Archive for March, 2012

IMPROVING READING AND SPEAKING SKILLS THROUGH PROJECT-BASED LEARNING FOR EFL STUDENTS IN THE FORM OF STUDENT-MADE MAGAZINE

 Lia Agustina

State Polytechnic ofMalang

  

ABSTRACT

Students of the Accountancy Department of the State Polytechnic of Malang had limited knowledge of English, and it was determined much by inadequate strategy applied. Students who are studying at the second year at this department were exposed to English texts provided by the teachers, therefore, they were not prepared to read authentic texts, longer passages or let alone reading them independently. Furthermore, students also found hindrances in expressing themselves orally. They were frequently reluctant to express their ideas, even when they were asked by the teacher. These students also admitted that their main problem was their limited vocabulary skill. In this department, reading, speaking, and structure were taught separately, not integrated while vocabulary had never been given priority, as it was taught during the teaching of other skills. This article is a report of a research to see how the students-made newsmagazine through project-based learning can be implemented effectively to develop their English reading and speaking skills.

This action research was implemented for one semester of 14 meetings. The students were assigned to have extensive reading through which they would experience authentic reading exposure and collect new words. Then, the new words should be learned and memorized by putting them in sentential contexts on their summaries and synthesis of the articles the students had chosen, read and produced the oral report of retelling activities. The students were assigned to summarize 3 authentic articles based on their interest and level of difficulty. This strategy was proved effective in improving students’ English reading and speaking skills. For further researchers, however, it is suggested that they conduct similar studies on integrated courses that emphasize on improving students English’ proficiency. They are also suggested to implement the project for two semesters.

Key-words:   extensive reading course, reading skill, speaking skill, individualized vocabulary learning, project-based learning, students-made magazine.

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Perhaps the most important ability that non-English-speaking students need is reading.Reading is a crucial tool that aids the learning process. However, in some schools adequate strategies for teaching reading sometimes are not applied. Teachers who prefer traditional approach often stand in front of the class, enjoying their lectures but getting no feedback from the learners, as there is no interaction between the text and the learners or among the learners themselves. The teaching of reading may be viewed as a kind of dramatic monologue. This way, the teacher is the only speaker and the students are being passive recipients rather than active, who have got practically nothing to do other than listen to what the teacher says, whether they understand or not. The teaching strategy happens in grammar/translation classrooms. In these classrooms learners typically spent years of learning English and yet many of them were still unable to use the language effectively. They often knew a good deal about the language but were unable to use this knowledge to communicate appropriately and effectively outside the classroom. Students had a basic foundation of language knowledge but they did not know how to put that knowledge to active use.

A teacher, however, can create an ideal classroom situation by introducing a strategy in which the emphasis is on the student. As Collie and Slater (1987: 8 ) suggest, “Put fresh momentum into teaching of literature, by stimulating students’ desire to read and encourage their responses.” The use of the strategy would lead to greater sensitivity to the language learning process on the part of students and would  make students to be more independent, to be critical thinkers, and to be lifelong learners (i.e., students learn to take responsibility for their own learning that will be the basis for working cooperatively and effectively with others).

The use of adequate strategy also supports of the materials given by the teacher. As stated by Richards and Renandya (2002:122) “…. strategies can facilitate the internalization, storage, retrieval or use of the new language.” Strategies are tools for the self-directed involvement necessary for developing communication ability. Furthermore, they stated that language programs and the teachers who work in programs should therefore set out to provide learners with efficient learning strategies, to assist learners in identifying their own preferred ways of learning, to develop skills needed to negotiate the curriculum, to encourage learners to set their own objectives, to encourage learners to adopt realistic goals and time frames, and to develop learners’ skills in self-evaluation.

To accomplish the importance of applying adequate strategy, Nunan (1999) stated that learning strategies are the mental and communicative procedures learners use in order to learn and to use language. Richards and Rodgers (1986) cited in Nunan (1999) stated that teachers should teach students the language, not about the language. So adequate strategies are needed as the use of the strategies will arise students’ motivation in learning language. Motivation is another important aspect to be considered to achieve the goal of the course and to improve the students’ knowledge. As said by Dulay (1982), motivation in second language acquisition may be thought of as the incentive, the need, or the desire that the learner feels to learn the second language.Gardner, et al. (1972) cited inUr(1996) stated that various studies have found that motivation is very strongly related to achievement in language learning.

A lot of strategies could be implemented in the classroom.  Project-based learning is one of the models which are different from traditional teaching since the focus is put on the learners. Learners have the opportunity to work more autonomously and build their knowledge as they personally construct meaningful facts that are representations of their learning. Project-based learning provides learners the opportunity in depth investigations of worthy knowledge.

One of the more prominent benefits of the research is how projects are used to encourage active inquiry and empower students to take part in their own learning. A project allows students and teachers alike to focus and to study a central idea in depth. Content is more meaningful to students because it is real world learning and students can look at their work in a way that is interesting to them. Students can collaborate together to explore ideas. The process of working on a project will help students display independence and construct their own knowledge through questions that they have or developed with the class.

The students of the Accountancy Department- State Polytechnic of Malang are not motivated in learning English. Some students feel that they have limited knowledge and lack confidence in practicing English. They feel they cannot appropriately comprehend the materials that are delivered by their teachers.

A project allows students and teachers alike to focus and to study a central idea in depth. Content is more meaningful to students because it is real world learning and students can look at their work in a way that is interesting to them. Students can collaborate together to explore ideas. The process of working on a project will help students display independence and construct their own knowledge through questions that they have or developed with the class.

The students of the Accountancy Department- State Polytechnic of Malang are not motivated in learning English. Some students feel that they have limited knowledge and lack confidence in practicing English. They feel they cannot appropriately comprehend the materials that are delivered by their teachers.

A project allows students and teachers alike to focus and to study a central idea in depth. Content is more meaningful to students because it is real world learning and students can look at their work in a way that is interesting to them. Students can collaborate together to explore ideas. The process of working on a project will help students display independence and construct their own knowledge through questions that they have or developed with the class.

