Archive for November, 2014


By : Iwik Pratiwi


The loads of value in “Anna and the King” (1999), a film based on a diary written by Margaret Landon in 1944 provides an accurate and extensive basis for exploration of interlanguage communication used in real life. It tells about the English woman who became a teacher in Siam in King Mongkut’s era and explores a continuous negotiation between cultural practices and other socio-political determinants which promote the Royal institution in the Thai everyday life.

This paper is to reveal an interdiscourse communication represented in a scene taken from the film emphasizing on the situation represented in a dialogue in which members of different groups are in social interaction with each other and the interpretive processes they must bring to bear to understand each other in a highly altered hybrid and culturally mixed situation. The discussion is based on a discourse approach proposed by Ron Scollon, Suzanne Wong Scollon and Rodney H. Jones in their book: “Intercultural Communication” (2012). The speech situation, speech events, and speech acts are outlined before discussing the grammar of context. Then the background discourse is elaborated before analysing the occuring problems during the intercultural communication between Anna, an English woman and King Mongkut, a Siamese ruler.


Key words: speech act, speech situation, intercultural communication

The dialogue being examined is taken from one of the film’s scene, when Anna takes her first step in the King’s palace. The dialogue represents a single speech situation which constitutes a meeting with the Siam Royal family, involving a number of speech events and speech acts as outlined below:


Speech Events Speech Acts Participants Utterances
Introducing one self (1) Mentioning name          and occupation Anna “Your Majesty…! am Anna Leonowens, I’m a school…”
(2) Ordering to stop K.Mongkut “Stop!….Aah!
(3) Asking someone to              give explanation K.Mongkut “Who? Who?”
(4) Giving Explanation P. Minister “Your Majesty, Me Anna Leonowens and son Louis.”
(5) Giving Explanation Anna “Your Majesty… we have been kept waiting for nearly 3 weeks. And although I appreciate that you have issues of… great importance, I would imagine that your son’s education would be far more…”
(6) Refusing explanation K. Mongkut “Silence!”
(7) Asking if Anna is a teacher K. Mongkut “You.. are teacher?”
(8) Confirming Anna “Yes, Your Majesty, I am.”
(9) Giving Opinion K. Mongkut “You do not look sufficient of age for scientific teaching.”
(10) Asking about Anna’s age. K. Mongkut How many years have you?”
(11) Giving opinion Anna “Enough to know that age and wisdom do not necessarily go hand in hand, Your Majesty.I doubt you would say the same for being bold and English.”
(12)    Disagreeing K.Mongkut “They are rather inseparable, I’m afraid.”
(13)    Ordering P.Minister “His Majesty has not dismissed you. Follow him!”
(14)    Ordering Anna “Come along, Louis. Up, up, up. Quickly.”
(15)    Giving Compliment K. Mongkut “You articulate logical answer under pressure, Mem Leonowens.”
(16)    Thanking Anna “That is very kind of you, Your Majesty.”
(17)    Warning K. Mongkut “But irritating superior attitude, King find most unbeautiful. However, it will serve you well, given decision I now make.”
(18)    Giving Opinion Anna “First impressions can often be very misleading.”
(19)    Ordering K. Mongkut “Along with my eldest son…you shallnow teach all my children.


Introducing the Royal Family (20)    Introducing K.Mongkut The    royal   family.    23    wives…42 concubines…58 offspring, and 10 more on the way.Each one unique, each one my hope for the future.

I understand your surprise. Not as many as emperor of China, but he did not spend half of life in monastery. King making up for lost time.”

(21)    Asking the meaning of concubine Louis “Mother, what’s a concubine?”
(22)    Asking Louis to be quiet Anna “Ssshh..”
(23)    Introducing K. Mongkut “Presenting  original  pupil  and  heir apparent Prince Chulalongkorn. This, my son, is your new teacher.
(24)    Greeting Anna “It is a great honor, Your Highness.”
(25)    Giving opinion Louis “He doesn’t look too happy about it.”
 (26) Introducing K. Mongkut This is a necessary and practical gift Igive to you, and you must never forget

to honor your renowned teacher,Mem

Anna Leonowens. Ahem! Uh…

Oh. Must not forget head wife, the Lady


(27) Ordering K. Mongkut It is my pleasure that you help make her fine scholar also.”
(28) Greeting Anna “Lady Thiang.”
(29) Greeting Lady Thiang “Welcome, Mem teacher.”
(30) Introducing K. Mongkut “Prince… Thongkon Yai, ….Prince Suk Sawat, ….Princess Kannika Kaeo   And Princess Fa-ying.”
(31) Disagreeing Fa Ying “I’m not princess, I’m monkey!”
(32) Apologizing K. Mongkut “Ha ha! My deepest apologies. I study her in English myself.”
(33) Thanking Anna “Well, Your Majesty,I am most flattered by your welcome,and I find the opportunity to be in school an exciting one.

Such devotion to progress is to be commended.”

(34) Giving opinion K. Mongkut “Reform is vital for my country’s survival. As tiny feet change,so, too, will Siam.”
(35) Giving Opinion Anna “But being in a country with so many unique customs, If I am to raise my sonto be like his father, which I very much hope he will be, then I must feel free to follow our own traditions.
(36) Symphatizing K. Mongkut As a father, I understand.
(37) Requesting a house Anna Good. Then His Majesty will appreciate why having a home outside the palace walls is of such great importance to us. A home which…had been promised, but so far has not been provided.”
(38) Refusing Anna’s request K. Mongkut “It is my pleasure that you live in the palace.”
(39) Emphasizing the request Anna “But it is not mine, Your Majesty.”
(40) Ordering K. Mongkut “You do not set conditions of your employment, and you shall obey!”
(41)Reminding the King about her position Anna “May I respectfully remind His Majesty that I am not his servant, but his guest!”
(42)Disagreeing K. Mongkut “A guest who’s paid.
(43)Ordering K. Mongkut “Education begins tomorrow.”

The speech events above are high context, in which relationship among participants constitutes shared experiences and expectations, acts to cement group member together and so much is communicated nonverbally through contextual cues.



Grammar of Context

In grammar of contexts, the following points are discussed: scene, key, participants, message form, sequence, manifestation.


The geographical setting of this film takes place in Siam, described as Burma in the west to Cambodia in east, with forty nine bountiful provinces, and population of six millions. Whereas the events or stories takes place in the Grand Royal Palace, the Great Temple, and in a Monastery in Non Khai. Finding out the historical setting of the story means referring to when the story of the novel started that was in English Era, 26th February 1862, the time Anna gets an invitation from The King of Siam to be an English teacher for his royal children.

The dialogue itself takes place in the throne hall of Siam Palace, then moved to the royal garden where the royal family are gathering. The throne room is set up for The King as a receiving room, where he presides in majesty over official ceremonies, holds council, grants audiences, receives homage, awards high honor and offices, and other official functions. While the royal garden, featuring a great gazebo surrounded by beautiful flowers, is set up exclusively for the royal family.

The preestablished norms for the places and the use of space, the time and the duration of events depends much of the royal protocol, etiquettes and the King himself as the highest authority. In one way or another, breaching the protocol at the King’s presence is almost impossible.

The genre of this dialogue is, then, a royal meeting, and the topic can be defined as an introduction to the royal family, and as it is stated on the topic, the purpose of the meeting is to get to know to the King of Siam and the royal family.



A royal meeting, which involves the King and the family is generally conducted according to rules and protocols. When meeting a royal, there are rules about who can speak first, where to look, what to call them, what and when to speak, how you should stand and when you should sit. In this case, we can always expect a key of formality and seriousness.



1) King Mongkut

King Maha Mongkut, also known as Rama IV, ruled Siam (now Thailand) from 1851 to 1868, during which time he successfully negotiated with Western powers and modernized his nation. Mongkut ascended the throne upon the death of his half-brother, Jetta (Rama III), after spending 27 years as a Buddhist monk. Educated and multi-lingual, Mongkut negotiated with the United States and European powers to open Siam to international trade. He also brought in missionaries to teach his concubines and children about modern science and culture. Anna Leonowens was among of them. In the conversation being examined, the King takes a full control of the talk. As a king who is regarded as a “near to God”, he decides who, when, how and what to do at his favor.

2)         Anna Leonowens

Born in India, Anna was left by her parents in England at a girls’ school run by a relative. Her father, an army sergeant, was killed in India, and Anna’s mother didn’t return for her until Anna was fifteen years old. When Anna’s stepfather tried to marry her to a much older man, she moved into the home of a clergyman and traveled with him. Some sources say the clergyman was married, others that he was single. Anna then married an army clerk, Thomas Leon Owens or Leonowens, and moved with him to Singapore. He died, leaving her in poverty to raise their daughter and son. She started a school in Singapore for the children of the British officers, but it failed. In 1862, she took a position in Bangkok, then Siam and now Thailand, as a tutor to the children of the King. King Rama IV or King Mongkut followed tradition in having many wives and many children. While Anna Leonowens was quick to take credit for her influence in the modernization of Siam/Thailand, clearly the King’s decision to have a governess or tutor of British background was already part of a beginning of such modernization.

In the dialogue being examined, Anna takes her role as a new foreign teacher who is not only meeting and greeting the royal family, she is also baldly asking the King to fulfill her right as stated in the agreement, which is hardly impossible to happen among Siamese people.


3)         Chao Phya Kralahome (The Prime Minister)

The Prime Minister is the one who introduces Anna to the Royal protocol and ettiquetes. He does not takes much part in the dialogue except answering the King when he demands explanation of who Anna is and ordering Anna to follow the King before he dissmisses her.


4)         Louis Leonowens

Anna’s 6 years old son. As a little boy in Bangkok, Louis enjoys himself enormously. He asks a lot about Siamese culture which is, of course, far diffrerent from his own. Sometimes he goes to Anna’s class and stands on a chair beside his mother, mimicking her voice and gestures as she teaches the little princes and princesses. He makes friend with Prince Chulalongkorn, King Mongkut’s first son. His curiosity drives him to take part in the dialogue.


5)         Lady Thiang

The King’s headwife, out of 23 wives and 42 concubines that the King wants Anna to teach. She takes a little part in the dialogue as the King introduces her to Anna.


6)         Fa Ying

One of the King’s favorite Princess, a 4 years old girl who defines herself as a monkey. She also takes a little part in the dialogue.


Message Form

The dialogue being examined is a scene taken from a biographical film, “Anna and the King” (1999). As it can be seen, the message form is presented in audio visual media. Anna and the King is a 1999 biographical drama film loosely based on the 1944 novel Anna and the King of Siam (and its 1946 film adaptation), which give a fictionalised account of the diaries of Anna Leonowens. The story concerns Anna, an English schoolteacher in Siam, now Thailand, in the late 19th century, who becomes the teacher of King Mongkut’s many children and wives. directed by Andy Tennant and stars Jodie Foster and Chow Yun-fat, it was an Academy Award nominee in 1999 for Best Art Direction and Best Costume Design.



As has been stated above, the speech situation of the dialogue represents a formal agenda, i.e. a royal meeting, in which the King takes a full control and exposes a major voice during the talk. Then it is not surprising that marked co-occurence sometimes happens depending on how the King as the highest authority favors the proceeding of the meeting. A marked co-occurence happens when Anna insists in introducing herself to the King exactly at the end of receiving time, when the King is ready to leave the throne room. It seems to be a shared knowledge among the Siamese that when the King puts off his royal robe, any activities in the throne room must be dissmissed. Anna, who comes from a different discourse system, ignores this order and baldly introduces herself to the King. The King is confused and demands an explanation for the breached agenda. Although the King finally knows that Anna is the teacher he has invited, the King keeps leaving the throne room, receives Anna’s introduction and directs her to meet the royal family in the royal garden. This is a little unexpected, considering that Anna is a foreign guest who is supposed to have the most formal receiving.



Since the communication is controlled by the King who has an ultimate power and authority, some components remain tacit or unexpressed, as the following example:

Anna                       : “Enough to know that age and wisdom do not necessarily go hand in

hand, Your Majesty.I doubt you would say the same for being bold and English.”

K.Mongkut     : “They are rather inseparable, I’m afraid.” (leaving the room) P.Minister      : “His Majesty has not dismissed you. Follow him!”

Anna thinks that the meeting should end when the King is leaving the throne room. However, the Prime Minister orders her to follow the King since he has not dismissed her. Anna will have known this if the King orders her to follow him instead of being tacit. The other example is when Anna demands the King to provide a house out of the palace as stated in the agreement. The King does not grant her without an explicit explanation.

Anna                        :”Good. Then His Majesty will appreciate why having a home outside the palace walls is of such great importance to us.
A home which…had been promised,but so far has not been provided.”
K. Mongkut     :”It is my pleasure that you live in the palace.”
Anna                        :”But it is not mine, Your Majesty.”

  1. Mongkut :”You do not set conditions of your employment, and you shall obey!”


Interpersonal Politeness and Power

As soon as the King is introduced to Anna, both agree on how they should establish the relationship. To some extent, both accepts the diference in status and ratifies that by using a relatively high concentration of independence politeness strategies out of respect of each other (+D). The asymmetrical relationship between Anna and the other participant to the King indicates that hierarchical face system ( +P, +/-D) is being employed, in which Anna and the other participants speaks “up” to the King, and the King speaks “down” to all participants. It can be seen that Anna as the “lower” uses independence face strategies, which include :


  1. Makes minimal assumption about the hearer’s wants:

“.       and although I appreciate that you have issues of great importance, I would

imagine that your son’s education would be far more… ”


  1. Minimize Threat

“But being in a country with so many unique customs, If I am to raise my son to be like his father, which I very much hope he will be, then I must feel free to follow our own traditions.”


  1. Uses title/ honorific :

“Yes, Your Majesty, I am.”


  1. Be pessimistic

“Enough to know that age and wisdom do not necessarily go hand in hand, Your Majesty. I doubt you would say the same for being bold and English.”


  1. Dissasociate Speaker / Hearer from the discourse.

“May I respectfully remind His Majesty that I am not his servant, but his guest!”


Introducing herself has been the most important thing for Anna to approach the King. Understandably Anna uses an extra deferential tone and the highest level of independence strategies. While the King, as the “higher” uses involvement strategies, which include :


  1. Exaggerate (interest, approval, symphaty)

“You articulate logical answer under pressure, Mem Leonowens.”


  1. Claim common point of view, opinions, attitudes, knowledge, emphaty.

“As a father, I understand.”


Cohesive Device

Participants use cohesive devices on their discourse which include:



See the following table.

K.Mongkut : “They are rather inseparable, I’m afraid.” They refers to wisdom and age
P.Minister : “His Majesty has not dismissed you. Follow him!” His Majesty and him refer to the King
K. Mongkut “But irritating superior attitude, King find most unbeautiful. However, it will serve you well, given decision I now make.” It refers to Anna’s irritating attitude
Louis “He doesn’t look too happy about it.” He refers to Prince Chulalongkorn.It refers to having a foreign (colonial) teacher
K. Mongkut This is a necessary and practical gift I give to you, and you must never forget to honor your renowned teacher,Mem Anna Leonowens. Ahem! Uh… This refer to education
K. Mongkut “Ha ha! My deepest apologies. I study her in English myself.” Her refers to Fa Ying, the King’s daugther
K. Mongkut “It is my pleasure that you live in the palace.” The place refers to the place where Anna lives at present
Anna “But it is not mine, Your Majesty.” It refers to the place where Anna lives at present


Verb Forms

Although the communication is spoken in English, we can only see a little difference of verb forms in producing cohesion. One of them is the use of perfect continuous tense in passive voice below:

Anna                      : “Your Majesty… we have been kept waiting for nearly 3 weeks.”


Anna implies that waiting is not her intention and the use of perfect continuous tense intensifies the length of time she has wasted. She is actually complaining and telling that she cannot wait any longer to start working.

Other use of verbs which are mostly simple present and future tense, shows the degree of politeness and weight of imposition as seen in the following examples:

Anna                      : “I doubt you would say the same for being bold and English.”

The King       : “Education begins tomorrow.”



There are at least three out of four major kinds of conjunction of clauses in English used in the discourse. ‘And’ as additive marker (“Presenting original pupil and heir apparent Prince Chulalongkorn), ‘but’ as adversative marker (“But irritating superior attitude, King find most unbeautiful. However, it will serve you well, given decision I now make.”) and ‘then’ as temporal marker (Then His Majesty will appreciate why having a home outside the palace walls is of such great importance to us).


Cognitive Schemata and Scripts

A regular pattern of activities can always be expected in many royal meeting throughout the world of monarchy. A formal set agenda is conducted under a fixed protocol employing particular ettiquetes. To follow the protocol properly, Anna is drilled and instructed by the Prime Minister, and it is relatively easier for her to follow the protocol since she also comes from a monarch country. It is not difficult for her to master sets of efficient adjacency sequences on how to greet royal family as soon as she is being introduced.(“It is a great honor, Your Highness.” ), or on responding a compliment (“That is very kind of you, Your Majesty”).

The ongoing flow of the dialogue indicates that the King uses a number of stress syllables as the indication of imperative or instruction. It is not difficult for Anna to understand these since the King is speaking in English. On the termination of his turn, the King also uses this kind of stress indicating that he recognizes the unmarked assumption which he thinks is not entirely true. See the following table.

Anna “May I respectfully remind His Majesty that I am not his servant, but his guest!”
K. Mongkut “A guest who’s paid.
“Education begins tomorrow.”


Background Discourse System

Anna Leonowens, as most other discourse participant, attends in a number of discourse systems. As a teacher, she belongs to her professional world, equips herself with books and encyclopedia to keep up with her professionalism. At her thirties, she belongs to the generation who was born and raised by Britsh couple in late 18’s. Anna also belongs to a gender discourse system which promotes certain models of speech and behavior. In the conversation, she is an English teacher working for the King of Siam, then she is a member of Utilitarian discourse system which predominates in such international business and professional exchanges. In this type of discourse system goodness is related to the physical and mental state of the individual, the more individuals that are happy, the more goodness exists. One may expect that she takes part in the conversation as a professional, or is engaged in a voluntary discourse system since there is an obvious purpose i.e. providing education to the royal family.

In the dialogue, Anna and her son is in the process of learning how to participate in the discourse systems of the royal family through a mix of education and socialization. She is observing the general practices of the royal family and at the same time being trained by the Prime Minister and the King himself to understand and follow the rules of the royal protocols.

