Posts Tagged ‘intercultural communication’


By : Iwik Pratiwi


The loads of value in “Anna and the King” (1999), a film based on a diary written by Margaret Landon in 1944 provides an accurate and extensive basis for exploration of interlanguage communication used in real life. It tells about the English woman who became a teacher in Siam in King Mongkut’s era and explores a continuous negotiation between cultural practices and other socio-political determinants which promote the Royal institution in the Thai everyday life.

This paper is to reveal an interdiscourse communication represented in a scene taken from the film emphasizing on the situation represented in a dialogue in which members of different groups are in social interaction with each other and the interpretive processes they must bring to bear to understand each other in a highly altered hybrid and culturally mixed situation. The discussion is based on a discourse approach proposed by Ron Scollon, Suzanne Wong Scollon and Rodney H. Jones in their book: “Intercultural Communication” (2012). The speech situation, speech events, and speech acts are outlined before discussing the grammar of context. Then the background discourse is elaborated before analysing the occuring problems during the intercultural communication between Anna, an English woman and King Mongkut, a Siamese ruler.


Key words: speech act, speech situation, intercultural communication

The dialogue being examined is taken from one of the film’s scene, when Anna takes her first step in the King’s palace. The dialogue represents a single speech situation which constitutes a meeting with the Siam Royal family, involving a number of speech events and speech acts as outlined below:


Speech Events Speech Acts Participants Utterances
Introducing one self (1) Mentioning name          and occupation Anna “Your Majesty…! am Anna Leonowens, I’m a school…”
(2) Ordering to stop K.Mongkut “Stop!….Aah!
(3) Asking someone to              give explanation K.Mongkut “Who? Who?”
(4) Giving Explanation P. Minister “Your Majesty, Me Anna Leonowens and son Louis.”
(5) Giving Explanation Anna “Your Majesty… we have been kept waiting for nearly 3 weeks. And although I appreciate that you have issues of… great importance, I would imagine that your son’s education would be far more…”
(6) Refusing explanation K. Mongkut “Silence!”
(7) Asking if Anna is a teacher K. Mongkut “You.. are teacher?”
(8) Confirming Anna “Yes, Your Majesty, I am.”
(9) Giving Opinion K. Mongkut “You do not look sufficient of age for scientific teaching.”
(10) Asking about Anna’s age. K. Mongkut How many years have you?”
(11) Giving opinion Anna “Enough to know that age and wisdom do not necessarily go hand in hand, Your Majesty.I doubt you would say the same for being bold and English.”
(12)    Disagreeing K.Mongkut “They are rather inseparable, I’m afraid.”
(13)    Ordering P.Minister “His Majesty has not dismissed you. Follow him!”
(14)    Ordering Anna “Come along, Louis. Up, up, up. Quickly.”
(15)    Giving Compliment K. Mongkut “You articulate logical answer under pressure, Mem Leonowens.”
(16)    Thanking Anna “That is very kind of you, Your Majesty.”
(17)    Warning K. Mongkut “But irritating superior attitude, King find most unbeautiful. However, it will serve you well, given decision I now make.”
(18)    Giving Opinion Anna “First impressions can often be very misleading.”
(19)    Ordering K. Mongkut “Along with my eldest son…you shallnow teach all my children.


Introducing the Royal Family (20)    Introducing K.Mongkut The    royal   family.    23    wives…42 concubines…58 offspring, and 10 more on the way.Each one unique, each one my hope for the future.

I understand your surprise. Not as many as emperor of China, but he did not spend half of life in monastery. King making up for lost time.”

(21)    Asking the meaning of concubine Louis “Mother, what’s a concubine?”
(22)    Asking Louis to be quiet Anna “Ssshh..”
(23)    Introducing K. Mongkut “Presenting  original  pupil  and  heir apparent Prince Chulalongkorn. This, my son, is your new teacher.
(24)    Greeting Anna “It is a great honor, Your Highness.”
(25)    Giving opinion Louis “He doesn’t look too happy about it.”
 (26) Introducing K. Mongkut This is a necessary and practical gift Igive to you, and you must never forget

to honor your renowned teacher,Mem

Anna Leonowens. Ahem! Uh…

Oh. Must not forget head wife, the Lady


(27) Ordering K. Mongkut It is my pleasure that you help make her fine scholar also.”
(28) Greeting Anna “Lady Thiang.”
(29) Greeting Lady Thiang “Welcome, Mem teacher.”
(30) Introducing K. Mongkut “Prince… Thongkon Yai, ….Prince Suk Sawat, ….Princess Kannika Kaeo   And Princess Fa-ying.”
(31) Disagreeing Fa Ying “I’m not princess, I’m monkey!”
(32) Apologizing K. Mongkut “Ha ha! My deepest apologies. I study her in English myself.”
(33) Thanking Anna “Well, Your Majesty,I am most flattered by your welcome,and I find the opportunity to be in school an exciting one.

Such devotion to progress is to be commended.”

(34) Giving opinion K. Mongkut “Reform is vital for my country’s survival. As tiny feet change,so, too, will Siam.”
(35) Giving Opinion Anna “But being in a country with so many unique customs, If I am to raise my sonto be like his father, which I very much hope he will be, then I must feel free to follow our own traditions.
(36) Symphatizing K. Mongkut As a father, I understand.
(37) Requesting a house Anna Good. Then His Majesty will appreciate why having a home outside the palace walls is of such great importance to us. A home which…had been promised, but so far has not been provided.”
(38) Refusing Anna’s request K. Mongkut “It is my pleasure that you live in the palace.”
(39) Emphasizing the request Anna “But it is not mine, Your Majesty.”
(40) Ordering K. Mongkut “You do not set conditions of your employment, and you shall obey!”
(41)Reminding the King about her position Anna “May I respectfully remind His Majesty that I am not his servant, but his guest!”
(42)Disagreeing K. Mongkut “A guest who’s paid.
(43)Ordering K. Mongkut “Education begins tomorrow.”

The speech events above are high context, in which relationship among participants constitutes shared experiences and expectations, acts to cement group member together and so much is communicated nonverbally through contextual cues.



Grammar of Context

In grammar of contexts, the following points are discussed: scene, key, participants, message form, sequence, manifestation.


The geographical setting of this film takes place in Siam, described as Burma in the west to Cambodia in east, with forty nine bountiful provinces, and population of six millions. Whereas the events or stories takes place in the Grand Royal Palace, the Great Temple, and in a Monastery in Non Khai. Finding out the historical setting of the story means referring to when the story of the novel started that was in English Era, 26th February 1862, the time Anna gets an invitation from The King of Siam to be an English teacher for his royal children.

The dialogue itself takes place in the throne hall of Siam Palace, then moved to the royal garden where the royal family are gathering. The throne room is set up for The King as a receiving room, where he presides in majesty over official ceremonies, holds council, grants audiences, receives homage, awards high honor and offices, and other official functions. While the royal garden, featuring a great gazebo surrounded by beautiful flowers, is set up exclusively for the royal family.

The preestablished norms for the places and the use of space, the time and the duration of events depends much of the royal protocol, etiquettes and the King himself as the highest authority. In one way or another, breaching the protocol at the King’s presence is almost impossible.

The genre of this dialogue is, then, a royal meeting, and the topic can be defined as an introduction to the royal family, and as it is stated on the topic, the purpose of the meeting is to get to know to the King of Siam and the royal family.



A royal meeting, which involves the King and the family is generally conducted according to rules and protocols. When meeting a royal, there are rules about who can speak first, where to look, what to call them, what and when to speak, how you should stand and when you should sit. In this case, we can always expect a key of formality and seriousness.



1) King Mongkut

King Maha Mongkut, also known as Rama IV, ruled Siam (now Thailand) from 1851 to 1868, during which time he successfully negotiated with Western powers and modernized his nation. Mongkut ascended the throne upon the death of his half-brother, Jetta (Rama III), after spending 27 years as a Buddhist monk. Educated and multi-lingual, Mongkut negotiated with the United States and European powers to open Siam to international trade. He also brought in missionaries to teach his concubines and children about modern science and culture. Anna Leonowens was among of them. In the conversation being examined, the King takes a full control of the talk. As a king who is regarded as a “near to God”, he decides who, when, how and what to do at his favor.

2)         Anna Leonowens

Born in India, Anna was left by her parents in England at a girls’ school run by a relative. Her father, an army sergeant, was killed in India, and Anna’s mother didn’t return for her until Anna was fifteen years old. When Anna’s stepfather tried to marry her to a much older man, she moved into the home of a clergyman and traveled with him. Some sources say the clergyman was married, others that he was single. Anna then married an army clerk, Thomas Leon Owens or Leonowens, and moved with him to Singapore. He died, leaving her in poverty to raise their daughter and son. She started a school in Singapore for the children of the British officers, but it failed. In 1862, she took a position in Bangkok, then Siam and now Thailand, as a tutor to the children of the King. King Rama IV or King Mongkut followed tradition in having many wives and many children. While Anna Leonowens was quick to take credit for her influence in the modernization of Siam/Thailand, clearly the King’s decision to have a governess or tutor of British background was already part of a beginning of such modernization.

In the dialogue being examined, Anna takes her role as a new foreign teacher who is not only meeting and greeting the royal family, she is also baldly asking the King to fulfill her right as stated in the agreement, which is hardly impossible to happen among Siamese people.


3)         Chao Phya Kralahome (The Prime Minister)

The Prime Minister is the one who introduces Anna to the Royal protocol and ettiquetes. He does not takes much part in the dialogue except answering the King when he demands explanation of who Anna is and ordering Anna to follow the King before he dissmisses her.