The students of the Accountancy Department- State Polytechnic of Malang are not motivated in learning English. Some students feel that they have limited knowledge and lack confidence in practicing English. They feel they cannot appropriately comprehend the materials that are delivered by their teachers. There are a lot of causes of the case above but one of the possible causes is the strategy applied is not adequate enough, since some of the teachers still maintain the traditional approach. Ironically, Polytechnics is designed to emphasize the practice rather than the theory. To face the global era, the paradigm that has been applied for years needs to be changed. Project-based learning as a modern approach should be a solution to solve the Polytechnic’s problem to exist and compete with other universities. The characteristics of the project-based learning are needed by Polytechnic students, because the projects allow students to empower their own learning. The project gives an opportunity to develop skills such as to work in a team, to solve problems, to do research, to manage times, to synthesize, to use technology tools, to be independent workers, to be critical thinkers and to be lifelong-learners; those skills  are quite appropriate with the Polytechnic-students working field later on. These difficulties were due to some factors, one of which was the inadequate teaching strategy applied in the classroom

A preliminary study was carried out to identify the students’ problems. It was done by doing an observation and informal interview during the learning process of the reading class. The second preliminary study was done by giving a pre-test to the students to see the students’ problem. From the data that have been taken it was found out that the students’ reading comprehension and speaking skills were still poor. It was proved by the result of the students’ pre-test which shows that all the subjects got below the score of 6 with the points 60 (for 23 students) and 80 (for 2 students). While the criteria of success of the reading and speaking’ score should be 7 with the total points 125. Seeing the result of the fact above the students’ ability has to be improved by employing an adequate strategy, and there a lot of strategies that could be implemented. Project-based learning is one of the models which are different from traditional since the focus is put on the learners.

 

PROJECT-BASED LEARNING

According to Bruner (1973) the basic ideas of project-based learning are based on various socio-constructivist schools of thought and other modern instructional theories. Socio-constructivism means an understanding of learning that stresses the importance of constructing knowledge based on previous knowledge and interaction with the social environment. Thomas, Mergendoller, and Michaelson (1999) said that socio-constructivism as a set of pedagogies uses strategies like project-based learning.

The Edu Tech Wiki online article (Project-based learning, 2007, 1-5) defines project-based learning as a model for classroom activity that shifts away from the classroom practices of teacher-centered lessons and emphasizes learning activities that are student-centered, and integrated with real world issues and practice. The projects usually require several steps and some duration-more than a couple of days and up to a semester. The projects also require cooperative group learning. The projects may focus on development of a product or performance and require students to conduct research, to solve problems, and to synthesize information. Although projects as a methodology are not a new concept, the model is an effective application to support many tasks facing teachers today by applying authentic assessment, infusing higher-order thinking skills, guiding life choices, and providing experiences that tap individual student interest.

Similar to the above definition, Collins, Brown and Newman (1989) define project-based learning as a project which allows learners to identify and formulate their own problems. The goals they set as well as the unexpected discoveries they will make during interaction with the environment serve as guides. To accomplish the definition of project-based learning, Blumenfield (1994:1) describes project-based learning as “activities…conducted…as a way for students to learn subject matter concepts in depth as well as promote other life skill objectives”. Chard (1995:2) explains that “the model for project-based learning is to shift away from the classroom practices of short, isolated, teacher-centered lessons and instead emphasizes learning activities that are long-term, interdisciplinary, student-centered, and hands-on”.

Project-based learning should be based on the curriculum, as it is said by    Thomas et al. (1999). Project-based learning is a teaching and learning model; it is a curriculum development and instructional approach that emphasizes student-centered instruction by assigning projects.

To get a clearer picture of the above definition, project-based learning is: engaging learning experiences that involve students in complex, real-world projects through which they develop and apply skills and knowledge. The learning require students to draw from many information sources and disciplines in order to solve problems. The outcomes can be identified up-front, but in which the outcomes of the student’s learning process are neither predetermined nor fully predictable. The outcomes are also experiences through which students would learn to manage and to allocate resources such as time and materials.

In this approach, students create knowledge and understanding through learning activities that built intellectual inquiry and a high degree of engagement with meaningful tasks. Within the context of this approach, projects take the role traditionally afforded to assessments such as tests and quizzes.

 

The importance To Incorporate Project-Based Learning Into Classroom Instruction

Project-based learning is a teaching strategy that emphasizes on the students. This model could be implemented on the learning strategy by assigning projects. It gives opportunities to students to work more independently and realistically to generate products. The activities enable students to synthesize knowledge and to individually solve problems in a curricular context (Project-based learning, 2007, 1-4). The project creates problems that function as a curriculum organizer and a instructional strategy that presents a problem that is relevant and related to the context where students are the stakeholders. Students develop strategies to enable themselves and to direct their own learning. When students experience a problem in context, they are more likely to make connection and thus see the value in what they are learning. Newberry and Hughes (2006) rigorously explain that project-based learning will:

  • Help students develop skills for living in a knowledge-based world and society. Solving highly complex problems requires that students to have skills on reading, writing and also foundation skills (teamwork, problem solving, research, time management, information synthesizing, and using technology tools).
  • Add relevance to the learning. By bringing real-life context and technology to the curriculum through project problems, teachers encourage students to become independent workers, critical thinkers, and lifelong learner. Students learn to take responsibility for their own learning. They will form the basis for working cooperatively and effectively with others in their adult life.
  • Challenge students to high rigor. When working toward a solution to a problem, students often find themselves acquiring higher levels of academic skills and knowledge than if they were taught such skills in isolation.
  • Promote lifelong learning. Exposure to activities, projects and problems teaches students to take control of learning, their first step as lifelong learners. Project-based learning promotes metacognition and self-knowledge. Student generate strategies for solving problems by gathering, analyzing, and testing their data, sharing their findings with determining solutions. Thus, students develop the abilities to work with peers, work in teams, and develop group skills.

Table 2.1 below shows a curriculum model that uses the three modalities. Students are engaged in three level thinking: the cognitive, the novice metacognition, and the expert metacognition. The curriculum is developed and designed to engage students in activities, projects, problems to incorporate all aspects that enable students to investigate and to explore the stated lesson. The best way for students to understand their learning is to experience the process in addressing the problem and in designing solution. For example, the direct experience of “walking in students’ shoes” is to solve problems and to design projects that help teachers to reflect on the learning activities and to prepare teachers for their own teaching.

 

EXTENSIVE READING

Palmer (1991 cited in Day & Bamford, 2000:5) defines extensive reading as “rapidly reading book after book”. In this reading activity readers’ attention should be focused on comprehending of the text. Extensive reading is different from intensive reading which means “take a text, study it line by line, referring at every moment to dictionary and grammar rules, translating and retaining every expression that it contains.”

Similar to Palmer’s definition, West  (1993 cited in Day & Bamford, 2000:6) defines “supplementary reading”, or extensive reading as a reading activity that aims at the development to the point of enjoyment of the ability to read the foreign language and that involves the methodology of taking care of individual differences and encouraging the reading habit.