The King of Siam, on the other hand, belongs to a more restricted and ambiguous discourse system. As the ultimate ruler in Siam he belongs to a “royal” corporate and at the same time professional discourse system. He holds a traditonal concept of vertical and generational relationship. His discourse is thought of being used for the purpose of ratifying or affirming relationship which have already been given. Although he belongs to Confucian who respects realization of human potential and moral cultivation, he also shares a Ultilitarianism belief in the power of society to shape human consciousness and behavior, hence emphasizes the importance of education. He speaks English, teaches his daughter English by himself and invites Anna, an international teacher, to educate the royal family. Background discourse system of the other participants are not discussed in detail since problems are mainly caused by the intercultural communication between Anna and the King.


Problems and Further Discussion

There are some problems that need further discussion due to the unique characteristics. See the discussion below.

Non Sequential Processing

The communication between Anna and the King is not innitiated smoothly due to Anna’s disfluency of the discourse. When the King of Siam is putting off his robe at the throne room, everyone in the room expects that the receiving ends and no one can prevent the King from leaving. Anna who has been waiting for almost three weeks to take her turn, cannot wait any longer and breaches the protocol by taking her turn to speak to the King of her existence. In a normal sequence, someone who introduces herself is usually responded by a greeting (“How do you do?”, or “Nice to meet you.”) In the dialogue, the King who is annoyed, does not intend to communicate with Anna, instead, he utters a single word with stressed syllable indicating an imperative before Anna finishes her sentence. Apparently, such too early interturn also indicates communication refusal.


Anna : “Your Majesty…I am Anna Leonowens, I’m a school……….. “
K.Mongkut : “Stop!….Aah!
K.Mongkut :”Who? Who?”
P. Minister :”Your Majesty, Mem Anna Leonowens and son Louis.”
Anna :”Your Majesty… we have been kept waiting for nearly 3 weeks.And although I appreciate that you have issues of… great importance, I

would imagine that your son’s education would be far more…”

K. Mongkut ■.”Silence!”
K. Mongkut :”You.. are teacher?”


A King is assumed to be “a near to God” creature who holds the ultimate authority in Asian countries. At his presence, no one can takes his/ her turn to speak without being asked. Anna’s disfluency of the discourse is a negative attitude which is resulted from a different expectation and should be discontinued. Instead of giving response to Anna, the King demands an explanation from the Prime Minister who is reponsible for the royal protocol. However, Anna insists in taking the next turn, resulting the King to give an even higher pitch of imperative ordering her to be silent. Anna may not have noticed her negative attitude or she may ignore it. Surprisingly, instead of dismissing Anna, the King takes over the turn in much lower interrogative tone to start the interaction.



It is interesting to note that although Anna is engaged in a voluntary discourse system, the dialogue indicates that there is an absence of formal systems to learn the preferred forms of discourse. She becomes a participant through socialization or enculturation, instructed from time to time by the Prime Minister and the King himself. Her intolerance of the delays in meeting the King is the result of disfluency of the discourse. This negative attitude may have been avoided if she accomplishes a formal system of socialization.


Topic and Face System

Within an asymmetrical or hierarchical face system it is quite unusual for a person in the lower position to introduce his or her own topic without first receiving the right to do so from the person in the higher position. The person in the lower position would most likely follow an inductive strategy, and avoid introducing a topic in the first case, or put off bringing up his or her topic until it followed naturally from the preceding discourse. A problem may arise due to different ideas about power. Anna, being a professional teacher who comes from an egalitarian system, and invited by the King to teach the royal family, is expecting herself to have equivalent or near equivalent rank to the King (-P). She introduces her topic deductively, exactly when no one receives the right to do so. As expected, the King refuses the interpersonal relationship that Anna intends to build, and instead of giving response, he orders Anna to stop and demands an explanation from the Prime Minister. At the next instance, when the King and Anna have made an agreement on their personal relationship she introduces her topic inductively.


Anna “But being in a country with so many unique customs, If I am to raise my son to be like his father, which I very much hope he will be, then I must feel free to follow our own traditions.
K. Mongkut “As a father, I understand.”
Anna “Good. Then His Majesty will appreciate why having a home outside the palace walls is of such great importance to us.A home which…had been promised,but so far has not been provided.”


However, although both agree to use a mutual deference, there are difference ideas of what constitutes power. As an egalitarian, Anna realizes her unequal positions, but she also takes her equal stance as individual. She feels free to speak about her right to have a house out of the palace as stated in the business agreement with the King. King of Siam, on the other hand, belongs to Confucian system, in which moral entities is the priority, and at the same time is in the superior position, thinks that one should respect any authority of the superior position in the society. Anna is not regarded “favorably” when she is pursuing her own interest to have a house out of the palace. The weight of imposition even increases when Anna is trying to negotiate her power to the King:

Anna : “May I respectfully remind His Majesty that I am not his servant, but his guest!”

As expected, the fixed interpersonal relationship between Anna and the King is not likely to change. Although Anna is doing a face threatening act, the King is saving his face by refusing the negotiated power and demands his authority.

King Mongkut : “A guest who’s paid. Education begins tomorrow.”



The dialogue taken from ‘Anna and the King’ consisting only two speech events. It provides a fruitful examples of intercultural communications and problems that occur. The main character, Anna, is exposed in a totally different discourse system. The discussion is mainly based on these difference: Western vs Eastern, Utilitarian vs Confusian, deductive culture vs inductive culture, ordinary etc. It can be concluded that the occuring miscommunication is mainly due to different discourse system which includes ideology forms of discourse, partial socialization and different perception of face system.

Further discussion on other dialogues in the film would contribute to the comprehensive understanding of the discourse system, also, a study on language and gender would be an interesting exploration to investigate whether Anna exposes female discourse system and the King, male discourse system.



Brown, P., & Levinson, S. C. (1987). Politeness. Some Universals in Language Usage.

Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Clayman.

Goffman, E. (1967). Interaction Ritual; Essays on Face-to-Face Behavior. Garden City, NY: Doubleday.

Meyerhoff, Miriam (2006). IntroducingSociolinguistics. Routledge. New York

Scollon, Ron, Suzanne & H. Jones, Rodney (2012). Intercultural Communication. A Discourse Approach. Third Edition. John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Oxford

Yule, G. (1996). Pragmatics. Oxford: Oxford University Press

Teknologi Informasi dan Profesi Penerjemahan

Achmad Suyono, Sugeng Hariyanto, Politeknik Negeri Malang


Ada beberapa megatren yang mempengaruhi profesi penerjemahan. Beberapa dari megratren yang terpending adalah globalisasi ekonomi, perkembangan teknologi informasi dan digitalisasi. Globalisasi ekonomi menyebabkan sebuah perusahaan berusaha untuk hadir dan berbisnis di seluruh dunia. Untuk itu, perusahaan merasa perlu menerbitkan situs web dalam bahasa dimana perusahaannya akan beroperasi, menerbitkan dokumen produk dalam bahasa pasar sasaran, dll. Ini berarti penerjemahan menjadi salah satu alternatif untuk menghilangkan jarak psikologi. Perkembangan teknologi informasi telah mempengaruhi jenis teks dan karenanya mempengaruhi bagaimana teks itu harus diterjemahkan. Teks sekarang ini tidak saja tetrtulis di artas kertas, tetapi tersimpan di server internet dan bisa memuat gambar dan suara. Karakteristik jenis teks baru ini tentunya tidak bisa diterjemahkan dengan cara tradisional. Diperlukan perangkat lunak tertentu dan keterampilan tertentu di samping keterampilan linguistik yang digunakan di penerjemahan tradisional. Terakhir. dengan adanya digitalisasi membuat dokumen referensi yang dulu tercetak diatas kertas sekarang dengan mudah dibuka dan dirujuk menggunakan komputer. Hal ini juga terkait dengan perangkat lunak atau kemajuan teknologi informasi. Dengan digitalisasi, seorang penerjemah dapat membuka banyak kamus dan ensikopledia dalam beberapa detik saja. Artikel ini juga membahas secara ringkas apa-apa yang perlu dipersiapkan oleh penerjemah dalam rangka menjawab tantangan tiga butir megatren ini. Terakhir, pembahasan ini juga dapat ditarik lebar ke arah kurikulum pengajaran penerjemahan. Singkatnya, kurikulum harus juga memuat butir-butir keterampilan yang diperlukan untuk menjawab tantangan ini.


Kata kunci: megatren, globalisasi, teknologi informasi, digitalisasi, perangkat lunak penerjemahan, CAT Tool, mesin penerjemah, website, keterampilan penerjemahan, keprigelan penerjemah, kurikulum penerjemahan


Tiga Megatren yang Mempengaruhi Profesi Penerjemah

Tiga megatren yang mempengaruhi terjemahan dan profesi penerjemahan adalah: globalisasi ekonomi, perkembangan teknologi informasi, dan digitalisasi. Globalisasi berasal dari kata “globe” yang merujuk pada bola dunia. Globalisasi adalah suata proses meleburnya batas-batas negara sehingga individu, perusahaan, pemerintah beroperasi dengan pertimbangan kepentingan dirinya sendiri dan individu, perusahaan, pemerintah lain di seluruh permukaan “globe” (bola dunia). Pada dasarnya, globalisasi adalah integrasi intemasional (Chomsky[1]). Integrasi ini bisa di bidang budaya, sains, dan lain-lain. Namun, yang menjadi panglimanya sejauh ini adalah globalisasi ekonomi. Inti dari globalisasi ekonomi ini adalah berdagang di seluruh permukaan “globe” (bumi). Dalam rangka melakukan perdagangan inilah, perusahaan perlu membuat dokumen dalam bahasa pasar di bagian lain bumi ini. Dan ini adalah penerjemahan juga.

Globalisasi sekarang ini sedang kencang-kencangnya karena mendapat sokongan yang luar biasa dari bidang teknologi informasi. Teknologi informasi menurut Information Technology Association of America (ITAA), is “the study, design, development implementation, support or management of computer-based information systems, particularly software applications and computer hardware.” Teknologi informasi (TI) secara umum meliputi penggunaan perangkat keras dan lunak komputer untuk mengonversi, menyimpan, melindungi, memroses dan membuka ulang informasi.[2] Dengan adanya teknologi ini, terbuka banyak kemungkinan terkait kerja terjemahan yang efisien. Dengan komputer orang bisa menulis dengan cepat dan mencari data dengan cepat karena banyak dokumen yang didigitalisasi. Mendigitalkan informasi berarti mengubahnya ke dalam bentuk yang mudah dibaca oleh komputer (Collin Cobuild Dictionary). Bukan hanya dokumen yang akan diterjemahkan yang mengalami digitalisasi. Kamus pun juga mengalami digitisasi, sehingga ini mempengaruhi kerja penerjemah. Selain itn. beberapa perangkat lunak komputer juga dibuat untuk memudahkan kerja penerjemah. Proses memadukan teknologi digital ke dalam kehidupan sehari-hari, dalam hal ini kehidupan penerjemah disebut digitalisasi.[3] Dengan digitalisasi ini, kamus yang tebal dapat di boat menjadi beberapa megabyte saja. Kamus pun dapat dibuka dengan sangat cepat.

Dari hal-hal baru yang dicapai oleh perkembangan TI, Internet adalah yang paling berdampak besar. Internet adalah hubungan jaringan komputer dengan standar yang sama sehingga pesan dapat dikirimkan dari satu komputer yang terdaftar di sebuah jaringan ke komputer lain dalam jaringan lain (Crystal,: 3). Dengan demikian, internet adalah media baru bagi pertukaran pesan. Dan menururt Crystal (6-10), ragam bahasa yang dipakai di internet mempunyai cirri tersendiri dalam hal: (a) fitur grafis, (b) fitur grafologis, (c) fitur gramatikal. (d) fitur leksikal, dan fitur wacana. Karena suara juga bisa ditampilkan di dalam Ides, maka Crystal juga menambahkan (e) fitur fonetik dan (f) fitur fonologis.

Lebih jauh Crystal (10) mengidentifikasi beberapa situasi yang menggunakan internet: (a) email, (b) chatgroup, (c) virtual world (online game), (d) word wide web, (e) instant messaging, and (f) blogging. Dari enam penggunaan internet tersebut, world wide web mempu: pengaruh yang paling besar terhadap penerjemahan. Pengaruh ini dapat ditelisik dari dua hal. Pertama, semakin banyak situs web yang diterjemahkan dan kedua, semakin bamak informasi yang ada di internet yang bisa membantu kerja penerjemah. Singkatnya, gabungan antara perkembangan teknologi komputer dan internet, mempengaruhi profesi penerjemahan dalam hal (a) format dokumen baru, (b) kebutuhan penerjemahan yang semakin banyak dan sumber daya penerjemahan semakin kaya.

Menurut Gouadec (2007) Teknologi Infirmasi (TI) mempengaruhi profesi penerjemah. Pertama karena TI membuka pasar terjemahan yang benar-benar baru. Kedua. bidang terjemahan sebagai profesi yang semakin khusus, bukan lagi sekadar bisa dikerjakan oleh dwibahsawan, karena bidang ini memerlukan perangkat lunak khusus dengan tingkat harga yang lumayan dan kerumitan yang tinggi. Dia malah mengistilahkan “clean up the market’* untuk perubahan ini. Ketiga, website menjadi sarana untuk mengelola penawaran dan kebutuhan jasa terjemahan. Dan akhirnya, TI melahirkan peranti penerjemahan berbantuan komputer (CAT Tool).

Lebih lanjut Gouadec (2007) juga menengarai adanya lima hal yang membuat revolusi teknologi ini menjadi tidak bersahabat bagi penerjemah. Pertama, komputerisasi telah mengubah kerja terjemahan dari kerja amatir menjadi kerja rumahan dan kemudian menjadi bagian dari proses industri. Sebagai proses industri, berarti ada volume pekerjaan yang sangat besar, ada alat tertentu yang selaras dengan proses induistri keseluruhan, dan penerapan prosedur standar. Ini artinya penerjemah harus berinvestasi besar tidak hanya dalam hal uang tetapi juga dalam hal belajar teknik-teknik dan cara kerja baru. Menurutnya, standar perlengkapan penerjemah terkait TI adalah program pengolah kata, desk publishing, manajemen memori terjemahan, menajemen glosari, dan internet tanpa batas.

Hal kedua yang kurang menguntungkan penerjemah adalah ketatnya kompetisi harga karena dengan globalisasi dan internet, klien bisa memesan jasa terjemahan kepada siapa pun di sudut dunia asalkan harganya rendah dan kualitas tidak mengecewakan. Ketiga. TI membuat penerjemah sangat bergantung pada komputer, bahkan bisa-bisa menjadi ‘pesuruh’ komputer. Hal terakhir adalah terpisahnya penerjemah dari koleganya karena bekerja dari rumah. Khusus untnk hal terakhir ini, Gouadec (2007) tidak sepenuhnya benar karena dengan bantuan internet sekarang ini komunikasi dengan sesama penerjemah dapat dilakukan dengan baik. Lebih jauh Gouadec (200”) juga menyatakan bahwa nantinya setelah penerjemah menguasa sarana baru ini. penerjemah segera akan disibukan dengan belajar bagaimana menangani materi (jenis teks) sumber baru yang akan dibuat dengan sarana yang lebih baru dari yang telah dikuasai oleh penerjemah


Kebutuhan Baru, Kompetensi Baru, Keterampilan Baru

Adanya format dokumen baru menuntut penerjemah menerjemahkan dengan teknik yang baru pula karena tidak mungkin dokumen yang berupa file animasi diterjemahkan dengan program pengolah kata saja. Seperti yang telah disinggung di atas. Perkembangan TI melahirkan peranti penerjemah berbantuan komputer (yang dalam bahasa Inggris disebut “Computer Assisted Translation Tools atau disingkat CAT Tool).[4] Lebih lanjut, dengan adanya digitalisasi, perangkat lunak CAT Tool ini dapat dengan mudah disebarkan dan dipasang di komputer para penerjemah.

Penguasaan keterampilan terkait CAT Tool ini dapat dikategorikan sebagai salah satu sub-kompetensi menerjemahkan (PACTE Group, 2005). PACTE Group adalah sebuah kelompok riset di University of Barcelona yang khusus mempelajari kompetensi terjemahan secara sistematis dan empiris. Grup ini mendefinisikan kompetensi terjemahan sebagai sistem yang mendasari pengetahuan dan keterampilan yang diperlukan untuk dapat menerjemahkan (PACTE Group, 2005). Lesznyak (2007: 168) mengatakan bahwa model kompetensi terjemahan yang diusulkan oleh kelompok riset ini adalah yang paling canggih untuk saat ini. Grup PACTE menyatakan bahwa kompetensi terjemahan memiliki empat karakteristik khas: (a) kompetensi terjemahan adalah pengetahuan khusus yang tidak dimiliki oleh semua dwibahasawan, (b) pada dasarnya kompetensi terjemahan bersifat prosedural (bukan deklaratif), (c) kompetensi terjemahan terdiri dari beberapa sub-kompetensi, dan (4) sub-kompetensi strategis sangat penting karena kompetensi terjemahan merupakan pengetahuan prosedural, bukan deklaratif. Sub-kompetensi terjemahan dan kesalingterkaitan diilustrasikan pada Gambar 1 berikut ini.

PACTEGambar 1. Model Kompetensi Terjemahan menurut Grup PACTE (2005)

 Subkompetensi pertama adalah subkompetensi bilingual (dwibahasa). Subkompetensi ini terdiri atas pengetahuan pragmatik, sosio-linguistik, tekstual dan leksikal-gramatikal bahasa sumber (Bsu) dan Bahasa Sasaran (Bsa). Menurut hemat saya, ini kurang lebih sama dengan kompetensi linguistik pada umumnya. Sub-kompetensi kedua adalah subkompetensi ekstra-linguistik yang terdiri dari pengetahuan ensiklopedik, tematik dan bikultural (dwibudaya). Sub-kompetensi ketiga adalah pengetahuan tentang terjemahan. Pengetahuan ini adalah pengetahuan tentang prinsip-prinsip yang memandu penerjemahan (misalnya proses penerjemahan, metode terjemahan, prosedur terjemahan, dll.) dan pengetahuan tentang profesi penerjemah (msl. Jenis-jenis terjemahan, cara memahami perintah terjemahan, karakteristik pembaca sasaran, harapan pembaca sasaran, dll.). Subkompetensi keempat—subkompetensi instrumental—adalah subkompetensi yang terdiri dari pengetahuan dan keterampilan yang terkait dengan penggunaan alat atau sumber-sumber yang dapat membantu penerjemah menerjemahkan. Di sinilah kita bisa menggolongkan keterampilan penggunaan teknologi penerjemahan. Terakhir, sub-kompetensi yang paling penting terletak di tengah-tengah di dalam gambar di atas, yaitu sub-kompetensi strategis. Ini adalah subkompetensi yang mengordinasikan subkompetensi lainnya sehingga dapat terciptaka kompetensi terjemahan yang utuh. (Meskipun tidak sama persis, ini bisa dibandingkan dengan strategi metakognitif di dalam teori strategi belajar.) Subkompetensi ini berperan dalam memecahkan masalah dan menjamin efisiensi proses karena subkompetensi ini terkait dengan perencanaan proses penerjemahan dan pembuatan keputusan dalam setiap tahap proses penerjemahan.