4)         Louis Leonowens

Anna’s 6 years old son. As a little boy in Bangkok, Louis enjoys himself enormously. He asks a lot about Siamese culture which is, of course, far diffrerent from his own. Sometimes he goes to Anna’s class and stands on a chair beside his mother, mimicking her voice and gestures as she teaches the little princes and princesses. He makes friend with Prince Chulalongkorn, King Mongkut’s first son. His curiosity drives him to take part in the dialogue.


5)         Lady Thiang

The King’s headwife, out of 23 wives and 42 concubines that the King wants Anna to teach. She takes a little part in the dialogue as the King introduces her to Anna.


6)         Fa Ying

One of the King’s favorite Princess, a 4 years old girl who defines herself as a monkey. She also takes a little part in the dialogue.


Message Form

The dialogue being examined is a scene taken from a biographical film, “Anna and the King” (1999). As it can be seen, the message form is presented in audio visual media. Anna and the King is a 1999 biographical drama film loosely based on the 1944 novel Anna and the King of Siam (and its 1946 film adaptation), which give a fictionalised account of the diaries of Anna Leonowens. The story concerns Anna, an English schoolteacher in Siam, now Thailand, in the late 19th century, who becomes the teacher of King Mongkut’s many children and wives. directed by Andy Tennant and stars Jodie Foster and Chow Yun-fat, it was an Academy Award nominee in 1999 for Best Art Direction and Best Costume Design.



As has been stated above, the speech situation of the dialogue represents a formal agenda, i.e. a royal meeting, in which the King takes a full control and exposes a major voice during the talk. Then it is not surprising that marked co-occurence sometimes happens depending on how the King as the highest authority favors the proceeding of the meeting. A marked co-occurence happens when Anna insists in introducing herself to the King exactly at the end of receiving time, when the King is ready to leave the throne room. It seems to be a shared knowledge among the Siamese that when the King puts off his royal robe, any activities in the throne room must be dissmissed. Anna, who comes from a different discourse system, ignores this order and baldly introduces herself to the King. The King is confused and demands an explanation for the breached agenda. Although the King finally knows that Anna is the teacher he has invited, the King keeps leaving the throne room, receives Anna’s introduction and directs her to meet the royal family in the royal garden. This is a little unexpected, considering that Anna is a foreign guest who is supposed to have the most formal receiving.



Since the communication is controlled by the King who has an ultimate power and authority, some components remain tacit or unexpressed, as the following example:

Anna                       : “Enough to know that age and wisdom do not necessarily go hand in

hand, Your Majesty.I doubt you would say the same for being bold and English.”

K.Mongkut     : “They are rather inseparable, I’m afraid.” (leaving the room) P.Minister      : “His Majesty has not dismissed you. Follow him!”

Anna thinks that the meeting should end when the King is leaving the throne room. However, the Prime Minister orders her to follow the King since he has not dismissed her. Anna will have known this if the King orders her to follow him instead of being tacit. The other example is when Anna demands the King to provide a house out of the palace as stated in the agreement. The King does not grant her without an explicit explanation.

Anna                        :”Good. Then His Majesty will appreciate why having a home outside the palace walls is of such great importance to us.
A home which…had been promised,but so far has not been provided.”
K. Mongkut     :”It is my pleasure that you live in the palace.”
Anna                        :”But it is not mine, Your Majesty.”

  1. Mongkut :”You do not set conditions of your employment, and you shall obey!”


Interpersonal Politeness and Power

As soon as the King is introduced to Anna, both agree on how they should establish the relationship. To some extent, both accepts the diference in status and ratifies that by using a relatively high concentration of independence politeness strategies out of respect of each other (+D). The asymmetrical relationship between Anna and the other participant to the King indicates that hierarchical face system ( +P, +/-D) is being employed, in which Anna and the other participants speaks “up” to the King, and the King speaks “down” to all participants. It can be seen that Anna as the “lower” uses independence face strategies, which include :


  1. Makes minimal assumption about the hearer’s wants:

“.       and although I appreciate that you have issues of great importance, I would

imagine that your son’s education would be far more… ”


  1. Minimize Threat

“But being in a country with so many unique customs, If I am to raise my son to be like his father, which I very much hope he will be, then I must feel free to follow our own traditions.”


  1. Uses title/ honorific :

“Yes, Your Majesty, I am.”


  1. Be pessimistic

“Enough to know that age and wisdom do not necessarily go hand in hand, Your Majesty. I doubt you would say the same for being bold and English.”


  1. Dissasociate Speaker / Hearer from the discourse.

“May I respectfully remind His Majesty that I am not his servant, but his guest!”


Introducing herself has been the most important thing for Anna to approach the King. Understandably Anna uses an extra deferential tone and the highest level of independence strategies. While the King, as the “higher” uses involvement strategies, which include :


  1. Exaggerate (interest, approval, symphaty)

“You articulate logical answer under pressure, Mem Leonowens.”


  1. Claim common point of view, opinions, attitudes, knowledge, emphaty.

“As a father, I understand.”


Cohesive Device

Participants use cohesive devices on their discourse which include:



See the following table.

K.Mongkut : “They are rather inseparable, I’m afraid.” They refers to wisdom and age
P.Minister : “His Majesty has not dismissed you. Follow him!” His Majesty and him refer to the King
K. Mongkut “But irritating superior attitude, King find most unbeautiful. However, it will serve you well, given decision I now make.” It refers to Anna’s irritating attitude
Louis “He doesn’t look too happy about it.” He refers to Prince Chulalongkorn.It refers to having a foreign (colonial) teacher
K. Mongkut This is a necessary and practical gift I give to you, and you must never forget to honor your renowned teacher,Mem Anna Leonowens. Ahem! Uh… This refer to education
K. Mongkut “Ha ha! My deepest apologies. I study her in English myself.” Her refers to Fa Ying, the King’s daugther
K. Mongkut “It is my pleasure that you live in the palace.” The place refers to the place where Anna lives at present
Anna “But it is not mine, Your Majesty.” It refers to the place where Anna lives at present


Verb Forms

Although the communication is spoken in English, we can only see a little difference of verb forms in producing cohesion. One of them is the use of perfect continuous tense in passive voice below:

Anna                      : “Your Majesty… we have been kept waiting for nearly 3 weeks.”


Anna implies that waiting is not her intention and the use of perfect continuous tense intensifies the length of time she has wasted. She is actually complaining and telling that she cannot wait any longer to start working.

Other use of verbs which are mostly simple present and future tense, shows the degree of politeness and weight of imposition as seen in the following examples:

Anna                      : “I doubt you would say the same for being bold and English.”

The King       : “Education begins tomorrow.”



There are at least three out of four major kinds of conjunction of clauses in English used in the discourse. ‘And’ as additive marker (“Presenting original pupil and heir apparent Prince Chulalongkorn), ‘but’ as adversative marker (“But irritating superior attitude, King find most unbeautiful. However, it will serve you well, given decision I now make.”) and ‘then’ as temporal marker (Then His Majesty will appreciate why having a home outside the palace walls is of such great importance to us).


Cognitive Schemata and Scripts

A regular pattern of activities can always be expected in many royal meeting throughout the world of monarchy. A formal set agenda is conducted under a fixed protocol employing particular ettiquetes. To follow the protocol properly, Anna is drilled and instructed by the Prime Minister, and it is relatively easier for her to follow the protocol since she also comes from a monarch country. It is not difficult for her to master sets of efficient adjacency sequences on how to greet royal family as soon as she is being introduced.(“It is a great honor, Your Highness.” ), or on responding a compliment (“That is very kind of you, Your Majesty”).

The ongoing flow of the dialogue indicates that the King uses a number of stress syllables as the indication of imperative or instruction. It is not difficult for Anna to understand these since the King is speaking in English. On the termination of his turn, the King also uses this kind of stress indicating that he recognizes the unmarked assumption which he thinks is not entirely true. See the following table.

Anna “May I respectfully remind His Majesty that I am not his servant, but his guest!”
K. Mongkut “A guest who’s paid.
“Education begins tomorrow.”


Background Discourse System

Anna Leonowens, as most other discourse participant, attends in a number of discourse systems. As a teacher, she belongs to her professional world, equips herself with books and encyclopedia to keep up with her professionalism. At her thirties, she belongs to the generation who was born and raised by Britsh couple in late 18’s. Anna also belongs to a gender discourse system which promotes certain models of speech and behavior. In the conversation, she is an English teacher working for the King of Siam, then she is a member of Utilitarian discourse system which predominates in such international business and professional exchanges. In this type of discourse system goodness is related to the physical and mental state of the individual, the more individuals that are happy, the more goodness exists. One may expect that she takes part in the conversation as a professional, or is engaged in a voluntary discourse system since there is an obvious purpose i.e. providing education to the royal family.

In the dialogue, Anna and her son is in the process of learning how to participate in the discourse systems of the royal family through a mix of education and socialization. She is observing the general practices of the royal family and at the same time being trained by the Prime Minister and the King himself to understand and follow the rules of the royal protocols.

The King of Siam, on the other hand, belongs to a more restricted and ambiguous discourse system. As the ultimate ruler in Siam he belongs to a “royal” corporate and at the same time professional discourse system. He holds a traditonal concept of vertical and generational relationship. His discourse is thought of being used for the purpose of ratifying or affirming relationship which have already been given. Although he belongs to Confucian who respects realization of human potential and moral cultivation, he also shares a Ultilitarianism belief in the power of society to shape human consciousness and behavior, hence emphasizes the importance of education. He speaks English, teaches his daughter English by himself and invites Anna, an international teacher, to educate the royal family. Background discourse system of the other participants are not discussed in detail since problems are mainly caused by the intercultural communication between Anna and the King.