As stated in Longman Dictionary of Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics, 1974, extensive reading is intended to develop good reading habits, to build up knowledge of vocabulary and structure, and to encourage a liking for reading. This definition implies that extensive reading also affects the increased general second language competence.

For the present study, encouraging students to read extensively and maximizing the extensive reading course would hopefully result in an increased general second language competence. To be more specific, this extensive reading course will aim to gain students’ comprehending, summarizing, synthesizing and finally students’ improvement in both reading and speaking skills.

 

The Role of Extensive Reading

Some experts propose strong reasons for defining the effectiveness of extensive reading. Nation (2000:150), for example, points out three reasons why learners can develop best through extensive reading. First, reading is essentially an individual activity, and therefore, learners of different proficiency levels could be learning at their own level without being locked into an inflexible class program. Second, having an extensive reading activity, students are allowed to follow their interests in choosing what to read, and, thus increase their motivation for learning. Third, extensive reading provides the opportunity for learning to occur outside the classroom.

Bell(1998) mentions ten roles of extensive reading, some of which are put in this section due to their relevance to this study. First, it can provide “comprehensible input”. An extensive reading activity will lead to language acquisition provided that certain conditions are met. These conditions include adequate exposure to the language, interesting material, and a relaxed learning environment. Second, extensive reading can enhance learners’ general language competence. Some studies that the source is taken from Online English teaching Forum (2007) have proven that through extensive reading students’ word cognition and reading skill as well as their oral and written skills are improved. Third, extensive reading can increase the students’ exposure to the language. An exposure to the language is seen important since learners can acquire new forms from the input, and this requirement is more essential for foreign language learners who usually lack natural exposure from their environment. Finally, extensive reading can as well motivate learners to read. The reading materials of an extensive reading program that address students’ needs, tastes, and interests will energize and motivate students to read the articles, and thus will advance the reading habit.

Because of the prominent roles of extensive reading, the present study tries to develop students’ reading and speaking skills through project-based learning using newsmagazine which is assigned as extensive reading materials.

2.3  Oral Reports

Oral reports as the follow-up activity of an extensive reading course is considered appropriate in the case that extensive reading is aimed to improve students’ production of spoken language. In this activity students were assigned to have an oral report on the articles they had read. The oral report was done in small groups.

To be a better speaker, a learner should practice speaking as much as possible. A rich input does not function effectively when it is not followed by a lot of speaking practice opportunities. Thus, in the present study, the follow up of the extensive reading course was an oral report that was expected to provide students with opportunities of speaking practice. Furthermore, as stated by Schmidt (1998), maximizing high interest input in any form is potential as a resource for communication in the classroom. When students spend their time for communicating, they need something to communicate about. Students’ own thoughts, feelings, and experiences are common sources whereas reading can expose students to new experiences and points of view that can be shared and discussed. Extensive reading, thus, not only contributes directly to acquisition but also aids skill development by providing content for meaningful interaction in the classroom.

Retelling as one form of the oral reports was employed in the present study. This technique was considered appropriate due to some reasons. First, retelling could solve the problem of “having nothing to talk about”. Students who hesitate to communicate would find retelling helpful since they did not need to make up their own stories; this activity could even enrich their schemata. Second, retelling could improve students’ speaking fluency. A study conducted by Revert and Nation (1991:84) reveals that retelling the same stories three times to different listeners with decreasing time for each retelling could make substantial gains in speed of speaking and reduce the number of hesitations in the retelling. Finally, this technique allowed learners to perform at a level higher than their normal level of fluency.

In the present study, the oral reports as the follow-up activity of the extensive reading were performed for four times. As the students were asked to find three articles, every article should be summarized in the form of written and oral reports. The synthesizing of the three articles was presented in the performance of small seminar. Every group that contains six members presented each of their synthesis of their made magazines. There would be a moderator who helped run the seminar.

 

RESEARCH DESIGN

Below is a short description of the research design.

The Problem and Objective of the Study

In line with the background of the study, the formulated research problem is

“How can the students-made newsmagazines through project-based learning be implemented effectively to improve English Foreign Language students’ reading and speaking skills?”

In accordance with the problem of the study, this study will be directed to develop a model of implementing students-made newsmagazines through project-based learning in improving EFL students’ reading and speaking skills effectively.

 

The Significance of the Study

This study is expected to give contributions as the following:

  1. The model will be used to improve EFL students’ reading and speaking skills and later to enhance further learning of English in general.
  2. Theoretically, the result of the study can enrich teachers’ knowledge of alternatives/variations in the teaching of extensive reading and speaking skills.
  3. Other classroom researchers could consider the implementation of this procedure in the years to come, and experimental studies are recommended to find out whether or not project-based learning could be more successful than conventional learning course.

English reading and speaking are taught separately at Accountancy Department-State Polytechnic of Malang. In the reading subject, the teacher creates questions to see the students’ comprehension and asks students to find some new vocabularies in the dictionary from the texts given. For in depth step, the teacher asks the students to memorize the new vocabularies and the teacher tests the students’ memorization, but sometimes the teacher asks the students to find the synonym/antonym and use the new vocabularies in the sentences.  While for the speaking subject, the students are given topics, such as the topic of likes, dislikes, preferences, and asked to practice the topic given with a partner or in a group of three.

Accountancy Department-State Polytechnic of Malang does not apply thematic or integrated method. The topics among the structure, reading, speaking and writing subjects do not relate to each other. Every subject works independently.

In the new model, the teacher-researcher proposes to ask students to be critical thinkers, to work independently, to work in teams, to share ideas, to appreciate some one’s ideas, to manage times, to do research, as well as to find problems and solutions. The result of the project given is reported in the form of written and oral report. From one project the students learn four skills in at time: reading, writing, listening and speaking as well as apply the skills at the same time.

 

This study is an action research, which focuses on a certain class. As defined by Carr and Kemmis (in Mc.Niff, 1993:2) action research is a form of self reflective inquiry undertaken by educational participants (teacher, student, or principals) in order to improve the rationality and justice of (a) their own educational practices, (b) their understanding of these practices, and (c) the situations in which these practices are carried out. The linking of the terms ‘action and research’ highlights the essential features of the approach: trying out ideas in practice as a means of improvement and as a means of increasing knowledge about the curriculum, teaching and learning.