Selain terjemahan itu, ada satu kelompok komponen yang mempengaruhi hasil terjemahan, yaitu komponen psiko-fisiologis. Komponen psiko-fisiologis mengacu pada komponen kognitif dan sikap (memori, rentang perhatian, ketekunan, daya kritis, dll.) dan mekanisme psikomotor. Karena dwibahasan selalu memiliki pengetahuan tentang dua bahasa (Bsu dan Bsa) dan mungkin juga memiliki pengetahuan ekstra-linguistik, maka PACTE Grup menganggap bahwa sub-kompetensi khusus dari kompetensi terjemahan adalah subkompetensi strategis, instrumental dan pengetahuan tentang terjemahan. Sehubungan dengan pembahasan kita sekarang, dengan adanya globalisasi, perkembangan teknologi informasi dan digitalisasi, subkompetensi instrumental perlu mendapat perhatian lebih karena teks-teks yang akan dikerjakan meliputi teks-teks elektronik.


Proses Penerjemahan Teks Elektronik

Pentingnya keterampilan ini dapat dilihat dari model penerjemahan naskah elektronik usulan Hariyanto (2009). Untuk lebih jelasnya, perhatikan Gambar 2 berikut ini.

REVISED - translation processGambar 2. Model penerjemahan naskah elektronik (Hariyanto (2009)

Di dalam model tersebut, proses penerjemahan dibagi menjadi tiga fase utama: persiapan, proses utama, dan penutup. Ini bisa dibaca di bagian kiri. Di bagian tengah adalah langkah-langkah yang ditempuh oleh penerjemah dan di bagian kanan adalah kompetensi (pengetahuan dan/atau keterampilan) yang dipakai dalam menerjemahkan teks elektronik. Kalau dibaca secara horizontal, maka didapatlah keterangan bahwa dalam proses persiapan, langkah pertama adalah mempelajari perintah penerjemahan dan butir subkompetensi yang diperlukan adalah keterampilan dwibahasa dan pengetahuan tentang penerjemahan.

Dari gambar di atas dapat diketahui bahwa mulai dari fase persiapan, keterampilan instrumental diperlukan untuk mempersiapkan glosari. Mempersiapkan glosari mungkin berarti membuka file atau bahwa menyusun glosari baru. Hal ini dilakukan dengan menggunakan perangkat lunak manajemen glosari, yang biasanya berhubungan dengan perangkat lunak terjemahan utama (memori terjemahan). Dalam proses utama penerjemahan, keterampilan instrumental yang diperlukan adalah keterampilan untuk menuliskan hasil terjemahan (BSa), untuk menemukan kata atau istilah yang ekuivalen di dalam arsip memori terjemahan, dan juga untuk memanipulasi kode teknis dalam dokumen elektronik. Akhirnya, pada tahap kesimpulan, keterampilan instrumental diperlukan untuk memeriksa terjemahan kualitas terjemahan dari segi linguistic (konsistensi terminologi) dan kualitas teknis (dengan memeriksa apakah format naskah rusak atau beberapa kode teknis hilang atau tidak). Dengan demikian, penguasaan perangkat lunak penerjemahn menjadi mutlak adanya untuk menerjemahkan naskah jenis baru sebagai buah dari perkembangan teknologi informasi.



Pentingnya menguasai keterampilan baru seperti yang dipaparkan di atas sudah disadari oleh Himpunan Penerjemah Indonesia dan beberapa asosiasi penerjemah di Indonesia. Oleh karenanya beberapa pelatihan singkat di bidang ini sudah digelar karena, terutama HPI, khawatir bahwa lapangan kerja di bidang ini akan diambil oleh orang di luar Indonesia. Sementara itu, di perguruan tinggi Indonesia, hal ini kurang begitu mendapat tanggapan sehingga tidak banyak jurusan bahasa asing yang mengajarkan matakuliah Terjemahan yang mengenalkan keterampilan ini kepada mahasiswanya. Sejatinya, perguruan tinggi yang menawarkan matakuliah Penerjemahan selayaknya mengikuti perkembangan ini dan mengenalkan teknologi penerjemahan ini di dalam sajian kuliahnya. Kalau tidak, maka kemungkinan kerja bagi para mahasiswa hanyalah menjadi penerjemah naskah tertulis dan tidak bisa melebar ke penerjemahan naskah elektronik yang jenisnya sangat beragam, mulai dari menu layar untuk alat elektronik, antarmuka perangkat lunak, sampai halaman web. Mahasiswa juga perlu dikenalkan dengan bagaimana mencari bantuan dengan cepat dan efisien di internet, baik dengan cari melakukan pencarian lewat browser maupun mengenali cara menggunakan situs-situs khusus perjemah seperti[5]

Pengajaran Terjemahan idealnya mengonversi keterampilan dan pengetahuan yang diperlukan penerjemah untuk bekerja ke dalam kurikulum matakuliah atau program studi penerjemahan dan, kurikulum itu sendiri harus bersifat fleksibel (Suryawinata, 1982: 23). Fleksibel di sini artinya mudah beradaptasi dengan situasi yang ada atau dengan kbutuhan terjemahan di lapangan.Selanjutnya Suryawinata (1982: 29) juga menyatakan bahwa pengajaran terjemahan yang dikembangkan berdasarkan teori dan praktek yang relevan akan menghasilkan penerjemah yang baik.

Sejauh ini, dalam pengajaran matakuliah Terjemahan di Indonesia, umumnya tidak mengajarkan keterampilan atau subkompetensi instrumental seperti yang disampaikan di atas. Tidak ada topik-topik ini di dalam katalog matakuliah Penerjemahan di sebagian besar (atau bahkan hampir semua) program studi bahasa asing, termasuk di dalam silabus Program D3 Penerjemahan Universitas Terbuka (UT) (Katalog UT, 2007). Keterampilan dan pengetahuan ini juga tidak diperkenalkan kepada mahasiswa Terjemahan, Departemen Linguistik, Program Pascasarjana Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, dan mahasiswa Program Studi Penerjemahan di Sekolah Pascasarjana Universitas Udayana, Denpasar (Machali, 2009). Sajauh yang penulis ketahui, Pengantar CAT Tools ini diberikan kepada mahasiswa program pascasarjana dalam Sastra Inggris, bidang peminatan Penerjemahan, di Universitas Gunadarma, Jakarta. Sekarang ini bidang penerjemahan sebagai bidang profesi telah berkembang menjadi GILT (Globalisasi, Internasionalisasi, Lokalisasi dan Terjemahan). Oleh karena itu calon penerjemah harus siap berhadapan dengan dokumen elektronik. Oleh karena itu, sekali lagi, topik terkait

CAT Tool harus diperkenalkan kepada mahasiswa program studi Bahasa Inggris atau Penerjemahan. Dengan masuknya topik-topik ini, bisa diharapkan mahasiswa mengembangkan sendiri keterampilannya berdasarkan pengetahuan dasar yang diperoleh di bangkuk kuliah. Tentunya, ini sejalan dengan apa yang Budin (di Hornby, Pochhacker, dan Kaindl, 1992) nyatakan bahwa beberapa megatrend komunikasi, yaitu Teknologi Informasi dan Komunikasi, internasionalisasi, komersialisasi, dan kontekstualisasi, mengarah pada profil profesional yang baru dan kurikulum universitas harus disesuaikan secepat mungkin.

Akhir kata, memang tidak bisa dipungkiri bahwa kompetensi linguistik (atau sub-kompetensi dwibahasa) dalam arti yang luas merupakan sub-kompetensi utama untuk penerjemah. Namun, temuan penelitian Hariyanto (2009) dan pembahasan dalam makalah ini mempertegas bahwa perkembangan teknologi informasi yang menyokong globalisasi dan membawa serta digitalisasi memerlukan adaptasi cepat dari universitas yang mengajarkan Terjemahan sebagai bagian dari kurikulum mereka atau sebagai program studi yang terpisah sehingga kebutuhan penerjemah yang handal bisa dijawab dengan tepat.


Daftar Pustaka

Crystal, David. 2006. Language and the Internet. 2nd Edition. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Gouadec. Daniel, 2007. Translation as A Profession. John Benjamins Publishing Co

Hariyanto, Sugeng. 2009. The Translation of Company Websitesfrom English into Indonesian. Unpublished Doctorate Dissertation. Gradute Program, UM, Malang

Hornby, Mary Snell., Pochhacker, Franz., and Kaindl, Klaus. 1992. Translation Studies: An Interdisipline. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company.

Lesznyak, Marta. 2007. Conceptualizing Translation Competence. Across Languages and Cultures. 8 (2), pp. 167-194.

PACTE Group. 2005. Investigating Translation Competence: Conceptual and

Methodological Issues. Meta: Translation Journal, vol 50, No 2, 2005. pp. 609-619.

http: – cite ref-135 Noam Chomsky Znet 07 May 2002 /The Croatian Feral Tribune 27 April 2002 [4]



[4] Mesin penerjemah tidak termasuk di dalam perkembangan baru ini karena mesin penerjemah sendiri mulai dikembangkan sebelum Perang Dunia II dan tidak terkait dengan kemunculan jenis teks baru ini.

[5] Kateglo adalah gabungan dari kamus, thesaurus dan glosari yang dikembangkan oleh anggota Bahtera bemama Ivan Lannin yang juga Executive Director Wikimedia Indonesia.


Imam Mudofir

Program Studi Teknik Elektronika Jurusan Teknik Elektro, Politeknik Negeri Malang


ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to examine (1) the differences vocabulary English speaking learning outcome taught by Student Teams Achievement Division (STAD) and the conventional learning strategies, (2) student differences vocabulary in English speaking learning outcome that have different learning modalities (visual, auditory, kinesthetic) gain different result in English speaking skill vocabulary, and (3) the interaction effect between learning strategies and learning modalities (visual, auditory, kinesthetic) towards vocabulary English speaking learning outcome.This research was conducted in the second semester of academic year 2012-2013 of Electronics Engineering Department, State Polytechnic of Malang, which consists of 44 students of experimental class and 44 students of control class. This studyis designed by using quasi-experimental research designs (quasi -experiment) with the model design is Nonequivalent Pretest – Posttest Control Group Design. Based on data analysis, the results of the study (1) there are differences in learning outcome between groups of English speaking students taught by learning strategy STAD with a group of students who are taught by conventional learning strategies (F = 68.344, p = 0.000), (2) there are differences in English speaking learning outcome between the students who have different learning modalities (F = 13.022, p = 0.000), and there is no interaction effect between learning strategy STAD and conventional and learning modalities (visual, auditory and kinesthetic) on English speaking learning outcome (F = 0.783, p = 0.499).


Keywords: Students Team Learning Achievement Division (STAD), Conventional, Learning Modality, Learning outcome, vocabulary English Speaking Performance.


ABSTRAK: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji (1) perbedaan hasil belajar vocabulary dalam berbicara Bahasa Inggris antara mahasiswa yang diajar dengan strategi pembelajaran Student Teams Achievement Division (STAD) dan strategi pembelajaran konvensional, (2) perbedaan hasil belajar Bahasa Inggris mahasiswa yang mempunyai modalitas belajar berbeda (visual, auditory, dan kinestetik) memperoleh hasil belajar vocabulary dalam berbicara Bahasa Inggris berbeda, dan (3) pengaruh interaksi antara strategi pembelajaran dan modalitas belajar (visual, auditory, kinestetik) terhadap hasil belajar vocabulary dalam berbicara Bahasa Inggris. Penelitian ini dilakukan di Program Studi Teknik Elektronika, Politeknik Negeri Malang semester II tahun akademik 2012-2013, yang terdiri dari 44 mahasiswa kelas eksperimen dan 44 mahasiswa kelas kontrol. Penelitian ini menggunakan strategi penelitian yang dirancang dengan menggunakan desain penelitian eksperimental semu (quasi experiment) dengan model rancangan yang digunakan adalah Nonequavalent Pretest-Postest Control Group Design. Hasil penelitian sebagai berikut. (1) ada perbedaan hasil belajar berbicara Bahasa Inggris antara kelompok mahasiswa yang belajar dengan strategi pembelajaran STAD (PKs) dengan kelompok mahasiswa yang belajar dengan strategi pembelajaran konvensional (PKv) (F = 13.022, p = 0.000), (2) ada perbedaan hasil belajar berbicara bahasa Inggris antara kelompok mahasiswa yang memiliki modalitas belajar berbeda (MB) (F = 68.344, p = 0.000), dan (3) tidak ada pengaruh interaksi antara strategi pembelajaran STAD dan konvensional dan modalitas belajar (visual, auditory dan kinesthetik) terhadap hasil belajar berbicara Bahasa Inggris (F = 0.783, p = 0.499).


Kata kunci: Students Team Achievement Division (STAD), konvensional,   modalitas belajar, hasil belajar, dan vocabulary dalam berbicara Bahasa Inggris


Salah satu strategi pembelajaran kooperatif tipe Student Teams Achievement Division (STAD)dapat digunakan sebagai alternatif pembelajaran yang menarik bagi mahasiswa dan bisa menanamkan aspek-aspek soft skills pada mahasiswa (Setyasari, 2009). Hasil penelitian Kendek & Ardhana (2004) menyatakan bahwa pembelajaran kooperatif tipe Students Teams Achievement Division (STAD) lebih baik hasilnya dari strategi pembelajaran konvensional. Strategi pembelajaran kooperatif tipe Students Teams Achievement Division (STAD)dapat meningkatkan pemahaman materi yang diajarkan, dapat meningkatkan hasil belajar mahasiswa, dapat meningkatkan aktivitas mahasiswa, interaksi mahasiswa, pembelajaran yang menyenangkan, bertanggungjawab, inovatif, dan kompetitif untuk belajar (Arnidah dkk., 2005). Dalam referensi dan hasil penelitian, pembelajaran yang menarik dapat meningkatkan motivasi belajar mahasiswa (Degeng, 1997). Pembelajar dituntut mampu menyelenggarakan pembelajaran yang inovatif (Ardhana dkk., 2004). Proses pembelajaran inovatif ditandai oleh pembelajaran yang tidak semata-mata memberikan pengetahuan dengan caranya sendiri sebagai perwujudan terhadap tugas dan tanggung jawab (Gredler, 1992). Adapun yang dimaksud dengan efektif adalah “how well the instruction work”, efisien adalah “the effectiveness of instruction divided by time and/or cost of the instruction”, dan menarik adalah “the extent to which the learners enjoy the instruction” (Reigeluth, 1999).

Hasil observasi peneliti menunjukkan bahwa target sasaran mata kuliah Bahasa Inggris di Politeknik Negeri Malang yang belum tercapai. Hal ini disebabkan karena penerapan strategi pembelajaran yang tidak sesuai dengan tujuan mata kuliah dan belum optimalnya praktek Bahasa Inggris dalam proses pembelajaran mata kuliah Bahasa Inggris. Hal ini disebabkan penggunaan komunitas berbahasa Inggris dan budaya kurangnya penggunaan Bahasa Inggris (Chaer & Leonie, 2006) menyatakan bahwa Bahasa Inggris dapat digunakan dan diaplikasikan meskipun secara tata bahasa mahasiswa tidak terlalu menguasainya. Selanjutnya, permasalahan lain dalam proses belajar mengajar Bahasa Inggris di Politeknik Negeri Malang yaitu dosen belum menggali bagaimana mahasiswa belajar sesuai dengan modalitas belajar yang mereka miliki. Modalitas belajar menurut DePorter dkk. (2000) dan DePorter & Hernacki (2007) yaitu visual, auditory, dan kinestetik.

Adapun target mata kuliah Bahasa Inggris di Politeknik Negeri Malang adalah mahasiswa mampu berkomunikasi lisan untuk mampu bersaing dalam dunia kerja. Hal ini di dukung bahwa dalam bursa kerja sering kita menemukan suatu lowongan pekerjaan yang mempersyaratkan penguasaan Bahasa Inggris aktif (speaking) dalam wawancara pekerjaan (Tim BAN PSTE, 2012); (Sriwahyuni, 2006) dan (Brown, 2007). Berbicara Bahasa Inggris dalam prakteknya mahasiswa membutuhkan penguasaan vocabulary yang cukup. Mahasiswa yang mempunyai vocabulary yang banyak akan mampu memproduksi kalimat yang banyak dan begitu sebaliknya.Belajar vocabularyBahasa Inggris merupakan sebuah hal yang amat penting di dalam pembelajaran. Tanpa pembendaharaan vocabulary yang cukup banyak, seseorang akan kesulitan dalam berbicara, mengerti maksud, dan menulis dalam bahasa Inggris.Dengan memperhatikanperanan penguasaan komunikasi bahasa maka dirasa perlu untuk memahami pengertian vocabulary.(Khanafi, 2015; Nurgiyanto, 1987; Setiadi;Solihin, 2013; Subekti, 2015; dan Witkin 1974).

Dari berbagai analisis masalah dalam penguasaan vocabularyberbicara Bahasa Inggris dalam proses belajar dan mengajar Bahasa Inggris di Politeknik Negeri Malang perlu adanya penerapan teori belajar yang cocok untuk pendekatan ini dengan teori pemerolehan bahasa ke dua dengan menggunakan teori strategi pembelajaran Student Teams Achievement Division (STAD) dan modalitas belajar dengan tujuan penguasaan Bahasa Inggris secara lisan (speaking) dalam menghadapi wawancara pekerjaan. Sehingga mahasiswa lulusan Politeknik Negeri Malang dapat diterima di perusahaan yang mereka idam-idamkan. Hal ini diperkuat dengan hasil penelitian Naghavi & Nakhel (2003) yang menyebutkan bahwa strategi pembelajaran Cooperative Learning dengan tipe Students Teams Achievement Division (STAD) dapat meningkatkan kemampuan berbicara Bahasa Inggris dari hasil kerjasama kelompok. Selain kooperatif mempunyai kelebihan dalam pengajaran EFL, kooperatif juga mempunyai kekurangan dalam pengajaran EFL ( Mudofir, 2006).

