through technology. Foreign Language Annals, 27(4), 475-486.

Brown, Andrew R.(2005) Elements of Effective e-Learning Design

Burke, R.L. 1992, Computer Assisted Instruction. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, Inc

Cates, J.S. 1988. Delay Feedback and Cognitive Task Level in Practice Exercises. A paper Presented at the 1988 Annual Convention of the Association for Educational Communication and Technologies, New Orleans. L.A., USA

Dick, W and Carey, L. 1985. The systematic Design of Instruction (2nd edition) London: Scott, Foresman and company

Galton, Antony. 2002. www.dcs.ex.ac.uk/studyRes/COM3401/ag.html

Hersekovits, A. 1997. Language, spatial cognition, and vision. In O. Stock (Ed), Spatial and Temporal Reasoning, 155-202

International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, Retrieved from http://www.irrodl.org/content/v6.1/brown_voltz.html

Kemp, J.E. and Dayton, D.K. 1985. Planning and Producing Instructional Media. Cambridge: Harper & Row, Publisher,

Kurtus, Ron. 2004. What is eLearning? www.warwick.ac.uk/services/cap/resources/guides/elearning/overview

Kweldju, S. 1985. SMA Teachers’ Performance in Using English as Medium of S-1 Graduates of IKIP Malang in Kodya Malang. Thesis PPS IKIP MALANG: Unpublished

Lindstromberg, Seth. 1998, English Prepositions Explained, Philadelphia: John Benjamins North America

Littlewood,W.1997. Autonomy and independence in language learning. Harlow: Addison Wesley Longman 79-91.

Lowe, R.K. 1999. Extracting Information from an Animation during Complex Visual Learning. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 14, 225 – 244

Miller, Karol. 1998. Computer-based teaching but pen-and-pencil examination? Retrievedfromhttp://lsn.curtin.edu.au/tlf/tlf1998/miller.html

Pramono, Harto. 2004. Picture-Text Complementarily in English Language Learning by Primary School Students in Indonesia, Thesis Curtin University of Technology.

Purdue University, 2002. Preposition of Direction: To, On(to), In (to). http://owl.english.purdue.edu/handouts/esl/eslprep.html

Rieber, L.P. 1996. Animation as feedback in a computer-based simulation: The Representation matters. Educational Technology Research and Development, 5-22

Salaberry, R. (1999). ‘CALL in the year 2000: still developing the research agenda’. Language Learning and Technology 3/1: 104-107.

Sambel, Sandra. 2005. Developing and Evaluating E-learning, 2005.

Seels, B.B. and Richey, R.C. 1994. Instructional Technology: The definition and Domains of the field. Washington, DC: Association for educational Communication and Technology

Stock, Oliviero, 1997, Spatial and Temporal Reasoning, Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers

Swan, Michael. 2001. The Good Grammar Book, OxfordUniversity Press

Tomasello, M. 1987, (PR.9) Learning to use prepositions: a case study. Journal of Child Language, 14, 79-96

 APPENDICES

 Appendix 1

Flow chart used in the development stage

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APPENDIX 2

 Steps of Media Development

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Appendix 3

Product Evaluation Steps

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Appendix 4

The Main Interfaces

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Pre-Test screenshot

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Reading menu screenshot

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 Speaking Menu Screenshot

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Exercise Menu Screenshot

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Language Use and Choice in Jember- Javanese Speakers A Study on Intercultural Communication

by Alies Poetri Lintangsari

University of Brawijaya, Malang

 

Nowadays, we cannot put stereotype on people based on culture since we are tangled into various discourse systems. Culture is no longer considered as a product of people’s life, it goes further to the latest notion that culture is a heuristic, “a tool for thinking”, by this; our culture cannot be formulated based on our ethnicity. Culture on this definition is not only reflecting the communal identity but also individual identity.

Language as one of cultural tools also play role in shaping people identity. People, since they share many discourse systems, also acquire many languages that can be picked up to communicate and they may pick the tools as their necessity to use it. Language works two functions in communication, to convey information or to express relationship. Language choice is critical to fulfill both of function. Jemberan speakers in this discussion are the ones who consider themselves as Jember people intertwined by various cultural identities such as Madura, Chinese, Javanese and Arabic. This paper aims to study language choice used in Jemberan speakers’ communication to know the motives behind.

LITERATURE REVIEW

Language Use and Choice in Intercultural Communication

                The term ‘Intercultural Communication’ as explained by Scollon and Scollon (2000,2001) is how persons manage to come the complexity of various different systems faced during communication. Those complexities come from various backgrounds such as gender, social political background, geographical background, educational background, and religious background, people live in it, and they develop and learn the acceptable pattern to be involved in society. They learn languages and varieties in their development, and then lead them to the cyclical question, how they navigate their identity through membership? Language use and choice might be raised as an answer.

Language use and choice is unavoidably in intercultural communication since it entails the use of various languages or language varieties and there are many differential accesses for speakers to enjoy them. Language use is critical in achieving effective understanding on linguistic situation in a multilingual discourse system like Jemberan speakers. When those speakers have access of two or more languages, they make choices as to when, where, how and to whom they use a certain language. The choices speakers make will determine their capability in using language to fulfill its two functions, first is showing their identity in membership, and second is to shape their membership identity.

Bahasa Jemberan: Linguistic Varieties of Pandalungan

In doing communication people are using a code; they share their codes into their addressee as the communicative tools. Therefore, code can be meant as the system of communication that has a function as communicative tools. As communicative tools, code cannot solely be meant as a ‘Language’, as explained by Duranti, in his book entitled Linguistic Anthropology (1997) that today we have to be careful in defining between Language and a language:

“It is important to distinguish between “language” and “a language.” The former refers to the human faculty to communicate using particular types of signs (e.g. sounds, gestures) organized in particular types of units (e.g. sequences) and the latter refers to a particular sociohistorical product, identifiable with a label such as “English,” “Tok Pisin,” “Polish,” “Swahili,” “Chinese,” “American Sign Language,” “Sign English.”” (Duranti, 1997)

 

The first definition lead us to understand Language as the ability of doing communication while a language refers to specific communicative tools on the basis of social and cultural context. A language is not only considered as the cultural product but also the cultural agent that builds the identity of a certain community, the college students for instance, though they are involved to the same community, there will be a different code between male and female students. Those differences are not merely due to the language, but also due to dialect, register, and even style as sociolinguist call it as linguistic varieties (Andersen 1990; Biber and Finegan 1994 in Duranti 1997).

The term variety will lead us to the study of linguistic repertoire and speech community. As originally introduced by Gumperz (1964: 137), linguistic repertoire refer to “the totality of linguistic forms regularly employed in the course of socially significant interaction. “ (Duranti, 1994). Repertoire is considered as the speaking properties owned by all speakers by regarding one life’s experience.

Jember is known as melting pot regency where many ethnic groups are mingled. Most of Jember population are Javanese and Madura people and small percentage of Tionghoa, Osing, Arabic and Indian. It includes to Pandalungan culture since its most population are Javanese and Madura people. Etymologically, referring to Bausastra Jawa Indonesia II (Prowiroatmojo, 1985), Pandalungan is a Javanese word for dalung which means periuk besar (big pot). Symbolically, ‘periuk besar’ can be defined as a place where all kinds of society groups are mingled and living together. According to the illustration above, it can be imagined how many linguistic varieties may develop in Jember.

Pandalungan refers to the mixing of two big cultures, Javanese and Madura, remembering that both cultures are majority in the referred areas.   There is no certain time when Pandalungan is used to represent the hybrid cultures of Javanese and Madura, but the society commonly call people as ‘orang pandalungan’ when s/he is grown up in that hybrid circumstance. Hary Yuswadi (2005:101) defined Pandalungan as : (1). Sebuah percampuran antara budaya jawa dan Madura, (2). Masyarakat Madura yang lahir di Jawa dan beradaptasi dengan budaya Jawa.

Javanese and Madura as the majority ethnic in Pandalungan society in Jember contribute more to the language in daily use. Bahasa Jemberan is socially known as the daily language of Jember people, it is created by the combination of Javanese and Madura language. Bahasa Jemberan may be classified into dialect rather than language since the words come as the combination of Javanese and Madura, such as Koen (you) which is the combination of Kowe (Javanese) and Be’en (Madura). The characteristic of Bahasa Jemberan dialect (usually pronounced in Madura accent) deals with the ethnic identity, such as Javanese with Jemberan dialect,   Chinese with Jemberan dialect, Arabic with Bahasa Jemberan and so on. As the majority, Javanese and Madura language are most used in daily life. The words are hybrid of Javanese at most than Madura while the variety of the language usage is close to the Madura (i.e. by repeating the last syllable in the preceding words such as nak kanak) . Here below some examples of Bahasa Jemberan dialect:

METHODOLOGY

                It is a case study on Jemberan speakers which is analyzed qualitatively. Since it is qualitative research, researcher is the main instrument; other instruments are recording tool and transcribing software. The basic questions raised in this study are:

  1. Which languages are used in language contact, Jemberan, Javanese, Indonesia, Madura or English?
  2. What is the language choices found in the conversation?
  3. What are the motives behind the language use and choice?
  4. What is the influence of social factors on the language use and language choice?

This study will be discussed through following steps:

  1. Transcribing the audio data from conversation record.
  2. Analyzing the differences of participants’ background.
  3. Breaking down the grammar of context
  4. Analyzing aspects of discourse system occurred in conversation.
  5. Analyzing the speech events occurred in conversation.
  6. Analyzing the face system existed in the conversation.
  7. Analyzing language use and choice.

DISCUSSION

PARTICIPANTS’ BACKGROUND

                The participants of this discussion have different background, but they share the same discourse system namely they were English department of Faculty of Letters in Jember University and they grown up in Jember. Here below the details information:

  1. Arif : 27, Male, University Student, active speaker of Madura, Javanese, and Bahasa Indonesia, Use English as Educational purposes.
  2. Yofan : 26, Male, University Student, active speaker of Javanese, and Bahasa Indonesia, passive speaker of Madura, Use English as Educational purposes.
  3. Lintang: 26, Female, University Student, active speaker of Javanese, and Bahasa Indonesia, passive speaker of Madura, Use English as Educational purposes

GRAMMAR OF CONTEXT

Scene    : Scene is considered as the most obvious aspect of context. Scene is consisted into some aspects, the first is setting that can be meant as physical location, time, place, and use of space.   The second is the purpose or the function. The third is topic, and the last is genre.

The setting of this conversation is in kedai kopi cak wang, at night (from 21.00 to 24.00 WIB). Kedai Kopi Cak Wang is a café coffee designed traditionally as the common kedai kopi in Indonesia, such as there is no aesthetic touch in this kedai kopi, the interior is so simple with long bench and big table that allow the customer sit in group. The interior design is different to modern café coffee that most adapted from European design. Although Kedai Kopi Cak Wang is traditionally designed, but they use the modern concept of transaction, they adopted fast food way in doing the transaction. The customer should come to the cashier to order the beverage and also pay their bill, after that they can find a set, do some chat while waiting their coffee come.

As one aspect of communication, spaces used in this conversation is more to have the characteristic of egalitarian, everyone has their own spaces and freedom to occupy the spaces. Everyone in this conversation has had the same understanding of what topic will be discussed since they have communicated before the meeting happens. The form of speech events in this conversation is informal meeting, in Javanese this activity usually called as ngopi (having coffee time). Though ngopi refers to the activity of drinking coffee, this kind of activity is not merely signified by that. The activity is more to the discussion or having a light chat. Since it is informal meeting, there is no conventional rules to start the meeting, but youths usually starts the meeting by ordering the coffee and waste their waiting time by chatting.

Key        : It refers to the tone or mode of communication. Since it is informal meeting, the key of this conversation is relaxed. There are no certain rules to involve to the conversation; everyone/every group usually have their own unwritten rules just for improving intimacy. This kind of mode usually involves the real face of the participant since every members of speech events are close each other.

Participants        : There are three speakers in this conversation; Arif, Yofan and I. Participants are not merely the matters of whom are they but also how they play or take roles in conversation. According to this conversation, I am the one who lead the topic while my two other friends responding my initial speech. But when the conversation went on, Arif dominated the conversation more than me and Yofan, he wanted to be heard more than to hear.

Message Form  : This conversation took form in oral conversation.

Sequence            : It is an open agenda since it is an informal meeting, there are no specific sequences that tied the activity. Though there are no specific sequences tied the activity, the understanding of conventional sequence to this activity is needed to help us to be well involved to the activity. For new comer like me, be there is a kind of confusion, at first I thought that it will be like ngopi in other places, but since the place is designed traditionally, I thought there will be the same sequence as I did ngopi in other traditional kedai kopi. When we ngopi in traditional kedai kopi, the seller will offer us the menu while she/he revealing some jokes or just asking how’s life, there is communicative communication between the seller and the customer. As I had that thought, so the first thing I did was finding my seat until my friend Yofan, asked me to go to the cashier first, he asked me to choose my beverage and pay it, after that we find our seat and have some chat while waiting our coffee. As a new comer, I was confused because my shared knowledge of ngopi in kedai kopi.

Co-occurrence pattern  : I can consider that this speech event is unmarked since everything run as predicted. When people go to have ngopi time, they will have some prediction that ngopi in this kind of kedai kopi will end up with chatting, laughing, and smoking and of course, drinking coffee.

Manifestation   : Those communication components above are manifested tacitly. Every members of the group who was familiarized with ngopi activity will understood the components since they belong to. New comer will also recognize the sequence of ngopi easily though it is unwritten.

ASPECTS OF DISCOURSE SYSTEM

                Discourse System has 4 aspects as outlined by Scollon, Scollon and Jones (2012). To make the dialogues go together, a Discourse System should be tied in coherence. There are 4 components that tie the cohesiveness in Discourse System. First is a cohesive device that has function to cover any aspect of language or context that a speaker can use to indicate connection among elements (Scollon, Scollon and Jones, 2012). Second is called as adjacency sequences, it is regular sequencing pattern that is learnt, predicted, and expected from a Discourse System. Third is prosodic patterning, which makes oral Discourse, become so oral by considering intonation and timing. The fourth component is conversational inference (Gumperz in Scollon, Scollon and Jones, 2012) that shape Discourse into logical or cognitive Structure. The analysis on coherence will be drawn below:

Cohesive Devices            : Lexical and Grammatical

Cohesive devices which will be discussed cover some components, namely Reference, Verb Form, Conjunction, and Causal Conjunction. Some references found in the dialogues emerge in Bahasa Indonesia. The reference ini found in speech act 1 until 4 refer to the same subject, kopi banjir. In the second speech act, the word ada is elliptically replacing the reference ini since the speaker using his finger pointing to the coffee.