Problems and Further Discussion

There are some problems that need further discussion due to the unique characteristics. See the discussion below.

Non Sequential Processing

The communication between Anna and the King is not innitiated smoothly due to Anna’s disfluency of the discourse. When the King of Siam is putting off his robe at the throne room, everyone in the room expects that the receiving ends and no one can prevent the King from leaving. Anna who has been waiting for almost three weeks to take her turn, cannot wait any longer and breaches the protocol by taking her turn to speak to the King of her existence. In a normal sequence, someone who introduces herself is usually responded by a greeting (“How do you do?”, or “Nice to meet you.”) In the dialogue, the King who is annoyed, does not intend to communicate with Anna, instead, he utters a single word with stressed syllable indicating an imperative before Anna finishes her sentence. Apparently, such too early interturn also indicates communication refusal.


Anna : “Your Majesty…I am Anna Leonowens, I’m a school……….. “
K.Mongkut : “Stop!….Aah!
K.Mongkut :”Who? Who?”
P. Minister :”Your Majesty, Mem Anna Leonowens and son Louis.”
Anna :”Your Majesty… we have been kept waiting for nearly 3 weeks.And although I appreciate that you have issues of… great importance, I

would imagine that your son’s education would be far more…”

K. Mongkut ■.”Silence!”
K. Mongkut :”You.. are teacher?”


A King is assumed to be “a near to God” creature who holds the ultimate authority in Asian countries. At his presence, no one can takes his/ her turn to speak without being asked. Anna’s disfluency of the discourse is a negative attitude which is resulted from a different expectation and should be discontinued. Instead of giving response to Anna, the King demands an explanation from the Prime Minister who is reponsible for the royal protocol. However, Anna insists in taking the next turn, resulting the King to give an even higher pitch of imperative ordering her to be silent. Anna may not have noticed her negative attitude or she may ignore it. Surprisingly, instead of dismissing Anna, the King takes over the turn in much lower interrogative tone to start the interaction.



It is interesting to note that although Anna is engaged in a voluntary discourse system, the dialogue indicates that there is an absence of formal systems to learn the preferred forms of discourse. She becomes a participant through socialization or enculturation, instructed from time to time by the Prime Minister and the King himself. Her intolerance of the delays in meeting the King is the result of disfluency of the discourse. This negative attitude may have been avoided if she accomplishes a formal system of socialization.


Topic and Face System

Within an asymmetrical or hierarchical face system it is quite unusual for a person in the lower position to introduce his or her own topic without first receiving the right to do so from the person in the higher position. The person in the lower position would most likely follow an inductive strategy, and avoid introducing a topic in the first case, or put off bringing up his or her topic until it followed naturally from the preceding discourse. A problem may arise due to different ideas about power. Anna, being a professional teacher who comes from an egalitarian system, and invited by the King to teach the royal family, is expecting herself to have equivalent or near equivalent rank to the King (-P). She introduces her topic deductively, exactly when no one receives the right to do so. As expected, the King refuses the interpersonal relationship that Anna intends to build, and instead of giving response, he orders Anna to stop and demands an explanation from the Prime Minister. At the next instance, when the King and Anna have made an agreement on their personal relationship she introduces her topic inductively.


Anna “But being in a country with so many unique customs, If I am to raise my son to be like his father, which I very much hope he will be, then I must feel free to follow our own traditions.
K. Mongkut “As a father, I understand.”
Anna “Good. Then His Majesty will appreciate why having a home outside the palace walls is of such great importance to us.A home which…had been promised,but so far has not been provided.”


However, although both agree to use a mutual deference, there are difference ideas of what constitutes power. As an egalitarian, Anna realizes her unequal positions, but she also takes her equal stance as individual. She feels free to speak about her right to have a house out of the palace as stated in the business agreement with the King. King of Siam, on the other hand, belongs to Confucian system, in which moral entities is the priority, and at the same time is in the superior position, thinks that one should respect any authority of the superior position in the society. Anna is not regarded “favorably” when she is pursuing her own interest to have a house out of the palace. The weight of imposition even increases when Anna is trying to negotiate her power to the King:

Anna : “May I respectfully remind His Majesty that I am not his servant, but his guest!”

As expected, the fixed interpersonal relationship between Anna and the King is not likely to change. Although Anna is doing a face threatening act, the King is saving his face by refusing the negotiated power and demands his authority.

King Mongkut : “A guest who’s paid. Education begins tomorrow.”



The dialogue taken from ‘Anna and the King’ consisting only two speech events. It provides a fruitful examples of intercultural communications and problems that occur. The main character, Anna, is exposed in a totally different discourse system. The discussion is mainly based on these difference: Western vs Eastern, Utilitarian vs Confusian, deductive culture vs inductive culture, ordinary etc. It can be concluded that the occuring miscommunication is mainly due to different discourse system which includes ideology forms of discourse, partial socialization and different perception of face system.

Further discussion on other dialogues in the film would contribute to the comprehensive understanding of the discourse system, also, a study on language and gender would be an interesting exploration to investigate whether Anna exposes female discourse system and the King, male discourse system.



Brown, P., & Levinson, S. C. (1987). Politeness. Some Universals in Language Usage.

Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Clayman.

Goffman, E. (1967). Interaction Ritual; Essays on Face-to-Face Behavior. Garden City, NY: Doubleday.

Meyerhoff, Miriam (2006). IntroducingSociolinguistics. Routledge. New York

Scollon, Ron, Suzanne & H. Jones, Rodney (2012). Intercultural Communication. A Discourse Approach. Third Edition. John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Oxford

Yule, G. (1996). Pragmatics. Oxford: Oxford University Press


by Bastiko Pradana, Master Candidate in Applied Linguistic, University of Brawijaya, Malang Indonesia


As people progress in life, they invariably come into contact with other people. Because people have different characteristics and are brought up in different ways, it would be hard to expect that they would communicate in the same way. This situation presents an issue which concerns how people say what they say in regard to other participants in the communication. This issue is at the center of intercultural communication, which is involved when there are multiple ways and perceptions of communication present. Recognizing these ways and perceptions is the key to make intercultural communication successful.

“Culture” itself is hard to define. One way of approaching the concept is through delineating certain features that culture may have. Hofstede (1997) described a cultural model which includes certain forms (manifestations) and attributes (dimensions). This model stems from the observation that culture is programmed so that people can differentiate one another. From this, culture is manifested as a ring of practices – which can be divided into rituals (activities), heroes (people), and symbols (articles) – that surround a core of values, which regards the perception of people. Within this framework issues do arise, and that is represented by the dimensions of culture, which covers power distance (the level of authority), collectivism versus individualism (how individuals and groups relate), femininity versus masculinity (gender implications), and uncertainty avoidance (dealing with conflict or emotions). However, this model was developed as part of a research done within the environment of a multinational computing company, and as such the model carries an implication of a bias.

A different way of interpreting culture and one that is more apt for describing intercultural communication is described by Scollon, Scollon, and Jones (2012). Instead of forms and attributes which are essentially “objects” that label culture, they describe culture as “actions” that allow culture to be “done”. The body of objects that are used to do this is called “cultural tools”, and when it is used for communication, it is called a “discourse system”. Language is a part of discourse systems, but because it is ambiguous, participants in communication have to make inferences based on what they know – their discourse systems. Successful intercultural communication relies on how aware participants are of the differences between the discourse systems of their own and others.

One place where intercultural communication can occur is on the Internet, and in particular on online forums. Using a forum, members can discuss topics related to a subject and receive feedback from other members; discussions are often moderated so that they do not become heated arguments. One of these forums is, a discussion forum specifically created for fans of the computer game Myst to discuss developments in this series as well as anything related to it. The members of the forum come from different parts of the world, though many are located in the United States or Europe. As a result, this forum has the potential to harbor intercultural communication. This paper would like to discuss the possibility of this happening in one of the discussion threads, entitled “What’s The Difference Between Guys T-Shirts And Girls T-Shirts?”

Literature Review

Scollon, Scollon, and Jones (2012) outline a discourse system as having four components. One of them is ideology, which covers the underlying ideals of the discourse system. Another component is socialization, and this includes how members of that discourse system achieve the eligibility to be considered part of the system. There is also the component of forms of discourse, which deals with the ways of communication available in the discourse system. Finally, the component of face systems concerns the relationships between members of the discourse system. In contrast to Hofstede’s ring model, the four components of a discourse system can be represented as a pie, with each component having equal status.

Within each component, there are also sub-components that further describe the component. In ideology, the question of whether the discourse system is voluntary (purposive or by choice) or involuntary (natural, no choice) is considered. History and views about the world are also considered, as are beliefs, values, and religion; in the latter three, they regard basic principles such as what is considered “good” and how are people and society supposed to be. In addition, ideology is also considered regarding the placement and relationship with other discourse systems. Thus within the component of ideology, perceptions and values are underscored.

The component of socialization covers the legitimacy of participation that a member would have in a discourse system. One of the sub-components of this component is education, enculturation, and acculturation; this is a determiner of whether certain practices in the discourse system are formally, informally, or forced to be learned. Whether learning is informal or formal is also determined by primary or secondary socialization, respectively. Members can further be evaluated by how far the participation of the member is in the discourse system (expert and novice participation). Within a discourse system, theories of the person and learning, including the consideration of the nature of good or evil, individuals and the collective, and the life cycle or age divisions of people, are also part of socialization. This component is therefore a representation of how well a member participates in a discourse system.