Penelitian ini ditekankan pada keahlian berbicara Bahasa Inggris (speaking) dikuatkan dengan hasil pra-kuesioner bahwa dari 180 mahasiswa di Program Studi Teknik Elektronika Politeknik Negeri Malang mengatakan bahwa 121 mahasiswa mengatakan bahwa pembelajaran Bahasa Inggris ditekankan pada penguasaan keahlian berbicara (speaking), 35 mahasiswa mengatakan bahwa pembelajaran Bahasa Inggris ditekankan pada penguasaan keahlian membaca (Reading), 19 mahasiswa mengatakan bahwa pembelajaran Bahasa Inggris ditekankan pada penguasaan keahlian mendengarkan (listening), dan 5 mahasiswa mengatakan bahwa pembelajaran Bahasa Inggris ditekankan pada penguasaan keahlian menulis (writing). Sehingga dapat disimpulkan bahwa mayoritas mahasiswa di Program Studi Teknik Elektronika Politeknik Negeri Malang mengatakan bahwa pembelajaran Bahasa Inggris ditekankan pada berbicara (speaking).

Selain itu juga, penelitian ini menerapkan strategi pembelajaran konvensional dalam proses belajar mengajar Bahasa Inggris di Politeknik Negeri Malang, Jurusan Teknik Elektro, Program Studi Teknik Elektronika untuk meningkatkan kemampuan berbicara Bahasa Inggris sebagai perbandingan hasil pembelajaran berbicara Bahasa Inggris untuk wawancara kerja dengan menggunakan strategi pembelajaran Student Teams Achievement Division (STAD).

Rumusan masalah penelitian ini adalah: 1) Apakah ada perbedaan hasil belajar vocabularyberbicara Bahasa Inggris antara mahasiswa yang diajar dengan strategi pembelajaran Student Teams Achievement Division (STAD) dan strategi pembelajaran konvensional? 2) Apakah mahasiswa yang mempunyai modalitas belajar berbeda (visual, auditory, kinestetik) memperoleh hasil belajar vocabularyberbicara Bahasa Inggris berbeda? 3) Apakah ada pengaruh interaksi antara strategi pembelajaran dan modalitas belajar (visual, auditory, kinestetik) mahasiswa terhadap hasil belajar vocabularyberbicara Bahasa Inggris?

Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menguji: 1) Perbedaan hasil belajar vocabulary berbicara Bahasa Inggris antara mahasiswa yang diajar dengan strategi pembelajaran Student Teams Achievement Division (STAD) dan strategi pembelajaran konvensional, 2) Perbedaan mahasiswa yang mempunyai modalitas belajar berbeda (visual, auditory, kinestetik) memperoleh hasil belajar vocabularyberbicara Bahasa Inggris berbeda, 3) Pengaruh interaksi antara strategi pembelajaran dan modalitas belajar (visual, auditory, kinestetik) mahasiswa terhadap hasil belajar vocabularyberbicara Bahasa Inggris.


Kajian Kepustakaan

Pembelajaran kooperatif merupakan suatu pembelajaran kelompok dengan jumlah peserta didik 2-5 orang dengan gagasan untuk saling memotivasi antara anggotanya untuk saling membantu agar tercapainya suatu tujuan pembelajaran yang maksimal. Suprijono, Agus (2010:54) “Model pembelajaran kooperatif adalah konsep yang lebih luas meliputi semua jenis kerja kelompok termasuk bentuk-bentuk yang dipimpin oleh pengajar atau diarahkan oleh pengajar”. Slavin (1995) “In cooperative learning methods, students work together in four member teams to master material initially presented by the teacher”. Ini berarti bahwa cooperative learning atau pembelajaran kooperatif adalah suatu model pembelajaran dimana sistem belajar dan bekerja kelompok-kelompok kecil berjumlah 4-5 orang secara kolaboratif sehingga dapat merangsang peserta didik lebih bergairah dalam belajar. Dari beberapa pengertian menurut para ahli dapat disimpulkan bahwa pembelajaran kooperatif adalah cara belajar dalam bentuk kelompok-kelompok kecil yang saling bekerjasama dan diarahkan oleh guru untuk mencapai tujuan pembelajaran yang diharapkan”.

Selain menggunakan strategi pembelajaran cooperative learning, pengajar menggali modalitas belajar mahasiswa untuk meningkatkan vocabulary bahasa Inggris mahasiswa. Gaya belajar atau modalitas belajar adalah cara seseorang menginterpretasi dunia sekitarnya melalui penginderaan. Setiap anak punya penginderaan yang paling domininan. Indera yang dominan inilah yang menjadi andalan seseorang untuk memproses sebuah informasi. Penginderaan yang dimaksud adalah Visual. Seseorang dengan gaya belajar visual, belajar menggunakan indera penglihatan. Anak dengan gaya belajar ini sangat menyukai gambar, ilustrasi, grafik, kartu dan warna. Kelak saat si kecil sudah dapat menulis, dia akan belajar dengan cara membuat catatan-catatan. Atau, dia akan sering memejamkan mata untuk membuat gambar dalam benaknya. Auditory adalah gaya belajar auditif, belajar dengan menggunakan indera pendengaran. Dia senang bicara sendiri, mengulang apa yang dikatakan orang lain sebagai sumber informasi. Ketika mendengarkan orang lain berbicara, anak dengan gaya belajar ini akan menirukannya untuk memproses informasi. Semakin keras suara yang dikeluarkannya, semakin mempermudah dia untuk mengingat. Kalau Anda sering mendapati anak bercerita dengan cara melagukannya alias nge-rap, pertanda dia pemilik gaya belajar auditif. Kinestetik adalah gaya belajar dengan menggunakan indera peraba, yaitu  menyentuh. Anak dengan gaya belajar ini adalah pembelajar yang aktif dan butuh banyak bergerak. Dia akan menggunakan tangannya untuk membuat apa saja. Anak yang punya gaya belajar ini mudah terganggu konsentrasinya. Karena itu, anak dengan gaya belajar ini kelak harus duduk di barisan paling depan di kelasnya. (DePorter dkk, 2000 dan DePorter & Hernacki, 2007).

Penggunaan strategi pembelajaran dan modalitas belajar digunakan untuk meningkatkan vocabulary bahasa Inggris mahasiswa. Vocabulary sangat penting dalam pembelajaran bahasa, sehingga pengajar harus menggunakan metode yang baik dalam mengajar vocabulary. Hal ini bertujuan untuk meningkatkan vocabulary yang dikuasai mahasiswa. Menurut Webster (1992) vocabulary merupakan elemen yang sangat penting dari bahasa.

Vocabulary adalah dasar yang harus dipelajari terlebih dahulu oleh peserta didik. Ini akan membantu pelajar dalam belajar bahasa Inggris dengan baik. Oleh karena itu dapat dikatakan vocabulary adalah komponen inti dari kemampuan bahasa bagi peserta didik untuk memproduksi kalimat dalam berbicara, mendengarkan, membaca dan menulis. 1) Vocabulary dalam membaca adalah seseorang dapat mengenali kata-kata ketika membaca, 2) vocabulary dalam mendengarkan adalah seseorang dapat mengenali kata-kata dalam mendengarkan pelafalan bahasa, 3) vocabulary dalam menulis adalah seseorang dapat menggunakan vocabulary secara tertulis, 4) vocabulary dalam berbicara adalah seseorang dapat menggunakan vocabulary dalam berbagai bentuk berbicara. Dari kegunaan vocabulary dalam empat keahlian bahasa maka vocabulary sangat penting dalam pembelajaran bahasa.


Metode Penelitian

Rancangan Penelitian

Penelitian ini dirancang dengan menggunakan desain penelitian eksperimental semu (quasi experiment), alasan digunakannya eksperimen ini karena dalam penelitian bidang pendidikan (ilmu sosial) sangat sulit melakukan keketatan kontrol seperti pada penelitian bidang eksakta. Desain quasi experimental berupaya untuk mengungkapkan hubungan sebab akibat dengan cara melibatkan kelompok kontrol di samping kelompok eksperimen, namun pemilahan kedua kelompok dilakukan dengan menggunakan dengan purposive random sampling dengan penentuan sampel dengan 1) mengambil responden yang pada saat ini sedang menempuh mata kuliah Bahasa Inggris, 2) mengambil responden yang pada saat ini sedang menempuh mata kuliah Bahasa Inggris di semester dua.


Rancangan faktorial penelitian ini adalah (3 x 2) (Tuckman, 1999).

Tabel 1. Rancangan Penelitian

Visual Y111, Y112,…Y11n. Y121, Y122,… Y12n
Auditorial Y211,Y212,… Y21n Y221, Y222,… Y22n
Kinestetik Y311,Y312,… Y31n Y321, Y322,… Y32n



Y111, Y112,…Y11n. = Kelompok mahasiswa yang memiliki modalitas belajar visual diberikan perlakuan dengan strategi pembelajaran Student Teams Achievement Division (STAD)

Y121, Y122,… Y12n = Kelompok mahasiswa yang memiliki modalitas belajar visual diberikan perlakuan dengan strategi pembelajaran konvensional

Y211,Y212,… Y21n= Kelompok mahasiswa yang memiliki modalitas belajar auditory diberikan perlakuan dengan strategi pembelajaran Student Teams Achievement Division (STAD)

Y221, Y222,… Y22n= Kelompok mahasiswa yang memiliki modalitas belajar auditory diberikan perlakuan dengan strategi pembelajaran konvensional

Y311,Y312,… Y31n= Kelompok mahasiswa yang memiliki modalitas belajar auditory diberikan perlakuan dengan strategi pembelajaran Student Teams Achievement Division (STAD)

Y321, Y322,… Y32n= Kelompok mahasiswa yang memiliki modalitas belajar auditory diberikan perlakuan dengan strategi pembelajaran konvensional


Subjek Penelitian

Subjek penelitian ini adalah di POLINEMA (Politeknik Negeri Malang). Secara populasi penelitian ini dilakukan di Progam Studi Teknik Elektronika, Jurusan Teknik Elektro, Politeknik Negeri Malang untuk angkatan 2013 sebanyak 4 kelas untuk D3 dan 2 kelas untuk D4, dengan jumlah mahasiswa 150 mahasiswa. Penentuan kelompok mahasiswa dengan mengadakan tes vocabulary berbicara dengan cara1) mahasiswa di wawancarai dengan menggunakan tes wawancara pekerjaan “job interview”, 2) dosen menilai penampilan tes wawancara pekerjaan “job interview” mahasiswa pada komponen vocabulary, 3) dosen mengelompokkan mulai nilai yang tetinggi sampai terendah (total skor 0 – 100), 4) dosen membentuk beberapa kelompok dengan 4 anggota setiap kelompoknya secara acak dengan mencampur antara nilai tertinggi dan terendah.


Variabel Penelitian

Variabel dalam penelitian ini adalah 1) Variabel bebas: Strategi pembelajaran yang terdiri dari Student Teams Achievement Division (STAD) dan Konvensional, 2) Variabel moderator: Modalitas belajar (visual, auditory, dan kinestetik) yang diukur dengan menggunakan instrument yang dikembangkan dari DePorter dan Hernacki (2007), 3) Variabel terikat: Hasil belajar vocabularyberbicara Bahasa Inggris.Hasil belajar dalam penelitian ini diperoleh dengan menggunakan tes vocabularyberbicara (speaking) untuk wawancara kerja setelah pelaksanaan strategi pembelajaran Student Teams Achievement Division (STAD).

Dari empat kelas yang terpilih sebagai subyek penelitian selanjutnya diberikan tes modalitas belajar. Pada pertemuan berikutnya diberikan pre-test untuk mengetahui kemampuan awal mahasiswa. Subyek yang telah memiliki kondisi kemampuan belajar Bahasa Inggris yang diasumsikan sama atau homogen diberikan perlakuan strategi pembelajaran Student Teams Achievement Division (STAD) yang dialokasikan waktu 8 kali pertemuan (1 kali pertemuan adalah 2 jam dengan alokasi waktu 1 jam perkuliahan adalah 45 menit).


Prosedur Penelitian

Tahap persiapan ekperimen: 1) melakukan studi pendahuluan, 2) Menentukan waktu pelaksanaan eksperimen, 3) mempersiapkan semua instrumen penelitian, 3) mengadakan diskusi dengan dosen pengampu mata kuliah Bahasa   Inggris, 4) menyiapkan perangkat pembelajaran: a) Langkah-Langkah Umum Strategi Pembelajaran STAD dan Konvensional b) Skenario Strategi Pembelajaran STAD dan Konvensional, 3) RPP Strategi Pembelajaran STAD, 4) RPP Strategi Pembelajaran Konvensional, 5) Bahan Ajar, 6) Kisi-Kisi Ulangan Harian, 7) Kisi- Kisi Soal Pre-test dan Post-test, 8) Instrumen Evaluasi VocabularyBerbicara Bahasa Inggris, 9) Instrumen Modalitas Belajar.

Tahap pelaksanaan eksperimen: 1) memberikan tes modalitas belajar mahasiswa, 2) memberikan pre-test vocabulary berbicara untuk wawancara kerja, 3) Melaksanakan perlakuan pembelajaran (eksperimen) menggunakan Student Teams Achievement Division (STAD) dan Konvensional, 4) melakukan evaluasi (post-test) untuk strategi pembelajaran Student Teams Achievement Division (STAD) dan Konvensional

Tahap pasca eksperimen: Langkah terakhir setelah memberikan perlakuan, maka kedua kelompok diberi tes akhir atau post-test vocabularyberbicara untuk wawancara kerja, bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh perlakuan pada kelompok eksperimen dan kelompok kontrol terhadap hasil belajar mahasiswa dalam vocabularyberbicara untuk wawancara kerja, serta interaksi pengaruh antara variabel bebas dan variabel moderator terhadap hasil belajar vocabularyberbicara Bahasa Inggris untuk wawancara kerja. Prosedur pelaksanaan penelitian eksperimen tergambar pada bagan 1 sebagai berikut:


Bagan Prosedur Pelaksanaan Penelitian Eksperimen


PKs     : Pembelajaran STAD

PKv     : Pembelajaran Konvensional

MB      : Modalitas Belajar

MBv    : Modalitas Belajar Visual

MBa    : Modalitas Belajar Auditory

MBk    : Modalitas Belajar Kinestetik

Pada bagan 1 di atas dapat dijelaskan bahwa penelitian ini berlangsung selama 8 kali pertemuan, baik kelompok pembelajaran STAD maupun pada kelompok pembelajaran konvensional. Rincian pelaksanaan pembelajaran adalah: Pertemuan 1 (Penentuan kelas yang menjadi kelompok PKs dan                                   kelompok PKv), pertemuan 2 (pelaksanaan pengumpulan data siswa yang memiliki modalitas belajar) pertemuan 3 – 6 (Pre-test), pertemuan 7 – 14 (pelaksanaan eksperimen dilakukan pada kelompok PKs PKv), pertemuan 15 (peer Assessment, persiapan post-test), pertemuan 16 – 19 (Post-test)


Teknik Pengumpulan Data

Pengumpulan data penelitian ini dilakukan dengan melalui langkah-langkah sebagai berikut: 1) memberikan kuesioner modalitas belajar untuk mengetahui modalitas belajar mahasiswaserta pre-test pada semua kelas subyek untuk mengetahui kemampuan awal pemahaman bahasa Inggris, 2) melaksanakan intervensi pembelajaran (eksperimen), dan 3) memberikan post-test pada semua mahasiswa pada semua kelas subyek penelitian untuk mengetahui hasil belajar setelah eksperimen.


Teknik Analisis Data

Sesuai dengan jenis variabel penelitian ini teknik analisis data yang digunakan adalah Analisis of Varians (ANOVA) dua jalur interaksi. Hal ini sejalan dengan pendapat Tuckman (1999) analisis varians memberikan peneliti untuk mempelajari pengaruh secara simultan dari beberapa variabel bebas namun penerapannya memiliki ciri khusus (dua, tiga atau empat). Penggunaan desain penelitian faktorial di dalamnya terdapat variabel bebas, variabel moderator dan variabel terikat. Variabel bebas dan variabel moderator disebut faktor. Teknik analisis data pada penelitian ini dilakukan dengan statistik deskriptif dan inferensial. Untuk pengujian hipotesis penelitian dilakukan melalui dua tahap, yaitu tahap uji asumsi analisis dan tahap uji hipotesis. Keputusan yang digunakan untuk menyatakan adanya pengaruh variabel bebas terhadap variabel terikat di dasarkan pada taraf kesalahan 5% atau taraf keyakinan 95%.

Hasil Analisis

Tabel 4.4   Hasil Perbandingan antara Nilai Hasil Belajar Siswa PostTestdengan Menggunakan Metode Konvensional

Pre-test Post-test
Skor Nilai Skor Nilai
Vocabulary 2.22 22.20 2.47 24.68


Hasil belajar vocabulary berbicara Bahasa Inggris mahasiswa Politeknik Negeri Malang Semester II Program Studi Teknik Elektronika yang menggunakan metode pembelajaran konvensional sebelum dilakukan bimbingan belajar Bahasa Inggris dengan menggunakan metode pembelajaran metode konvensional diperoleh rata-rata nilai yang cukup baik yaitu sebesar 22.20. Namun setelah dilakukan bimbingan belajar Bahasa Inggris menggunakan metode pembelajaran metode konvensional diperoleh rata-rata nilai yang lebih tinggi daripada saat sebelumnya, yaitu sebesar 24.68. Hal ini dapat menjadi indikasi bahwa bimbingan belajar Bahasa Inggris dengan menggunakan metode pembelajaran konvensional dapat meningkatkan nilai hasil belajar vocabulary berbicara Bahasa Inggris mahasiswa Politeknik Negeri Malang Semester II Program Studi Teknik Elektronika.