Figure 3.1 Steps of the action research

Lewin (in Kemmis and Taggart 1992:8) described action research as proceeding in a spiral of steps, each of which is composed of planning, action and the evaluation of the result of the action. Kemmis and Taggart (1992:11) define planning as constructed action and by definition must be prospective to action-it must be forward looking. It must be recognized that all social action is to some degree unpredictable and therefore somewhat risky. The general plan must be flexible enough to adapt to unforeseen effects and previously unrecognized constraints. While action is deliberate and controlled-it is a careful and thoughtful variation of practice, and is critically informed. Furthermore, they mention that observation has the function of documenting the effects of critically informed action and reflection recalls action as it has been recorded in observation, but it is also active. The last step in a circle is reflection. Reflection seeks to make sense of processes, problems, issues and constraints made manifest in strategic action. Action research is a dynamic process in which these four moments are to be understood as moments in the action research spiral of planning, action, observing and reflecting.

Taking into consi  deration of the students’ poor  reading and speaking’ skill that the teacher-researcher’s face in the classroom, the present study tried to apply project-based learning to develop students’ reading and speaking skills. Thus, the classroom action research in this study was implemented for the purpose of improving the rationality and justice of the practice of project-based learning through students-made newsmagazine that can improve students’ reading and speaking skills, the understanding of this practice and the classroom situation in which this practice was carried out. This study was initiated with the general idea of how students’ reading and speaking skills could be improved. Then the reconnaissance (facts and findings analysis) was conducted. Following the reconnaissance was the designing of the general plan. The general plan then implemented and monitored.

Finally, the reflection was conducted in order to identify all facts including the success and the failure in the implementation as well as the effects of the teaching strategy.

Individual teacher-research approach was implemented in this action research. In this approach the teacher-researcher herself took the role as the classroom teacher.

 

THE ACTUAL CLASSROOM ACTION

This study was initiated with the general idea of how students’ reading and speaking skills could be improved. Then the reconnaissance (facts and findings analysis) was conducted. Following the reconnaissance was the designing of the general plan. The general plan was then implemented and monitored. Finally, another part of reconnaissance was conducted in order to identify all facts including the success and the failure in the implementation as well as the effects of the teaching strategy applied. The writer uses the action research procedure adapted from Elliot, 1992. The plan was implemented for one semester of 14 meetings with two meetings for doing the pre-test and four meetings for having the post test.

 

Figure 3.2 The Classroom Action Research Procedure.

 

The initial implementation of the plan was on the fourth meeting since the first and the second meetings were for the project information and the pre-test to see the students’ ability and the source problems. The third meeting was for informing the project-implementation. The result of the pre-test showed that the students ‘ability was in the level of very unsatisfactory either on reading skill or on oral report. The students got problems on comprehending texts and on delivering spoken language. One of the source problems of the students was on their limited vocabulary. To overcome this problem, the teacher-researcher initiated to apply word memorization based on the words-articles they had chosen and expected those words would be implemented on their summaries and oral report. The word memorization was initiated on the consideration that by having more vocabularies the students would find it easier to comprehend the articles and easier in producing spoken language. This idea worked well as the teacher-researcher also built the students ‘personal responsibilities for their own learning or developing students ‘long-term motivation to accomplish the tasks for the students’ own needs. This was in accordance withUr’s idea (1996) that teacher’s authoritative demand alone would not lead to higher motivation and better achievement. Teacher’s authoritative demands should be accompanied with students ‘involvement in the decisions.

The task of collecting at least 25 words for every meeting was successfully accomplished by the students. When they were absent, not attending the class on the session of the quiz, they would try to keep the target in the following meetings. This meant that the teacher-researcher was successful in motivating students to accomplish all of the given tasks. Furthermore, this good result could be the result of how the teacher-researcher gave reinforcement toward students’ work and of how she gave reward and punishment to her students. She rewarded her students’ good works by granting excellent scores and gave punishment in the form of warning and poorer scores. Getting good scores would increase the students’ motivation to accomplish the next tasks. In other words, the reinforcement became the new stimulus for the students to do better in the future. Brown (1980) suggested that “students who could not retrieve the meaning of certain words were allowed to see the context without seeing the meaning of those words.” It was used to keep the students’ motivation otherwise the students would get bored in opening the dictionary for every time the students faced new words.

The new words put in sentential contexts were also fruitful for the students to retrieve their memory. The students directly implemented what they had learned to the real practice, either in the written or spoken form.

Regarding the plan implementation in meeting four, all students found problems in reading authentic texts taken from English magazines or in the texts from the internet. Most of them could not summarize the news articles appropriately. In filling out the students- activities’ sheet they just quoted sentences from the authentic text. Thus, it could be concluded that these students were not capable enough to read authentic texts. Their language proficiency, in this sense, their reading ability was adequate for reading simplified materials only, and it was not for authentic texts. This finding motivated the teacher-researcher to ask the students to adopt the language of the authentic materials with the simplest language they could find in the English magazines or texts from the internet. This solution was in accordance with what was stated by Day and Bamford (2000) who said that when language learners found problems with difficult language in the reading text, simple language is considered the solution.

In the teacher-researcher’s mind authentic materials were considered important and needed to be continued on finishing the project because these authentic materials helped the students to improve their reading skills as well as to introduce them to content that was interest to the students. This finding is the same line with Wikipedia online article (Project-based learning, 2007, 1-4) that said that content is more meaningful to students because it is real world learning.

Applying the steps on developing students ‘reading skill in comprehending texts (including applying the technique of summarizing) was very fruitful to the students to keep their project. The students were really helped with that guidance. That guidance provides students with opportunities to practice a variety of reading subs skills as well as strategies for dealing with new topics, long passages, difficult passages, and unfamiliar vocabulary. Thus, the students could develop flexible reading skills and strategies that will vary according to the purpose of the reading task and the nature of the reading passage. The activities on the development of reading skills could also serve as a stimulus for the oral report they had to do.

Students’ interest in certain topic played important role in motoring them to keep on their project. All students completed the students- activities’ sheets happily. The sheets included short summary, students’ personal response toward the article to be read and the strategies used to develop reading skill. To the teacher-researcher’s detailed observation on the subjects’ summary in the project planning form (students- activities ‘sheets), it turn out that some students were good enough in writing the summary but some did not write the summary appropriately. The good point was that all students tried to write their own short summaries. This good point could be the result of students’ high enthusiasm in doing the tasks as well as the teacher-researcher’s success in motivating her students to work at their own attempt. Furthermore, this success was also the result of students-teacher close relationship that was believed able to increase students’ intrinsic motivation to learn (Brown, 2001).

Writing summary using new words memorization for extensive reading seemed to be a good practice as stated byBell(1998), summary writing in extensive reading was a valuable practice because it allowed learners to control both the main factual or fictional content of a story, and of the grammar and vocabulary used to express it. Moreover, this summary helped them elevating their speaking fluency since students already equipped themselves with correct content of the story as well the control of grammar and vocabulary to be used in the retelling activities.