                Giving information about Kopi Banjir Speech Event 1
Lintang Oh ini kopi banjir(Oh.. so it is called kopi banjir (flood Coffee) Speech Act 1
Yofan Ada dimalang?(Can you find it in Malang?) Speech Act 2
Lintang Ada, ini kan gaya French Press.(Yup, it is called French Press style). Speech Act 3
Arif La ini nanti kalo mau minum taruh bawah aja dibalik(If you want to drink, put it under) Speech Act 4

Reference used also found in Javanese, the word ngunu which means that in English refers to the word ceritamu (story).

Lintang Yak ceritamu, ceritamu(How is your story?) Speech Act 1
Yofan Hehe.. yo ngunu, di bully(hehe.. my story was about bullying) Speech Act 2

Since in Bahasa Indonesian and Javanese we do not have tense, there is no critical impact of the usage of verb form in the dialogue, we just add the tense by adding time signal such as kemarin (yesterday), besok (tomorrow), and others without any verb formation. Such us the word kemaren in speech act below refers to the examination which has been done previous weeks ago.

Arif Gak opo yo, lek yang, yang, opo, bu supik itu kan ngomong, jadi kan mas Arif, ini kan kemaren….(pause)(No, emm.. Bu Supik has said, “So, Mas Arif has got..(pause)

 

Conjunction found in the dialogue emerges in various languages such as English, Bahasa Indonesia, and Javanese. Such as the word mbek Arif uttered mean and. But the word mbek has multiple meaning, in some context it can be meant with.

Arif sing jenenge pak eko mbek pak imam ngguya ngguyu ae ndelok i aku(Pak Eko and Pak Imam just laughed aloud looked at me) The word mbek in this speech act means and and play as additive conjunction.
Arif yo nyanyi lagu metal iku, nyanyi mbek berok berok ngunu, guyon wong wong iku(I sung metal song, sung loudly, he joked me) The word mbek in this speech act means with and play as adverb.

 

Cognitive Schemata and Scripts: As a new comer, I failed in understanding the script of ngopi activity in kedai kopi cak wang. My world knowledge according to ngopi activity in kedai kopi (traditional coffee café) is different to the real script I had. Though the processes are the same, but they had some difference in sequential order as described here below:

Steps My Expectation based on my world knowledge The real Script I faced
I Find a seat I went to the cashier
I determine my order I determined my order
I let waiter to note my order I told the waiter about my order
I wait my order I paid my order
I receive my order I find a seat
I enjoy my order I wait my order
I pay my order I receive my order

 

Adjacency Sequences: Since the dialogues happen sporadic, it is hard to find the adjacency sequences in dialogue. The one can be figured out is in question mark expression. It is expected that answer comes up as question be raised, but sometimes the answer was postponed since there were speaker who jumped into another topic. The adjacency sequences in this dialogue are unpredictable since we do not have any fixed sequences. Although the sequences in this dialogue are unpredictable, but it is not influencing the degree of coherence massively though sometimes among speakers should confirming their understanding on each other utterances.

Prosodic Patterning        : Most of the mood of intonation and timing in the dialogue are in relaxed. Sometimes the intonation that stressing to some expression happen when the speakers quoting or recount their experience in facing their final examination. The intonation more tends to imitate rather that to express their personal feeling.

               

Speech Event in Jemberan speakers’ language contact

                Some speech event has been discussed in the previous discussion; some other will be discussed in the following discussion. Since speech events and speech act is the source of data, it will be attached to other discussion. Speech events in this conversation generally can be called as ngopi. It consists of several speech events such as the speech events of opening the meeting, recount the story and gossiping. The rest of speech events will be discussed in the discussion of Language use and choice.

Opening Ngopi Speech Event 1
Lintang Ayo!!, lapo awakmu beban kok entok A?.(C’mon,,!! How could getting A be a burden for you? Speech Act 1
Arif Gak opo yo, lek yang, yang, opo, bu supik itu kan ngomong, jadi kan mas Arif, ini kan kemaren….(pause)(No, emm.. Bu Supik has said, “So, Mas Arif has got..(pause) Speech Act 2
Lintang Oh ini kopi banjir(Oh.. so it is called kopi banjir (flood Coffee) Speech Act 3
Yofan Ada dimalang?(Can you find it in Malang?) Speech Act 4

 

The recording was recorded for about two months ago when I went home. I initiated the meeting to have some stories from my friends since they just finished their under graduate students for 7 years. Since it is informal meeting, everything flows without any definite sequence. Lintang was the first person who initiated to open ngopi activity by saying Ayo!! Lapo awakmu beban kok entok A. The exclamation Ayo means let’s talk your story about the final examination. For us, the graduation story is worthwhile to be heard. The second speech act was the response of Arif to the first questions, he started to tell his graduation story when my order came and I changed the topic from graduation to coffee. My comment to my coffee was responded by Yofan by asking Ada di Malang? (Can you find it in Malang?). The shifting topic happened when my order came and it became new topic to discuss since I found that kopi banjir was out of my expectation. I expected that kopi banjir should be more phenomenal than only the other name of coffee served with French press style.

FACE SYSTEM AND STRATEGIES:

                Face is considered as paradoxical concepts; it cannot solely meant by keeping the ‘honor’ or the effort of making assumption of speakers’ meaning by predicting their face made, another concept refers to face as the self manifestation of the speakers to be judged as their expectation through the face made. Face is intertwined on those concepts. Face in communication show two sides, involvement and independence. Since the participants are close friends, there is no independence strategies found in the dialogue. The involvement aspect of face is concerned with the persons’ right and need to be considered a normal, contributing, or supporting member society. Some strategies used in showing involvement by paying attention to others, show strong interest in the affairs, and using nick name or just name without any title such as mbak or mas. (in English they usually using first name to show intimacy). In my cases, people who just meet me usually call me by my first name Alies, when they feel comfort and pretty close with me, they will call me by my nick name, Lintang. In this dialogue all participants used given names/nick name to address each other.

Some strategies found in the dialogue according to involvement such as noticing and attending to the speakers shown by the rapid dialogue and some changing in small topic. It also found claim in group membership by the Javanese word awakdewe which means all of us (Table 1). Another strategy found is claim common opinion and attitude. When I told my story, both of my addresses claim my opinion and attitude toward my stories (Table 2).

Table 1.

Arif Asline, opo sing awakdewe entok dino iki iku, yo kelakuane awakdewe wingi wingi. Arif consider that what happens to him is a communal problem that also happens to us (I and Yofan).

Table 2.

Lintang intine semua pertanyaan bisa kujawab dengan baik, baringono wes maringono, pak karno takon, apa bedanya a, an, the dan tidak pake artikel(The point is I passed all the questions well until Pak Karno asked what are the differences among a, an, the and no article?) I told my story to my addresses that I thought I failed my exam because of the article question.
Yofan Hahahahhahha (Laughing loudly) Claim in my stupidity by laughing loud and consider that as a silly one rather than stupid.
Lintang lo gak ngerti ta lah aku lo, wes lali(I don’t know, I forgot) Confirming my stupidity
Arif Wes lali ta la, iku wes skip telong (3) semester koyok e yo,(Sure you forgot, it has been taught in 3rd semester I think) Claiming my stupidity as a common thing remembering that the lesson has been taught in the early semester and it is ok if I forgot it.

 

LANGUAGE USE AND CHOICE

                This discussion will be started by classifying the topics occurred in the dialogue, there are 6 topics occurred in the dialogues;

  1. Arif’s story
  2. Yofan’s Story
  3. Lintang’s Story
  4. Gossiping

The shifting topic will influence the language use and choice. Some choices are using code switching and code mixing. The language use and choice determines the purpose of the speakers to stress their feeling of the story. They usually use English when they recount their story about their final examination, then shifted into Javanese or Indonesia when they started to gossiping. Some word and phrases used Madura or the equivalence reasons.

Data as the basis of discussion is served in tables below. The blue color indicates the usage of Javanese and the red one indicates the usage of English, while the black is the usage of Bahasa Indonesia. In the Topic 1 dialogue, Arif used some code switching to address some academic terms such as thesis and report. While in topic 2, we can see that Javanese used to commenting or responding the story while the speaker (Yofan) narrated his own story, while he used English when he recounted his story to simulate his real condition when face the examination. In topic 3, such previous pattern of the code switching used also found with the same purpose, to recount. The Javanese word used by Yofan showed solidarity to what I have experienced. For gossiping, the speakers tend to use Javanese and Bahasa Indonesia. In term of gossiping, speakers used Jemberan word such as Koen (acronym of Kowe/Javanese and Be’en/Madura). The rest speech events are uttered in code switching and mixing among Javanese, Jemberan, Madura and Bahasa Indonesia. Such as the word gengguk said by Arif that means trivial or unimportant, he thought that the word gengguk cannot be represented with any language. He also used English word Catchy to explain his reason of using the word gengguk instead of iseng.

Table. 3 . Shifting Topic in Dialogue

Topic 1 : Arif’s Story
Arif       : yo tang, jadi bu supik ngomong, ini kan kemarin sidang mas Arif dapet A, jadi mau gak mau segala bentuk report yang ada di thesis ini harus semuanya perfect, jareneLintang : Segala bentuk opoArif        : Segala bentuk reportLintang : Report?

Arif        : thesis ini kan report kan, hasil kan?. Jadi koyo penggunaan kata will itu di coret semua, di coret, trus opoan ada beberapa tadi sing tak benerin

 

Topic 2 : Yofan’s Story
Yofan    :yo, sing pertama langsung penguji 2 kan, penguji pertama aku pak sam, pas sam nguji dulu. hari jumat nyaLintang :oh sendiriYofan    :ditanya, iso gak eroh opo sing tak omong no koen.Nggak tau apa yang akan aku katakan pas di tanyain pertanyaan pertama, why do you choose this topic,   wes onok mbak, cuman akhire mbulet, ngomong ndek tengah, mandek, i.. i.. need more time to answer, aku di bantu sama bu riskia, di pancing pancing ngunu lo mbak, cek eleng aku, trus eleng aku wes. maringono gilirane bu indah penguji 3..di takoni, what is conjucntion, trus mintak contoh mbak, can you show me the example of the using of conjunction in target language, yes i can, i will give you the example mam, i have the sentence in appendix, nah appendix ku itu g ada halamannya mbak, may i say it mam, di buka halamannya, nah kalimatku itu di halaman belakang sendiri, nah yang dibuka bu indah itu halaman pertama, yang mana? katanya, you need to open the page mam, nda gelem mbak, ndak gelem .

 

Topic 3 : Lintang’s Story
Yofan    :Takon opo ae tapi?Lintang: Takon konsep, takon teori, takon sembarang kalir, sesuatu yang ketika bimbingan beliau tidak pernah ungkit, begitu di ruang sidang, ditakoni kuabeh dari awal sampe akhir. wes mari, jare pak karno, kan onok aqua nang ngarepku yo, sampek, misale, bener bener gak ono rehat iku, rehat iku gak ono, jadi misale bu mei nanya aku jawab, aku jawab bu mei nanya lagi, ngunu terus uncal uncalan, dan beliau sama sekali ga ngasih waktu sama yang lain, trus pas wes kate mari, kate takon meneh, mbek pak karno di potong, aku di kongkon ngombe disek, please drink your water, tak ombe,Yofan    : hahha, sakno (pity you)   à Javanese to Show solidarity Lintang : wes mari kan, di takoni mene mbek bu mei, srettt, aku cuman mikir ngene, wadoh rek, kok iso e, beliau kan pembimbingku ya, dari sekian banyak orang, kok malah beliau yang menghabisi, trus mari bu mei, bu supik takon, ngomong opo yo? bu supik ngomong i think bu mei has asked all the questions, i have nothing to ask.

 

Topic 4 : Gossiping 1
The dialogue was interrupted while Yofan recognized a sexy girl passed in front of us,Arif                         : Koen lak nggudoi iku, perkorone, ndek ranah pengadilan agamaYofan                    : wah..Lintang                                 :kok isok?

Yofan                    :Wes nikah..

Lintang                                 : Hah?

Yofan                    :Wes nikah berarti.

Lintang                 : Oh..

Topic 4 : Gossiping 2
Arif         :lak pas enak enak ngomong jowo nang jember, trus aku ngomong iseng, aneh tang dadine,Lintang :iseng iku gengguk iku?Lintang: Jadi tujuane karena kebiasaan atau?Arif         : koyok kegiatane ibu ibu rasan rasan iku jenenge kegiatan gengguk.

Lintang : Seandainya kamu ke malang atau ke surabaya masih menggunakan kata gengguk atau tidak?

Arif         : koyok e se sek tak gawe dan bakalan ditanyain artinya apa

Lintang : trus kenapa? karna tidak sadar atau sengaja?

Arif         : tidak sadar koyok e, soale lak aku ngomong nang omah iku gae bahasa indonesia mbek wong tuwoku mbek adekku iku gawe bahasa indonesia, cuman di beberapa diksi, tetep meduro, kata kata meduro, mungkin karna catchy yo bagi keluargaku, kata kata

 

CONCLUSION

This study comes up with some questions; Which languages are used in language contact, Javanese, Indonesia, Madura or English?; What is the language choices found in the conversation?; What are the motives behind the language use and choice?; What is the influence of social factors on the language use and language choice?

From the discussion above, I can draw a conclusion for answering every questions. Most of language used in dialogue is Jemberan such as the usage of koen and awakdewe refers to pronoun you and us. Javanese also used in the dialogue, but it is hard to recognize it as high or low Javanese, so I prefer to call it as Jember Javanese. Bahasa Indonesia also mostly used in dialogue and also English. Some motives found of the usage the language choice by code switching and code mixing, the topic shifting signalize the shifting of language. For instance, if the speakers recounted their story, they tended to use Bahasa Indonesia, while they tried to quote and imitate their lecturers they would choose Bahasa Indonesia or English. And when the topic shift into commenting or gossiping, they tended to use Jember Javanesse, in some cases, Jember Javanesse also used to show solidarity. Some influence factors influencing language use and choice relied on the participants’ background, since three of them are powering English for educational purposes, they used it to recounted and simulated their story which was uttered in English, in this term language has fulfilled its function to convey information. Jember Javanesse and Bahasa Indonesia is their social and cultural background, they use both languages on the daily basis. It is the reason why they feel more comfortable to use Jember Javanese and Indonesia Javanese to express relationship.