Tabel 4.8   Hasil Perbandingan antara Nilai Hasil Belajar Siswa PostTestdengan Menggunakan Metode STAD


Pre-test Post-test
Skor Nilai Skor Nilai
Vocabulary 2.41 24.11 2.93 29.32


Hasil belajar vocabulary berbicara Bahasa Inggris mahasiswa Politeknik Negeri Malang Semester II Program Studi Teknik Elektronika menggunakan metode pembelajaran STAD sebelum dilakukan bimbingan belajar Bahasa Inggris menggunakan metode pembelajaran metode STAD diperoleh rata-rata nilai yang cukup baik yaitu sebesar 24.11. Namun setelah dilakukan bimbingan belajar Bahasa Inggris menggunakan metode pembelajaran metode STAD diperoleh rata-rata nilai yang lebih tinggi daripada saat sebelumnya, yaitu sebesar 29.32. Hal ini dapat menjadi indikasi bahwa bimbingan belajar Bahasa Inggris menggunakan metode pembelajaran metode STAD dapat meningkatkan nilai hasil belajar vocabulary berbicara Bahasa Inggris mahasiswa Politeknik Negeri Malang Semester II Program Studi Teknik Elektronika.

Tabel 4.18   Tabel Hasil Uji ANOVA 2 Jalur dengan Interaksi

Tests of Between-Subjects Effects
Dependent Variable:Score
Source Type III Sum of Squares df Mean Square F
Corrected Model 6276.708a 5 1255.342 29.181 .000
Intercept 102346.913 1 102346.913 2379.089 .000
MB 560.179 1 560.179 13.022 .000
SP 5880.253 2 2940.126 68.344 .000
MB * SP 67.389 2 33.695 .783 .459
Error 7313.292 170 43.019
Total 119234.000 176
Corrected Total 13590.000 175
a. R Squared = .462 (Adjusted R Squared = .446)


Hipotesis 1: Berdasarkan hasil ANOVA di atas dapat diketahui bahwa untuk perbandingan rata-rata nilai skor hasil belajar vocabulary berbicara Bahasa Inggris mahasiswa berdasarkan metode pembelajaran menunjukkan adanya perbedaan yang bermakna (signifikan) pada rata-rata nilai skor hasil belajar vocabulary berbicara Bahasa Inggris mahasiswa antara metode pembelajaran konvensional dan metode pembelajaranStudent Teams Achievement Division(STAD). Hasil uji pembandingan berganda (shceffe Test) pada metode pembelajaran konvensional berbeda signifikan dengan rata-rata nilai skor hasil belajar vocabulary berbicara Bahasa Inggris mahasiswa (posttest) pada kelompok yang diajarkan dengan metode pembelajaranStudent Teams Achievement Division(STAD) (p=0.000<0.05). Perbedaan tersebut disebabkan rata-rata nilai skor hasil belajar vocabulary berbicara Bahasa inggris pada kelompok yang menggunakan metode pembelajaran konvensional tersebut sebesar 24.682 mempunyai selisih yang cukup jauh dengan rata-rata nilai skor hasil belajar vocabulary berbicara Bahasa inggris pada kelompok yang menggunakan metode pembelajaran Student Teams Achievement Division (STAD) dengan rata-rata nilai 29.318.

Hipotesis 2: Untuk perbandingan rata-rata nilai skor hasil belajar vocabulary berbicara Bahasa Inggris mahasiswa berdasarkan modalitas belajar dari tabel ANOVA di atas menunjukkan adanya perbedaan yang bermakna (signifikan) pada rata-rata nilai skor hasil belajar Bahasa Inggris mahasiswa antara yang mempunyai Modalitas Belajar secara kinestetik, auditory, dan visual. Hasil uji pembandingan berganda (multiple comparisons) dengan uji Scheffe (Scheffe Test) sebagai salah satu uji pembandingan berganda yang mempunyai sensitivitas cukup tinggi dalam menguji adanya perbedaan antar perlakuan dalam multiple comparisons. Dengan metode ini akan dilakukan pembandingan berganda terhadap rata-rata nilai skor hasil belajar vocabulary berbicara Bahasa Inggris mahasiswa (posttest) antara setiap modalitas belajar. Hasil uji pembandingan berganda (Scheffe Test) antara rata-rata nilai skor hasil belajar vocabulary berbicara Bahasa Inggris mahasiswa dengan modalitas belajarkinestetik adalah 28.90, auditoy adalah 18.14, dan visual 33.52, sehingga dapat dikatakan bahwa nilai skor vocabulary berbicaraBahasa Inggris mahasiswa dengan modalitas belajar mahasiswa berbedahasilnya adalah berbeda signifikan (p=0.00). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa modalitas belajar secara visual, auditory, dan visual memberikan pengaruh yang berbeda terhadap hasil belajar vocabulary berbicaraBahasa Inggris mahasiswa Politeknik Negeri Malang Semester II. Modalitas belajar secara visual memberikan rata-rata hasil belajar vocabulary berbicara Bahasa Inggris yang paling besar dibandingkan modalitas belajar secara auditory dan kinestetik, sedangkan modalitas belajar secara auditory memberikan rata-rata hasil yang lebih rendah dibandingkan dengan secara visual maupun kinestetik.

Hipotesis 3: Hasil perbandingan rata-rata nilai skor hasil belajar vocabulary berbicara Bahasa Inggris mahasiswa berdasarkan interaksi antara kelompok perlakuan metode pembelajaran (konvensional dan STAD), serta modalitas belajar (kinestetik, auditory, dan visual) dari hasil ANOVA menunjukkan adanya perbedaan yang bermakna (signifikan) pada rata-rata nilai skor hasil belajar vocabulary berbicara Bahasa Inggris mahasiswa berdasarkan interaksi antara kelompok perlakuan metode pembelajaran (konvensional dan STAD), serta modalitas belajar (kinestetik, auditory, dan visual).

Berdasarkan paparan di atas dapat diketahui bahwa dalam penelitian ini: 1) terdapat perbedaan yang bermakna (signifikan) pada rata-rata nilai skor hasil belajar vocabulary berbicara Bahasa Inggris mahasiswa antara metode pembelajaran konvensional dan metode pembelajaran STAD, 2) terdapat perbedaan yang bermakna (signifikan) pada rata-rata nilai skor hasil belajar vocabulary berbicara Bahasa Inggris mahasiswa antara yang mempunyai modalitas belajar secara kinestetik, auditory, dan visual, 3) tidak terdapat perbedaan yang bermakna (signifikan) pada rata-rata nilai skor hasil belajar vocabulary berbicara Bahasa Inggris mahasiswa berdasarkan interaksi antara kelompok perlakuan metode pembelajaran (konvensional dan STAD), serta modalitas belajar (kinestetik, auditory, dan Visual).



Strategi Student Teams Achievement Division (STAD) berhasil memberikan pembelajaran yang membuat mahasiswa Politeknik Negeri Malang Semester II aktif dan berminat untuk mengikuti pembelajaran tersebut dibandingkan strategi pembelajaran konvensional.Slavin (1995) mengemukakan bahwa metode kooperatif Student Teams Achievement Division (STAD) berpengaruh positif terhadap hasil belajar ilmu-ilmu eksakta, sosial dan bahasa.

Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa modalitas belajar secara visual, auditory, dan kinestetik memberikan pengaruh yang berbeda terhadap hasil belajar vocabulary berbicaraBahasa Inggris mahasiswa Politeknik Negeri Malang Semester II. Modalitas belajar secara visual memberikan rata-rata hasil belajar vocabulary berbicaraBahasa Inggris yang paling besar dibandingkan modalitas belajar secara auditory dan kinestetik, sedangkan modalitas belajar secara auditory memberikan rata-rata hasil yang lebih rendah dibandingkan dengan secara visual maupun kinestetik. Vermunt & Vermetten (2004) mengatakan bahwa siswa yang memiliki dan merefleksikan modalitas belajar (learning style) akan berprestasi lebih baik daripada tidak memperhatikan modalitas belajar.

Interaksi antara strategi pembelajaran dan modalitas belajar memberikan pengaruh yang berbeda-beda terhadap hasil belajar vocabulary berbicara Bahasa Inggris mahasiswa Politeknik Negeri Malang Semester II Program Studi Teknik Elektronika. Hal ini dibuktikan oleh hasil penelitian yang menyatakan bahwa Strategi pembelajaran Student Teams Achievement Division (STAD) secara visual menghasilkan nilai belajar vocabulary berbicaraBahasa Inggris mahasiswa Politeknik Negeri Malang Semester II Program Studi Teknik Elektronika yang paling tinggi dan berbeda dengan interaksi strategi belajar dengan modalitas belajar lainnya. Sedangkan strategi belajar konvensional secara auditory dan kinestetik, serta STAD secara auditory menghasilkan nilai belajar vocabulary berbicaraBahasa Inggris mahasiswa Politeknik Negeri Malang Semester II Program Studi Teknik Elektronika yang sama dan paling rendah dibandingkan interaksi lainnya.



Simpulan dari penelitian ini, sebagai berikut:

  1. Pembelajaran vocabulary berbicaraBahasa Inggris yang dilaksanakan oleh dosen kepada mahasiswa Politeknik Negeri Malang Semester II Program Studi Teknik Elektronika dilakukan dengan strategi dasar (konvensional) dan strategi Student Teams Achievement Division (STAD) menghasilkan pengaruh yang berbeda terhadap hasil belajar mahasiswa tersebut, implementasi strategi Student Teams Achievement Division (STAD) memberikan nilai yang lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan hasil pembelajaran konvensional.
  2. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa modalitas belajar secara visual, auditory, dan visual memberikan pengaruh yang berbeda terhadap hasil belajar vocabulary berbicara bahasa inggris mahasiswa Politeknik Negeri Malang Semester II. Modalitas belajar secara visual memberikan rata-rata hasil belajar vocabulary berbicara Bahasa Inggris yang paling besar dibandingkan modalitas belajar secara auditory dan kinestetik, sedangkan modalitas belajar secara auditory memberikan rata-rata hasil yang lebih rendah dibandingkan dengan secara visual maupun kinestetik.
  3. Penerapan strategi pembelajaran konvensional maupun Student Teams Achievement Division (STAD) dan modalitas belajar diidentifikasi memiliki pengaruh dalam proses pembelajaran vocabulary berbicaraBahasa Inggris. Dengan demikian dapat dinyatakan bahwa terdapat interaksi antara strategi pembelajaran dan modalitas belajar mahasiswa terhadap hasil belajar vocabulary berbicara Bahasa Inggris. Interaksi antara strategi pembelajaran dan modalitas belajar memberikan pengaruh yang berbeda-beda terhadap hasil belajar mahasiswa Politeknik Negeri Malang Semester II Program Studi Teknik Elektronika. Strategi pembelajaran Student Teams Achievement Division (STAD) secara visual menghasilkan rata-rata hasil belajar vocabulary berbicaraBahasa Inggris yang paling tinggi, sedangkan strategi pembelajaran konvensional secara auditory menghasilkan rata-rata belajar vocabulary berbicaraBahasa Inggris yang paling rendah dibandingkan dengan interaksi lainnya


Saran-saran untuk pemanfaatan hasil penelitian dan penelitian lanjutan:

  1. Saran-Saran untuk Pemanfaatan Pembelajaran

            Berdasarkan hasil penelitian yang dipaparkan pada kesimpulan, berikut ini diajukan beberapa saran kepada:

  1. Dosen bahasa Inggris Politeknik Negeri Malang dapat menggunakan Student Teams Achievement Division(STAD) dapat dilakukan dengan baik dengan memperhatikan modalitas belajar mahasiswa
  2. Ketua Program Studi Teknik Elektronika mengadakan perbaikan pembelajaran bahasa Inggris dengan menyediakan fasilitas pembelajaran untuk kelancaran pembelajaran kooperatif STAD dan meningkatkan mutu, pengetahuan dan ketrampilan dosen dalam mengelola pembelajaran.
  3. Temuan penelitian ini dapat memberi masukan dan pertimbangan dalam perbaikan desain pembelajaran, pengorganisasian pembelajaran, pengelolaan pembelajaran dan penyampaian materi pembelajaran

2. Saran-saran untuk penelitian lanjutan

  1. Dosen dapat memilih metode pembelajaran yang tepat, yang dapat meningkatkan hasil belajar. Dan disarankan pula untuk diadakan penelitian lanjutan dengan cakupan materi yang lebih luas dan metode pembelajaran yang lebih banyak.

b. Variabel-variabel moderator (selain modalitas belajar) yang diduga juga berpengaruh terhadap hasil belajar vocabulary berbicara Bahasa Inggris, disarankan untuk diadakan penelitian lebih lanjut dan dikombinasikan dengan metode pembelajaran kooperatif.

c. Perlu menguji keefektifan pembelajaran kooperatif model STAD dalam pengajaran bahasa Inggris Program Studi Teknik Elektronika, Jurusan Teknik Elektro, Politeknik Negeri Malang dengan menggunakan angket pada mahasiswa terhadap keterlaksanaan pembelajaran.




Daftar Rujukan

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Khanafi, I. 2015. Cara Meningkatkan Kemampuan Hafalan TOEFL Vocabulary. diakses tanggal 5 Februari 2015

Mudofir, Imam. 2006. Cooperative Learning to Improve Students’ Fluency in Speaking. Thesis tidak diterbitkan. Malang: PPs UM.


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Nurgiyantoro, Burhan. 1987. Penilaian dalam Pengajaran Bahasa dan Sastra. Yogyakarta: BPFE


Reigeluth, C.M., Ed. 1999. Instructional Design Theories and Models: A NewParadigm of Instructional Theory. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaaum Associates, Publishers.


Setiadi, A. Tanpa Tahun. Upaya Peningkatan Vocabulary Siswa dengan Media Wordwall. diakses tanggal 5 Februari 2015


Setyasari, P. 2009. Pembelajaran Kolaborasi: Landasan untuk Mengembangkan Ketrampilan Sosial, Rasa Saling Menghargai dan tanggung Jawab. Pidato Pengukuhan Guru Besar. Malang: UM


Slavin, R. E. 1995. Cooperative Learning: Theory and Practice. Needhams Heights, MA: Allyn and Bacon


Solihin, R. 2013. Makalah Bahasa Inggris Vocabulary. diakses tanggal 10 februari 2015


Suprijono, Agus. (2010). Cooperative Learning Teori & Aplikasi Paikem. Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar


Sriwahyuni, S. 2006. Rancangan Model dan Mekanisme Spaeaking Test Berbasis Kompetensi Bahasa Inggris yang dibutuhkan Dunia Kerja bagi Pendidikan Tinggi Vokasional Bidang Rekayasa. Ragam: Pengembangan Humaniora, 8 (1): 26-39


Subekti, N. 2015. Kiat Meningkatkan VocabularyBahasa Inggris dengan Flashcard. diakses tanggal 5 Februari 2015

Tuckman, B. W. 1999. Conducting Educational Research. Fifth Edition. New York: HarcourtBraceCollege Publisher.


Vermunt, J. D., and Vermetten, Y. J. 2004. Pattern in Student Learning: Relationship Between Learning Strategies, Conceptions of Learning and Learning Orientations. Educational Psychology Review. 16 (4): 376-378


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Universitas Diponegoro



Color does not only correspond to light-spectrum-based visual identification of a concrete entity, but it may also symbolize abstract values conceived in a socio-cultural community. Some values are shared, but some others are distinctive. Even in one community, the meaning of a color might be multi-interpretable. For instance, the color of RED is understood as a ‘stop’ command when it comes on traffic light. However, in the compounds such as ‘red specialist’, ‘red herring’, or ‘red army’, we cannot take for granted that the <red> also means ‘stop’. Both linguistic and meta-linguistic awareness are required to define what RED means. This paper seeks to describe the literal and non-literal meaning of RED in the Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA), by focusing on laws and politic section. By using Keyword(s) in Context (KWIC) method, I have managed to retrieve 328 concordance lines where RED collocates with other token(s). I extracted the lines, including the extended context, for in depth interpretation. Both literal and non-literal meanings of the collocations are categorized into different classes, and the investigation indicates that in laws and politic science text, RED is a color that is often used to address negative polarities such as fallacy and ethnic discrimination.


Keywords: Colors, red, negative polarity, corpus, meaning, keywords in context


How many colors do you know? The answer to this question might vary depending on two variables: physics and language. What we commonly understand is that there are 12 colors. However, a recent study in physics (Kinoshita et al, 2008) has showed color is so complex that 12 is merely a simplified figure. On the other hand, some studies in linguistics have shown that there are languages, where the users do not distinguish some colors that are distinctive in another language (let’s say English). Consider Navajo language (Stea et al, 1972), where only one word is addressed to blue and green. Consider also Shona language that does not distinguish red and orange (De Bortoli & Maroto, 2001). Then how they distinguish the two colors? They technically do not. But when necessary, one of the strategies is using the color they know as an attributive to a noun, such as; ‘blue sky’, ‘blue like the sea water’, ‘green leaf’, ‘green like grasses’ and etc.

Besides number of colors, serious attention has been given to the topic of color interpretation. Colors can be understood literally, or non-literally (metaphorically). The literal interpretation of RED[1] is as color itself (as described in physics studies as a particular composition of light spectrum that our eyes perceive). While to understand the literal meaning of RED requires mere visual and linguistic awareness, to understand the non-literal meaning of RED involves meta-linguistic awareness as well.

The focus of this paper is to retrieve expressions involving the lemma RED. It also seeks to describe and to categorize the meanings of red, both literally and metaphorically. By the end of this research, I will also determine the polarities of RED. The data for conducting this research is obtained from the social and politic section in the Corpus of Contemporary American English. The next section of this paper deals with related studies the importance of contexts in determining the meaning and polarity of a word. By the end of the next section, I will show the review of these studies and show how my paper can contribute more to the subject of discussion.


Context, Meaning, and Polarity

When human is exposed to speech or text,the information is processed gradually up to the point of comprehension (Fernandez & Cairns, 2011).[2] Comprehension means that human successfully decodes the information. To achieve this, linguistic, meta-linguistic awareness (or both of them) are required to do the decoding process completely. Compare example (1) and (2), and focus on the underlines:


(1)   The supreme leader finally decided to resign

(2)   Saddam can no longer fight the resistance. The supreme leader finally decided to resign


Article <the> in (1) indicates that the compound is definite. However, this information is not sufficient to decode to whom does <the> concern or who the supreme leader is. Compare to example (2) where the anaphoric referent is present. At this point, it is not difficult to understand the referent of <the>. However, you may recover the referent of <the> in (1) if the same knowledge is shared to other participants in the speech event. The knowledge is called meta-linguistic awareness[3].