Forms of discourse of a discourse system collectively represent the ways communication is generally accepted in a discourse system. A major part of this component is the concept of the grammar of context, which itself is made up of seven elements: scene, key, participants, message form, sequence, co-occurrence patterns, and manifestations; these seven elements describe properties of the context. Other parts of this component include rhetorical strategies, functions of language, and production formats, which deal with the role and relationship of discourse. Modes of communication, media, and emplacement are the last part of this component, all of which cover the realization of discourse by the members of the discourse system. Overall, forms of discourse shows how communication works within a discourse system.

The last component of a discourse system is the face system. This component describes how members are supposed to be interrelated. Face systems may take the forms of deference, solidarity, and hierarchy, depending on power, distance, and weight of imposition; depending on appeal to positive and negative face aspects, it may be either involvement or independence, respectively. Face systems also involve social organization, reflected in the sub-components of kinship (familial relationships), the concept of the self (what elements make up an individual), and ingroup-outgroup relationships (how others consider individuals belong). The face system within a discourse system accordingly characterizes the links that individuals may have in and out of a discourse system.


The discussion thread being examined is located in a forum section called “The Blah Place”. This area is reserved for discussion topics that do not directly pertain to the main subject matter of the forum, which in this case is the game series Myst; most online forums have such an area reserved for that purpose. In this thread, there are 17 postings made by 11 members. Five of the members state that they come from the United States, while there are four members that state that they come from Germany, New Zealand, the Netherlands, and England, and two members whose location are not stated. In terms of gender, two members state that they are female; the rest state that they are male while one does not disclose this information. Most of the members state birth dates in the 1980s, except for three members who state birth dates in 1961, 1978, and 1991. Additionally, the researcher is a member of the forum, but did not participate in the discussion.

Grammar of Context

The grammar of context here represents that of the situational discourse system, which is the forum of Beginning with the scene, the setting is the virtual space of an online forum situated on the Internet; though the actual discussion is conducted over a period of several days, the discussion remains available in that virtual space. The topic being discussed is the difference between t-shirts for men and t-shirts for women. The purpose of the discussion is to see if there is any difference between the two kinds of shirts. The discussion itself started out with a few questions and answers, but later postings shifted to a more commentary form.

The key of the discourse system is represented by the tone and mood of the discussion; in this discussion, the tone is informal and the mood is rather lighthearted. This is indicated primarily by the use of emoticons as well as the presence of jocular statements in some of the posts (posts 3, 8, and 13). In regard to participants, in this discussion, any member was allowed to participate, including members of the moderation and administration team; although the role of the moderation and administration team (in part) is to keep the discussion from becoming out of hand, they can still participate in discussions, and in fact, two administrations posted within this discussion. However, their capacity in this discussion was purely contributive and they acted as ordinary members.

As this discussion was conducted over the Internet using web pages, the message form is purely written. Further, as each participant is clearly tagged on each post, the attribution of each post is quite clear. As for the sequencing in the discourse system, the thread follows a set schedule in that each new post is appended to the end of the thread, but members could openly contribute to the discussion, and there is always room for the discussion to grow and extend.

An online forum such as this is expected to generate discussions. However, in this particular discussion, jocular statements are present in several of the posts, one of which in particular (post 13) directly jests about the t-shirt in question, and does not relate directly to the discussion. Thus, these jocular statements constitute marked co-occurrence patterns, unexpected for the discussion. The existence of these co-occurrence patterns also creates tacit manifestations that should be considered, in addition to the rest of the discussion which is mostly explicit, with some exceptions being the comments in posts 16 and 17 which have to be inferred. This and all the other features above make the grammar of context of the situational discourse system significant to the understanding of the intercultural means of the discussion.

Situational Discourse System

Other important characteristics lie in the situational discourse system. The discourse system itself is purposive or voluntary, as it is up to individuals whether they want to be members and participate, or not. The history of the forum itself goes back to 2001, when it was opened to facilitate another place where fans of the computer game Myst to discuss what is happening with the game series. Any fan that is willing to talk and contribute to the forum is welcome to join with the forum. While there are many other similar discussion forums, this forum does not preclude its members from joining others, nor does it preclude those that are already in others to join the forum. This is generally the case for many online forums.

Aside from technical requirements governing new members (Capella 2011) there is nothing that hinders the identity of a member, though the member is expected to abide by the rules, which provides some enculturation. There is no primary or secondary socialization, and the forum does not consider anyone to be an expert above others, except those in administration or moderation positions. Any member is only expected to “…be an active, valuable member, with interesting, insightful threads and replies.” From this statement it can also be seen that it is better to contribute well than not (considering good and evil) and to participate (considering the individual and the collective). As for life cycle, though by technicality there is a point when a member is considered a “veteran” and there is a titular rank system which is decorative, it is only expected that each member contribute as equals.

In addition to the grammar of context, there are other elements included within forms of discourse. In this informal space, any form of cohesion and rhetoric is applicable for discussion so long as they are within the rules, but regarding cohesion, there is an extra element that enhances the aspect: the quote tag, which is standard for an online forum and allows references to be clearly indicated. As far as other elements go, here language functions to inform and ratify relationships, not so much to create and negotiate them, and individualism is more evident; due to the members being clearly tagged on each post (and when the quote tag is used) animator, author, and principal are often one and the same, except in cases where they are dubiously vague or clearly differentiated. Due to the use of virtual space, all mode of communication is disembodied and verbal and non-verbal may overlap when images are used. The forum is located on the Internet and thus utilizes it as well as computers as the media. Finally, as this forum is accessible from anywhere with an Internet connection, the potential for emplacement is high, and even the “general discussion” forum can be thought of as an emplacement in a forum that regards a specific subject such as this one.

Because of the preferred participation, the face system in this discourse system prefers a solidarity relationship, and the face strategy demands involvement. A hierarchy system and an independence strategy may be involved only when dealing with the administration and moderation in their capacities as such. Kinship is not expected to be present, unless it happens that relatives of a member also join as members. Regarding the concept of the self, as a result of the preferred participation, members of the discourse system are aware of some of the things that have been done in the past and try to make explicit how it should be regarded as a group in the rules; in doing so they are trying to weaken the collectivist ingroup aspect of the relationship in favor of a more individualist outgroup appearance.

Background Discourse System

Considering the above descriptions, it appears that the discourse system of the discussion forum mirrors portions of the Utilitarian discourse system, a point well-described by Scollon, Scollon, and Jones (2012). Per the Utilitarian ideology, technology can be used to advance individual freedom, increase happiness, and express creativity, in this case through discussions. The ingroup aspect of a discussion forum illustrates the liberty, equality, and fraternity aspect and how it reflects an asymmetrical and hierarchical face system to those in the outgroup. The form of discourse in the form of posts is considered equal for all and has to be acceptable to the forum. Even though there is no “education”, there is still some form of “socialization” in the form of listed rules. Despite only representing a part of the Utilitarian discourse system, it is nonetheless a small reflection of that system.

For any particular discussion, there are many possible discourse systems available for members to interact within and across. This is due to the information that members have publicly disclosed as above. Due to the varied origins of the members, they may be able to communicate to reflect the discourse system typical of their origin, or may be forced to accommodate for the discourse system of others. Due to the various ages of the members, they may be able to speak among those of their own generation, or alternatively have to transcend generational understanding. Also, as both genders are represented, it is possible that members have to reach outwards to the other gender. This last set of systems for this particular discussion is key, as it touches upon gender issues.


Among the many functions of a discourse system, Scollon, Scollon, and Jones (2012) mention that one of them is to enable participants to gain an understanding of their identity. With that in mind, the many background discourse systems present in this discussion present many ways for the participants to assume identities. However, there is one particular discourse system that is invoked because it is pertinent to the discussion. This discourse system is the set of gender discourse system; this discourse system is related to the discussion, which concerns clothing of both genders, and it is here that the participants in this discourse disclose their perceptions, thus attempting to cross the gender systems and recognize their identity.

Speech Events and Acts

Each individual post in the discussion can be considered a single speech act, since the particular member that made the post is identifiable. In the sequence of posts, two patterns can be identified. The first eight posts represent a question-and-answer sequence as the initial post started with a question, and successive posts in that range either answer the question (post 2) or clarify it (post 5); the remaining nine posts are comments that complement the discussion as they provide additional answers and no questions. These two patterns can be construed as two speech events. These speech events can, in turn, be construed as a single speech situation.

There are certain patterns that can be identified from the discussion. Within the question-and-answer sequence, four posts (1, 4, 6, and 8) are made by the member who originally started the discussion, and these posts correlate in sequence with each other. Posts 2 and 3 attempt to answer the questions posed at the start of the discussion and are only linked to post 1. However, post 4, which attempts to clarify post 1, is answered by post 5, which is in turn answered by post 6, which also clarifies post 4. Similarly, post 6 is answered by post 7, and post 8 both answers post 7 and clarifies post 6. The remainder of the posts attempt to add to this core part of the discussion, but are not directly tied to the sequence of posts.