REFERENCES:

Duranti, Alessandro. (2004). A Companion to Linguistic Anthropology. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, Ltd.

Lintangsari, Alies. (2012). How Jember- Javanese speakers represent their world. On college assignment.

Lintangsari, Alies. (2014). Code-Switching as a Conversational Strategy in Jemberan Multilingual Conversation. On college assignment

Meyerhoff, Miri. (2006). Introducing Sociolinguistics. London and New York: Routledge.

Prawiroatmodjo, S.1985. Bausastra Jawa—Indonesia I. Jakarta: Gunung Agung.

Scollon, Scollon, & Jones. (2012). Intercultural Communication: A Discourse Approach 3rd Edition. Wiley Blackwell

Wardhaugh, Ronald. (2003). An Introduction to Sociolinguistics. 5th Ed. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.

Yuswadi, Harry. 2005. Melawan Demi Kesejahteraan, Perlawanan Petani Jeruk terhadap Kebijakan

Pembangunan Pertanian. Jember: Kompyawisda.

INDIRECT CRITICISMS IN MR. PECUT’S CORNER OF JAWA POS DAILY NEWSPAPER

(Kutipan referensi/citation: Jurnal Linguistik terapan Vol 3/1, Mei 2013)

Andi Muhtar

Universitas Negeri Malang

 

ABSTRACT

There are three theories of meaning, namely, the mentalistic theory, the behaviorist theory, and the use theory. Criticisms, which are given to show dislikes toward another person’s or other people’s actions/utterances, contain meanings. Criticisms in Mr. Pecut’s corner, which appear in the form of responses to statements made by public figures, are bitter but, by and large, humorous. This article will analyze the criticisms in Mr. Pecut’s corner of Jawa Pos daily newspaper and relate them with theories of meaning in linguistic philosophy.

Keywords: philosophy of language, theories of meaning, criticism

 

When a person communicates, he communicates meaning by realizing it through phonological representations. What is communicated is then accepted by the listener or the interlocutor in the form of phonological representations and then changed into semantic representations. Based on the meaning understood, the listener may respond back to the message. In this case the two people exchange messages or meanings. The messages communicated are of various kinds. Likewise, the responses given are various, one of the kinds of which is criticisms. This paper will analyze the criticisms which are found in Jawa Pos daily newspaper, especially those found in Mr. Pecut’s corner of the paper.

 

THEORIES OF MEANING

According to Cooper (1973: 14-16), there are three theories of meaning in the philosophy of language. The first is the mentalistic theory. This theory holds that an expression is meaningful if and only if it is associated, in some manner, with a certain mental item – an image, say, or thought, or an idea. Correspondingly, the theory holds that two expressions are synonymous if and only if they are associated with the same mental item. So, for example, it might be held that ‘puppy’ is meaningful because it is connected with a certain mental image; and that ‘puppy’ is synonymous with ‘young dog’ because both are connected with the same image. On this view to examine meaning is essentially to examine people’s mental states or processes.

The second is the behaviorist theory. This theory holds that an expression is meaningful if and only if utterances of it produce certain behavioral responses in people and/or are produced in response to certain stimuli. Two expressions will be synonymous, correspondingly, if and only if utterances of them produce the same responses and/or are produced in response to the same stimuli. On this view, examining meaning is essentially a matter of examining the behavior connected with utterances of expressions.

The third is the use theory. This theory holds that an expression is meaningful if and only if people can use it for certain purposes, and in certain ways. Two expressions, correspondingly, will be synonymous if and only if they can be used in the same ways, for the same purposes. On this view, examining meaning is essentially a matter of examining the role that expressions have in human activities.

 

LANGUAGE IN ITS DIVERSITY

Lehmann (1983: 217-224) discusses five types of language use. Each of the types is explained below.

 

The Politician’s Use of Language

Political use of language is often highly ambiguous. Politicians flourish by devising Expressions that their audiences interpret as favorable to themselves. An example of this ambiguity use of language is given be Lehmann (1983: 217) as follows:

According to Herodotus, when Croesus, King of Lydia, asked the oracle at Delphi whether he should attack the Persians, the oracle answered ambiguously, that if he did he would destroy a great empire. Croesus, as a confident ruler, misinterpreted the reply. The attack resulted in the destruction of his own empire rather than that of the Persians.

 

The Poet’s Use

While the politician seeks ambiguous language, the poet aims at precision. For Pope in his “Essay on Criticism”:

 

True wit is Nature to advantage dressed,

What off was thought, but ne’er so well expressed.

 

Ambiguous and meaningless words are avoided. A poet has a specific concept; the poem is designed to have the reader understand this directly, as though images. Pope does not say: an actual insight corresponds to reality in the world; rather, he directly confronts two concepts presented in concrete images with nature.

 

The Scientist’s Use

Scientists also insist on precision in use of language. But they emphasize facts, not people and their feelings. Moreover, the facts must speak for themselves. Ideas are not to be conveyed through images or affected by human origins. Even living beings are stripped of their animation, including the scientists themselves. These aims lead to characteristic scientific styles of expression.

 

The Priest’s Use

The priest on the other hand employs many pragmatic devices, directing his message to a specific audience. This aim encourages patterns comparable to the poet’s. Sequences are repeated, often exactly, as in Matthew 5:7-9:

 

Blessed are the merciful: for they shall obtain mercy.

Blessed are the pure in heart: for they shall see God.

Blessed are the peacemakers: for they shall be called

The children of God….

 

The repetitions engage the attention of the audience, as well as their participation, through established sequences, such as amen; hallelujah; Glory, glory, hallelujah. The priest raises emotions, though with somewhat different aims and devices from those of the poet.

 

The Average Speaker’s Use

Few of us use language as effectively as the consummate poet, politician, scientist, or priest; yet we employ the same devices as they, and we apply language in accordance with their various purposes.

 

CRITICISM

Criticism is the expression of disapproval of someone or something by stating an opinion on their faults, weaknesses, or disadvantages in speech or writing (Collins Cobuild English Language Dictionary, 1987: 336). Criticism can be divided into two kinds. The first is direct criticism. This criticism is given directly by the critic to the criticized. The second is indirect criticism. This kind of criticism is directed to the criticized, but it is given publicly through mass media. The target of criticisms is either an individual or an institution, or both an individual and an institution.

mr pecut

Mr. Pecut

Mr. Pecut is the name of a rubric in Jawa Pos daily newspaper. It is situated in the upper-left-hand corner of page four. Under the title Mr Pecut there is a picture of a person covering his two ears using his index fingers. The word pecut, which means a whip, is very suitable with the function of the criticisms. Criticisms are expressions which are not nice to our ears although they are actually useful in that they make us aware of our mistakes. Mr. Pecut will always remind us to always behave well. In each issue Mr. Pecut highlights three pieces of news and gives three comments or criticisms.

Although most of the criticisms are bitter, they are always communicated in humorous ways. The humor sense appears because of the evidence of the unexpected twist of the comment or criticism in response to the news. Tresnadewi (2005: 20) states that “What makes people laugh at a joke is usually the unexpected twist at the end of the joke.” Similarly, what makes a criticism humorous is the unexpected twist of the comment.

Let’s read the example below:

 

Pollycarpus divonis 14 tahun penjara.

(Pollycarpus was sentenced of 14 years imprisonment)

 

Dan tanpa ditemani pramugari

(And without being accompanied by stewardesses).

 

To understand the sense of humor in this statement-and-comment pair, we have to understand the background of the statement or the news. Pollycarpus was a pilot of Garuda Indonesian Airlines. The sentence was imposed because he was accused of murdering a well-known human rights activist Munir. Munir died, according to a laboratory report in the Netherlands, because of arcenicum poison which, according to the judge, was poured by Pollycarpus into Munir’s glass. Munir died while he was on the plane taking him from Singapore to the Netherlands. Because he was a pilot, he must have had a lot of friends who are stewardesses. However, the stewardesses would not accompany him in prison. Clearly, the comment is unexpected.

 

 

DETAILS OF CRITICISMS

The data were chosen randomly from Jawa Pos daily newspaper available. Criticisms in Mr. Pecut’s corner can be classified into five types: authority-directed, individual-directed, illogical, humorous, and common. In the following section, criticisms in the form of single sentences are explained. Explaining a sentence is part of philosophy, as stated by the Australian positivist philosopher, Schlick, as follows: “philosophy is an activity through which the meanings of statements is asserted or explained.”

 

Authority-directed Criticisms

  1. Tahun depan akan ada gelar kota terkotor.

(Next year there will be an evaluation in terms of the dirtiest towns)

 

Pasti kota yang banyak koruptornya

(They must be towns with the most corruptors)

 

We expect that the comment will deal with efforts used to make cities free from garbage. The comment is really unexpected because it talks about corruptors, those who abuse the authority given to them. The critic regards corruptors as something which dirties towns.

 

  1. Hermawan Kertajaya: Kepala daerah adalah pemasar.

(Hermawan Kertajaya: Heads of districts are marketing people)

 

Tapi, sebelumnya adalah pembeli, pembeli suara

(But, previously they were buyers, buyers of votes).

 

The news implies that Heads of districts should promote their districts in order that more businessmen invest their capital in the areas. In other words, they must ‘sell’ their areas.

The critic reminds us that the Heads of Local Governments bought votes in order to become Heads of Local Governments. This is what is called ‘money politics’. This accusation is not easy to prove, however.

 

  1. Rapat paripurna setelah Lebaran, separo lebih anggota dewan bolos.

(General Meeting (of the House of Representatives) was held after Idul Fitri break; more than half of the members were absent)

Meski Lebaran, kelakuan ini tidak perlu dimaafkan.

(Despite Lebaran (Holiday atmosphere), this attitude cannot be forgiven!)

 

The news implies that members of the House of Representatives are not responsible because they did not do what they should have done namely attending meeting. They may have though that they might be excused or forgiven because it was still holiday atmosphere.

The response or criticism says that the members’ attitude should not be forgiven. Working for other people must be prioritized.

 

  1. Noordin M. Top pernah sembunyi dekat markas Polwil Pekalongan.

(Noordin M. Top, once, hid near the Head Quarter of Police District in Pekalongan.)

 

Dan terbukti aman

(And they were proved to be save)

 

The news shocks us because Noordin is a number-two wanted person and he hid near the police station.

The response saying that he was safe shows that the police are not very sensitive to their environment.

 

  1. Penyimpangan keimigrasian dinilai sangat serius.

(The immigration anomaly is evaluated to be very serious)

Begitu seriusnya, sampai sudah jadi kewajara …

(It is so serious that it has become a common place)

 

The response shows that it seems hopeless to return the situation into a normal one. It indirectly suggests that this situation cannot be tolerated any longer.

 

  1. Kepala BIN: Teroris berencana culik pejabat.

(Head of National Intelligence Body: Terrorists plan to abduct officials of high ranks)

Kalau pejabat yang korup, silakan!

(If they are corrupting ones, please do!)

 

It is the duty of the police to protect officials of high ranks. However, if the officials are those who corrupt, the police should not protect them. Let them be abducted by the terrorists.

 

  1. Ketua DPR kecewa kunjungan BURT ke Mesir.

(Chair of the House of Representatives is disappointed with the visit of BURT (the Body of Logistic Affairs) to Egypt).

 

Mestinya ngelencer ke mana, dong?

(Where should they have gone for a vacation, then?)

 

The news implies that BURT should not have gone to Egypt. The visit is in vain. The response implies that it is alright to go for a vacation although it actually supports the Chair.

 

  1. Parpol dan DPR lembaga terkorup di Indonesia.

(Political parties and the House of Representatives are institutions which are the most corrupt in Indonesia)

 

Lembaga lain, lumayan korup …

(Other institutions are not very corrupt)

 

The response shows that corruptions also take place in other institutions though not the worst.

 

  1. Pimpinan DPR: Kunjungan anggota BURT ke Mesir sudah sesuai rencana.

(Heads of House of Representatives: The visit of the members of BURT to Egypt has been in accordance with the plan)

 

Rencananya memang mau ngelencer, kok!

(The plan was that they wanted to go for a vacation!)

 

The plan was to meet members of the House of Representatives of Egypt in order to know how Egypt deals with laws concerning gambling. The response shows that the main objective of visiting Egypt was having a vacation.

  1. Rencana impor beras Januari dibatalkan.

(The plan to import rice in January has been dropped).

 

Itu yang resmi, yang nggak resmi jalan terus …

(That is what is legal, the illegal is going on)

 

The response shows the weakness of the government because the policy is not carried out perfectly. The authority does not seem to do anything to prevent the influx of rice illegally)

 

  1. Usman Hamid: Kasus Munir, Polri belum serius.

(Usman Hamid: Munir case, the Police have not been serious)

 

Takut barangkali …

(They may be afraid …)

 

The criticism says that the police are afraid. The police should be serious in fighting crime whatever the risk they may find. They should not be afraid. They are paid to protect the citizens, aren’t they?

 

  1. Parpol ramai-ramai berkurban sapi dan kambing.

(Political parties sacrifice cows and sheep demonstratively)

 

Setahun sekali, bukan rakyat yang dikorbankan.

(Once a year, it is not people who are sacrificed)

 

The response shows that political parties usually take advantage of their positions while making the people victims.

 

  1. Masa kerja KPU diperpanjang.

(The working term of KPU (General Election

Committee) is lengthened.)

 

Wah, bisa korupsi lagi, dong?

(Then, they can commit corruption again?)

The response implies that KPU is the place where corruptions often take place and are not detected. This is actually also a warning that the police should be alert toward wrongdoings done by those given authority to carry out government matters.

 

Individual-directed criticisms

  1. Puluhan dokter di Kediri tak punya izin praktek.

(Tens of doctors in Kediri do not have permission letter.)

 

Nggak beda dong, dengan dukun!

(Not different from astrologers, then!)

 

The response implies that doctors are jobs which need proficiency and professionalism. They have to obtain a certificate from the government before they treat patients. Otherwise, they are the same as astrologers.

 

  1. Akbar: Kalla jangan ceplas-ceplos.

(Akbar: Kalla, don’t speak without evidence.)

 

Kalau ngak begitu, nggak ngetop, Bung!