The oral report activities as the following activity from the extensive reading were proven very effective in anticipating common problems encountered by students to produce oral language. First this technique could anticipate “the having nothing to talk about problem.” All students of the present study participated in the oral report activity since they always had report to be told either to the teacher, to the partner or to the audience. Second, all students did not hesitate to do the oral report since they did not need to make up their own stories. Third, by practicing at least 4 times to do the oral report, students had the chance to improve their speaking fluency. In short, to do the oral report as the follow –up activity of extensive reading was effective in improving students’ speaking’ skill. All of these findings were in the same line with Schmidt’ finding (1998) that discovered the success of extensive reading followed with conversation activities.

Students’ self confidence was believed influential to their speaking performance, and this was observed by the teacher-researcher. Some students who actually possessed good speaking skill could not perform adequately due to their poor self-confidence. To solve this problem, the teacher-researcher ensured all students that they actually could perform better when they possessed higher self-confidence. She further stated that to be able to improve their speaking skill, students should be brave enough to practice and should not be afraid of making mistakes. Mistakes were informed as common things that could be tolerated and even the students could learn from the mistakes made. In short, increasing students’ self-confidence was believed to be very essential in building their intrinsic motivation to learn (Brown, 2001).

Furthermore, based on what the teacher-researcher observed, giving a project to the students was the right strategy to be implemented. This is a learning strategy that gives opportunities to the students to work more independently and realistically to generate a product. These activities enabled students to synthesize knowledge and to solve problems individually. The students developed strategies to enable themselves and to direct their own learning. This finding is supported by Newberry and Hughes (2006) that said “when the students experienced a problem during the process of their learning, they were more likely to make connection and thus see the value in what they were learning.”

As stated, one of the criteria of the present study was that students’ reading and oral report scores should at least get 125 points with the score 7, the maximum criteria was 200 points and for the score 10. Then, when reflected to this criterion of the success of the present study, the results of the reading test revealed that twelve students met the target of the criteria while the rest of the students (thirteen students) met above the criteria. The students’ increased scores from the pre-test to the post-test indicate that this strategy was helpful to improve students’ reading and speaking skills. Thus, what these students really needed was a longer implementation of the plan.The Wikipedia online article (Project-based learning, 2007, 1-4) informs that there has been a lot of research conducted by researchers about project-based learning. One of the more prominent benefits is how projects are used to encourage active inquiry and empower students to take a part in their own learning. A project allows students and teachers alike to focus and to study a central idea in depth. Content is more meaningful to students because it is real world learning and students can look at their work in a way that is interesting to them. Students can collaborate together to explore ideas. Student ownership is the true drive of project work. The process of working on a project will help students display independence and construct their own knowledge through questions that they have or developed with the class.

The suggestion to prolong the implementation of the procedure to two semesters was considered important. Students started with very poor vocabulary and low exposure to reading and speaking experiences; thus they need more time to improve their skills. The procedure developed in the present study was considered effective to elevate both students’ reading and speaking skills, and this project needed to be implemented longer than one semester. Two-semester implementation was considered long enough to reach the predetermined criteria.

The subjects’ reflection as pictured in the questionnaire revealed that most of them believed the implemented plan was quite satisfactory to them. They were quite motivated in conducting the extensive reading, collecting new words, memorizing the collected words, summarizing, synthesizing and participating in the oral report activities. This confirms the filling of the first criterion of the present study.

The average total point of the students pre-test was 63, with the score below 6, while the total point of the criteria of success should be 125 with the score 7. In article 1 the students’ ability increase, the total point was 85 with the score still below 6. In article 2 the students’ total point was 91 with the score below 6. In article 3, the achievement of the total point was 106 with the score above 6. On the post-test the average of the total point was 141 with the score above 7.

 

CONCLUSION

 

Based on the discussion presented in the previous chapter, project-based learning in the form of students-made newsmagazine was done successfully; the model could improve the students’ reading and speaking ability, it might be caused by a) the students’ involvement on their own learning. Since the students function as the actor of the project who had responsible on generating products in this case producing students-made newsmagazine. b) the result of the products were very attractive, it might be caused by the students’ responsibility and the students’ great enthusiasm. c). the students great enthusiasm might be caused by the atmosphere conducted since the teacher-researcher function as a facilitator not a teacher who had  a big power in the class. d)  the product trained the students became independent students, critical thinkers and promote students to become life-long learner

 

RECOMMENDATIONS

There are some points worth considering the implementation of the plan of the present study or to conduct a similar study. The suggestions are presented below:

  1. Other classroom researchers could use this procedure of improving students’ reading and speaking skills through project-based learning in the form of student-made newsmagazine or using other variations with similar issues such as producing a wall magazine. A wall magazine would also be a worth doing.
  2. The result of the present study show that students ‘reading and speaking study was improved but not to a significant point. Thus, it is recommended, for the following study, to implement the plan in more than one semester.
  3. As it was evident in the present study that speaking and extensive reading could be taught in one integrated course, other classroom researchers could also set up an integrated course like this.
  4. The Accountancy Department of the State Polytechnic of Malang could consider the implementation of this procedure in the years to come, and experimental studies are recommended to find out whether or not project-based learning could be more successful than the conventional learning course.

 

REFERENCES

Bell, T. 1998. Extensive Reading: Why? And How? The internet TESL Journal, 4  (12) 12 December 1998.

Bruner, J. 1973. Going The Information Given. New York: Norton.

Bigge, M.L. 1982. Learning Theories for Teachers (4th ed).New York: Harper &  Row Publisher Inc.

Burke, K. 1999. How to assess Authentic Learning.USA. Published by  SkyLight   Professional development.United States of America.

Blumenfield,, P.C.,  Soloway, E.M.,  Krajcik, R.W., Guzdial, M., Palinscar, A. Motivating project-based learning: Sustaining the doing, supporting the  learning. Retrieved February 10, 2007 from  http://pblmm.k12.ca.us/PBLGuide/ AssessPBL.html

Bogdan, R.C., & Biklen, S K. 1992. Qualitative Research for Education-An Introduction to Theory and Methods  NeedhamHeights. By Allyn and Bacon-A division of Simon & Schuster, Inc.

Collie,.J., & Slater, S. 1987. Literature in the language classroom.USA.CambridgeUniversity Press.