Although the discourse system prefers a solidarity face system and an involvement face strategy, this does not preclude certain members from creating posts that appeal to a deference face system and an independence face strategy. In fact, within this discussion, posts 4, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, and 17 were created with independence and deference in mind. Posts 4 and 7 were made with a pessimistic tone, while posts 9, 13, and 15 were made with the intent of minimizing threat to the original poster, and post 11 was made with the intent of minimizing assumptions of the hearer. The remaining deference-independence post, post 17, was made by utilizing a taciturn strategy. Notably, all of these posts were made by male speakers that participated in this discussion, and posts 4 and 7 are part of the main question-and-answer sequence.

The remaining posts were made to appeal to solidarity and involvement, but for different reasons. In posts 1, 5, and 10, the member tried to notice or attend to the original poster, while in posts 3 and 6, exaggeration of interests were made. Posts 8 and 12 used the strategy of trying to assert common ground. The rest of the posts used three different involvement strategies. For post 2, the member tried to indicate the recognition of the wants of the original poster; for post 14, the member attempted to be voluble or explicit; and for post 16, the member went for an assumption of reciprocity. The female members that posted in this discussion did so at posts 2, 10, and 16, using three different involvement strategies.


In this discussion, only two female members were present. One of them contributed with two posts, while the other contributed with only a single post. However, this was still enough to facilitate an inter-gender discussion. Regardless, this instance of intercultural communication is considered successful. The reason for this is due to the interactions between their posts; these posts relate to the original member that posted this thread as well as to the posts of other members. This interaction is additionally made possible by the fact that this discourse system can be considered a “community of practice” in regard to gender-based discourse system interaction.

In their discussion of gender-based discourse systems, Scollon, Scollon, and Jones (2012) describe two common approaches for those discourse systems. One approach is called the “difference” approach, wherein the two gender discourse systems are treated as having separate ways of communication. The other approach is the “dominance” approach, wherein the masculine gender system is taken as prevailing to the feminine one. The problem with these two approaches is that they do not apply universally and they represent a critical viewpoint. Thus, where these two approaches do not generally apply, a different concept to multiple discourse systems is needed. This concept is called the “community of practice” or “nexus of practice”. The concept is based on the observation that people can and do participate in multiple discourse systems, and that they can affect each other to create different identities. As the background discourse system in this discussion does accommodate for this to happen, this concept is appropriate to describe the situation.

Post 2 was made within the scope of the central question-and-answer sequence in relation to the first post, by using the involvement strategy of indicating the recognition of the wants of the member who made the first post. Post 10 was made by the other participating female member, this time by noticing the member who made the first post, and the same member who made post 2 posted again in post 16, with an assumption of reciprocity; these were done in the outer section of additional posts. Considering the topic of the discussion and the fact that the original member that started the discussion was actually male in gender, it can be seen that the female members here tried to step out of their discussion boundaries to help the male member. They recognized that the egalitarian nature of the situational discourse system as well as its high visibility demands that they contribute in a manner that is helpful to another member, while affirming their identity as belonging to their own gender discourse system. In effect, they recognized the situational discourse system as a community of practice that puts value on not only the original member that posted as a member of the other gender discourse system, but also puts value on themselves representing their own gender discourse system. Doing so allowed their communication to succeed, evidenced by the fact that no negative reactions to their contributions appeared.

In relation to posts made by other members, the three posts that were made by female members attempted to stand out among the contributions made by the other male members that posted in the discussion. Post 2 can be seen as trying to be both descriptive and concise in its provision of answers to the original post, in comparison to post 3, which used exaggeration to hint better interests for the original member that posted. Post 10 appears as an encouraging answer, in comparison to post 11, which, while minimizing assumptions, also appears discouraging. Both post 15 and 16 try to provide the answer to the member who originally started the discussion, but post 16 does so in an illustrative way while post 15 includes an opinionated view. Using different face strategies, what the female members tried to do was to set examples. In the former two cases, the two posts gave a definitive way of answering within the question-and-answer and commentary patterns; the latter case can be thought of as trying to rectify the previous opinionated view. By trying to stand out from the other posts, they were once again able to recognize the situational discourse system as a community of practice, this time by setting straight their own identity as belonging to the female gender discourse system, while at the same time outlining a way for the male gender discourse system to act, though this is not readily followed. Still, by the absence of negative reactions, this way of communication ultimately succeeded.


Intercultural communication does not always result in failure. In some cases, intercultural communication can succeed, as it did in this discussion. Even though only two female members participated in the discussion and only for three posts, this was enough to spur good interaction between them and other members of the male gender discourse system. The female members knew that the situational discourse system of the forum demands them to make good contributions, and as a result, they did so by appealing to the original member that started the discussion. This allowed them to create an identity for their gender discourse system, by transgressing their own discourse system. This identity was further enhanced by the fact that their contributions were different from the others. Essentially, the female members were able to see the situational discourse system as a community of practice, and they crafted their own gender identity using their posts to suit the discourse system and the community of practice. As other members did not react negatively to the posts, the female members accomplished their identity creation and thus intercultural communication within this community of practice.

The identity of the female members perfectly represents how culture can be acted and not just referred to. By making use of their situational discourse system, in particular face systems and strategies, as well as their community of practice, they produced communication that spoke for themselves, their identity, and how they should be perceived. The female members are aware that what they do represents what they are, and so they made use of the cultural tools in their discourse system and communities of practice to show the best way to participate. As a result, they do not come off as being misunderstood; instead, they made themselves understandable; they created communication that bridged their perceptions with the others, making the communication successful.


Capella. (2011, 28 January) Official MYSTcommunity Rules and Guidelines [Forum message]. Retrieved from the MYSTcommunity forums on 23 March 2014:

m01ety et al. (2007, 11 April) What’s The Difference Between Guys T-Shirts And Girls T-Shirts? [Forum message]. Retrieved from the MYSTcommunity forums on 23 March 2014:

Hofstede, G. (1997) Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind. London: McGraw-Hill.

Scollon, R., Scollon, S., and Jones, R. (2012) Intercultural Communication: A Discourse Approach. West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell Publishing.


Appendix: Discussion Thread – What’s The Difference Between Guys T-Shirts And Girls T-Shirts?


What’s The Difference Between Guys T-Shirts And Girls T-Shirts?

Seriously, I Am Confuddled. Hewp pweeze?


#1 User is offline   moiety



* oglahnth (ancient one)


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Posted 11 April 2007 – 12:44 PM

So I’ve been trying to get this shirt for my brother for, like, half a year now,

At first Threadless mixed up my order with that of some guy from Belgium, and by the time

they figured out things were wrong and charged the cashmoney back on my card, the shirt

was out of stock. Of course, even though I asked Threadless to notify me when it was back

in stock, I wasn’t, even though it was reprinted.

Except now the reprinted ones are almost gone, too! My brother would need a Medium, and

that is sold out.

However, the “Girly Tee” version of Medium isn’t sold out.

So I’m wondering. What’s the difference between Guys and Girly, really? Is a Girly Medium

smaller than a Guys Medium? Essentially, is there any Girly version I can get that would

fit and look good on a guy?

The division seems arbitrary to me. Can someone explain this to me?


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#2 User is offline   Tay



* oglahnth (ancient one)


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Posted 11 April 2007 – 12:48 PM


moiety, on Apr 11 2007, 01:44 PM, said:

The division seems arbitrary to me. Can someone explain this to me?

Perhaps they’ve already answered your question. :)

Generally, “girl” versions of shirts have more room to accommodate *ahem* certain body

parts, fit snugger around the shape of the torso to be more “flattering,” as well as

usually being a bit smaller.

Tay 😛


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#3 User is offline   chucker



* oglahnth (ancient one)


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Posted 11 April 2007 – 01:00 PM

I vaguely seem to recall a certain physical feature that, starting with puberty, tends to

separate women’s upper bodies from men’s in a rather significant manner.

But then, I’m not an expert on clothing. 😛

Possibly of help:

Posted Image


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#4 User is offline   moiety



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Posted 11 April 2007 – 04:25 PM

Clothing is confusing. 😛

So I guess the answer is “Yes, a Girly Tee would look wrong on your brother”?


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#5 User is offline   chucker



* oglahnth (ancient one)


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Posted 11 April 2007 – 04:29 PM

Well, the answer certainly is “girly tees tend to be noticeably smaller (despite the same

size label), and tend to slightly account for the chest”. As to whether the particular

shirt would “look wrong on him”, that’s really something he’d have to decide for himself

by trying it out… the actual differences between girl and boy cuts of clothing vary in a

completely random manner. 😛

…but yes, most of the time, the answer is “you’d rather want to wait for a man’s

version”. (Perhaps this is why Threadless didn’t notify you? Maybe they only had women’s

sizes and figured your case wouldn’t apply?)


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#6 User is offline   moiety



* oglahnth (ancient one)


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Posted 11 April 2007 – 04:36 PM


chucker, on Apr 11 2007, 06:29 PM, said:

Perhaps this is why Threadless didn’t notify you? Maybe they only had women’s sizes and

figured your case wouldn’t apply?

No, I’m certain they reprinted all of them at the same time, because they didn’t even have

small, and it would make no sense for them to only reprint small men’s shirts. The reason

for lack of notification is their a) crappy service and b) terrible web store software. 😛


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#7 User is offline   chucker



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Posted 11 April 2007 – 04:38 PM


moiety, on Apr 12 2007, 12:36 AM, said:

No, I’m certain they reprinted all of them at the same time, because they didn’t even have

small, and it would make no sense for them to only reprint small men’s shirts. The reason

for lack of notification is their a) crappy service and b) terrible web store software. :)

Fair ’nuff. Just playing devil’s advocate. 😛


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#8 User is offline   moiety



* oglahnth (ancient one)


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Posted 11 April 2007 – 04:41 PM


chucker, on Apr 11 2007, 06:38 PM, said:

Fair ’nuff. Just playing devil’s advocate. 😛

I like playing. :)


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#9 User is offline   MystRivenExile



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Posted 11 April 2007 – 08:26 PM


I’ve ordered a lot of t-shirts for my team, and I’m surprised they bothered to break up

the sizing between girls and guys. I guess in that case they’d be smaller (already

answered), but I really don’t see the point, especially since they aren’t numbered sizes.