(If I don’t, I won’t become a celebrity, Friend!)

 

Akbar’s advice is wise, that is, Kalla should think first before he speaks. The comment implies that it is by speaking whatever is in his mind that makes Kalla popular.

 

  1. Djoko Edhi: Kunjungan BURT ke Mesir sia-sia

(Djoko Edhi: The visit of BURT to Egypt was in vain)

 

Kunjungannya sis-sia, tetapi ngelencer-nya tidak.

(The visit was in vain, but the vacation was not.)

 

Edhi’s statement implies that he was disappointed with his visit. The response implies that he was not disappointed because he had the opportunity to go abroad and have a vacation with some of the members of the House of Representatives.

  1. Paskah Suzzeta: Jadi menteri, bobot turun 3 kilo.

(Paskah Suzzeta: Becoming a minister, his weight drops 3 kilograms)

 

Jangan kuatir, toh bobot kantong nambah!

(Don’t worry. The weight of the pocket increases, doesn’t it?)

 

Suzetta’s statement implies that because he has to work hard as a minister, he loses weight, which means that something he does not want happens. The comment however, reminds him that he is richer now!

 

  1. Amien: Lawan koruptor sejati butuh keberanian

(Amien: To fight against true corruptors needs courage)

 

Sebenarnya butuh Pak Amien, gitu loh.

(Actually, Mr. Amien is needed. That’s it.)

 

The statement implies that Mr. Amien is a courageous man. The comment implies that people should choose Mr. Amen to fight the crime of corruption because he is brave. It sounds that Mr. Amien is disappointed for not being chosen as president the last presidential election.

 

Illogical criticism

  1. Diusulkan ada tempat penitipan anak di DPR.

(Proposed: There is a crèche in the House of

Representatives)

 

Lama-lama bakal ada usul penitipan WIL, nih!

(Slowly but surely, there will be a proposal for a crèche for WIL (Other Adored Women), right?

 

The proposal in the statement was made in  conjunction with the increasing bad treatment to children by their family. It is Illogical to set up a crèche in the House of Representatives. Responding to the illogical proposal, the critic also proposes a more illogical proposal, that is, having a crèche for Other Adored Women, who are likely possessed by some members of the House of Representatives.

 

  1. Golkar gelar donor darah masal.

(Golkar held mass blood donation)

 

Darahnya pasti kuning!

The blood must he yellow!

 

The response that the blood is yellow is wrong.

However, because Golkar is synonymous with yellow, the color of the flag, people will remember that the community service is worth doing.

 

Humorous criticisms

  1. SBY perintahkan Kapolri ungkap dalang pembunuh Munir.

(SBY ordered the Chief of the Police to reveal the mastermind behind Munir murder)

 

Yang jelas bukan Pak Manteb!

(Obviously, he is not Mr. Manteb!)

 

The statement uses the word dalang a person who performs leather puppets, and Mr. Manteb is a dalang. However, dalang in the statement is different from what the profession of Mr. Manteb is. Dalang in the statement refers to the person who is most responsible for the Munir murder; it does not have anything to do with the show of leather puppets.

 

  1. Kepala Bea Cukai Manado terlibat penyelundupan HP.

(Head of Customs in Manado is involved in HP smuggling)

 

Ketik A (spasi) copot saja!

(Type A (space) dismiss him. That’s all!)

 

The way the response is written is unique. The type of writing the response resembles that of sending answers to TV quizzes. However, the content is very firm and direct.

 

  1. Pimpinan Jemaah Eden mengaku sebagai Malaikat Jibril.

(Head of Eden Congregation acknowledges that she is Angel Gabriel).

 

Malaikat kok digerebek …

(Angel, but how could she be attacked?)

 

Angel belongs to creatures who cannot be touched. If she were an Angel, the police would not have been able to catch her!

 

Common criticisms

  1. Bentrok antarmahasiswa terjadi lagi di Makassar.

(A brawl among university students broke again in Makassar)

 

Status mahasiswa, otak masih TK!

(The status is university student, the brain is still kindergarten!)

 

It is a shame that university students are involved in a fight using physical strengths, not intellectual power. Their brain is the brain of kindergarten pupils!

 

  1. Bantuan langsung tunai tahap kedua diperkirakan tertunda.

(It is predicted that the second phase of direct aid will be delayed.)

 

Berarti keruwetan tahap kedua masih agak lama.

(It means that irregularities of the second phase are still relatively long to come.)

 

It implies that we did not anticipate problems arising out of the new policy. The problems will happen again in the future.

 

 

 

CONCLUSION

Indirect criticisms which appear in the rubric Mr. Pecut of Jawa Pos daily newspaper are very concise and direct in their efforts to change people’s behavior. The criticisms can be classified as authority directed, individual directed, illogical, humorous and common. In one of his opinions, Mochtar Lubis, a well-known Indonesian laureate, says that ‘no criticism is bad’. Therefore, we must be open to criticisms if we want to maintain our loyalty to truth and justice. Related to diversity in language use which is discussed by Lehmann, we propose one more type, namely, the critic’s use of language.

 

 

REFERENCES

Collins Cobuild English Language Dictionary. 1987. London: Harper Collins Publishers.

Cooper, David E. 1973. Philosophy and the Nature of Language. London: Longman.

Jawa Pos daily newspaper.

Lehmann, Winfred P. 1983. Language: An Introduction. New York: Random House.

Tresnadewi, Sintha. 2005. Jokes: The Twisting of the Theories of Meaning. In Syahri and Tresnadewi (Eds.) The Power of Meaning. Malang: Syahri Press.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Data sources

 

  1. 18 June 2005
  • Tahun depan akan ada gelar kota terkotor

Pasti kota yang banyak koruptornya.

  • Pengacara Hendropriyono menilai undangan TPF Munir tidak sopan.

Padahal, tak menyebut hantu beliau ..

  • Hermawan Kertajaya: Kepala daerah adalah pemasar.

Tapi, sebelumnya adalah pembeli, pembeli suara.

 

  1. 15 November 2005
  • Rapat paripurna setelah Lebaran, separo lebih anggota dewan bolos.

Meski Lebaran, kelakuan ini tidak perlu dimaafkan!

  • Bungker di Bojonegoro ternyata milik lembaga Javanologi.

Wah, bisa kualat kalau dibongkar!

  • Noordin M. Top pernah sembunyi dekat markas Polwil Pekalongan.

Dan terbukti aman.

 

  1. 19 November 2005
  • Burhanuddin: Serahkan Kalla, reshuffle pasti segera beres.

Wah, bisa-bisa jadi kabinet Golkar!

  • Bantuan langsung tunai tahap kedua diperkirakan tertunda.

Berarti keruwetan tahap kedua masih agaklama …

  • Puluhan dokter di Kediri tak punya izin praktik.

Nggak beda dong, dengan dukun!

 

  1. 20 December 2005
  • Mega yakin Pemilu 2009 PDIP kalahkan Golkar.

Caranya, bikin posko yang banyak!

  • Penyimpangan keimigrasian dinilai sangat serius.

Begitu seriusnya, sampai sudah jadi kewajaran …

  • SBY: Kita harus menjadi the winner, bukanthe looser.

Sudah Pak, khususnya untuk urusan korupsi!

 

 

  1. 21 December 2005
  • Kepala BIN: Teroris berencana culik pejabat.

Kalau pejabat yang korup, silakan!

  • Ketua DPR kecewa kunjungan BURT ke Mesir.

Mestinya ngelencer ke mana, dong?

  • Akbar: Kalla jangan ceplas-ceplos.

Kalau nggak begitu, nggak ngetop, Bung!

 

  1. 22 December 2005
  • Djoko Edhi: Kunjungan BURT ke Mesir sia-sia.

Kunjungannya sia-sia, tapi ngelencernya tidak.

  • Pollycarpus divonis 14 tahun penjara.

Dan tanpa ditemani pramugari.

  • SBY perintahkan Kapolri ungkap dalang pembunuh Munir.

Yang jelas bukan Pak Manteb!

 

  1. 23 December 2005
  • BIN juga diperintah presiden tuntaskan kasus Munir.

Kalau nggak bisa, ya kebangetan!

  • Jika tak hati-hati, diprediksikan 2006 kredibilitas SBY-Kalla bisa jatuh.

Jika mau hati-hati, ya agak lama dikitlah …

  • Aa Gym rekrut 1.000 mantan anggota GAM.

Sekarang boleh dipanggil Aa GAM!

 

  1. 24 December 2005
  • Kasat Narkoba Polres Sumbawa mati overdosis.

Benar-benar narkoba makan tuan!

  • Kasus Munir, SBY minta Kapolri serius ungkap pelaku lain.

Pelakunya sedang serius berusaha agar tidak terungkap.

  • Parpol dan DPR lembaga terkorup di Indonesia.

Lembaga lain, lumayan korup …

 

  1. 27 December 2005
  • Pimpinan DPR: Kunjungan anggota BURTke Mesir sudah sesuai rencana.

Rencananya memang mau ngelencer, kok!

  • Paskah Suzzeta: Jadi menteri, bobot turun3 kilo.

Jangan kuatir, toh bobot kantong nambah!

  • Pollycarpus mengajak tiga anaknya surati SBY.

Mbok ya SMS saja …

 

  1. 28 December 2005
  • Pramono Anung: Saat ini PDIP sedangsolid-solidnya.

Buktinya, pada keluar sama-sama dan bikinpartai baru!

  • Manipulasi pulsa, Telkomkebobolan triliunan rupiah.

Bisa jadi alasan untuk naikkan tarif, nih!

  • Prihatin judi, Rhoma Irama temui Kapolri.

Judi No! Dangdut Yes!

 

  1. 29 December 2005
  • Rencana impor beras Januari dibatalkan.

Itu yang resmi, yang nggak resmi jalan terus…

  • Usman Hamid: Kasus Munir, Polri belum serius.

Takut barangkali…

  • Kepala Bea Cukai Manado terlibat penyelundupan HP.

Ketik A (spasi) copot saja!

 

  1. 30 December 2005
  • Alasan berobat, Tommy Soeharto ke Jakarta lagi.

Ah, paling juga mau tahun baruan!

  • Good Governance, Indonesia terendah di Asia.

Good… Good… Good…!

  • Pimpinan Jemaah Eden mengaku sebagai Malaikat Jibril.

Malaikat kok digerebek …

 

  1. 9 January 2006
  • Gus Dur: Soros sekarang beda dengan yang dulu…

Iya, dulu George yang bikin soro (sengsara)…

  • Di Malang, seorang pemancing tewas tertimbun tanah longsor.

Bencana kok rutin…

 

  • KRHN: 95 persen hakim agung tak layak.

5 persen sisanya di bawah standar, ya?

 

  1. 10 January 2006
  • Penggantian pimpinan TNI, 11 panglima minta tidak dipolitisasi.

Ah, mana mungkin?

  • Ketua PC NU Jember: Jangan tutupi penyebab banjir.

Toh penyebabnya sudah jelas: Air!

  • Menteri Kehutanan: Hutan lindung di Jawa kritis.

Nggak bias buat sembunyi penjahatnya Unyil lagi…

 

  1. 11 January 2006
  • Palsukan faktur pajak, tiga petugas pajakdiperiksa.

Yang belum ketahuan masih serombongan!

  • Kasus bom Palu masih gelap.

Semoga tidak habis gelap terbit bom lagi!

  • Parpol ramai-ramai berkurbansapi dankambing.

Setahun sekali, bukan rakyat yang dikorbankan.

 

  1. 13 January 2006
  • Denny lndrayana: Korupsi sudah masuk kejahatan luar biasa.

Yang ditangkap yang kelas biasa-biasa saja…

  • Diusulkan ada tempat penitipan anak di DPR.

Lama-lama bakal ada usul penitipan WIL, nih!

  • Ketua DPR dinilai kurang tegas menyikapi impor beras.

Kalau tegas, ya bukan ketua DPR, dong!

 

  1. 31 December 2005
  • Prediksi 2006, Kamtibmas berat, tapi kondusif.

Jangan-jangan, kondusif juga buat teroris?

  • BLT tahap II mulai 2 Januari.

Selamat datang kaum miskin baru!

  • Golkar gelar donor darah masal.

Darahnya pasti kuning!

 

 

  1. 2 January 2006
  • Pelaku bom Palu konon teroris lama.

Lama atau baru yang jelas harus ditangkap!

  • Amien: Lawan koruptor sejati butuh keberanian.

Sebenarnya butuh Pak Amien, gitu loh…

  • Garuda maskapai terlemah di Asia.

Wah, nomor satu lagi kita…

 

  1. 3 January 2006
  • Ketua MPR minta SBY evaluasi kinerja BIN.

Kalau perlu, ya di-reshuffle saja!

  • Pembayaran BLT tahap II dimulai.

Musim kaum kere berebut lagi…

  • Kasus formalin dinilai karena keteledoranpemerintah.

Dan kelihaian tukang bakso!

 

  1. 4 January 2006
  • Longsor dan banjir bandang Ianda Jember.

Tahun baru, bencana baru…

  • Solidaritas longsor Jember, pimpinan MPR-DPR potong gaji.

Kok cuma pimpinan, anggotanya mana, dong?

  • BPOM janji tindak tegas penyalahgunaan formalin.

Baru sekarang. Kemarin-kemarin ke mana?

 

  1. 5 January 2006
  • Kontras: Polisi peringkat kesatu pelaku tindak kekerasan.

Dan paling sering lolos…

  • Amien: Sutanto capres kuat 2009 mendatang.

Pak Amien sendiri masih kuat nggak?

  • Penulisan sejarah G 30 S PKI berjalan alot.

Minta petunjuk Pak Harto, dong!

 

  1. 6 January 2006
  • Bentrok antarmahasiswa terjadi lagi di Makassar.

Status mahasiswa, otak masih TK!

  • Tujuh wilayah rawan bencana karena cuaca buruk.

Tapi yang pasti, karena nasib buruk…

 

  • SBY: Inflasi 2005 lebih baik dari 1966.

Korupsinya juga jauh lebih hebat!

 

  1. 7 January 2006
  • Direktur LBH: Hak perempuan masih diabaikan.

Maklum, masih dijajah pria sejak dulu…

  • Masa kerja KPU diperpanjang.

Wah, bisa korupsi lagi, dong?

  • DPR pastikan tolak impor beras.

Mending impor beras, daripada ngelencernggak jelas!