In some cases, meta-linguistic awareness takes primary role in taking deduction. One of the examples is in the ambiguity resolution. In the ambiguous sentence, ‘I saw the man with the microscope’, if you know what ‘microscope’ is, you will not deduce this sentence as a tool to see a person. Instead, you will deduce this sentence as there is a man with microscope that you saw. This may happen only when your understanding of microscope is the same as mine. So, what <black> color means to you? Our conception may be different. Black is often be interpreted as the color of death. However, in some areas in Indonesia, yellow is the color of the flag that you hoist when someone in your family passes away.

If participants in a speech event do not share the same concept, then the recognition of the referent is most likely to fail. This often happens in translation error.


(3)   I am feeling blue today

Hari ini saya sedang sedih (sad)

Hari ini saya sedang biru*(literally blue)


In English, the color BLUE has negative polarity (sad). Preserving the color in Indonesian translation makes the sentence semantically not compositional (although it is grammatically correct). A color survey in USA[4] has indicated that people interpret colors to positive, negative polarity or neutral. Aerim et al (2010) built a machine readable dictionary to assign polarities to digital Korean text for sentiment analysis. They believed that there are some lemmas that fall to ‘flexible’ categories. Their argument is that the polarity may shift to [+] or [-] following the companion words. As an example, the polarity of BIG in ‘mobile phone’s big screen’ is [+], while in ‘big problem’ the polarity is [-].


A recent study from (Yassine & Jeesun, 2014) revealed that even for a lemma that is inherently [+] or [-], the companion word may change the polarity as in ‘very perfect’ where the value is [+] and ‘too perfect’ where the value is [-]. This follows Firth (1957) tradition, as also shared by corpus linguists. Compare ‘a white wizard’ and ‘a white sheep’. In ‘a white wizard’, you are most likely to deduce ‘white’ as good (as opposed to evil). However, this reasoning for this is because of it is the noun it specifies <wizard>. In ‘white sheep’, you will resort to its literal meaning that there is a sheep and the color is white (the inherent color of a sheep is white). If that so, what about ‘black sheep’? It is uncommon for a sheep to be black. In this case, you are most likely to resort to individual difference in a common group, such as a member of family who behaves differently from others. But consider this sentence, ‘The biological experiment successfully modified sheep’s DNA to give birth to black sheep’. In this case, you will most likely resort to a sheep that is actually black.


In literary texts, we may find many referents that are expressed metaphorically. Literary text is often contrasted to academic text. On one side, academic language is known to be straightforward. On the other side, its readers are segmented (not all people can understand the word choice). Therefore, only people with shared meta-linguistic awareness may understand the meanings. Unlike the previous works, my paper seeks to describe both the linguistic composition and the referents of expressions involving RED in COCA, which is claimed to be the most balanced and representative corpus of American English (Davies, 2008).



Research Corpus and Automatic Retrieval

Research Data

The data in this paper is obtained from the Corpus of Contemporary American English (Davies, 2008). A Corpus itself is a collection of texts that is organized in a way that enables users to retrieve information based on queries (Mc Enery & Hardie, 2012). This might resemble the performance of search engines when you browse internet. However, syntax queries for a corpus are linguistically formulated and works beyond character similarity match.

The difference between using a search engine and a corpus interface might be described as follow. When queries are sent to internet, for instance STRIKE, it retrieves all documents where the character match is near or exactly 100%. It does not distinguish STRIKE as a verb or noun, a named entity, an acronym etc. But when you use corpus interface, you can also retrieve linguistic information annotated in the text. For instance, you can browse different word forms of lemma STRIKE such as, strike, strikes, stroke, striker etc. Some more advanced queries on annotated corpus allow you to retrieve semantic information such as features, polarities, and word relation (synonym, antonym, hypernym etc).

Data Collection

COCA is composed of texts from different types and this corpus covers a wide range of sections that is written (or transcribed) in American English. Registered users may access the website on I retrieved lemma RED in the corpus and selected one word form of the highest frequency hits. As for this research, I focused the retrieval on social and politic section of newspaper texts. Because there are different text types (spoken data transcript, fiction, academic, newspaper, magazine etc), the retrieval was controlled to focus to Academic section: law and politic texts.


The result of the retrieval was displayed on concordance lines. Each concordance lines were analyzed to decode the meaning of RED. Each word form of RED that conceives associative meanings was assigned to different category as opposed to literal meaning. The lists of possible non-literal meanings that are similar were categorized to specific classification. I finally assigned polarity based on this categorization to conclude this research.



Literal and Metaphorical Meanings of RED


The retrieval for lemma RED has managed to discover seven results. In figure 1, result number seven (R.E.D) is not shown, as it is not the word form of lemma RED. This seems to be an acronym and, COCA misretrieved it. Among the six results, <red> is the highest frequency word. Therefore, the research was focused on this word form.




Figure 1. <red> as the high frequency word form


COCA is composed of five grand section/ text types: spoken, fiction, magazine, newspaper and academic. As I have commented previously, this research is focused on academic section (7160). See figure 2:


Figure 2. Academic Section


Frequency hits in academic section shows 7160 hits. However, the academic section is divided into several sub sections. My focus in this paper is on law and politic, so I went deeper to the law and politic section as shown by figure 3:


Figure 3. Law and Politics


As I have mentioned previously, the result of KWIC based query is presented in the form of concordance lines. Figure 4 presents us with some of the concordance lines (total 328 lines). Each concordance line conceives year of publication, section, source, and target keyword <red> with left and right context. The sample for this research was 25%, which means it focused on 82 lines. The sampling was conducted randomly.





Figure 4. Concordance Lines


The context for each concordance is left and right context. However, this context can be expanded up to the textual level. As you may see on figure 5, significant improvements are seen on both the source and the text information. The source displays date, publication information, title, author and the source itself. It also expanded the coverage from just left-right context to the level of body text.


Figure 5. Extended Context




There are some examples when <red> refers to its literal meaning. Consider some entities like <red sea>, <red brick>, <red meat>. The nouns in the examples are attributed with <red> as they are literally and visually red. Red sea is the sea that might change color to red because it is densely populated with red algae. The same reasoning might apply to red brick and red meat (raw meat). Now consider <red cross> and <red crescent> in example (4):





(4)   The existence of an apparatus capable of mounting the required responses is

a function of the growth of the world relief system, in large measure represented

by the UN system, the Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies and major non-governmental organizations such as Oxfam


What is interesting about the examples is the red itself might be interpreted both literally and non-literally. It is true that the symbols of these institutions are colored red[5]. Then why we do not resort to a cross sign that is red and a crescent (in the sky) that is red? The presence of the companion words like <world relief system> and <required responses> has triggered our meta-linguistic awareness to suggest that these two institutions are responsible for rescue missions, and prevent us to resort to false assumption.


Ethnic Discrimination


Black and white are two colors that are fully contrast. These colors are often used to address two different polarities, like good and evil, positive and negative, rich and poor etc. Ethnicity was once a sensitive issue In America, as well as in South Africa. Even in South Africa, ethnic segregation was authorized by Apartheid system (Downing, 2004). Now I will give you an example of how color in USA discriminates[6] ethnicities. See example (5):


(5)   Growing numbers of interracial pairings, along with the new terminology,

are causing real problems for bureaucrats who insist on categorizing all

Americans as colors — red, yellow, black, or white


That color is the representation of Ethnicity in USA is also acknowledged by (Yanow, 2003). In her book, Constructing Race and Ethnicity in USA, she further described the referent of those colors: red for American (Indian), Yellow for (Asian), black for African, and white for Caucasian. However, she also admitted that in the recent days the segregation gap has become small and smaller. Few years later after her publication, USA has it first African-American President, Barrack Obama.




In COCA, some expressions involving <red> are related to socialism and communism. Although the world war has ended long time ago, this stigma does not end and still last up to now. Consider example (6):


(6)   The project was resuscitated in the 1970s by its staunchest advocates –

the so-called ” red specialists ” who were trained in the Soviet Union as

engineers and scientists and are China’s greatest proponents of ” grandiose ”

engineering and energy projects


The association of <red> to communism and socialism is much related to the two polarities (in the past) between USSR (Union of Soviet Socialist Republic) and USA. It is also associated to Republic of China where the governance is run by communist party. And in fact, the color of the flag of republic of China is also red. An elite soviet army was even named <red army> as shown by example (7):


(7)   Georgii Zhukov, later the famous Marshal Zhukov, one of the most

successful Soviet commandants of the victorious Red Army in World War II,

was the commander he selected for his anticipated thrust to the west


In (6) and (7), <red> is marked by quotation, and upper case respectively. In (7), the initial font is uppercased as it is a proper noun. In (6), it is given a quotation as the writer wants us to 1) focus and 2) resort to metaphorical meaning that red is not only color, but it also signifies socialist-communist ideology.




Red can also be associated to fallacy, as in the compound <red herring>. Herring is a kind of fish; and there is an actual herring, in which the color is red. A question may rise why herring is used, or why fish is involved in such negative referent. You surely remember the expression such as ‘there is something fishy (suspicious)’. But now, let us focus on <red herring>:


(8)   I have come to regard economic espionage as something of a red herring in this debate — something that, although wanted by neither the government nor business, provides a distraction from the more compelling practical questions at hand.


The compound <red herring> in example (8) indicates a kind of fallacy, where you propose an idea that mislead or not relevant to the subject of talk. We can understand from the word choice <debate>, that there are at least two parties involved in the speech event. The term <distraction> that is used by the speaker clearly suggested that the topic (economic espionage) that the opposing party is trying to propose is not relevant to his proposition.




Red means stop. This is an almost universal color meaning and used in some idiomatic expressions in law and politic science text in COCA. In (9), Ehud Barack clearly said <would not cross>. The extended context implied that Israel would cease (stop) attacking Gaza.


(9)   In July 2000, prior to his departure for the Camp David summit, Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak stipulated to his Cabinet the four ” red lines ” he would not cross during negotiations with the Palestinians.


(10)  If so, let us work on it and add to it Canadian football. Is it defining the acceptable methods of protection of culture, something like what was done in the WTO on subsidies, red light, green light?


(11)  The ABA played a key role, for instance, in efforts by a number of bars to block the Federal Trade Commission’s attempt to regulate lawyers as ” creditors ” under the so-called red flags rule developed by the FTC to help detect identity theft


What Ehud Barak wanted to signify here (9) is four details in a rule that he will not cross during the negotiation. In (10), it makes use the ‘traffic light’ association which I believe is quite universal where red means ‘no’ or ‘stop’ and green means ‘yes’ or ‘proceed’. In (11), ‘red flags’ are used to mark an unfortunate event, in this case, theft.




I also discover some expressions that <red> is often associated to a discomfort. In (12), <red ink> refers to an undesirable situation. The subsequent clause ‘limited prospects for survival’ confirms this.


(12)  We were drenched in red ink and faced with limited prospects for survival.


The situation that <red> signifies in (12) has caused a discomfort. It must be understood negatively, as the impact is limited prospect for survival. The word red is sometimes associated with something bad, or discomfort such as in red zone (dangerous). There is an expression in Indonesian where you get bad grade, which is nilai merah red mark, where in the past, teachers wrote bad grade with red ink.


Emotional Stress


The term ‘red face’ is a common expression shared across cultures to express that one is under a circumstance of certain emotional stress. One that might make it universal is the face is literally red; which is cause by the increase of stress related hormones on face skin pigment. The stress may involve anxiety, embarrassment, anger, romantic situation or etc.


(13)  A bit of upfront planning can avoid a lot of red faces later when a cloud provider’s doors are locked and the remote servers storing your data start popping up for sale on eBay


In (13), the red faces are to be avoided as people get stressed when they are dealing with computer problems, in this case, providers and servers.


The expression ‘red tape’ is used to show multi-layered regulations that people have to go through before doing something, that is considered unnecessary. One however, must go through this, otherwise will not achieve his/her goal. This is usually related to bureaucracy.


(14)  They are also increasingly willing to travel, live and work abroad, in part out of frustration with the corruption and red tape that continue to stymie entrepreneurial ambitions inside Russia


In (13), ‘red tape’ is the subject defined in the relative clause construction as something that stymie or stop you to do something, in this case, entrepreneurship in Russia.


So far we have discussed the multi facets meanings of <red> in politics and laws section in the academic COCA. We know understand that meanings might change with regard to the collocates. There are some expressions where <red> literally means a color. However, when they appear in uncommon combination, such as ‘red tape’, ‘red herring’, ‘red army’ the meaning might change.

Besides the collocation, what is more important is readers knowledge. What makes people can understand this, is the shared background with the text or the text writer. The term ‘red tape’ can possibly be understood as a tape that is red in color if the reader does not have the background knowledge required. The term ‘red herring’ can literally be associated to a herring (fish) that is red.

People however are aware of sentence context and investigate this context first when they are unsure of the meaning. When the meaning they project seems to be odd, the will not resort to literal meaning (though not to the correct metaphorical meaning yet). As for this, they can consult existing resources to confirm the meaning.



Figure 1. The Meaning of <red> in Politics and Laws Section in Academic COCA


Figure 1 shows the multi-facets meanings of <red> in COCA. Here, we can understand that meaning is always negotiated not only by linguistic factors, but also by speaker-readers relation in terms of their knowledge.




Lemma RED might be used to attribute both abstract and concrete entity. The sample analysis has shown that the polarity of <red> to these entities may be flexible. This follows the finding from Aerim, et al (2010). The color <red> might literally denote a color as in <red sea>. However, the investigation has shown that the dominating discoveries about the polarity of <red> in COCA are negative. The color <red> is often associated to racial discrimination and fallacy.

The number of shift to positive polarity is present but in insignificant quantity, such as ‘rescue’ in <red cross> and <red crescent>. The determination of polarity may vary from person to person. For instance, socialism-communism is not always considered negative, and democracy is not always considered positive. However, the most challenging part of this that there are some compounds that may fall to both literal and metaphorical meaning as they are visually red. To sum up, this paper has shown that the process of understanding the meaning of lemma RED in Social and Politic Science section in COCA strongly requires both linguistic and meta-linguistic awareness. This paper also suggests that other colors are also investigated for further research to widen the coverage of this research topic.



Aerim, A., Laporte, E., & Jeesun, N. (2010). Semantic Polarity of Adjectival Predicates in Online Reviews. Seoul International Conference in Linguistics (pp. 20-27). Seoul: Korea Linguistic Society.

Davies, M. (2008). American Corpus. Retrieved August 9, 2014, from The corpus of contemporary American English (COCA):

De Bortoli, M., & Maroto, J. (2001). Translating colours in web site localisation. Proceedings of the European Languages and the Implementation of Communication and Information Technologies (Elicit) conference (pp. 41-77). Paisley: University of Paisley.

Downing, D. (2004). Apartheid in South Africa. German: Heinnemen Library.

Fernandez, E.-M., & Cairns, H.-S. (2011). Fundamentals in Psycholinguistics. UK: Blackwell.

Firth, J. (1957). Papers in linguistics 1934–1951. London: Oxford University Press.

Kinoshita, S., Yoshioka, S., & Miyazaki, J. (2008). Physics of structural colors. Reports on Progress in Physics 71(7) , 076401.

Mc Enery, T., & Hardie, A. (2012). Corpus Linguistics: Method, Theory and Practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Richard, J. C., Hull, J., & Proctor, S. (2005). Interchange 3rd Edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Stea, D., Carson, D.-H., & Wisner, B. (1972). Navajo Color Categories And Color Discrimination-Experiment In Relation Between Language And Perception. Anthropology UCLA, 4(2), 27-38. Anthropology UCLA, 4(2) , 27-38.

Yanow, D. (2003). Constructing Race and Ethnicity in USA. New York: ME Sharpre Inc.

Yassine, F., & Jeesun, N. (2014). Study on the Sentiment Polarity Types of Collocations for too and very. Journal of Philology (1) , 23-32.


[1] In this paper, uppercased words like RED indicate a lemma, or the basic form that is present in the dictionary. When the words are surrounded by angle brackets <> they are the word forms, or the orthographic forms.

[2] This process is reversed when producing output


[4] See Richard, et al (2005)

[5] This part is quite tricky. For example,<red face> is often addressed to anger. At this point, the meaning seems non-literal. However, the face of someone who is angry may also be red; therefore, literal deduction is not entirely wrong.


[6] The word <discriminate> does not always relate to social discrimination, but it also means ‘to differentiate’ as ‘the respondents successfully discriminated [f] and [v] after several attempts’.

Anazawa, Ishikawa and Kiuchi’s Five-type interpretation errors in a legal intepretation in Indonesia

by Tunggul Puji Lestari

Master’s Program in Lingustics of Brawijaya University


This study is conducted to examine the generalisability and the coverage of Anazawa, Ishikawa and Kiuchi’s (2012) findings. This study uses real interpretation data taken from a court trial transcript. This study shows the five types of interpretation errors are also found in legal interpretation, as well as in medical interpretation as proved by Anazawa, Ishikawa and Kiuchi. The difference in the frequency is possibly caused by the difference of the field of the study where the interpretation is conducted. It is also found that real data research may cover wider area in interpretation’s errors analysis than simulated scenario research.

Key words: legal interpretation, interpretation error

Interpreting has become an important activity to support the transfer of communication between different language speakers (Napier, 2007; Ra & Napier, 2013). Many factors contribute to the neediness of good interpreter, not only the difference of the language, but also cultural differences and the field of study of the interpretation (Ra and Napier, 2013; Gercek, 2008; Wieringen, Harmsen & Bruijnzeels, 2002). The study of Anazawa, Ishikawa and Kiuchi (2012) entitled The accuracy of medicl interpretations: A pilot study of errors in Japanese-English interpreters during a simulated medical scenario published in The International Journal for Translation and Interpreting Research shows the relationship of those factors. They design their study from their worry upon the accurateness of interpretation in a field that is so close with life threatening consequences: medical. Re-quoting Brach, Fraser & Paez (2005, p.242) in this study, interpretation blatantly plays important role in determining the quality of communication between patients and physician that may have impact on health resource.