You see, I pretty much just wanted to shout MACGYVER! I want that shirt… 😛


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#10 User is offline   Mystress



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Posted 12 April 2007 – 06:28 AM

I have several girls and guys t-shirts. Most of my girls tees are indeed smaller and wider

in the chest. Some are even smaller and supposed to… well… But none of mine are belly

The guys shirts are just wider. I suppose that if he’s really conscious about it, you

could get the biggest Girl’s Tee size they have and try it on him. It just depends on how

broad shouldered and big around your brother is. They do have Extra Larges in stock, so

you could try that.


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#11 User is offline   M@



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Posted 12 April 2007 – 10:07 AM

Even if you just got a bigger girl’s shirt to make up the difference, I think it’d still

be noticeable. I’ve noticed that girl’s shirts’ sleeves are different from those of guy’s

shirts. Not only are they more form-fitting, but they’re not as long….and it comes

across to me as a distinctly feminine style :) So I really wouldn’t think you’d want to

get a girl’s shirt.




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#12 User is offline   Fireymarbles



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Posted 12 April 2007 – 11:30 PM

Yeah, I got given a women’s T-shirt last year… the idiots who ordered the team T-shirts

for a production my school did last year forgot that not all the dancers were female, and

also that the backstage and lighting crew were over half male, so they only bought women’s

shirts, almost all of which were medium. I’m only just comfortable in a large men’s size.

So yeah, this shirt pretty much wouldn’t fit me at all, except that it’s made of stretchy

fabric, in order to be more… erm… accomodating around the chest region, so I can

squeeze into it. Just.

Put shortly, if you do get it, get one a good couple of sizes larger than you would

otherwise, and still don’t expect it to look quite right.


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#13 User is offline   Free Bird



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Posted 13 April 2007 – 04:21 AM

I bet MacGyver would know how to turn a girly t-shirt into a guys t-shirt with only a

Philishave… 😛


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#14 User is offline   U



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Posted 13 April 2007 – 06:02 AM

the shoulder seams are higher.


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#15 User is offline   Dark Sky



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Posted 13 April 2007 – 11:20 AM

And the whole shape of the t-shirt is different

Far be it from me to laugh at anyone who dares to go against the norms of society in terms

of not adhering to gender fashion stereotypes, but generally I would say that if you tried

to give a guy a girl’s t-shirt, he will not be Best Pleased.


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#16 User is offline   Tay



* oglahnth (ancient one)

Language Use and Choice in Jember- Javanese Speakers A Study on Intercultural Communication

by Alies Poetri Lintangsari

University of Brawijaya, Malang


Nowadays, we cannot put stereotype on people based on culture since we are tangled into various discourse systems. Culture is no longer considered as a product of people’s life, it goes further to the latest notion that culture is a heuristic, “a tool for thinking”, by this; our culture cannot be formulated based on our ethnicity. Culture on this definition is not only reflecting the communal identity but also individual identity.

Language as one of cultural tools also play role in shaping people identity. People, since they share many discourse systems, also acquire many languages that can be picked up to communicate and they may pick the tools as their necessity to use it. Language works two functions in communication, to convey information or to express relationship. Language choice is critical to fulfill both of function. Jemberan speakers in this discussion are the ones who consider themselves as Jember people intertwined by various cultural identities such as Madura, Chinese, Javanese and Arabic. This paper aims to study language choice used in Jemberan speakers’ communication to know the motives behind.


Language Use and Choice in Intercultural Communication

                The term ‘Intercultural Communication’ as explained by Scollon and Scollon (2000,2001) is how persons manage to come the complexity of various different systems faced during communication. Those complexities come from various backgrounds such as gender, social political background, geographical background, educational background, and religious background, people live in it, and they develop and learn the acceptable pattern to be involved in society. They learn languages and varieties in their development, and then lead them to the cyclical question, how they navigate their identity through membership? Language use and choice might be raised as an answer.

Language use and choice is unavoidably in intercultural communication since it entails the use of various languages or language varieties and there are many differential accesses for speakers to enjoy them. Language use is critical in achieving effective understanding on linguistic situation in a multilingual discourse system like Jemberan speakers. When those speakers have access of two or more languages, they make choices as to when, where, how and to whom they use a certain language. The choices speakers make will determine their capability in using language to fulfill its two functions, first is showing their identity in membership, and second is to shape their membership identity.

Bahasa Jemberan: Linguistic Varieties of Pandalungan

In doing communication people are using a code; they share their codes into their addressee as the communicative tools. Therefore, code can be meant as the system of communication that has a function as communicative tools. As communicative tools, code cannot solely be meant as a ‘Language’, as explained by Duranti, in his book entitled Linguistic Anthropology (1997) that today we have to be careful in defining between Language and a language:

“It is important to distinguish between “language” and “a language.” The former refers to the human faculty to communicate using particular types of signs (e.g. sounds, gestures) organized in particular types of units (e.g. sequences) and the latter refers to a particular sociohistorical product, identifiable with a label such as “English,” “Tok Pisin,” “Polish,” “Swahili,” “Chinese,” “American Sign Language,” “Sign English.”” (Duranti, 1997)


The first definition lead us to understand Language as the ability of doing communication while a language refers to specific communicative tools on the basis of social and cultural context. A language is not only considered as the cultural product but also the cultural agent that builds the identity of a certain community, the college students for instance, though they are involved to the same community, there will be a different code between male and female students. Those differences are not merely due to the language, but also due to dialect, register, and even style as sociolinguist call it as linguistic varieties (Andersen 1990; Biber and Finegan 1994 in Duranti 1997).

The term variety will lead us to the study of linguistic repertoire and speech community. As originally introduced by Gumperz (1964: 137), linguistic repertoire refer to “the totality of linguistic forms regularly employed in the course of socially significant interaction. “ (Duranti, 1994). Repertoire is considered as the speaking properties owned by all speakers by regarding one life’s experience.

Jember is known as melting pot regency where many ethnic groups are mingled. Most of Jember population are Javanese and Madura people and small percentage of Tionghoa, Osing, Arabic and Indian. It includes to Pandalungan culture since its most population are Javanese and Madura people. Etymologically, referring to Bausastra Jawa Indonesia II (Prowiroatmojo, 1985), Pandalungan is a Javanese word for dalung which means periuk besar (big pot). Symbolically, ‘periuk besar’ can be defined as a place where all kinds of society groups are mingled and living together. According to the illustration above, it can be imagined how many linguistic varieties may develop in Jember.

Pandalungan refers to the mixing of two big cultures, Javanese and Madura, remembering that both cultures are majority in the referred areas.   There is no certain time when Pandalungan is used to represent the hybrid cultures of Javanese and Madura, but the society commonly call people as ‘orang pandalungan’ when s/he is grown up in that hybrid circumstance. Hary Yuswadi (2005:101) defined Pandalungan as : (1). Sebuah percampuran antara budaya jawa dan Madura, (2). Masyarakat Madura yang lahir di Jawa dan beradaptasi dengan budaya Jawa.

Javanese and Madura as the majority ethnic in Pandalungan society in Jember contribute more to the language in daily use. Bahasa Jemberan is socially known as the daily language of Jember people, it is created by the combination of Javanese and Madura language. Bahasa Jemberan may be classified into dialect rather than language since the words come as the combination of Javanese and Madura, such as Koen (you) which is the combination of Kowe (Javanese) and Be’en (Madura). The characteristic of Bahasa Jemberan dialect (usually pronounced in Madura accent) deals with the ethnic identity, such as Javanese with Jemberan dialect,   Chinese with Jemberan dialect, Arabic with Bahasa Jemberan and so on. As the majority, Javanese and Madura language are most used in daily life. The words are hybrid of Javanese at most than Madura while the variety of the language usage is close to the Madura (i.e. by repeating the last syllable in the preceding words such as nak kanak) . Here below some examples of Bahasa Jemberan dialect:


                It is a case study on Jemberan speakers which is analyzed qualitatively. Since it is qualitative research, researcher is the main instrument; other instruments are recording tool and transcribing software. The basic questions raised in this study are:

  1. Which languages are used in language contact, Jemberan, Javanese, Indonesia, Madura or English?
  2. What is the language choices found in the conversation?
  3. What are the motives behind the language use and choice?
  4. What is the influence of social factors on the language use and language choice?

This study will be discussed through following steps:

  1. Transcribing the audio data from conversation record.
  2. Analyzing the differences of participants’ background.
  3. Breaking down the grammar of context
  4. Analyzing aspects of discourse system occurred in conversation.
  5. Analyzing the speech events occurred in conversation.
  6. Analyzing the face system existed in the conversation.
  7. Analyzing language use and choice.