NON EQUIVALENCE AT WORD LEVEL IN THE ENGLISH TRANSLATION OF ANWAR FUADI’S RANTAU 1 MUARA

(Kutipan referensi/citation: Jurnal Linguistik terapan Vol 3/1, Mei 2013)

Iwik Pratiwi

 

 

by Iwik Pratiwi

SMK Negeri 2 Malang

Master’s candidate in Applied Linguistics at FIB of Brawijaya University

 

ABSTRACT

Rantau 1 Muara is the the last novel of the trilogy is the last trilogy of Negeri 5 Menara, written by Anwar Fuadi. The novel settings include, one of them, the unique life of pesantren. Because it is so unique, the translation into English may face problems as many of the concepts talked about are bound to Javanese or Islamic culture. Thus, it can be predicted that some problems should appear. To prove this, the writer translates one chapter and report the problem and how to solve the problems. This “translator reseacher” kind of research shows that the problems of non-equivalence are resulted from not only the author’s uses of local dialects and Arabic Islamic terms also the lexical and semantic field of the source words or expressions. More specifically the problems include cultural specific context, source text not lexicalized in target text, semantically complex source text, source text and target text making different distinction in meaning, differences in expressive meaning, differences in form, and loan words in source text. To make the translation of the text into English readable and relatable as possible, syntactic, semantic and pragmatic strategies, are adopted.

Keywords: Source Text (ST), Target Text (TT), equivalence, semantic field, lexical set, strategies

 

In Translation Studies, equivalence is an important concept. There are many levels of equivalence, and word level equivalence is the lowest level. Although translators do not normally work on word-for-word equivalence, the discussion may serve as the basic step in dealing with non equivalence found in the source text.

EQUIVALENCE AT WORD LEVEL

Baker (1992) defines word as the smallest unit of language which we would expect to possess individual meaning. In translation, everything would be easier if there were a one-to-one relationship between words and meaning in the various languages. But it isn’t so.

According to Cruse, in Baker (1992), there are four types of meaning on words and utterances: propositional meaning, expressive meaning, presupposed meaning and evoked meaning. Presupposed meaning arises from selectional and collocational restrictions, while evoked meaning arises from dialect and register variation which covers field, tenor and mode of discourse. All types of the above lexical meaning contribute to the overall meaning of utterance or a text. In case of problems of non equivalence, Baker suggests that it is useful to view the semantic fields and lexical sets of a language. Understanding the semantic field and lexical sets can be useful to appreciate the value that a word has in a given system and to develop strategies for dealing with non equivalence.

 

CONCEPTUAL AND LEXICAL SEMANTIC ASPECTS OF THE SOURCE TEXT (ST)

General Overview of the Novel

Rantau 1 Muara is the last trilogy of Negeri 5 Menara, written by Anwar Fuadi, whose writing has inspired millions of people. The trilogy is inspired by the author’s enlightening education experience at Pondok Modern Gontor, an Islamic boarding school in East Java The first novel has been translated into English by Angie Kilbane and published in 2011. The translation of the second and third sequels are still in question. Part 17, Maghrib Terhebat, describes Alif’s first meeting with Dinara, the girl he falls in love with. The author of the novel who puts himself as the main character, is a member of Islamic community and spent some years in Islamic boarding school or pesantren. His utterances are mostly informal mixed with Islamic terms. He also uses many highly expressive items in this part, such as : enaknya, sebel, lega, salah sendiri, ini gawat, gombal, hebat juga dia, etc.

Concept of Islamic Prayers

The title of part 17, The Greatest Maghrib, refers to one of five most well-known Islamic prayers performed daily : at dawn (shubuh), midday (zuhur), afternoon (‘asr), sunset (maghrib) and evening (‘isha). At the five appointed times, a muazin announces a call to prayer (azan), traditionally from a mosque’s minaret. Shalat must always be preceded by ablutions (wudu’) of ritually washing the face, hands, and feet. This can be done with sand when water is not available. (Qur’an 5:6; also 2:222, 4:43.) Shalat is always directed in the direction (qiblat) of the Ka’ba shrine in Mecca. It may be performed individually, but it carries special merit when done with other Muslims (jama’ah). A prayer mat (sajada) is commonly used during the shalat.

When performing salat jama’ah at the mosque, worshippers are aligned in parallel rows behind the prayer leader (imam), who directs them through the rak’as (prescribed postures and recitations). Islamic prayer begins in a standing position with a glorification to God which called takbir, then moves through several simple postures until the supplicant is kneeling.

Specified recitations are said in each posture. The content of prayer is glorification of God, recitations of the Qur’an, and blessings on the Prophet. Shalat concludes with the taslima (greeting), “Peace be upon you,” even when praying alone.

Shalat and other Islamic rituals and practices can be easily observed in various aspect of Indonesian culture. As many other Islamic countries, Indonesian selectional and collocational restrictions are also typical and need to be treated carefully to avoid awkward wording in English, since English does not normally have equivalence for: memimpin doa, shalat berjamaah, mengirim doa, membaca tartil, mengambil wudhu, etc.

Differences in the structure of semantic field in Indonesia and English is notably challenging, therefore, assessing the value of given item in a lexical set is always desirable. The word malu in ST, for example, has at least three different meanings in TT: shy, embarrassed, ashamed. Also, while ST differs sholat from doa, TT has a single equivalent: prayer.

 

RESEARCH METHODS

This paper is a report of a small research. This is a kind of annotated translation, where the translator reports the translation problems and how to solve them while she was translating. The data are taken from a novel by Anwar Fuadi, namely Part 17 of the novel: Rantau 1 Muara, by Anwar Fuadi, which entitled Maghrib Terhebat. Because the novel is so unique, the translation into English may face problems as many of the concepts talked about are bound to Javanese or Islamic culture. Thus, it can be predicted that some problems should appear. To prove this, the writer translates one chapter and report the problem and how to solve the problems.

Then, the writer discusses the problems of non-equivalence at word level in the translation she did as well as some strategies for dealing with them. The discussion of the translation is mainly referring to equivalence presented by Baker (1992) in her book, In Other Words, providing the background knowledge and approaches related to non-equivalence before contrasting some typical conceptual and lexical semantic fields to prove that there is a considerable linguistic gap between Indonesian and English. The proposed strategies for dealing with problems of non equivalence are mainly adopted from Chesterman (1997) in Hariyanto (2013). Finally, the writer also presents the result of the translation to show the different side of pesantren that are not widely seen by people throughout the world, especially in the post 9-11 world, when pondok or pesantren often gets unfairly stereotyped.

 

DISCUSSION

Problems of Non Equivalence in the Translation

The local dialects and the uses of Arabic widely used in the novel are the main challenge due to non equivalence at word level in the translation of the text into English, that is to say that the TT has no direct equivalent for a word which occurs in ST. The followings are the problems of non equivalence found in ST, referring to Baker’s classification:

  1. Cultural specific context, i.e.: kampungan, bukan basa basi, mengirim doa, membaca secara tartil, sandal jepit, etc.
  2. Source Text (ST) is not lexicalized in Target Text (TT), i.e.: shalat, azan, wudhu, mukena, etc.
  3. The ST is semantically complex, i.e. : saling menjajaki, gombal, enaknya, etc
  4. ST and TT make different distinction in meaning, i.e. : malu (may means shy, ashamed or embarrassed in TT)
  5. Differences in expressive meaning: menambat hatiku, mencuri pandang, bergelung etc.
  6. Differences in form : narasumber, berpikir ulang, kampungan, malasmalasan, etc.
  7. Loan words in ST : Maghrib, tartil, jamaah, (borrowed from Arabic)

 

TRANSLATION STRATEGIES

To deal with the above problems of non equivalence, syntactic, semantic and pragmatic strategies, following Chesterman (1997) in Hariyanto (2013), are adopted to make the translation of the text into English readable and relatable as possible. The discussion is presented in a table of three columns consisting strategy, hint and example of language item found on ST. The examples are provided with the line number of the language items to provide easier review on the text development. Although only strategies used for dealing with non equivalence at word level will be presented,  a full linguistic account of its meaning is somehow desirable.

Syntactic Strategies

Following Chesterman (1997) ten syntactic strategies which involve pure syntactic changes 1) literal translation, 2) loan: Calque, naturalization, 3) transposition, 4) unit shift, 5) phrase structure change, 6) clause structure change, 7) sentence structure change, 8) cohesion change, 9) level shift and 10) scheme change), the translation of the text applies the followings:

Table 1: Samples of Syntactic Strategies

Iwik 1

 

Iwik 2

 

Semantic Strategies

Chesterman suggests changes mainly related to lexical semantics and sometimes aspects of clause meaning such as emphasis which includes:  1) synonyms, 2) antonyms, 3) hyponyms, 4) converses, 5) abstraction change, 6) distribution change, 7) emphasis change, 8) paraphrase, 9) trope change and other semantic changes.

Table 2: Samples of Semantic Strategies

Iwik 3

Iwik 4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pragmatic Strategies

Unlike the previous strategies which manipulate meanings, these strategies manipulate message and tend to involve bigger from the ST, and typically involve syntactic and /or semantic changes as well. Chesterman (1997) categorizes pragmatic strategies into : 1) cultural filtering, 2) explicitness, 3) information change, 4) interpersonal change, 5) illocutionary change, 6) coherence change, 7) partial translation 8) visibility change, 9) transediting, and 10) other pragmatic changes.

Table 3. Samples of Pragmatic Strategies

Iwik 5

 

CONCLUSIONS

The translation of part 17 : Maghrib Terhebat, under the principles of equivalence is basically aimed at producing the English version of the text that is equivalent with the source text which is written in Indonesian. The problem of equivalence in translating this novel into English is quite significant not only because the author uses a lot of local dialects and Arabic Islamic terms in his novel, but the lexical and semantic field of the ST also has all kinds of non equivalence. Retaining it as much of the original flavor would be impossible without adequate insight about culture and ability to choose the most equivalent language items.

Although the strategies dealing with the problems of non equivalence is adopted for word level, the discussion of sentence level is unavoidable, since translators are not normally looking at every word in isolation and always expected to present the translation with a full linguistic account of meaning. Other strategies and differences between the ST and TT are preferably studied for further discussion.

REFERENCES

Baker, M. 1992. In Other Words: A Coursebook on Translation. Routledge: London.

Grundy, P .2000 Doing Pragmatics. Oxford University Press: New York

Halliday, Mathiessen, 1985. Systemic Functional Linguistics.Hodder Education Publisher, New York. Halliday, Mathiessen. Systemic Functional Linguistics.Hodder Education Publisher, New York.

Hariyanto, Sugeng.2007. Globalization and Web Site Translation. Paper presented at the national Seminar and Workshop on Translation in the Globalized World. Politeknik Negeri Malang, 8 December 2007)

Hariyanto, Sugeng.2013. Translation Theoretical Overview and Practical Pointers. Unpublished Handbook.

Fuady, Anwar. 2011. The Land of Five Towers. Translated by Angie Kilbane. Gramedia Pustaka Utama.Jakarta.

Fuady, Anwar. 2013. Ranau Satu Muara. Gramedia Pustaka Utama. Jakarta

 

 

APPENDIX

Iwik 6Iwik 7Iwik 8Iwik 9Iwik 10

Risk-Taking as a Contributing Factor to Make Learning English a Success

(Kutipan referensi/citation: Jurnal Linguistik terapan Vol 3/1, Mei 2013)

Ermyna Seri

Politeknik Negeri Medan

 

ABSTRACT

The success of language learning can be affected by internal and external factors. One of the internal factors is risk-taking. This factor drives learners to be able to gamble a bit, to be willing to try out hunches about the language and take the risk of being wrong. This article elaborates the characteristics of risk-taking learners on learning English, the learners’ personal learning problems on learning English, and the methods of increasing risk-taking ability. The methods discussed here directly address the learners’ personal learning problems which include inhibition to speak, low self-esteem, lack of motivation, and low risk-taking ability. Considering the significant role of risk-taking to the success in learning English, language teachers should establish an encouraging class atmosphere or a nonthreatening classroom climate in their classes to reveal risk takers.

Keywords: success, English learning, risk-taking

 

English is one of the languages widely used in the world by the speakers whose first language is not English. Besides its function as a means of communication with other speakers, it is also used as a medium to get some information or read materials in English about issues, advancement of technology and knowledge, and understand about different nation or people’s culture.

In Indonesia English is often considered as a foreign language or second language. English is one of the subjects taught in school starting from primary to university level. English is the subject on the school curriculum, and it is compulsory for students to take and pass the examination in order to be graduated from school.

To pass from this period, students have to go through the process of learning. Learning process is the path to reach success in which the students have to go through several stages in order to understand something that he or she has not known yet before. Furthermore a student who can carry out the learning activity can be assumed that he understands about something he or she has learnt about something (Rooijakkers, 1991:14). One individual’s learning process is called internal process. This internal process can be seen from the student’s individual behavioral change or action that reflects the learning (Rooijakkers, 1991:5).

Some students learn English faster and more easily than the others in school and they tends to be more .successful than the others. Success is perceived from two perspectives, namely the internal and external factors, but in this article, the internal factor would be discussed. Therefore the title chosen is “Risk-Taking as Contributing Factor To Make Success Of Learning English”.

THEORETICAL REVIEW

Learning according to Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary is knowledge obtained by study. Dimiyati and Mudjiono (2006) said that this knowledge obtained by study, or done through a learning activity in any places such as at school, or out of school. Learning can be seen from two perspectives. The first perspective is from teacher’s side and it is designed through learning instructions, while from the student’s side, it comes from the student’s desire to learn.

Dimiyati and Mudjiono define learning is an student’s act and student. As an act, learning is only experienced by the student himself/ herself, and determined by the student whether the learning process happens or not (Dimiyati and Mudjiono 2006:7). Furthermore they say that the learning process happens because the student gets something from his/ her learning environment, and this can be seen from the act of learning from outside (Dimiyati and Mudjiono 2006:7).

According to Djamarah (2008:15) learning is an activity that we do to gain knowledge).

Jakobovits (1970:44) learning a language means learning the whole new pattern of habits,….. A little learning like to play the piano or the violin, except that it is easier. Therefore, it is important to practice, to practice, and to practice. The practice should be intensive and enthusiastic in class and out silently to oneself while reading or to fellow students. Involve all your senses as you learn a language by using your ears, mouth, eyes, fingers and use your imagination.