Collins, A., Brown, J.S., & Newman, S.E. 1989. Cognitive Apprenticeship: Teaching the craft of reading, writing and mathematics, in L.B Resnick (ED),Knowing, Learning and Instruction: Essays in Honor of Robert Glase.Hillsdale,NJ, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, p.453-494.

Day, Richard R & Bamford, J. 1997. Extensive Reading:What is it? Why Bother? Retrieved January 02, 2007 from http:/langue.hyper. chubu.ac.jp/jalt/pub/tlt/97/may/extensive.html

Day, Richard R & Bamford, J..2000.Extensive Reading in the Second Language Classroom. New York:CambridgeUniversity Press.

Dillenbourg, P.D. S & Synteta, V. 2002. Virtual learning environment, on line article-Website Home page-2007. Retrieved February 10, 2007

Dulay, H., Burt, M., &  Krashen S. 1992. Language Two. U.S.A. New York Oxford University Press, Inc.

Elliot, J. 1992. Action Research for Educational Change. British.Philadelphia: Open University PressMilton Keyness.

Education Up Close-Engaging Students With Project-Based Learning. New York   Published by Glencoe/McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1221 Avenue of the Americas, Retrieved February 10, 2007  from  http://projects.coe.ugaedu/epltt/ index.php.

Hughes, E and Newberry P. 2006. Project lead the way. Clifton Park NY. Retrieved February 10, 2007 from http://projects.coe.ugaedu/epltt/ index.php.

Hess, N.1991. Headstarts: One hundred original pre-text activities.New York:Longman

Nation, I.S.P. 2000. The language learning Benefits of Extensive Reading. Retrieved January 02, 2007 from http://langue.hyper.chubu.ac.jp/jalt/pub/ tlt/index.htm.

Nunan, D. 1999. Second Language Teaching & Learning. Boston, Massachusetts. U.S.A Heinie & Heinie Publishers. An International Thomson Publishing company.

Project Lead The Way. Retrieved March 08, 2007 from http://www.pltw.org/APPBL.Learning.shtml.

Project-Based learning. Retrieved January 02, 2008  from http/www.Edu Tech    Wiki.unigue.ch/en //project-based learning.

Richards, J.C. &  Renandya W.A. 2002. Methodology in Language Teaching-An Anthology of Current Practice. U.S.ACambridgeUniversity Press

Rieber, L.P., Smith, L.& Noah, D. 1998 The value of serious play, Retrieved February 10, 2007 from Educational technology. HTML (http://itech 1.coe.uga.edu%7Elrieber/valeofplay.htm)

Revers, W.M. &  Nation. 1981 Vocabulary Teaching in the Fopreign Language Classroom. In English teaching Forum. Vol.XXIV.No3 New York:             Graphichouse, Ltd.

Schmidt, K.1998. Extensive Reading in English Communication Course. Retrieved December 17, 2007 from (http://www.extensivereading. net/ er/Schmidt.html.

Thomas, J.W., Mergendoller, J.R., & Michaelson, A.1999 Project-based learning: A handbook for middle and high school teachers, Novato, CA: The Buck  Institute for Education. Retrieved  February 10, 2007  from http://projects.coe. ugaedu/epltt/ index.php

Ur. P. 1996. A Course in Language Teaching-Practice and Theory. U.S.A.CambridgeUniversity Press

Wallace, C.1992. Reading. New York: Oxford University Press. What is Project-Based Learning? Retrieved February 10, 2007 from Htpp://edutechwiki unigech/en/project.based. What is Project-Based Learning? Retrieved February 10, 2007 from htpp://www.sun-associates.com/lynn/pbl/pbl.html.

 

REPORT SECTIONS IN ENGLISH MAGAZINES: AN ALTERNATIVE READING MEDIA FOR THE ENGLISH IMPROVEMENT

Bambang Suryanto

State Polytechnic of Malang

 

 ABSTRACT

One of the factors that can boost the students’ vocabulary expansion of English rapidly is reading. As the students are limited to reading texts provided in their daily English class, they may find it is boring to read English passages. They can get maximum benefit from their reading, the teacher may encourage the students to choose for themselves what they read and to do so for pleasure and general language improvement (Harmer: 2007). It would be a good idea if they are introduced to more varied genres of reading text, say, English newspaper and magazines. Besides these texts provide more up-to-date discourse, they are also easily obtained. Moreover, newspapers and magazines are authentic in terms that they are not simplified reading texts as the students find in the classroom. With an extensive activity of reading these kinds of materials they are trained to cope with the same kinds of reading that are encountered by native speakers of the target language (Ur: 1996).

 Key-words: reading, vocabulary expansion, reading text, newspaper, magazine

***

In this article, the writer is introducing several aspects related to the magazine articles such as the types, the viewpoints and/or perspectives, and finally the special report, a typical part of today’s newspapers or magazines especially for the students who are interested in more exposure to a wider variety of English texts available around us and hopefully for the English teachers who are keen on finding more resourceful reading materials for the enrichment of their daily teaching practice.

To begin with, let us see the variety of magazine articles. The great number and wide variety of occurrences happen every day, and many types of articles are written based on them. Although a writer may not need to classify his article each time he begins writing, we, readers, need to be aware of the availability of different types of articles in magazines. There are many types of articles, and new types may keep arising.

Furthermore, we need to know that there are two basic types of mass media writing; they are news story and feature story. News story is the fundamental form of writing for the mass media. It is said to be news story as it has news value. News value consists of any of seven elements: impact, timeliness, prominence, proximity, conflict, uniqueness and currency. News value has an impact quality, meaning that the event written in the news affects people’s lives. The news that does not have such an impact is said not to have news event; thus, it has no news value. News value also depends on the recency of the event; that’s why; a journalist is always under pressure of a deadline. Another news value is prominence. Often an activity, program, or another casual happening becomes an event if it is done by the prominent people such as a famous public figure and a celebrity. The people belonging to the latter are called the “newsmakers” even if they only do something very casual and trivial. Next, by proximity, the events that occur close to home are more likely to have news value than the same events that occur elsewhere. If the story contains two opposing or competing forces, it is more likely to have news value because it draws attention. Another attractive quality is the uniqueness of a story. When the news presents something unique such as something bizarre or unusual, it has more potential to attract readers’ attention. Finally, the news that bears current interest of the readers often has news values. For example, the time approaching to the change of millennium and sometime after the moment, the discussion of Y2K in many mass media still held attention a lot of people. In short, any of the seven elements of news value must be present in news story. Even there are attempts to enrich a story that has already had news value from different perspectives such as the ones in the special report sections in many different publications in the world. This can add the quality of the news value.The types of magazine articles can be roughly described into twelve types based on the content (Writers’ Encyclopedia). First, informational article is one that primarily contains facts. Second, how-to article is an article that describes the method to accomplish something. Third, A service article is an article about a consumer product or service. Fourth, a personal experience article is an article that, like what the name suggests, tells an experience, especially special, meaningful or entertaining, of a person. A success story belongs to this type. Fifth, the interview article is article based primarily on an interview with one person. Sixth, the think article is one that contains an analysis of facts, events or trends, as the writer perceives them. Sixth, the historical article is an article that contains a historical account of events. Seventh, the travel article is article that tells the travel experience. It may focus on the beauty of a place or the excitement of traveling to a certain place. Eight, spot-news article is an article about a piece of current news described in depth. Ninth, the expose article is article written as the result of the writer’s intensive research and investigation. It may include a factual element of shock. Tenth, a seasonal article is one that is written about a holiday, season of the year or timely observance. Eleventh, the inspirational article is an article about the successful efforts of an individual or group to improve a situation that affected them. Different from success story, this type of article often has a philosophical or religious theme.  Twelfth, the humorous article is article about a topic with good humor, and it is said to be one of the most difficult kinds to write.