                The participants of this discussion have different background, but they share the same discourse system namely they were English department of Faculty of Letters in Jember University and they grown up in Jember. Here below the details information:

  1. Arif : 27, Male, University Student, active speaker of Madura, Javanese, and Bahasa Indonesia, Use English as Educational purposes.
  2. Yofan : 26, Male, University Student, active speaker of Javanese, and Bahasa Indonesia, passive speaker of Madura, Use English as Educational purposes.
  3. Lintang: 26, Female, University Student, active speaker of Javanese, and Bahasa Indonesia, passive speaker of Madura, Use English as Educational purposes


Scene    : Scene is considered as the most obvious aspect of context. Scene is consisted into some aspects, the first is setting that can be meant as physical location, time, place, and use of space.   The second is the purpose or the function. The third is topic, and the last is genre.

The setting of this conversation is in kedai kopi cak wang, at night (from 21.00 to 24.00 WIB). Kedai Kopi Cak Wang is a café coffee designed traditionally as the common kedai kopi in Indonesia, such as there is no aesthetic touch in this kedai kopi, the interior is so simple with long bench and big table that allow the customer sit in group. The interior design is different to modern café coffee that most adapted from European design. Although Kedai Kopi Cak Wang is traditionally designed, but they use the modern concept of transaction, they adopted fast food way in doing the transaction. The customer should come to the cashier to order the beverage and also pay their bill, after that they can find a set, do some chat while waiting their coffee come.

As one aspect of communication, spaces used in this conversation is more to have the characteristic of egalitarian, everyone has their own spaces and freedom to occupy the spaces. Everyone in this conversation has had the same understanding of what topic will be discussed since they have communicated before the meeting happens. The form of speech events in this conversation is informal meeting, in Javanese this activity usually called as ngopi (having coffee time). Though ngopi refers to the activity of drinking coffee, this kind of activity is not merely signified by that. The activity is more to the discussion or having a light chat. Since it is informal meeting, there is no conventional rules to start the meeting, but youths usually starts the meeting by ordering the coffee and waste their waiting time by chatting.

Key        : It refers to the tone or mode of communication. Since it is informal meeting, the key of this conversation is relaxed. There are no certain rules to involve to the conversation; everyone/every group usually have their own unwritten rules just for improving intimacy. This kind of mode usually involves the real face of the participant since every members of speech events are close each other.

Participants        : There are three speakers in this conversation; Arif, Yofan and I. Participants are not merely the matters of whom are they but also how they play or take roles in conversation. According to this conversation, I am the one who lead the topic while my two other friends responding my initial speech. But when the conversation went on, Arif dominated the conversation more than me and Yofan, he wanted to be heard more than to hear.

Message Form  : This conversation took form in oral conversation.

Sequence            : It is an open agenda since it is an informal meeting, there are no specific sequences that tied the activity. Though there are no specific sequences tied the activity, the understanding of conventional sequence to this activity is needed to help us to be well involved to the activity. For new comer like me, be there is a kind of confusion, at first I thought that it will be like ngopi in other places, but since the place is designed traditionally, I thought there will be the same sequence as I did ngopi in other traditional kedai kopi. When we ngopi in traditional kedai kopi, the seller will offer us the menu while she/he revealing some jokes or just asking how’s life, there is communicative communication between the seller and the customer. As I had that thought, so the first thing I did was finding my seat until my friend Yofan, asked me to go to the cashier first, he asked me to choose my beverage and pay it, after that we find our seat and have some chat while waiting our coffee. As a new comer, I was confused because my shared knowledge of ngopi in kedai kopi.

Co-occurrence pattern  : I can consider that this speech event is unmarked since everything run as predicted. When people go to have ngopi time, they will have some prediction that ngopi in this kind of kedai kopi will end up with chatting, laughing, and smoking and of course, drinking coffee.

Manifestation   : Those communication components above are manifested tacitly. Every members of the group who was familiarized with ngopi activity will understood the components since they belong to. New comer will also recognize the sequence of ngopi easily though it is unwritten.


                Discourse System has 4 aspects as outlined by Scollon, Scollon and Jones (2012). To make the dialogues go together, a Discourse System should be tied in coherence. There are 4 components that tie the cohesiveness in Discourse System. First is a cohesive device that has function to cover any aspect of language or context that a speaker can use to indicate connection among elements (Scollon, Scollon and Jones, 2012). Second is called as adjacency sequences, it is regular sequencing pattern that is learnt, predicted, and expected from a Discourse System. Third is prosodic patterning, which makes oral Discourse, become so oral by considering intonation and timing. The fourth component is conversational inference (Gumperz in Scollon, Scollon and Jones, 2012) that shape Discourse into logical or cognitive Structure. The analysis on coherence will be drawn below:

Cohesive Devices            : Lexical and Grammatical

Cohesive devices which will be discussed cover some components, namely Reference, Verb Form, Conjunction, and Causal Conjunction. Some references found in the dialogues emerge in Bahasa Indonesia. The reference ini found in speech act 1 until 4 refer to the same subject, kopi banjir. In the second speech act, the word ada is elliptically replacing the reference ini since the speaker using his finger pointing to the coffee.

                Giving information about Kopi Banjir Speech Event 1
Lintang Oh ini kopi banjir(Oh.. so it is called kopi banjir (flood Coffee) Speech Act 1
Yofan Ada dimalang?(Can you find it in Malang?) Speech Act 2
Lintang Ada, ini kan gaya French Press.(Yup, it is called French Press style). Speech Act 3
Arif La ini nanti kalo mau minum taruh bawah aja dibalik(If you want to drink, put it under) Speech Act 4

Reference used also found in Javanese, the word ngunu which means that in English refers to the word ceritamu (story).

Lintang Yak ceritamu, ceritamu(How is your story?) Speech Act 1
Yofan Hehe.. yo ngunu, di bully(hehe.. my story was about bullying) Speech Act 2

Since in Bahasa Indonesian and Javanese we do not have tense, there is no critical impact of the usage of verb form in the dialogue, we just add the tense by adding time signal such as kemarin (yesterday), besok (tomorrow), and others without any verb formation. Such us the word kemaren in speech act below refers to the examination which has been done previous weeks ago.

Arif Gak opo yo, lek yang, yang, opo, bu supik itu kan ngomong, jadi kan mas Arif, ini kan kemaren….(pause)(No, emm.. Bu Supik has said, “So, Mas Arif has got..(pause)


Conjunction found in the dialogue emerges in various languages such as English, Bahasa Indonesia, and Javanese. Such as the word mbek Arif uttered mean and. But the word mbek has multiple meaning, in some context it can be meant with.

Arif sing jenenge pak eko mbek pak imam ngguya ngguyu ae ndelok i aku(Pak Eko and Pak Imam just laughed aloud looked at me) The word mbek in this speech act means and and play as additive conjunction.
Arif yo nyanyi lagu metal iku, nyanyi mbek berok berok ngunu, guyon wong wong iku(I sung metal song, sung loudly, he joked me) The word mbek in this speech act means with and play as adverb.


Cognitive Schemata and Scripts: As a new comer, I failed in understanding the script of ngopi activity in kedai kopi cak wang. My world knowledge according to ngopi activity in kedai kopi (traditional coffee café) is different to the real script I had. Though the processes are the same, but they had some difference in sequential order as described here below:

Steps My Expectation based on my world knowledge The real Script I faced
I Find a seat I went to the cashier
I determine my order I determined my order
I let waiter to note my order I told the waiter about my order
I wait my order I paid my order
I receive my order I find a seat
I enjoy my order I wait my order
I pay my order I receive my order


Adjacency Sequences: Since the dialogues happen sporadic, it is hard to find the adjacency sequences in dialogue. The one can be figured out is in question mark expression. It is expected that answer comes up as question be raised, but sometimes the answer was postponed since there were speaker who jumped into another topic. The adjacency sequences in this dialogue are unpredictable since we do not have any fixed sequences. Although the sequences in this dialogue are unpredictable, but it is not influencing the degree of coherence massively though sometimes among speakers should confirming their understanding on each other utterances.

Prosodic Patterning        : Most of the mood of intonation and timing in the dialogue are in relaxed. Sometimes the intonation that stressing to some expression happen when the speakers quoting or recount their experience in facing their final examination. The intonation more tends to imitate rather that to express their personal feeling.


Speech Event in Jemberan speakers’ language contact

                Some speech event has been discussed in the previous discussion; some other will be discussed in the following discussion. Since speech events and speech act is the source of data, it will be attached to other discussion. Speech events in this conversation generally can be called as ngopi. It consists of several speech events such as the speech events of opening the meeting, recount the story and gossiping. The rest of speech events will be discussed in the discussion of Language use and choice.

Opening Ngopi Speech Event 1
Lintang Ayo!!, lapo awakmu beban kok entok A?.(C’mon,,!! How could getting A be a burden for you? Speech Act 1
Arif Gak opo yo, lek yang, yang, opo, bu supik itu kan ngomong, jadi kan mas Arif, ini kan kemaren….(pause)(No, emm.. Bu Supik has said, “So, Mas Arif has got..(pause) Speech Act 2
Lintang Oh ini kopi banjir(Oh.. so it is called kopi banjir (flood Coffee) Speech Act 3
Yofan Ada dimalang?(Can you find it in Malang?) Speech Act 4


The recording was recorded for about two months ago when I went home. I initiated the meeting to have some stories from my friends since they just finished their under graduate students for 7 years. Since it is informal meeting, everything flows without any definite sequence. Lintang was the first person who initiated to open ngopi activity by saying Ayo!! Lapo awakmu beban kok entok A. The exclamation Ayo means let’s talk your story about the final examination. For us, the graduation story is worthwhile to be heard. The second speech act was the response of Arif to the first questions, he started to tell his graduation story when my order came and I changed the topic from graduation to coffee. My comment to my coffee was responded by Yofan by asking Ada di Malang? (Can you find it in Malang?). The shifting topic happened when my order came and it became new topic to discuss since I found that kopi banjir was out of my expectation. I expected that kopi banjir should be more phenomenal than only the other name of coffee served with French press style.