According to Brown learning is a relatively permanent change in a behavioural tendency and is the result of reinforced practice. The components of the definition of learning are : learning is acquisition or getting, retention of information or skill, retention implies storage system, memory, cognitive organization, active, conscious, focus on and acting upon events outside or inside the organism, relatively permanent but subject to forgetting, involves some form of practice, perhaps reinforced practice, change in behavior (Brown, 1994:7).

 

Definition of Success

Success by the Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary definition is the achievement of a desired aim (Hornby 1995 : 1193). Success in learning interpreted as a student’s desire to achieve something. Key to get a success in learning is to study harder and sacrifice for something to reach the goal (Djamarah 2008, 10-11).

 

Risk-Taking as a contributing factor to make a success of learning English

Many researches show, the key point to accomplish second language learning depend on the personality differences among learners. There are two contributing factors to make a success of learning the language such as internal and external. The internal factors consist of natural talent, age, exposure to native speakers, high motivation, risk-taking, strong self-confidence, high self-esteem. Brown uses the term as the affective domain (Brown 1994:134). Obviously students who have these factors are better than the students who do not.

Whereas the external factors are teachers, instructional materials, approach, method, teaching strategies (Shoebottom 1996-2012). According to Walqui, Internal factors deal with personality and motivation. They vary from one student to another. External factors refer to the institutional contexts in which language learning takes place; contextual factors in second language acquisition.

According to Brown, there are two aspects contributing to the success of language learning such as of the cognitive and affective domains. The first aspect of the affective domain is called intrinsic that deals with the personality factors within a person and the second aspect is that encompasses extrinsic factors such as socio-cultural variables that emerge as the second language learner brings not only the two languages into contact but also the two cultures, and in some sense, he/she must learn a second culture along with a second language (Brown 1994:134).

Affective domain according to Brown is the emotional side of human behavior, and it may be juxtaposed to the cognitive side (Brown 1994:135). Further Brown says the development of affective states of feelings involves a variety of personality factors, feelings both about ourselves and about others with whom we come into contact.

According to Djamarah, there are some factors contribute to the success of learning such as : (A) obeying learning guide : regularity, be discipline and have a good motivation, focus, good time management such as to rest and to sleep (Djamarah, 2008:15-27); (B) avoiding learning difficultness : determining the learning objective, recognizing the remembering system, recognizing the remembering system range, recognizing the learning type, recognizing the rate of difficulties of book read, avoiding laziness, fulfilling recent wish, note taking for the future wish, writing any unfinished assignments, not to push yourself to study if you are not ready, staying healthy, taking a rest whenever necessary, emptying any unnecessary memory, mastering the language (Djamarah, 2008:28-42); (C) having intellectual mentality : be honest in any way, smart in thinking and action, reliable, self confidence, optimistic, not to hesitate in taking action, be brave to face the challenge, patience and never give up, take a change in any opportunity, willing to do something in any circumstances, learning effectively, learning while praying, never get satisfied easily on success achieved; (D) mastering the learning method well (Djamarah, 2008: 43-58).

Jakobovits a psycholinguist cited that the Modern Language Association of America sponsored a conference in 1964 which resulted in a statement entitled “Advice to Language Learners” in which consists of ten statements. Then these statements were revised by teachers and linguist. The ten claims about the psychology of foreign learning have been extracted from the 1966 revised statements (Jakobovits 1970:43).

The extracts of statements related to the language learning are : (1)learning a FL facilitates subsequent learning of another FL; (2)any intelligent student can learn a FL provided there are present ‘hard work’, a good teacher, and a good textbook; (3)a helpful strategy in learning FL is to avoid making direct comparisons between it and English; (4)learning a language means a whole new pattern of habits… a little like learning to play the piano or the violin. Therefore, it is important to practice, to practice, and to practice. Practice should be intensive and enthusiastic in class and out, silently and loudly, to oneself while reading, and to fellow students; (5)there are three techniques in language learning : imitation, analogy, and analysis. Imitation consists of repeating what you hear as closely as you can by listening carefully to your teacher and the other models. Learning how to create by analogy is the purpose of pattern drills and other exercises. (6) As one grows older, he/she begins to lose capacity for easy imitation but he/she gains the advantage of being able to reason: to analyze language, information of this sort given in grammatical explanations or rules can help you to learn the language faster; (7)memorizing sessions should be broken up into several intense short periods; (8)reading and writing are learned more easily if one first learns to speak the language; (8)practicing to speak should be done right from the start; (9)when reading a FL, one should at first read only what has been previously practiced, and do so out loud; (10)English translation of words or phrases should never be written on the page in the reading book (Jakoboits, 1970:43-45)

Theoretical Approach

There are two theoretical approaches in relation with the success of learning the language as proposed by Brown and Jakobovits discussed in this article. Brown outlines a risk-taking factor as part of aspect of the affective domain or called intrinsic and how this factor influences the success of the language learning. Whereas Jakobovits  a psycholinguist outlines learning theory from psycholinguistic perspective adopted in the discussion of the techniques in language learning this article are points (4) and (5) as mentioned above.

 Personality Factor

Personality is the characteristics and qualities of a person seen as a whole. An individual’s personality is the complex of mental characteristics that makes her/him unique from other people and the qualities make somebody different from other people and interesting.

Personality factors according to Brown is the intrinsic side of affectivity that affects in learning English are self-esteem; inhibition risk – taking; anxiety; empathy; extroversion; motivation (Brown 1994:136-156). But in this article, I will focus on the risk-taking as contributing factor to make a success of learning English.

 

DISCUSSION

In this article, I would focus on one particular psychological dimension such as risk-taking. To improve students’ learning process towards success, I outlined three components that involved in the discussion of this article such as the first part of this article presents the overview of characteristic risk-taking learners on learning English and its effects. The second part is personal learning problems on learning English, The third part is the Method of increasing risk-taking ability

 Overview of the Characteristic of Risk-taking Learners on Learning English and Its Effects

The literature review of risk-taking behavior appeared in the literature of psychology in 1960s (Kogan & Wallach, 1967), and 1970s ;(Bem, 1971) and it appeared in literature of linguistics and English as a Second Language (ESL) in 1960s, (Labov, 1969), 1980s, (Beebe, 1983, Ely, 1986a). Kogan and Wallach correlated two personality dimensions, motivation and risk-taking behavior to this basis McClelland –Atkinson position, which is a theory of achievement motivation developed by McClelland, Atkinson, Clark and Lowell in 1953, (cited in Beebe, 1983).

Risk-taking is an important characteristic of successful learning of a second language. Learners have to be able to gamble a bit, to be willing to try out hunches about the language and take the risk of being wrong (Brown 1994:140). Related to the characteristics of a “good” language learner, risk-taking is also recognized as important factor in successful language learning. Risk-taking is not only one of the dimensions of individual differences (IDs), but also, it is one of the important parts in second language learning process; moreover, it is a language learning strategy for good language learners who are willing to take risks (cited in Gass & Selinker, 2000).

A risk-taking student is typically student who actively participate in discussion in the class room and answer the questions without being waited to be called by the teacher. This type of student is usually not afraid of speaking in front of his/her classmates and not afraid of making mistakes, and they are willing to take part in class discussions without any fear and they also get involved in language learning activities very quickly and easily. This involvement helps them to learn more and better and more successful. Besides, risk-taking students usually speak more, and talk much in the classroom and therefore they are better than shy students. Furthermore, risk-taking typical students are willing to make a try to produce words or sentences or guess and not be discouraged by making mistakes and   being appeared foolish in order to progress. By this way these students will improve their learning from the mistake they made. So the key to the success in second language learning is the students should be willing to make a try or guess and not be discouraged by making mistakes and being appeared foolish.

 

Personal Learning Problems on Learning English

I taught my students in Banking and Finance study program at Politeknik Negeri Medan in the semester 6. On the first day of the week in the beginning of the semester my students and I just met in the classroom. At the first meeting I introduced about the syllabus ,methods, communicative activities and other rules and regulations in class room and then started my lesson with the topic of ‘Introduction’ . In this topic, the students talked about making a self-introduction. Before it got started, I introduced my self then I called their name one by one to know them better then I introduced the syllabus and topics to be discussed within the semester. After a few weeks, I got to know the students better by their names and started to observe their characters.

In general I found the students have diversities in characters among other students in many individual characteristics. Mostly the students, were very quiet, shy, inhibited, low learning ability and were passive learners and listeners. The students only listened to the lecturer and were not even brave enough to give opinion or to put comments or to raise questions. They waited for the Lecturer to call their name in order to speak. I tried to find out why they behaved in this way. Through my observation in class, later I identified some problems faced by the students such as : (1) the students were inhibited; (2) the students had low self-esteem; (3) the students were lack of motivation; (4) had low risk-taking ability in a spoken language.

 

Method of increasing risk-taking ability

After I identified the students’ learning problems. I tried to solve their problems. The following learning problems are presented and methods used :

(1)   the students were inhibited to speak

Inhibition by the Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary definition is a feeling that makes one nervous and embarrassed, and unable to relax or behave in a natural way (Hornby 1995:613).

Brown said Anyone who has learned a foreign language is acutely aware that second language learning actually necessitates the making of mistakes; If we never ventured to speak a sentence until we were absolutely certain of its total correctness, we would likely never communicate productively at all (Brown 1994:139).

I found from several students why the students were inhibited to speak because they were afraid of making mistakes. The classmates often laughed at the student who made mistake in pronouncing the words, and this has made the students were lack of confidence. So the mistake was often viewed as threats. This student was descended from Batakist ethnic group who came from the village where they always use Batakist language ethnic group every day. This student usually has very accent of first language. This strong accent had influenced him from pronouncing the word in English. For example : What are the requirements to open a new bank account ? The word open phonetically must be pronounced as [əupən] but it was pronounced [əupæn]. Batakist has strong phonetically sound of [æ] instead of [ə]. This strong accent of his/her first language had influenced his/her speech production of how the word is supposedly pronounced. As the result, the pronunciation sounded awkward and funny to the other students’ ears. This condition made the students laughed at their classmate. Therefore, the student were inhibited to speak because they didn’t want to be looked stupid, or being embarrassed by their classmates when making mistakes.

In the condition of this problem, I told the students not to laugh because they might make the same mistake. I encouraged the students in their learning to be brave to speak out and neglects what ever circumstances his/her classmates may behave. I drilled the students to practice the pronunciation and gave more examples of words which have similar sounds until they pronounced the word correctly. I told the students not to worry making mistakes, because learners learn from mistake. If the students never tried, they would never know they made mistakes and never know how to improve.

I also recommended the students to use English-English dictionary. The students can look up the word and learn how the word is read and pronounced with its phonetically transcriptions. Other than that, I instructed the students to participate in the discussion when they were given tasks to do in class.  I told the students that I would ask them after they had finished discussing. if the first student could not answer the questions, the other students will be given a turn to answer. I rewarded the students’ when they could answer the questions and did well and made improvement in their study. I assured this atmosphere in their class happened. With this learning condition I made, the students could be risk-takers in many situations, because the students now became relax and not nervous anymore when they talked and expressed their ideas. As the result the students were willing to take part in the class and did well on learning English unconsciously.

(2)   the students had low self-esteem

Self-esteem is according to Coopersmith cited by Brown , it expresses an attitude of approval or disapproval, and indicates the extent to which an individual believes himself to be capable, significant, successful and worthy. In short, self-esteem is a personal judgment of worthiness that is expressed in the attitudes that the individual holds towards himself (Brown 1994:137).

In general, I found the students had low self-esteem and were lack of self-confidence . Mostly these students who were weak in structure or grammar and had limited vocabulary. For example the students did not know how the sentence(s) constructed correctly and this had made them were not able to produce sentences correctly, and also the students had limited vocabulary, and knowledge. All of these students’ weakness had made them lack of confidence.

In the condition of this problem, I was patience and reviewed the structure and grammatical explanations or rules in which area the students were not capable to do the communicative activities. I wrote some points where the students made mistakes. I explained the structure and grammar after the students had finished practicing the conversation. This way aims to refresh students’ mind as they have actually learned it before at school. In doing this review, I demonstrated the use and the usage of the language expressions through its communicative functions and I gave them varieties of sentence pattern related to its communicative functions. I always encouraged the students to try out what they knew and took the risk of being wrong. By practicing the conversations with their pairs, the students may increase their self-confidence, because the students were given the opportunity to speak their learned language in English in real life situations. Because of these important reasons, as Woolfolk (2001) noted and advised that activities can be done in order to increase the confidence of silent students in the classroom; give plenty of practice in the class room.

In order to increase students’ self-esteem, I asked the students to practice by using the imitation technique. With this technique the students repeated what they heard and the models of sentence pattern learned. When the students were capable enough to do the activities then I asked them to continue the practice by making analogy. With this analogy technique, the students were asked to create sentences by using the learned pattern drills. At last I asked the students to practice activities with analyzing technique. With this technique, the students were asked to create sentences and use the language of giving reasons. With these given techniques, I helped the students to rebuild their self-confidence and gradually they gain knowledge and skills and developed self-confidence. Finally, the students were able to produce words and sentences correctly and learned the language faster.

(3)   the students were lack of motivation;

Motvation by the Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary definition is to cause somebody to want to do something (Hornby 1995 : 758). According to Brown, motivation is commonly thought of as an inner drive, impulse, emotion, or desire that moves one to a particular action (Brown 1994:152). Robert Gardner and Wallace Lambert (1972) had made studies of foreign language learners in Canada, United States and Phillipines in an effort to determine how attitudinal and motivational factors affect language learning success. Motivation was examined as a factor of a number of different kinds of attitudes. They had put two clusters of attitudes divided two basic types of motivation: instrumental and Integrative motivation. Instrumental motivation refers to motivation to acquire a language as means for attaining instrumental goals such as furthering a career, reading technical material, translation, and so forth. An integrative motive is employed when learners wish to integrate themselves within the culture of the second language group, to identify themselves with and become a part of that society (cited by Brown, 1994:153-154).

I found the students were lack of motivation. This problem was caused of the students were in semester 6 and they were tired and bored a little bit after they passed five semesters studied and were busy writing reports after doing their on the job trainings and started again writing final assignments before they were graduated. Having this kind of condition, the students were lack of motivation in learning English.