Measuring the accuracy of medical interpretation is the main objective in this study. Anazawa, Ishikawa and Kiuchi focus their study on the percentage of errors occurs on medical interpretation. The errors found in this study are categorized into five: omission, false fluency, substitution, addition and editorialisation.

This study was conducted in Tokyo between March 2009 and April 2011, using a simulated case based on the scenario. The participants of this study were native Japanese speakers who also spoke English fluently. Before the study was conducted, they were informed about the data of the patient and the situation of the patient. The writers argue that this giving information procedure is in a line with the real situation in medical interpretation that the interpreters are also given information about the assigned case.During the study, the scenario was scripted and the actors, that take a role as physician who did not speak English and a patient’s mother who spoke English fluently, were instructed to follow the script.

The simulated medical case based on the scenario is believed to help the writers in examining the participants’ performance from a common baseline. The simulation model in research itself has been discussed in Kleijnen’s Theory and methodology – Verification and validation of simulation models (1993). Kleijnen states that the validation of simulation models may not result in as perfect as the reality. However, the real model may lead to the collection of scarce or abundant data. Kleijnen suggests these data analysis to help validating the data collected from simulated models: sensitivity analysis (based on the design of the experiments and regression analysis) and risk analysis. Those are for estimating which inputs are really important and for quantifying the risks associated with inputs for which no data can be obtained at all, respectively.

This study show several interesting results. After identifying 1,242 utterances in the verbatim transcript, the total of 799 errors occurred with the most frequent interpretation errors are omission-type errors, that is followed by false-fluency errors on the second place but with total errors frequency only a half of the omission-type errors. From the study, it is also revealed that interpreters with less previous experience made more errors than those who are experienced. The discussion points the development of a certification system for medical interpreters should be the priority task.

Doubts on Anazawa, Ishikawa and Kiuchi (2012)’s Study

On their conclusion and future works chapter, Anazawa, Ishikawa and Kiuchi stated,

“… because this study used a simulated situation, the generalisability of our results should be explored in other scenarios and settings, as well as studies of actual medical encounters. It was diifficult to closely analyse communication between interlocutors through interpreters in this scenarion based study of interpretations, because it was not possible to examine the actual consequences of errors.” (2012, p.16)

The quotation above shows Anazawa, Ishikawa and Kiuchi’s doubts that arise from the findings of this study. The field of the study, that is medical, seems too narrow to accept this study finding as the imagery of interpretation errors in all fields. Analysis on other fields of interpretation are needed to examine the formulation of five types interpretation errors.

Another doubt that comes from this study is concerning the design of the study which is employing simulation scenario. By using this unnatural environment, Anazawa, Ishikawa and Kiuchi understood that it may eliminate many unique findings that are possible to happen during the interpretation, includes the consequences of errors.


Research Objective

Starting from these doubts, this research is designed to examine the result of Anazawa, Ishikawa and Kiuchi’s findings concerning the employability of five types of interpretation errors in other field of the study. This study is proposed to analyse the employability of the interpretation errors in legal interpretation. Legal interpretation, moreover court interpretation, is a field under community interpretation that is regarded as special because of its specific focus (Bancroft, Bendana, Bruggeman, & Feuerle, 2013; Keselman et al., 2010; Fischman, 2008). This specialty is not only in form of the place of interpretation (court), but also in form of the variety of the case that forces the interpreter to master wide area of vocabularies. Considering this specialty, this study is hoped to result in important findings that depict general findings of all field of interpretation.

Many unique findings are hopefully revealed in this study because the data will be collected from real situation of interpretation, different from simulation scenario interpretation that was conducted by Anazawa, Ishikawa and Kiuchi. Following questions are proposed as guideline for this study:

  1. Do the five types of interpretation errors also occur in legal interpretation?
  2. Is there any unique findings found as the result of the real situation interpretation?


Reaching the Objectives

To reach the objective of this research, an analysis of interpretation errors is done upon a real trial transcript that involves interpretation activity. The transcript is taken from the Trial in 2013 at Central Jakarta. This trial represented an ad de charge witness from a North America region, coded RR. The interpreter’s academic background is from law studies, taking her Bachelor of Law and Master of Law degrees in Indonesia.

The analysis of errors in interpretation is based on the five-type of interpretation errors in Anazawa, Ishikawa and Kiuchi’s study. Those are addition-type error, false fluency-type error, omission-type error, substitution-type error and editorialisation-type error. Addition-type error is error that occurs when the interpreter adds unspoken words or phrases to the interpretation. False fluency-type error occurs when the interpreter uses words or phrases that are incorrect or not exist in a particular language. Omission-type error is when the interpreter does not interpret words or phrases that were uttered. Substitution-type error is when words or phrases are substituted, while editorialisation error is when interpreter’s personal view is added to the interpretation

The occurrences of five types of interpretation errors

From the transcript, 128 utterances are analyzed and it is found 16 utterances that contain interpretation errors. 19 errors are identified, with addition-type errors become the most frequent errors in this transcript with 6 occurrences (31.5%). Omission-type and substitution-type errors share similar frequency, that are 4 times (21.1%) per type of errors, followed by editorialisation type and false-fluency type with 3 (15.7%) and 2 (10.5%).


Addition-type errors, the most frequent errors, occur in form of adding words or phrases although the interlocutor did not speak that words. As shown in this utterance,

RR                        :    Yes. It was contained manual safety of environmental and the front page was the managing director endorsement. So it had approval right to the top.

Interpreter             :    Ya. Di dalamnya termuat atau termuat di dalam sebuah pedoman atau buku pedoman manual. SE adalah singkatan dari Safety and Health. Keselamatan, kesehatan, dan lingkungan hidup. Dan di halaman pertama tersebut memang ada suatu tanda tangan oleh managing director yang harus ditanda tangani oleh managing director. Jadi, memang demikian bahwa disetujui diatas.


The interpreter added not only a word or phrase, but several sentences although the interlocutor did not speak that sentences. That utterance also shows an editorialisation type error. It indicates that the interpreters knew the content of the manual well, and she wanted to give clear explanation. He gave that explanation in attempts to speak for the witness.

The utterance below is the example of false-fluency error that occurs in the interpretation.

Head of the Council   :Saudara Saksi, selain TPH. Komponen-komponen apa lagi yang saudara ketahui di dalam penelitian ketika saudara berada tidak bersama ALI tersebut.

Interpreter             :    While working with ALI DIKRI. In addition to TPH, what other componens did you learn about during the research and the testing conducted together with ALI DIKRI?


From that utterance, interpreter’s false-fluency is clearly seen when she interpreted tidak bersama (split up) to ‘together’. The message was delivered in opposite meaning, and it would result in different or even wrong answer. In court trial, when all information are required to be true or based on the fact, this kind of error is not allowed at all.

Omission-type errors occur in almost same manner: the interpreter ignored a or several word(s), or even sentences, in their interpretation. As shown in this utterance, a sentence contains important information was ignored by the interpreter.

RR                        :    Yes. I was in center of experties within HES and that team still exist and I moved out and MIKE moved in and that structure still exist. There was organization and having the expert present.

Interpreter             :    Ya. Pusat keahlian dalam tim HES masih ada sampai sekarang. Ketika saya pindah dan kemudian MIKE masuk dan setelah itu juga terdapat kontiunoitas dalam bagian tersebut.


The interpreter did not interpret the last sentence of the interlocutor, although this sentence gave information about the organization and the expert that might be important for this case. The interpreter also made editorialization error while she used kontinuitas (continuity) as the interpretation of ‘exist’.


Other unique findings

Besides those errors, this study also reveals some unique findings that were not analyzed by Anazawa, Ishikawa and Kiuchi. It is possibly caused by the design of this study that uses real data in form of transcipt. Simulation and scenario did not allow Anazawa, Ishikawa and Kiuchi to closely analyse the triangle communication among two interlocutors and interpreter.

The first unique finding is about interpreter’s tendency in providing the actual situation or giving information about the transition of the context. From the transcript, it is found that the interpreter often provided information about situation or context transition. It happened in four occurrences, for example:

Head of the Council   :          Beralasan keberatan dari Penasehat Hukum. Oleh karena itu, diambil alih oleh Majelis. Terkait dengan izin. Apakah saudara mengetahui terkait dengan izin Bioremediasi?

Interpreter             :    The Panel has taken over the question and the question is about the permit. Is there permit required for the Bioremediation? What do you know about the permit Bioremediation processs?

The situation that happens in the trial was the panel taking over the question, and the interpreter considered this information as important so she informed the witness. In trial, the significance of this interpretation is to give initial understanding to the witness before he answers the question given. Without this information, the witness might find problem in answering the question that was not similar with the previous question’s context.

Anazawa, Ishikawa and Kuichi wrote in their conclusion that it is impossible to examine the consequences of the errors. In this research, the consequences of the errors are found and examine, although only in one occurrence:

Public Prosecutor  :    Apakah di dalam SOP tersebut itu mencantumkan mengenai range TPH dalam COCS yang akan di Bioremediasi?

Interpreter             :    In that SOP were there any indication of TPH range of SOP that would have to be Bioremediated?

RR                        :    No. There was no limit on TPH. There were requires to mix together homogenitation the concentration.

Interpreter             :    Tidak. Tidak terdapat suatu ambang batas tertinggi mengenai TPH. Memang ada suatu kewajiban ataupun persyaratan bahwa harus dilakukan pencampuran untuk homogenisasi.

Public Prosecutor  :    Maksud pertanyaan saya adalah apakah di dalam SOP tersebut mencantumkan range TPH yang akan di Bioremediasi? Berapa persen sampai berapa persen yang harus dilakukan Bioremediasi dalam SOP tersebut? Itu pertanyaan saya.

Interpreter             :    The question is whether there was a range indicated in the SOP. The range of TPH are the COCS that going to Bioremediated. So was there a range from certain percentage to certain percentage?

RR                        :    I don’t believe so.

Interpreter             :    Saya kira tidak.


The interpreter made fatal false-fluency error by stating ‘TPH range of SOP’ when the public prosecutor asked about ‘range THP dalam COCS’ (TPH range in COCS). The consequence of this error was the witness could not get the message meaning correctly and provided unexpected answer. The public prosecutor needed to repeat his question that was followed by interpreter’s revision on her interpretation, so the witness could understand the meaning and answered it.

The last unique finding in this research is that the interpreter also revising the message that is not well-structured. A bad structured sentence will produce difficulties for the witness, who is not Indonesian and can not speak Indonesian, to get the meaning of the answer. This revision only occurs once in this utterance:

Public Prosecutor  :    Untuk di SLN ada enggak? Saat Saksi ini masih ada di Indonesia.

Interpreter             :    At SLN, were there any SBF when you were still in Indonesia?

By revising the structure of the sentence, the witness might easily catch the meaning of the interlocutor. This revision actually indicates the editorialisation, but it is not considered as error because it helps the process of information exchange and may result in the improvement in interpretation accuracy.


In their study, Anazawa, Ishikawa and Kiuchi found that the five types of interpretation errors occured in simulation medical scenario. Omission type errors became the most frequent errors with false-fluency as the second most frequent. After manipulating the field of the study and the design of the study, this study result supports Anazawa, Ishikawa and Kiuchi’s research that all types of interpretation errors also occur in real situation legal interpretation. The difference of error frequency is possibly cause by the different field of the study. Medical and legal interpretation provide different characteristics, situation and context, so the different frequency is tolerated.

The manipulation in study design results in a deeper analysis on communication among interlocutors and interpreter. Many uncovered findings in Anazawa, Ishikawa and Kiuchi’s research are revealed in this real situation research. They are the interpreter’s tendency to provide information concerning actual situation and context transition, the consequences of interpretation errors toward the communication, and interpreter’s revising tendency upon bad structured sentence. These findings prove that eventhough simulation scenario research may be appropriate for collecting data concerning non-daily case like medical or legal interpretation, however data collected from real situation interpretation provides wider coverage and deeper analysis.

By having similar result to Anazawa, Ishikawa and Kiuchi’s findings, this study supports their suggestion that interpretation training programmes should be developed as an effort to minimize interpretation errors not only in medical or legal field, but also other fields that needs interpreter’s involvement such as tourism, finance, politics, and else.


Combining this study and Anzawa et al.’s study

This study shows that as a pilot project, Anazawa, Ishikawa and Kiuchy study has been a good beginning for future works in the interpretation study. Some issues about generalization of the study and narrow coverage of the study appear in that simulation study. However, as suggested by the writers in conclusion and future work chapter, these issues are answered in this real situation legal interpretation.

This study reveals that Anazawa, Ishikawa and Kiuchi’s five types errors are generalisable for other field of study. Furthermore, the data taken from real situation interpretation gives more chance to analyze communication during interpretation deeply, as expected by Anazawa, Ishikawa and Kiuchi.

The difference on errors frequency does not negate the findings of Anazawa, Ishikawa and Kiuchi because this research is designed to examine the employability of five type errors in the analysis of other fields of interpretation, not to test the frequency of errors.

Interpretation training programs, as suggested by Anazawa, Ishikawa and Kiuchi, are really needed to be developed because the five types of interpretation errors possibly happen in all fields of interpretation, as they occur in medical and legal interpretation. Minimizing the potency of these errors through interpretation training programs hopefully may increase the standard of interpretation for guaranteeing more faithful communication between interlocutors. And this study, as well as Anaza et al.’s study, may be regarded as important research in interpretation to provide suggestion for curriculum of interpreting education (see Pochhacker, 2010).

Many follow up researches are still needed to examine the employability of five types interpretation errors in other field of interpretation. It also recommends the application of simulation scenario research to solve problems in data collection because it may accurately predict the study result, as well as the real situation research, but in narrow coverage.



Anazawa, R., Ishikawa, H., & Kiuchi, T. (2012). The accuracy of medical interpretations: A pilot study of errors in Japanese-English interpreters during a simulated medical scenario. The International Journal for Translation and Interpreting Research Vol.4, No.1. Retrieved March 12, 2014, from /transint/article/view/159

Bancroft, M. A., Bendana, L. Bruggeman, J., Feuerle, L. (2013). Interpreting in the gray zone: Where community and legal interpreting intersect. The International Journal for Translation and Interpreting Research Vol.5, No.1. Rerieved April 1, 2014, from

Fischman, Y. (2008). Secondary trauma in the legal profession, a clinical perspective. Torture Volume 18. Retrieved March 25, 2014, from /doc/tort2008.2.6.pdf

Gercek, E. (2008). Cultural mediator or scrupuloustranslator?revisiting role, context and culture in consecutive conference interpreting. Retrieved April 2, 2014, from

Keselman, O., Cederborg, A. C., Linell, P. (2010). “That is not necessary for you to know!” Negotiation of participation status of unaccompanied children in interpreter-mediated asylum hearings. Interpreting 12:1. Retrieved April 1, 2014, from

Kleijnen, J. P. C. (1993). Verification and validation of simulation models. European Journal of Operational Research 82. Retrieved March 25, 2014, from ~gmadey/sim06/Classnotes/Validation/kleijnen5.pdf

Napier, J. (2007). Cooperation in interpreter-mediated monologic talk. Abstract. Retrieved April 1, 2014, from

Pochhacker, F. (2010). The role of researcher in interpreter education. The International Journal for Translation and Interpreting Research Vol.2, No.1. Retrieved April 2, 2014, from

Ra, S. & Napier, J. (2013). Community interpreting: Asian language interpreters’ perspective. The International Journal for Translation and Interpreting Research Vol.5, No.2. Retrieved April 1, 2014, from /view /199

Wieringen, J., Harmsen, J., & Bruijnzeels, M.A. (2002). Intercultural communication in general practice. Abstract. Retrieved April 2, 2014, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.


Lusia Eni Puspandari

Surabaya Shipbuilding Institute of Polytechnic


Abstract This paper is directed to find out an alternative way for students of Elementary School in understanding motion prepositions. The result of this study is in form of courseware which is directed to overcome learners’ difficulties in understanding and using motion prepositions. This study is used as an adjunct to English learning processes and this courseware can be accessed every time in indefinite pace as self-learning media based on the learners’ own ability.

In developing attractive learning media, the concept of independent learning and instructional animation are the basis of the study. It is supported by some components namely: attention-gaining material, pretest/posttest, instructional objectives, tutorial, content, exercises, and feedback.

The result of the try out shows that most of the students become more understand the uses and the differences of the motion prepositions in sentences.


Key words: Motion Prepositions, E-Learning Animated Media, Attention-gaining material, Instructional Objectives, Courseware



In some developing countries, English is considered as second language or as foreign language. It is the principal language chosen for international business and for communication between countries all over the world. English is also used in all sides of human activities in that country, from science, education, entertainment, politics and others. All sides of human life are related to English as the International Language.

Indonesia, as one of developing country, considered English as a language that should be known by all people in the early ages. Previously, English was originally first taught in high schools, and it has been taught in primary or even pre-primary schools in the last decade. In addition, parents have introduced English to their children in their early ages by given them simple instruction or simple vocabulary. Some of them also send their children to language institutions to learn English at an age earlier then ever before. It is supported by Indonesia’s Minister of Education in his statement that English is intended to provide students an opportunity to gain science and at the same time develop their knowledge of English in anticipation of the environmental condition which has been influenced by the development of science, technology, arts, and cultures such that the knowledge of English is a demand.

The fact that English has been taught to the earlier ages created the English teachers to be more creative. A great deal of effort has been trying to make English teaching and learning interesting, especially for children. So many books are written in attractive way in order to attract learners’ motivation and attention to learn English. Firstly, the existence of children English books has accommodated the learners’ need of English but together with the advance of technology, they can not accomplish the learners’ needs. The role of teachers in creating good environment to learn English, and the teachers’ creativity become the most important thing for children in learning English.

Beside the creativity and the attractive books used in English learning, the used of technology is also has an important role in achieving successful English learning. Computer as a means of Information Technology development has proven that it holds a significant role in teaching learning process, especially in language learning.. Many language institutions and schools use computers as a supporting means in language teaching and in learning process. It is supported by the fact that computer can be used as a medium of real communication in the target language, including composing and exchanging messages with other students in the classroom or around the world (Oxford, 1990, p.79). The abundant research, studies, and class experiments in the use of information technology in language learning reported that technology brought more advantages and development than disadvantages.

The technology that has been used mostly by educators and trainers is internet which is created on the concept of web. Using internet as learning resources has some advantages such as: (1) it can be accessed by many people in the same time in unlimited time; (2) it can be used as distance learning which is used individually based on their own level or capability, and (3) it can be responded via e-mail to the trainers or educators. Beside the advantages, there are some disadvantages of using internet as learning resources, such as it must be connected to the internet which means that it can not be used on stand-alone computer.