                Face is considered as paradoxical concepts; it cannot solely meant by keeping the ‘honor’ or the effort of making assumption of speakers’ meaning by predicting their face made, another concept refers to face as the self manifestation of the speakers to be judged as their expectation through the face made. Face is intertwined on those concepts. Face in communication show two sides, involvement and independence. Since the participants are close friends, there is no independence strategies found in the dialogue. The involvement aspect of face is concerned with the persons’ right and need to be considered a normal, contributing, or supporting member society. Some strategies used in showing involvement by paying attention to others, show strong interest in the affairs, and using nick name or just name without any title such as mbak or mas. (in English they usually using first name to show intimacy). In my cases, people who just meet me usually call me by my first name Alies, when they feel comfort and pretty close with me, they will call me by my nick name, Lintang. In this dialogue all participants used given names/nick name to address each other.

Some strategies found in the dialogue according to involvement such as noticing and attending to the speakers shown by the rapid dialogue and some changing in small topic. It also found claim in group membership by the Javanese word awakdewe which means all of us (Table 1). Another strategy found is claim common opinion and attitude. When I told my story, both of my addresses claim my opinion and attitude toward my stories (Table 2).

Table 1.

Arif Asline, opo sing awakdewe entok dino iki iku, yo kelakuane awakdewe wingi wingi. Arif consider that what happens to him is a communal problem that also happens to us (I and Yofan).

Table 2.

Lintang intine semua pertanyaan bisa kujawab dengan baik, baringono wes maringono, pak karno takon, apa bedanya a, an, the dan tidak pake artikel(The point is I passed all the questions well until Pak Karno asked what are the differences among a, an, the and no article?) I told my story to my addresses that I thought I failed my exam because of the article question.
Yofan Hahahahhahha (Laughing loudly) Claim in my stupidity by laughing loud and consider that as a silly one rather than stupid.
Lintang lo gak ngerti ta lah aku lo, wes lali(I don’t know, I forgot) Confirming my stupidity
Arif Wes lali ta la, iku wes skip telong (3) semester koyok e yo,(Sure you forgot, it has been taught in 3rd semester I think) Claiming my stupidity as a common thing remembering that the lesson has been taught in the early semester and it is ok if I forgot it.



                This discussion will be started by classifying the topics occurred in the dialogue, there are 6 topics occurred in the dialogues;

  1. Arif’s story
  2. Yofan’s Story
  3. Lintang’s Story
  4. Gossiping

The shifting topic will influence the language use and choice. Some choices are using code switching and code mixing. The language use and choice determines the purpose of the speakers to stress their feeling of the story. They usually use English when they recount their story about their final examination, then shifted into Javanese or Indonesia when they started to gossiping. Some word and phrases used Madura or the equivalence reasons.

Data as the basis of discussion is served in tables below. The blue color indicates the usage of Javanese and the red one indicates the usage of English, while the black is the usage of Bahasa Indonesia. In the Topic 1 dialogue, Arif used some code switching to address some academic terms such as thesis and report. While in topic 2, we can see that Javanese used to commenting or responding the story while the speaker (Yofan) narrated his own story, while he used English when he recounted his story to simulate his real condition when face the examination. In topic 3, such previous pattern of the code switching used also found with the same purpose, to recount. The Javanese word used by Yofan showed solidarity to what I have experienced. For gossiping, the speakers tend to use Javanese and Bahasa Indonesia. In term of gossiping, speakers used Jemberan word such as Koen (acronym of Kowe/Javanese and Be’en/Madura). The rest speech events are uttered in code switching and mixing among Javanese, Jemberan, Madura and Bahasa Indonesia. Such as the word gengguk said by Arif that means trivial or unimportant, he thought that the word gengguk cannot be represented with any language. He also used English word Catchy to explain his reason of using the word gengguk instead of iseng.

Table. 3 . Shifting Topic in Dialogue

Topic 1 : Arif’s Story
Arif       : yo tang, jadi bu supik ngomong, ini kan kemarin sidang mas Arif dapet A, jadi mau gak mau segala bentuk report yang ada di thesis ini harus semuanya perfect, jareneLintang : Segala bentuk opoArif        : Segala bentuk reportLintang : Report?

Arif        : thesis ini kan report kan, hasil kan?. Jadi koyo penggunaan kata will itu di coret semua, di coret, trus opoan ada beberapa tadi sing tak benerin


Topic 2 : Yofan’s Story
Yofan    :yo, sing pertama langsung penguji 2 kan, penguji pertama aku pak sam, pas sam nguji dulu. hari jumat nyaLintang :oh sendiriYofan    :ditanya, iso gak eroh opo sing tak omong no koen.Nggak tau apa yang akan aku katakan pas di tanyain pertanyaan pertama, why do you choose this topic,   wes onok mbak, cuman akhire mbulet, ngomong ndek tengah, mandek, i.. i.. need more time to answer, aku di bantu sama bu riskia, di pancing pancing ngunu lo mbak, cek eleng aku, trus eleng aku wes. maringono gilirane bu indah penguji 3..di takoni, what is conjucntion, trus mintak contoh mbak, can you show me the example of the using of conjunction in target language, yes i can, i will give you the example mam, i have the sentence in appendix, nah appendix ku itu g ada halamannya mbak, may i say it mam, di buka halamannya, nah kalimatku itu di halaman belakang sendiri, nah yang dibuka bu indah itu halaman pertama, yang mana? katanya, you need to open the page mam, nda gelem mbak, ndak gelem .


Topic 3 : Lintang’s Story
Yofan    :Takon opo ae tapi?Lintang: Takon konsep, takon teori, takon sembarang kalir, sesuatu yang ketika bimbingan beliau tidak pernah ungkit, begitu di ruang sidang, ditakoni kuabeh dari awal sampe akhir. wes mari, jare pak karno, kan onok aqua nang ngarepku yo, sampek, misale, bener bener gak ono rehat iku, rehat iku gak ono, jadi misale bu mei nanya aku jawab, aku jawab bu mei nanya lagi, ngunu terus uncal uncalan, dan beliau sama sekali ga ngasih waktu sama yang lain, trus pas wes kate mari, kate takon meneh, mbek pak karno di potong, aku di kongkon ngombe disek, please drink your water, tak ombe,Yofan    : hahha, sakno (pity you)   à Javanese to Show solidarity Lintang : wes mari kan, di takoni mene mbek bu mei, srettt, aku cuman mikir ngene, wadoh rek, kok iso e, beliau kan pembimbingku ya, dari sekian banyak orang, kok malah beliau yang menghabisi, trus mari bu mei, bu supik takon, ngomong opo yo? bu supik ngomong i think bu mei has asked all the questions, i have nothing to ask.


Topic 4 : Gossiping 1
The dialogue was interrupted while Yofan recognized a sexy girl passed in front of us,Arif                         : Koen lak nggudoi iku, perkorone, ndek ranah pengadilan agamaYofan                    : wah..Lintang                                 :kok isok?

Yofan                    :Wes nikah..

Lintang                                 : Hah?

Yofan                    :Wes nikah berarti.

Lintang                 : Oh..

Topic 4 : Gossiping 2
Arif         :lak pas enak enak ngomong jowo nang jember, trus aku ngomong iseng, aneh tang dadine,Lintang :iseng iku gengguk iku?Lintang: Jadi tujuane karena kebiasaan atau?Arif         : koyok kegiatane ibu ibu rasan rasan iku jenenge kegiatan gengguk.

Lintang : Seandainya kamu ke malang atau ke surabaya masih menggunakan kata gengguk atau tidak?

Arif         : koyok e se sek tak gawe dan bakalan ditanyain artinya apa

Lintang : trus kenapa? karna tidak sadar atau sengaja?

Arif         : tidak sadar koyok e, soale lak aku ngomong nang omah iku gae bahasa indonesia mbek wong tuwoku mbek adekku iku gawe bahasa indonesia, cuman di beberapa diksi, tetep meduro, kata kata meduro, mungkin karna catchy yo bagi keluargaku, kata kata



This study comes up with some questions; Which languages are used in language contact, Javanese, Indonesia, Madura or English?; What is the language choices found in the conversation?; What are the motives behind the language use and choice?; What is the influence of social factors on the language use and language choice?

From the discussion above, I can draw a conclusion for answering every questions. Most of language used in dialogue is Jemberan such as the usage of koen and awakdewe refers to pronoun you and us. Javanese also used in the dialogue, but it is hard to recognize it as high or low Javanese, so I prefer to call it as Jember Javanese. Bahasa Indonesia also mostly used in dialogue and also English. Some motives found of the usage the language choice by code switching and code mixing, the topic shifting signalize the shifting of language. For instance, if the speakers recounted their story, they tended to use Bahasa Indonesia, while they tried to quote and imitate their lecturers they would choose Bahasa Indonesia or English. And when the topic shift into commenting or gossiping, they tended to use Jember Javanesse, in some cases, Jember Javanesse also used to show solidarity. Some influence factors influencing language use and choice relied on the participants’ background, since three of them are powering English for educational purposes, they used it to recounted and simulated their story which was uttered in English, in this term language has fulfilled its function to convey information. Jember Javanesse and Bahasa Indonesia is their social and cultural background, they use both languages on the daily basis. It is the reason why they feel more comfortable to use Jember Javanese and Indonesia Javanese to express relationship.


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