The second type is feature story. There is no essential difference between feature and news story. The main difference lies in the emphasis. It gives more details and description as the feature story writers assume that the readers have more time to read and deserve an interesting side of an event that may not be covered in the news story type. This type varies in styles and structures. Stovall proposes three kinds of feature story.  The first type is anecdotal feature. In the anecdotal feature, the article presents quotations, anecdotes, and facts that collaborate to create an interesting piece of news. The second is suspended interest features. This kind of feature story tries to give an effect that works like a short story. The writer of this kind of feature can skillfully lead readers through a series of paragraphs and embrace them into the story plot until the unexpected ending. The last is question and answer. The article begins with an explanatory paragraph and is followed by question and answer dialogs to the end. It is an effective to show the readers an unfiltered use of the interviewee’s language. In short, feature story seems to give more relaxed style and more detailed descriptions, assuming that the readers have more time to read, than news story does. Hence, more craftsmanship in writing is required besides the ability to present factual accounts. It can be concluded that this type of story is more likely found in magazines, while the news story style is more adopted by newspaper writers although in some part of the daily newspaper feature stories can be found, especially in the middle pages. Even one of Indonesian leading daily newspapers, Kompas, presents a series of feature collection in its special issues such as the commemoration of 100 years of Bung Karno and the Indonesian economic review, in which it presents a series of feature stories from notable politic and economic authorities.

There may be other types of articles accommodated in magazines as the creativity of the writers develops. Many magazines demand different types of articles in one issue as it can accommodate the needs of a wide variety of audience.  The types previously mentioned can help a writer structure his work and accommodate the needs of the editors of the magazines.

It is important to note here that the article in the magazine is factual piece of writing. It is written more for the purpose of giving information or presenting news. However, its factual quality is still strong although there is freedom of using some narrative dialog or anecdote made up by the writer, for instance, in the introduction. It is common as an article is not fiction although it might contain semi-fictious anecdotes or imaginary dialog to illustrate certain points in conveying the information.

Beside the types of the magazine articles based on the contents, there is another important aspect of the articles, that is, point of view or viewpoint. It is the way the writer perceives an event or an issue. The choice of point of view determines the voice of writing and impacts the way the writer develops the story. Point of view is the perspective from which a narrative is presented; it is analogous to the point from which the camera sees the action in cinema. Point of view in writing an article is like a camera in TV and movie. The camera direction indicates that the audience sees the scene as if they were looking through the eyes of the actor in that scene. In photography, it is called angle. The angle that is formed from a certain camera position can be used to highlight a dramatic scene. In writing, the point of view is employed by the writer to facilitate his approach to the topic of his writing. It can also be used to create a certain effect on the readers as the choice of viewpoint influences the way the readers look at the topic. It is also defined as the person through whose eyes the reader is seeing the story. Those eyes might belong to a character, or to a non-character narrator, that is, a narrator who isn’t in the story.

The point of view in many fictions belongs to one or more characters but in essays the point of view is a non-character narrator, who is often the author herself. A non-character narrator is also referred as the omniscient third person. To clarify the issue of point of view, let us see the points of view employed in narratives as narrations have more facility to employ different points of views.

There are two broad categories of viewpoint, objective and subjective viewpoints. The objective viewpoint is one where the narrator relates facts but avoids emotion, and subjective viewpoint is one where the narrator incorporates a character’s thoughts and emotions into the storytelling. The reader thus shares in the character’s emotional life. The first type is mostly used in essays while the latter in fictions.

Viewpoints can also be categorized in terms of the narration method. The first type is first-person point of view. With this manner of writing the writer makes use of the pronoun “I” so that the reader can experience events through the viewpoint either of the main character in a piece of fiction or through the nonfiction writer himself. This method is not only well applied in fictions. In nonfiction, this manner can be applied to create better effect when writing about personal experiences, inspiration, and nostalgia. The second type is third-person point of view. In this method of narration, the author follows only what the main character sees, hears, feels and thinks. The description of the storyteller plays a very determining role to tell the story.  The third type is the omniscient viewpoint, an author can relate the perceptions of any of his characters or detach himself from them to serve as narrator. The detached viewpoint, on the other hand, lets the reader sense that he is watching the story as it unfolds; the author gives descriptions and impressions, but never through the perception of a character.  Finally, almost the same as this type of viewpoint is the multiple-character viewpoint. This is used to tell a story from the perspectives of different characters, one at a time. Unlike works using the omniscient viewpoint, this viewpoint stays with one character for a considerable length—for example, a chapter in a novel. This technique is useful when the story must make an extreme change of scene.

Not only in narratives, in essays, the variation of using point of view can enliven the account. The coverage of point of view is not only on the way the writer perceives an event, whether it is from the first, second or third person, but it also covers the perspective how an issue or event is told. An issue might be seen from its historical perspective. The perspective the writer takes also describes the attitude toward an issue. Hence, an article can be perceived from its perspective. Point of view tends to refer to the involvement of a writer in a story, whether he sees an event from the first, second, or third person, and perspective refers more to how his whole perception is on the event, whether he sees it from historical, political, economical, or even psychological perspectives.