In the condition of this problem, I stimulated their motivation again by telling them if they have capability in English, they would be able to work in International organizations. I also gave them a suggestion of learning strategies and tried to create a good encouraging class atmosphere in the class to reveal risk takers. I gave challenging communicative activities for speaking in the forms of role-plays or simulation. These communicative activities gave the unmotivated students to participate from passive into active learners. I encouraged students to take risk by asking the students to practice the conversation. Before I conducted the communicative activities, I gave them the example. This example of the conversation I put in one particular situation and context, so the students can use their learned knowledge in real life situations. I picked up one topic related to the banking and finance context. Then next I asked the students to choose one of the topics listed in their hand outs such as : Opening a new bank Account; Withdrawing Money; Making a Deposit; Enquiring about credit facilities, requirements and procedures; Applying for a credit card; Buying travelers’ cheques; Exchanging foreign currencies. These activities, especially to improve students’ oral skills, reduce anxiety level, and risk-taking ability improves. During the students practiced the dialogues with their partners, they were looked more relax and not worried or nervous, because they had more freedom to express out what they knew and thought. I walked around the class and took note for any area the students might make mistakes. After the practice, I wrote the mistakes on the whiteboard and asked if any student might know the answer. I encouraged the students to speak and say what they knew and thought about the answers. All the students’ answer were written on the whiteboard and to be checked together. If they got stuck with the choice of words or sentence patterns   and were not able to express out in a correct English grammar, then I helped. Finally, I wrote the correct answer on the whiteboard and the students copied. That was the way they increase again their motivation. If they got motivated, they would increase their risk-taking ability and became good risk-takers. Then I gave them language learning techniques, strategies, styles, and conducted the classroom as the student-centered and I told them being a risk taker in many situations would advantage the students in learning the language.

By doing this practice through the communicative activities, the students who never spoke in class or during conversational and oral practice before then became motivated. I also conducted quiz and told the students if they could answer they would be given an additional score of English Subject. More students participated to answer the questions. I think this competition also has an important role to play in the development of oral skills, motivation during the language learning process. Over all activities, I gave the students feedback and specific praise.

I also asked the students to do assignments for the project work by interviewing the tourists. The students worked in group of 4 people. They conducted an interview to the tourists and recorded the conversation. The students were motivated to speak with the native speakers than with their classmates. The reason is because they were more relax and not to be looked stupid when making mistakes.

However, some of the students still were not motivated, I tried to identify the students’ learning problem specifically concerning about their learning situation. After I found the problem, I used another method to help them and encouraged students to take risk (Oxford, 1992). I didn’t scold the students, and didn’t put them in embarrassment or punishment and I also told the students not to sneer their classmates.

(4)   had low risk-taking ability in a spoken language.

I found the students had a low risk-taking ability in a spoken language. This situation happened because they didn’t get enough practice and practice the language.

In the condition of this problem, I practically observed the students’ behavior among some students in the speaking class. There were a few students were silent and looked like stressful throughout the lesson. After the lesson, I asked the reason, why they did not participate the conversations, their explanation was that their friends might laugh at them and this situation could disturb their psychology and learning enthusiasm. This is a common student thought about them.

I also found some students were talkative and sociable ones in their peer group. They were quiet because they didn’t have ability to express out their ideas correctly and appropriately. Therefore they didn’t dare enough to take a high risk in speaking with their lecturer or teacher or because the students did not want to be looked foolish in the classroom. I made sure to call on everyone, and gave each student a chance to practice until the students mastered how  to use and know the usage of the language.

Beebe (1983) states that all of these three strategies are related to risk-taking, for example willing to guess is a part of risk-taking and willingness to appear foolish is willing to take risk. Therefore, I reinforced the students to be risk-taking, Furthermore, Beebe made another study about classroom participation and risk-taking ability, and tried to find the reason why L2 learners are shyer a second language around peers or classmates from their mother tongue group than around native speaker and teachers is that they perceive the risk of looking foolish as a greater in the presence of peers from their own country.

 

CONCLUSION

In the conclusion, risk-:taking has a significant role to the success in learning English. Risk-taking is a contributing factor hat associated with willing to make a try or experience, or to be wrong or to be embarrassed, or to gamble, and not to be shy, be active learners, learn from mistakes, not to be discouraged by making mistakes and being appeared foolish.

Language teachers should be aware of who their students are, what are the individual differences among their students. Language teachers should establish an encouraging class atmosphere or a nonthreatening classroom climate in their classes to reveal risk takers. Language teachers should reward and respect to boost the students learning style. Language teachers should encourage students to be risk-takers in many situations and classroom should be student-centered. Language teachers should be patient to review the structure and grammar such as the use and usage of the language. The language teachers should stimulate the students’ motivation by telling them if they have capability in English, they would be able to work in International organizations and give a suggestion of learning strategies and try to create a good encouraging class atmosphere in the class to reveal risk takers, and conduct communicative activities for speaking in the forms of role-plays or simulation. Language teachers should give each student a chance to practice until the students mastered how to use and the usage of the language.

 

REFERENCES

Bebee, L.M. (1983). Risk:taking and language learner. In Seliger H.W & Long M.L. Classroom oriented research in second language acquisition. Rowley, Mass: Newbury House: 36:66.

Bem, D.J. (1971). The concept of risk in the study of human behavior. In R.E. Carvey (Ed.), Risktaking behavior, Springfield, III : Charles, C. Thomas.

Brown, Douglas. 1994. Principles of Language Learning and Teaching. Third Edition. Prentice Hall Regents, Englewood Cliffs, NJ

Brown-Mollie Immel. Key Factors in Language Learning Success. 11/13 2006

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The Effectiveness of Peer Tutoring to Teach Reading Viewed from Students’ Self-Esteem

(An Experimental Research in the Second Semester Students of English Department of UNISKA Kediri in the Academic Year of 2011/2012)

(Kutipan referensi/citation: Jurnal Linguistik terapan Vol 3/1, Mei 2013)

 

By Arina Chusnatayaini and Eka Wulandari

 

ABSTRACT

This research aims at finding out whether: (1) Peer Tutoring technique is more effective than Direct Instruction in teaching reading to the second semester students of English department of UNISKA in the Academic Year of 2011/2012; (2) the second semester students of English department of UNISKA who have high self-esteem have better reading skill than those having low self-esteem; and (3) there is interaction between teaching techniques and students’ self-esteem in teaching reading.

The method which was applied in this research was an experimental study. The research was conducted at UNISKA Kediri in the academic year of 2011/2012. The population of the research was the second semester students of UNISKA Kediri. Two samples were taken by using cluster random sampling technique. Class B1 was used as the experimental class and class B2 as the control class. Each class consists of 22 students. The steps for the research were: (1) distributing self-esteem questionnaire to know students’ self-esteem; (2) applying teaching techniques to the students; (3) distributing post test; and (4) analyzing the students’ reading ability. The data were obtained from self-esteem questionnaire and reading test. Furthermore, to analyze the data, the researcher applied descriptive and inferential statistics using ANOVA and Tukey’s test.

The result of the study leads to the conclusions that: (1) Peer Tutoring is more effective than Direct Instruction to teach reading for the second semester students of UNISKA Kediri in the Academic Year of 2011/2012; (2) The students who have high self-esteem have better reading ability than those who have low self-esteem; and (3) There is an interaction between teaching techniques and students’ self-esteem to teach reading at the second semester students of UNISKA Kediri. Finally, the results of this research imply that Peer Tutoring is more effective than Direct Instruction to teach reading.

Keywords: reading, peer tutoring, direct instruction, self-esteem

===

Reading is one of four skills that must be mastered by students of English Education program. Reading taught in university becomes a demanded skill which students have to master. Through reading, they are able to comprehend the content of the subject matters and catch the information. Thus, it is very important for advanced level students to master reading skill, because reading would give them knowledge, information, and indirect experience.

Therefore, students must have an ability to comprehend texts. The understanding of the text varies according to both one’s knowledge of the word and the purpose one has in reading. It also varies according to one’s knowledge of language and of text types. A reader has several possible purposes for reading, and each purpose emphasizes a different combination of skills and strategies. Reading emphasizes many criteria that define the nature of fluent reading abilities, it also reveals the many skills, processes, and knowledge bases that act in combination, and often in parallel, to create the overall reading comprehension abilities. It is necessary to have adequate understanding to suit a purpose since it is central to reading.

However, many students have low reading skill which can be seen from their achievement. They have difficulties to know the words in the text and they have low understanding of the message from the text. The students probably know the words but they do not know the meaning of the text. Some students may know the meaning of the words or vocabularies of the text but they cannot get the message of the text. Even, there are some students who do not know the meaning of the text at all.

There are many factors influence teaching learning. The first factor is the technique of teaching. Technique of teaching is one of the important factors in the teaching learning process. There are many kinds of techniques. One of them is Peer Tutoring technique. Peer tutoring technique can be applied in teaching reading. Peer tutoring is a collaborative learning strategy in which students alternate between the role of tutor and tutee in pairs or groups.

Peer tutoring refers to students working in pairs to help one another learn material or practice an academic task. Peer tutoring works best when students of different ability levels work together (Kunsh, Jitendra & Sood, 2010). During a peer tutoring assignment, it is common for the teacher to have students switch roles partway through. Since explaining a concept to another person helps extend one’s own learning, this practice gives both students the opportunity to better understand the material being studied.

In addition, peer tutoring is a type of instructional strategy in which students are taught by their peers, who have been trained and supervised by the teacher. Peer tutoring involves having students work in pairs, with another student of the same age or grade. Peer tutoring is an extremely powerful way to improve students’ academic, social, and behaviors (Gresham, 2010).

However, many teachers still apply direct instruction technique in teaching reading. The activity in direct instruction technique is teacher-centered. Direct instruction technique encourages one-way communication. Students just become the followers and depend on the teacher during the teaching-learning process. It makes the students passively participate the teaching learning process. The students just receive the materials from the teacher without any discussion or sharing with other students

The second factor that influences the learning process is the affective domain. Affective as stated by Brown (2000: 143) refers to emotion and feelings. It is considered as the emotional side of human behavior. Affective factors in reading include attitude, motivation, self-esteem, and self-actualization (Davies, 1995: 73). Brown in Aebersold and Field (2000: 8) details several individual factors that influence language learning, including self-esteem, inhibition, risk-taking, anxiety, and motivation. They can be positive or negative factors. All of these factors operate in reading classroom as well. For this reason, researchers call upon reducing anxiety and inhibition and enhancing students’ motivation and self-esteem in the classroom context.

Self-esteem is the evaluation which the individual makes and customarily maintains with regard to himself; it expresses an attitude of approval or disapproval, and indicates the extent to which an individual believes himself to be capable, significant, successful, and worthy (Coopersmith in Brown, 2000: 103). Such evaluation is built up through repeated experiences of success and failure, other people’s impressions, and the self-appraisals in relation to ideal selves.

Self-esteem plays a crucial role in learning since it is the best predictors of academic success. It appears that high self-esteem is both a cause and a consequence of better academic grades (Biggs and Watkins, 1995: 75). Educators have long realized that self-esteem plays a crucial role in learning. Students with high esteem forge ahead academically while those with low esteem fall behind (Atwater, 1990: 155).

To make the students achieve adequate skill in reading, the writer applies Peer Tutoring technique on the consideration that it can improve the students’ reading skill and encourage students’ active role in the teaching learning process. It also to know whether peer tutoring technique is suitable for students who have high self-esteem or those who have low self-esteem, and to know whether expository technique is suitable for students who have high self-esteem or those who have low self-esteem. Since students’ self esteem and the method of teaching applied by the teachers are important factors in teaching reading, the writers were interested in conducting a research entitled: THE EFFECTIVENESS OF PEER TUTORING TO TEACH READING VIEWED FROM STUDENTS’ SELF-ESTEEM.

 

RESERCH METHODOLODY

Research Objectives

This research is find out whether:

  1. Peer tutoring technique is more effective than direct instruction to teach reading in the second semester students of English Department of UNISKA Kediri in the academic year of 2011/2012
  2. The students who have high self-esteem have better reading skill than those who have low self-esteem in the second semester students of English Department of UNISKA Kediri in the academic year of 2011/2012
  3. There is an interaction between teaching techniques and self-esteem to teach reading in the second semester students of English Department of UNISKA Kediri in the academic year of 2011/2012

Research Design

Experimental study is chosen in conducting this research. The purpose of experimental study is to determine cause-and-effect relationship. Through experimentations, cause and effect relationship can be identified. Because of this ability to identify caution, the experimental approach has come to represent the prototype of scientific method for solving problems (Johnson and Cristensen, 2000: 23).

The experimental research in this study involves three kinds of variable. They are two independent variables and one dependent variable. The two independent variables are teaching techniques and the students’s self-esteem, and the dependent variable is reading skill.

Research Setting

This research was conducted in Universitas Islam Kadiri (UNISKA), Kediri which is located on Jl. Sersan Suharmaji no. 38 Kediri.

 Research Subjects

The population of this research was all second semester students of English Department, UNISKA Kediri in the academic year of 2011/2012. The total number of the population in this research was 75 students who were divided into 3 classes, B1, B2, and B3.

Research Procedure

This research was conducted from January 2012 to July 2012. The factorial design was used in this experiment study because it allows the researchers to study the interaction of an independent variable with one or more variables. The factorial design is as follows:

ermyna-1

 

 

 

 

 

 

Research Instruments

1. Questionnaire      

Fraennkel and Wallen (1993: 79) say that questionnaire is an instrument that can be used for collecting data in a research. In a questionnaire, the subjects respond to the questions by writing or, more commonly, marking an answer sheet. The researchers gave a sheet of questionnaire dealing with students’ self-esteem. It is a cloze questionnaire, where the students must answer some statements by choosing alternative answer given by the researcher. The questionnaire consists of 50 statements with four-point rating scale measuring their self-esteem.

The questionnaire must be valid and reliable before it is administered in the experimental and control class. To check the validity and the reliability of the questionnaire, firstly, the researchers tried it out to the students of the class which does not belong to the experimental and control class.

  1. Validity

The validity of the questionnaire is analyzed by using the following formula (Biserial Point Correlation):

(Ary in Ngadiso, 2006: 2)

If ro is higher than rt, the item is valid.

 

  1. Reliability

O’Malley(1996: 19) states that reliability is the consistency of the assessment in producing the same score on different testing occasions or with different raters. Brown (2004: 20) states that a reliable test is consistent and dependable.

Then, to know the reliability of the questionnaire, the following Alpha Formula is used:

(Ary in Ngadiso, 2006: 2)

If rkk is higher than rt, the instrument is reliable.