Considering that using internet can not be used for stand-alone computer, there are many educators and trainers who have created and designed learning materials in the form of software which can be accessed by all computers without connecting to internet to be used as an alternative media. This kind of software is preferred by learners and is even more popular among students because they are associated with fun and games or because they are considered to be fashionable. The learners’ motivation therefore increases, especially whenever a variety of activities are offered, which make them feel more independent.

The existing learning software is to improve the conventional methods in language learning which primarily depend on the presence of teachers in the classroom to convey the material. The teaching learning process which relies on books often causes students’ lack of interest as well, especially when there is no instructional objectives provided in the book and it easily generates students’ boredom in learning language. Besides, the use of books for teaching learning have some weaknesses such as there are no varieties tests provided to measure the students’ achievement in learning, and the feedback given by the book is very limited or not given at all. The most apprehensive thing in conveying conventional teaching learning method is that it must be held in a classroom setting.

The electronic learning material that is effectively designed will facilitate the achievement of desired learning outcomes (Pramono, 1996:124). In addition, learning using computer will equip learners with a skill to choose the desired topic, based on their level of ability and will improve the learners’ motivation in learning. It is emphasized by Kweldju (1995:37) who argued that computer has self-access procedure which is completed with eye-catching color and animation to increase the users’ attractiveness.

Realizing that the numbers of electronic learning software are so many, the teachers and educators must be more selective in choosing the most suitable e-learning materials because not all the software are carefully designed and are provided with adequate feedback. Feedback in the software becomes the most important thing because without feedback, a learner is left to perform with no sense of direction or measure of correctness. (Cates, 1988:115).

In order to create ideal learning software, some aspects should be considered, such as: (1) the software must be designed to support the available curriculum, (2) the software must contain the learning objectives, (3) the software must use multimedia animation, (4) the product software must be analyzed and must be tested by the experts of subject material, learning technology and computer graphic.

Those statements inspired the writer as an English teacher to develop an innovative and attractive electronic learning media as a means to convey a material in computer based learning with the aim to provide an interactive instruction in a specific area which is delivered on a CD-ROM by using Macromedia Flash. It is expected that by using the interactive media, the learners’ imagination and understanding will be facilitated in learning a certain material.

She believes that using computers in education through Computer Assisted Learning (CAL) is more effective than using Internet based technologies. CAL is run either straight from a CD or flash disk or over local network so the constraint of the internet –slow download times for multimedia materials may not apply. It means that it has the potential to offer more advanced, interactive, multimedia learning experiences than it is currently reasonable to expect from the Web.

Based on the reality that learning is a systematic process with some components which influence each other in achieving learner’s successful learning, the writer recognized that in a learning process there must be an interaction between learner and the learning resources to achieve the ideal learning objectives. The writer believed that using interactive electronic media in the form of computer in learning language will create more advantages in learning process as stated by Harmanto (2002) that Learning using computers can be accessed by anyone in anytime and it can be applied individually based on their own ability (Harmanto, 2002).

As an English teacher which has been teaching English both for adult and for young learners for ages, she has so many experiences in dealing with students. Using an interactive and attractive ways in teaching English can reduce learner’s bored in learning for the first time, but if it is not combined with the use of technology it will be disastrous, especially in teaching motion prepositions which need real movement of object.

It is supported by Tomasello who said that learning to use prepositions is fundamentally important in young learners’ grammatical development (Tomasello, 1987). It is also supported by the reality that the students’ mistakes in understanding preposition in YPPI I Elementary school are often happened, especially in motion preposition even though it has been aided by pictures.

The above reasons generate the writer to be more creative in finding out interactive material to assist learners in understanding preposition, especially motion preposition. It is caused by her experience when she taught prepositions to young learners using a picture on white board, and it doesn’t help them to be comprehensible with the meaning of those prepositions.

Knowing about the difficulties, the writer anxious to create an attractive learning media using computer to learn English prepositions. . It is also supported by Pramono’s research (2004,p.3) which is said that the visual representations are intrinsically effective in supporting language learning.. Those reasons accentuated the writer to create and develop the interactive media in a form of CD-ROM.

The decision in developing materials in the form of CD-ROM has been made based upon some considerations as follows:

a. The development must have many advantages for learners such as it must help them to learn the subject matter (motion prepositions) easier, so that they will not get confused in understanding the meaning of and using motion prepositions in sentences. Ultimately, it must support learners to be more independent learners.

b. The development of materials for motion preposition needs to be done in order to facilitate English learners who find difficulties in grasping the meaning and function of motion prepositions.

c. The development media of using computer in understanding motion prepositions are extremely suitable by using animated visualization as stated by Galton that the most appropriate illustrative scenarios to present to subjects in an experimental investigation of motion preposition would be animated sequences. (Galton, 2002)

The above considerations underline the reasons of using animation in learning motion preposition, which is clarified as follows:

  1. Animation has “translation” characteristics that involves “the movement of whole entities from one location to another and can be perceived with respect to the border of the animation or other material within the animated display”. (Lowe, 2002, p.3)
  2. Understanding concepts using animation was significantly improved if verbal explanation ran concurrently with the animation.
  3. Animations have the potential to be especially beneficial for instruction presenting dynamic contents because animated pictures can show information about two important visual attributes: motion and trajectory (Pramono, 2005,p.22)
  4. Animated illustrations seem to be superior for the visualization of spatial aspect and dynamic process in preposition learning because a preposition usually indicates the spatial and temporal relationships of its object to the rest of the sentence.


Literature Review

There are some theories which support the study of developing e-learning media to facilitate learners in learning motion preposition, such as: Computer-Based Learning, Designing E-Learning Software, Characteristic of E-Learning Software, Using Animation in Learning Motion Preposition.

Computer- Based Learning

According to Hick and Hyde a teaching process directly involving a computer in the presentation of instructional materials in an attractive mode to provide and control the individualized learning environment for each individual student (Joiner, 1982:29)

It is stated that in learning using computer students interact with computer directly. The interaction between students and computers are in individual setting, based on their own language capacity and ability, so that the computer usage in language learning can be arranged by the students itself.

Based on the above reasons, the interactive method of teaching learning process in class cannot be done maximally. As the consequence, computer is designed to overcome those problems by creating some interactive programs inorder to attract students’ attention to increase their motivation in learning. It is hoped that using computer as an alternative teaching and learning media will increase students’ motivation because it is designed attractively by involving students’ or learners in the program so that there is an extensive interaction between computer and students.

The Advantages of Computer Based Learning/Teaching

The advantages of the use of computers in lecture theatres are caused by a few factors. The most important one is that simple large problems can be solved in a straightforward way in front of students’ eyes.(Miller, 98). Some advantages of using computer in learning are:

  1. Computers are able to give information about mistakes and the total time of learning spent by learners to do the exercises.
  2. Learning by using computer train students to be skilful tochoose the material they want to learn.
  3. Learning by using computer will help students who find difficulties in class meeting to review the material again individually.
  4. By using computer, the weak students who cannot follow the material and shy to ask the teacher will have a chance to repeat the material by themselves as many as they want.
  5. Computer Based Learning supports the individual learning which is suggested in modern education (Tsai and Pohl, 1981).
  6. Computer-based learning enable students to be accustomed with computer which is become important thing in this era and it will support many contributions for training and carrier in the future (Dhaif, 1989:13)
  7. The research shows that computer is an effective learning media (Kearsey, 1976 as quoted by Thompson, 1980:40).


The Form of Computer-Based Learning

According to Kemp and Dayton (1985:246) there are five forms of learning using computer: tutorials, drill and practice, problem solving, simulations, and games. Tutorial learning is a process of conveying new information to students in forms of explanation, exercises, and branching. Drill and practice is given to measure the students’ ability to understand certain knowledge. Problem solving is a process to give a solution about certain problem happened in teaching learning process. Games is one teaching forms which is given in order to increase students motivation and competition to learn something in a fun way.

Interaction between computer and learner is an individual interaction (Pramono, 1996). A teaching process is directly involving a computer in the presentation of instructional materials in an interactive mode to provide and control the individualized learning environment for each individual student.


Characteristics of Computer-Based Software Product

In order to improve the learning quality, Computer-Based Software must be designed through good learning principle. Besides, the designed of computer-based learning software must enclose the characteristics programmed instruction. The main characteristics of programmed instruction according to Burke (1982:23) are: (1) small steps, (2) active responding, and (3) immediate feedback.


Benefits of Animation in Learning Motion Preposition

The number of English prepositions often causes difficulties for learners to distinguish the kinds and the meaning of preposition, especially if the preposition is related to motion preposition, because there is only few lines to distinguish them.

Animation is one of media which is able to convey a vast amount of information in a very short period of time, and can be a powerful method of reinforcing concepts and topics first introduced to students through text, discussion, or other media. Though still in its fledgling stage, animation holds the promise of allowing visual learners and those with special needs new and powerful ways to comprehend complex phenomena.

The design of animations involves manipulation of various dynamic characteristics. Animation has “translation” characteristics that involves “the movement of whole entities from one location to another and within the animated display (Pramono: 2004: 21).


Types and Usage of Prepositions

Prepositions denote spatial relations, which are principally used to predicate constraints on such attributes as location, orientation, and disposition. (Hersekovits, 1997: 160). Preposition expressing spatial relations are of two kinds: prepositions of location, which is called prepositions of place (static) and prepositions of direction, sometimes called motion prepositions (Purdue University, 2002).

According to Linstromberg a preposition expresses a relationship between a subject and a landmark. Landmarks and Subjects are often (but not always) nouns, noun phrases, or pronouns.(Linstromberg: 1997: 15).

Preposition of direction are dynamic and have a directional meaning, such as to, from, up, down, through, towards, and appear with verbs of motion (movement) such as roll, walk, swim, come, go, etc.        Every motion preposition fits in a syntactic frame:

NP [activity verb] Preposition NP

as with      The ball      rolled across    the street

                   Figure                                     Ground

                  Moving Object                      Reference Object

Here the Figure is the moving object; the Ground is still the referent of the object of the preposition; the preposition constrains the trajectory; or path of the Figure.(Herskovits, 1997:162)


Expected Product specification

The CD-ROM that will be produced in this study is the actualization of Computer Assisted Learning product. It has some specifications as follows:

–            It can be used to convey a new material but it is as an alternative media because the major media is still based on books.

–            It can be used as an individualised learning media because:

–            It can be accessed in unlimited time and space without depending on the Internet facility.

–            It is the realisation of self-learning material which has instructional objectives in it.

–            There are a summary and exercises which are completed with the feedback.

–            It gives a chance to learners to study the material freely based on their own capacity.

–            The material has specific components which can assist learners to learn easily, as follows


Benefits of Software Development

Developing this e-learning media is directed to overcome learners’ confusion and learners’ mistake in understanding motion preposition. This study belongs to developing domain, especially in developing learning resources in order to enrich the learning media in computer based technology.

This study is also intended to improve English learning process which relies on the book with the presence of a teacher in the classroom to the computer based technology which can be accessed every time in indefinite space based on their own capability as self-learning media.


Assumption and Development Limitation

Developing e-learning media to help students in understanding motion preposition is based on the related assumption, as follows:

–     An attractive learning resources will arouse students’ learning motivation

–     Developing animated media is required to develop the education quality

–     This development study is intended to design a self-learning media through CD-ROM

–     A learning process using CD-ROM is properly used for computer literacy students



Computer-Based Learning Software Development

Developing media in teaching learning technology is the implementation of a design which has been made. It cannot be separated from designing, managing, and evaluating as said by Seels & Richey (1994:9) that instructional teaching is a theory and practice of design, development, utilization, management and evaluation processes and resources for learning.

In order to create interactive and innovative learning software, there must be designing and developing procedures that must be passed obviously. The procedures that must be overtaken to assist the writer in developing qualified e-learning material software are known as ADDIE or Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation and Evaluation (Sambel, Developing and Evaluating E-learning, 2005).



The first step is analyzing the learners’ characteristic which are going to use the e-learning material. The learners’ characteristics that should be identified are the level of learners, whether the program is used in class or not, and whether the program is used as individual learning or not. Then, it is continued by designing and organizing the learning software.



Determine the design of the software

There are three kinds of design to be used according to Burke (1982), functional design, physical design, and logical design. Functional design is related to the function of the software as media to introduce new material and to convey it in order to strengthen learning motivation. Physical design is related to the type of the design, which is divided into linear, branch and repetition. Logical design covers the mode of the design, which is divided into deductive (rules and followed by examples) and inductive mode (examples and followed by rules).

As a developer, the writer must choose one of those design mode in order to be applied in the software development.

Developing Flowchart

Flowchart is used to communicate the ideas of the developer and the graphic designer. It is used to describe the main parts of the software and to arrange the steps of designing the courseware. See the flowchart in Appendix 1.

Writing Storyboard

Storyboard is a media which is used by developer and graphic designer to communicate about the form of material and the activity that will be appeared in the software.


Learning Media Development

Developing learning media in the form of software is the realisation of learning technology application especially for developing learning resources. It is expected to reduce the obstacles of limitation in finding learning resources. See Appendix 2.


Try-out and Evaluation

The next step which must be done is doing the trial test or user acceptance test which will evaluate the e-learning media. The material must be tested in order to verify the validity of the material. The processes of verifying the validity are through trial test which is done by group of students to represent some students to use the software development. The result of the trial test will be evaluated. The steps of evaluating learning software can be seen in Appendix 3.

After the media is created, the next step is try-out and evaluation. The tryout and evaluation is needed in order to measure whether the product can achieve the set specification, i.e.

–  It can be used to convey a new material but it is as an alternative media because the major media is still based on books.

–  It can be used as an individualized learning media because:

–  It can be accessed in unlimited time and space without depending on the Internet facility.

–  It is the realization of self-learning material which has instructional objectives in it.

–  There are a summary and exercises which are completed with the feedback.

–  It gives a chance to learners to study the material freely based on their own capacity.

–  The material has specific components which can assist learners to learn easily, as follows.

The result of try out shows the following:

(1) Attention Gaining Material could gather an average score of 100 %. The result showed that the component of attention-gaining material could attract the students’ attention at the start and could motivate them to learn.

(2) The Instructional Objectives of this courseware could gather an average score of 88.9 %; that means the students under­stood the objectives of learning using this developed courseware.

(3)  The clarity of doing the pretest and the understanding of the students on pre-test items and the appropriateness of animation with the items got an average score of 70.4 %. It can be concluded that the pre test components were good.

(4) The clarity of the tutorial and the attractive­ness of the explanation could get an average score of 100%.  It can be concluded that the tutorial component of this product was very good.

(5) The content with respect to the com­prehensibility of the material, the appro­priateness of the animation with the story, and the attractiveness of the animated pictures got an average score of  88.9 %, therefore, it can be considered that the content of this developed product was good.

(6) The exercises of this product got an average score of 74.1 % with respect to the   attractiveness of the items, the quality of the animations used, and the appropriateness of the items.

(7) The average score of the feedback is  88.9% with respect to the effectiveness and appropriateness of the feedback.

(8) The practicality to operate this courseware, the benefits of using this courseware, and the possibility to use this courseware without the help of teachers got an average score of 88.9%. It can be concluded that this courseware development can be used as an individual learning to enrich the learners’ competence on motion prepositions.

Based on the data above, it can be concluded that this courseware develop­ment obtains good response from learners and has good quality as an alternative learning resource. The main interface can be seen in Appendix 4.


Armstrong, K.M. & Yetter-Vassot, C. (1994). Transforming teaching through technology. Foreign Language Annals, 27(4), 475-486.

Brown, Andrew R.(2005) Elements of Effective e-Learning Design

Burke, R.L. 1992, Computer Assisted Instruction. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, Inc

Cates, J.S. 1988. Delay Feedback and Cognitive Task Level in Practice Exercises. A paper Presented at the 1988 Annual Convention of the Association for Educational Communication and Technologies, New Orleans. L.A., USA

Dick, W and Carey, L. 1985. The systematic Design of Instruction (2nd edition) London: Scott, Foresman and company

Galton, Antony. 2002.

Hersekovits, A. 1997. Language, spatial cognition, and vision. In O. Stock (Ed), Spatial and Temporal Reasoning, 155-202

International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, Retrieved from

Kemp, J.E. and Dayton, D.K. 1985. Planning and Producing Instructional Media. Cambridge: Harper & Row, Publisher,

Kurtus, Ron. 2004. What is eLearning?

Kweldju, S. 1985. SMA Teachers’ Performance in Using English as Medium of S-1 Graduates of IKIP Malang in Kodya Malang. Thesis PPS IKIP MALANG: Unpublished

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Littlewood,W.1997. Autonomy and independence in language learning. Harlow: Addison Wesley Longman 79-91.

Lowe, R.K. 1999. Extracting Information from an Animation during Complex Visual Learning. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 14, 225 – 244

Miller, Karol. 1998. Computer-based teaching but pen-and-pencil examination? Retrievedfrom

Pramono, Harto. 2004. Picture-Text Complementarily in English Language Learning by Primary School Students in Indonesia, Thesis Curtin University of Technology.

Purdue University, 2002. Preposition of Direction: To, On(to), In (to).

Rieber, L.P. 1996. Animation as feedback in a computer-based simulation: The Representation matters. Educational Technology Research and Development, 5-22

Salaberry, R. (1999). ‘CALL in the year 2000: still developing the research agenda’. Language Learning and Technology 3/1: 104-107.

Sambel, Sandra. 2005. Developing and Evaluating E-learning, 2005.

Seels, B.B. and Richey, R.C. 1994. Instructional Technology: The definition and Domains of the field. Washington, DC: Association for educational Communication and Technology

Stock, Oliviero, 1997, Spatial and Temporal Reasoning, Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers

Swan, Michael. 2001. The Good Grammar Book, OxfordUniversity Press

Tomasello, M. 1987, (PR.9) Learning to use prepositions: a case study. Journal of Child Language, 14, 79-96


 Appendix 1

Flow chart used in the development stage



 Steps of Media Development




Appendix 3

Product Evaluation Steps



Appendix 4

The Main Interfaces


Pre-Test screenshot


Reading menu screenshot




 Speaking Menu Screenshot

Luci 4



Exercise Menu Screenshot