The research uses a Likert scale using four points instead of five points, in which the interval between each point on the scale is assumed to be equal. The undecided point is omitted to avoid   neutral answers, since mostly students tend to choose the neutral answers. It is used to register the extent of agreement and disagreement to a particular statement.

The items of the questionnaire are in the positive and negative direction. The score is as follows:

Table 1.2. Likert Scale

Answer Positive Item Negative Items
SAADSD 4321 1234

 

Note: SA (Strongly Agree), A (Agree), D (Disagree), SD (Strongly Disagree)

 

  1. Reading Test

Arikunto (2010: 139) defines that test is a set of questions or exercises or other means used to measure skill, knowledge, intelligence, ability, or talent of an individuals or group of people. Based on the definition above, a test is a profile of the study results in the written form. This profile is then used to know standard of students’ achievement. For educators, this profile will be used to determine the next learning process. In administering a test, it is important to set and determine an understandable instruction.

The reading test is used to know the students’ ability in reading. The reading test is in form of objective test with four options. Instruments, questionnaire and reading test must be valid and reliable. Therefore, the questionnaire and reading test are tried out to know the validity and reliability at the first step. It is done before the treatment. The try out is done to the other class which doesn’t belong to experimental and the control one. At the end the valid and reliable items are used to get the data. The reading test is conducted after treatment.

The formula that is used to know the validity of reading test is:

If ro is higher than rt the item is valid.

Then, the reliability of the test is analyzed using the following formula:

rkk=

If rkk is higher than rt, the instrument is reliable.

After all instruments are valid and reliable, they can be used to get the data. The reading test was conducted after treatment as the post test.

 

Techniques of Analyzing the Data

The writers use a descriptive analysis and inferential analysis in this research. The descriptive analysis is used to know the mean, median, mode, and standard deviation of the score of reading. Meanwhile, the normality and homogeneity of the data should also be known, they must be done before testing the hypothesis.

Then, multifactor analysis of variance 2×2 (ANOVA 2×2) was used to test the hypothesis. Ho is rejected if Fo > Ft and if Ho is rejected the analysis is continued to know the difference of the groups by using Tukey Test. The design of multifactor analysis of variance is as follows:

 

Table 1.3. The Design of Multifactor Analysis of Variance or 2X2 ANOVA

 

         Teaching Technique Self-esteem Peer TutoringA1 Direct InstructionA2 Result
High B1 A1B1 A2 B1
Low B2 A1 B2 A2 B2
Result

 

Note:

A1B1: the mean score of reading test of students having high self-esteem who are taught by using peer tutoring

A2B1 : the mean score of reading test of students having high self-esteem who are taught by Direct Instruction technique

A1B2 : the mean score of reading test of students having low self-esteem who are taught by using peer tutoring

A2B2 : the mean score of reading test of students having low self-esteem who are taught by using Direct Instruction technique

A1   : the mean score of reading test of experimental class which is taught by using peer tutoring

A2          : the mean score of reading test of control class which is taught by Direct Instruction technique

B1        : the mean score of reading test of students having high self-esteem

B2        : the mean score of reading test of students having low self-esteem

After analyzing the data by ANOVA 2×2, the writer uses Tukey test to find the level of mean difference. The finding of q is found by dividing the difference between the means by the square root of the ratio of the within group variation and the sample size.

 

Statistical Hypothesis

The statistical hypotheses for this research were as follow:

a. The difference between Peer tutoring technique and Direct Instruction technique to teach reading to the second semester students of UNISKA Kediri

Ho: µ A1 = µ A2

H1: µ A1 > µ A2

 

Note:

Ho : There is no significant difference in reading ability between the students who are taught by using Peer tutoring tehnique and students who are taught by using Direct Instruction tehnique.

H1 : The students who are taught by using Peer tutoring technique have better reading ability than students who are taught by using Direct Instruction technique.

 

b. The difference in reading ability between students who have low level of self-esteem with the students who have high level of self-esteem in reading.

Ho: µ B1 = µ B2

H1: µ B1 > µ B2

Note:

Ho : There is no significant difference in reading ability between the students who have low level of self-esteem and students who have high level of self-esteem

H1 : The students who have high level of self-esteem have better reading than the students who have low level of self-esteem

c. The interaction between teaching techniques and students’ self-esteem in teaching reading.

Ho: µA × µB = O

H1 : µA × µB > O

Note:

Ho: There is no interaction between teaching techniques and students’ self-esteem in reading. It means that the effect of self-esteem level on writing ability does not depend on teaching technique.

H1: There is an interaction effect between teaching techniques and students’ self-esteem in teaching writing. It means that the effect of self-esteem level on reading depends on teaching techniques.

 

Result and Discussion

The data collected in this research were analyzed using ANOVA followed by Tukey Test. The hypothesis testing is to know whether the null hypotheses (Ho) will be rejected or accepted. The data analysis by using ANOVA can be summed up as follows:

  1. Fobservation (Fo) between columns,the comparative analysis between the effect of teaching reading using peer tutoring and direct instruction, shows the value of 6.86. The F table (Ft) at the level of significant α = 0.05 (Ft(.05)) is 4.08. Fo (6.86) is higher than Ft(.05) (4.08). Ho stating that there is no significant difference between Peer Tutoring and Direct Instruction is rejected. Then, a conclusion can be drawn that there is a significant difference between Peer tutoring and Direct Instruction to teach reading. The mean score of the students taught peer tutoring technique (62.09) is higher than the mean score of the students who are taught by using direct instruction (56.90). It means that peer tutoring technique is more effective than direct instruction to teach reading.
  1. The value of Fo between rows, the comparative analysis of the learning achievement between the students having high self esteem and those having low self esteem, is 123.77. Fo (123.77) is higher than Ft at the significance level α = 0.05 (Ft(.05)(4.08)). Ho stating that there is no significant difference between students’ high and low self-esteem upon the students’ reading skill is rejected. It means that there is a significant difference between students’ high and low self-esteem upon the students’ reading ability. The mean of reading scores of students who have high self-esteem (70.05) is higher than the mean scores of students who have low self-esteem (48.05). It can be concluded that students who have high self-esteem have better reading competence than those having low self-esteem.
  1. The value of Fo interaction, the interaction between teaching techniques and self esteem, is 42.61. So, Fo interaction (42.61) is higher than Ft at the significance level α = 0.05 (Ft(.05)(4.08)). Ho stating that there is no interaction between teaching technique and the self-esteem upon the students’ reading ability is rejected. It means that there is an interaction between the teaching techniques and self-esteem. It can be concluded that the effect of teaching techniques on the students’ ability in reading depends on students’ self-esteem.

From the findings above, it can be concluded that:

Peer tutoring is more effective than direct instruction to teach reading.

Peer tutoring is a type of collaborative learning strategy in which students support each other’s learning rather than relying solely on an adult teacher, it is one of the types of collaborative approaches where pairs of students interact to assist each other’s academic achievement by one student adopting the role of a tutor and the other has the role of a tutee. Peer tutoring has also been well validated for promoting the development of low-level skills, such as reading.

Peer tutoring can enhance learning by enabling learners to take responsibility for reviewing, organizing, and consolidating existing knowledge and material; understanding its basic structure; filling in the gaps; finding additional meanings, and reformulating knowledge into new conceptual frameworks. in either co-peer or near peer situations, both learners are likely to understand the material better by applying it in the peer tutoring setting.

When peer tutoring is used, the instructional environment usually becomes more learner (as opposed to the teacher) directed, and the learners have a more significant role in helping model of the learning. The teacher becomes a co-learner and facilitator, acting as a guide and a coach. The teacher is no longer the person with all answers; instead, the teacher talks with learners and offers opinions, explores strategies, and helps set goals.

In conclusion, peer tutoring gives teacher specific instructional techniques to helps students improve their skill and critical thinking abilities. It can become an important learning element that assist the students in learning how to solve problems, collaborate with others, and think creatively.

On the other hand, direct instruction is the oldest teaching technique. The activity in direct instruction technique is teacher-centered. Direct instruction technique encourages one-way communication. Students just become the followers and depend on the teacher during the teaching-learning process. It makes the students passively participate the teaching learning process. The students just receive the materials from the teacher without any discussion or sharing with other students. Since reading process requires the students for being active and not depending to the teacher, it will not gain best result if direct instruction is applied in the teaching reading because it does not give enough challenge for the students to develop their achievement. Finally, the result of this study shows that peer tutoring technique is more effective than direct instruction to teach reading.

 

The students who have high self-esteem have better reading ability than the students who have low self-esteem.

Self-esteem is the evaluation which the individual makes and customarily maintains with regard to himself; it expresses an attitude of approval or disapproval, and indicates the extent to which an individual believes himself to be capable, significant, successful, and worthy (Coopersmith in Brown, 2000: 103). Such evaluation is built up through repeated experiences of success and failure, other people’s impressions, and the self-appraisals in relation to ideal selves.

Self-esteem plays a crucial role in learning since it is the best predictors of academic success. It appears that high self-esteem is both a cause and a consequence of better academic grades (Biggs and Watkins, 1995: 75). Educators have long realized that self-esteem plays a crucial role in learning. Students with high esteem forge ahead academically while those with low esteem fall behind (Atwater, 1990: 155).

In addition, self-esteem is considered as one of the important affective factors because success or failure of a person depends mostly on the degree of one’s self-esteem. The students who have high self esteem will be encouraged if the teacher gives them a chance to involve in teaching learning process. They have better attitude in joining the teaching and learning process. They have high interest to pay attention to the teacher and all of the activities in the class and always do the reading task well. They are not bored in joining the class because they are more active than the students who have low self esteem. It means that the students who have high self esteem will have high ability in understanding the text.

The students who have low level of self esteem don’t have any interest in joining the learning process and they do so since they don’t have desire to learn more. They have little attention to the teacher and the material that is given. They are passive in the class and tend to listen the teacher’s explanation during the lesson rather than express the opinion and ask the question. Their low self esteem makes them unable to express their ideas better. This can be seen from the results of their reading ability in which the scores of both control and experimental groups are lower than those having high level of self esteem from both groups given treatment.

 

There is an interaction between teaching techniques and self-esteem in teaching reading.

In reading process, the teacher also needs to use suitable technique that motivates the students to join the class. Direct instruction can’t motivate the students because this technique just focuses on the academic content. The students are passive in learning. On the other hand, peer tutoring technique requires the students to be active in learning process.

In addition, peer tutoring is a type of instructional strategy in which students are taught by their peers, who have been trained and supervised by the teacher. Peer tutoring involves having students work in pairs, with another student of the same age or grade. Peer tutoring is an extremely powerful way to improve students’ academic, social, and behaviors.

The fact shows that the students having high self esteem perform very well in the class when they are taught by using peer tutoring, they attempt to be active in teaching learning process and do the task better. The students will not depend on the teacher and they try to find the meaning and messages from the text by themselves. This technique makes the students develop their social relation with other students. The students who have high level of self esteem will have high ability in reading many texts. They can read anything that the teacher gives to them. They will be active in joining the teaching learning process especially in reading because they have high level of self esteem. So, peer tutoring technique is more effective for the students having high self esteem in reading skill.

On the contrary, the students taught by using direct instruction learn reading material as usual. They don’t need to be more active, and just wait for their teacher’s translation and explanation to know the message of the text. They are passive in joining reading class and they are slower in doing the task. The students having low self esteem, therefore, will be suitable when they are taught using direct instruction in their classroom activity.

Finally, the result of this research shows that teaching techniques and self esteem play an important role to the students’ reading ability. This can be seen from the finding that the students who have high self esteem and who are taught by peer tutoring technique are able to get a better reading ability than those having low self esteem and taught by using direct instruction.

 

Conclusion

Referring to the result of this research, in general, Peer Tutoring is an effective technique to teach reading. Therefore, it is good to be applied in teaching reading for some reasons. First, Peer tutoring is very good way to get students involved in learning so that they are not just passive learners receiving the information. Second, students receive feedback and error correction immediately and more frequently. Third, students are able to work together in equal position and gain better understanding of the materials by learning from each other.

Self esteem determines the success of learning. Students with high self esteem perform better learning than those with low self esteem. This is because students with high self esteem perform harder effort to gain the goal of learning than those with low self esteem. Teachers, therefore, should always promote and stimulate students’ self esteem through various activities in which they can interact and share ideas with peer students.

Viewed from students’ self esteem, Peer tutoring is an effective technique of teaching reading for students with high self esteem. The students having high self esteem who are taught by using peer tutoring have higher score than the students having high self esteem who are taught by using direct instruction, while the students having low level of self esteem that are taught by using peer tutoring have lower score than the students having low self esteem who are taught by using direct instruction. It means that peer tutoring is well used for high self esteem and direct instruction is effective for low self esteem.

 

Suggestions

This research is expected to be useful for teachers, students, and future researchers, therefore, some suggestions are listed as follows:

For the teachers

Referring to the result of study, Peer Tutoring is effective for students’ reading skill. Teacher should use this model to improve the students’ reading skill. In choosing the technique of teaching, the teacher should consider some factors. One of the factors is students’ psychological condition including students’ self esteem. Self esteem influence the students in teaching learning process. The teacher has to know the students’ self esteem, so he/she can choose the appropriate technique for their students.

For the students

Students have to be more active in teaching learning process in order to improve their reading skill. For low self esteem student, they must be aware of the importance of active involvement in teaching learning process and their teacher is not only source in learning, then they have to encourage themselves. They also need to find other learning resources out of the given material in the classroom, such as from internet. This can be done by reading books related to the lesson or learning from electronic media such as TV, cassette, or CDs.

For the future researchers

A replication of this research design using Peer Tutoring can be done with some revisions. A similar research with different population characteristics is also possible. It may be worth while to have another research with different attributive variables such as students’ habit or interest.

 

REFERENCES

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Biggs, John and Watkins, David. 1995. Classroom Learning: Educational Psychology for the Asian Teacher. London: Prentice Hall.

 Brown, H. Douglas. 2000. Principles of Language Learning and Teaching. New York: Longman.

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Fraenkel, Jack R. and Wallen, Norman E. 2000. How to Design and Evaluate Research in Education. 4th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Gresham, Frank. 2010. Project reach; Peer Tutoring. http://www.lehigh.edu/projrctreach/teachers/peer_tutoring/peer-tutoring_step_1.htm. PDF accessed on May 11th, 2012.

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