 

SPECIAL REPORT SECTION

One of the typical features found in many magazines is the special reports. Special report section is a section in one issue of a magazine that discusses one common topic and usually consists of several articles devoted to the topic. Notable newsmagazines such as Newsweek and Time, always feature special reports in every issue. Each special report edition does its coverage in depth. It may have several featured news or articles discussing one same topic with different approaches (at least this can be read from each title, for example, in one issue featuring the crash between a US spy plane and a Chinese fighter, Newsweek wrote on its cover ‘Collision Course with China’)—whether from its historical, economic, or cultural angles (Newsweek, April 16, 2001). This special report consists of five articles related to the topic: After the Showdown, A Crash in the Clouds, How the Two Nations Match Up, Beijing’s Next Big Battle, and Face to Face with China. Another example is taken from Newsweek’s special report on September 15, 1997. It presents a long special report section devoted to the event of Lady Diana’s death, ‘Farewell Diana’. The section consists of 17 articles discussing the issues related to Diana, for example, her short biography, her relationship with the other royal members and people involved in her life, her death, and her funeral ceremony.

The wide coverage of topics in a special report section is due to different perspectives used by different writers in viewing one particular event. Related to perspectives, Renkema (1993) states that information can be presented from several different perspectives. Furthermore, he compares the different perspectives or points of view in a text to different angles taken by a camera in the cinematic art. There are three approaches in discourse to study this matter: they are (1) vision (sociologically-inspired research into the ideological perspective), (2) focalization (oriented research into the narrator’s perspective), and empathy (syntactically-oriented research into the speaker’s attitude).

The different perspective entails different approaches toward an event and it results in a comprehensive coverage of a topic, so that the presentation of a special report can be more interesting and in depth.  Take a look at Table 1 below. It shows the richness of perspective on one similar topic. The articles are taken from Newsweek, April 7, 1997, on the mass suicide by the cult “Heaven’s Gate” inCalifornia.

In addition, there are possibly more perspective the reader can find in any special report section such as social, economic, political, legal, historical, organizational, geographical, technological, financial, biographical, and personal (Suryanto, 2006). And, interestingly, among the articles in one special report section, there may be an article that functions as a rebuttal article among the other articles that discusses a trend. It is like the balancer of opinion.

 

 Table 1. Richness of a Topic in Terms of Perspectives

Article

The Title of the Article Brief Descriptions of the Content Perspectives

1

The Next Level The account about the emergence of the cult until the time the mass suicide happened Chronological perspective

2

A Last Stop before Heaven Brief pieces of information chronologically arranged from the time the cult purchased a farm until the time they used it for the suicidal ritual Historical Perspective

3

Blaming the Web The account of how the cult use the internet to spread their beliefs Technological perspective

4

Christ and Comets The account about the cult’s belief Ideological perspective

5

Sensing Trouble in the Skies The account of how the cult connects the celestial objects (especially comets) to their beliefs Scientific perspective

 

FOR THE FURTHER DEVELOPMENT IN ENGLISH CLASSES

The knowledge of the nature of the English magazine above is very important in many aspects. Firstly, in English reading class, especially in advanced levels, the teacher can introduce this type of writing discourse, where one topic is discussed in several different articles is important. The students can learn the perspective of each article. They can learn that one topic can be richly seen from different ways. Secondly, the teacher can also emphasize that this writing type is authentic reading material from the field of journalistic. This is positive for the students’ motivation as many students are more interested in current issues, especially those having cultural or political aspects commonly offered by journalistic texts. Thirdly, the exposure to the different vocabulary, grammatical forms, and discourse presentation from what they commonly encounter is valuable to their reading competence. Moreover, text structure awareness has a strong impact on efforts to improve reading instruction. The introduction of rhetorical patterns in a text is essential to their reading skill improvement. Fourthly, the additional results about heading or title making for the article can be used as one of interesting point in the discussion of reading comprehension classes. The mastery of this discussion can relate the students’ background knowledge or schemata as some interesting titles or headings are usually connected to other already-known piece of knowledge.

Furthermore, in writing class, the teacher can teach the students in intermediate English learners the existence of different perspectives to a single topic in writing because it can broaden the students’ possibility for writing with creativity. There is limitation, of course, in introducing this type of writing discourse. The limitation of the use of vocabulary and grammatical structure of mass media is they are complex and sophisticated, especially to learners of English as the Second Language. In addition, the additional results about heading or title making for the article can also be of enrichment material in teaching writing.

 

REFERENCES

 

Basthomi, Yazid. 2005. The Rhetoric Of Research Article Introduction Written in English by Indonesians.

Fink, Conrad, and Fink, Donald E., 1994. Introduction to Magazine Writing. Boson: Allyn & Bacon

Harmer, Jeremy. 2007. The Practice of English Language Teaching.Harlow: Pearson Education Ltd

Holsti, Ole. 1969. Content Analysis for the Social Sciences and Humanities. MA: Addison-Wesley.

Kweldju, Siusana. Lexically-Based Language Teaching: Metaphor for Enhancing Learning. 176.

Renkema, Jan. 2004. Introduction to Discourse Studies.Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company

Suryanto, Bambang. 2006. The Perspective and rhetoric of English magazine articles in the special report section: Unpublished Thesis. Universitas Negeri Malang

Susilo 1999. Rhetorical Patterns as Reflected in Argumentative Discourse in the Jakarta Post Articles. Unpublished Master Thesis.Malang: PPS

Ur, Penny. 1996. A Course in Language Teaching.Cambridge:CambridgeUniversityPress

Zuhairi, Alfan. 2002. The Effectiveness of Text Mapping in Improving Students Reading. Skill. Universitas Negeri Malang: Unpublished Thesis.

SWITCHING AND MIXING CODES

Kun Mustain

State Polytechnic of Malang

 ABSTRACT

The aim of this article is to provide an overview over the phenomenon of code-switching and code-mixing. The history  of code change has undergone various periods that have shown the phenomenon of code switching and code-mixing. In the  research of code change it is clear that code-switching and code-mixing can be investigated from different perspectives. One can see that there is a unique phenomenon of how language is used.  The Code-mixing and code-switching can deliberately occur both in informal and formal situation. These phenomena are connected to the varying motivations and purposes of  code-mixing and switching. The codes to be mixed and switched may be not only  languages but also styles, or even dialects. The most important thing, in conducting  code-mixing and switching, speakers must select the code related to the social  contexts and social dimensions.

 

Key-words: code, witching, mixing, dialect, style, register

***

In talking about bilingual or multilingual society, one will never set aside of phenomena called code-switching and code-mixing. In conducting code-mixing or switching,  a speaker has to consider the social context and dimensions, the varieties of  language, including registers and styles, linguistics’ constraints, and so on. In this case, speakers must select codes to be used in any specific context. In general, one may agree to Wardhaugh’s opinion that “… when you open your mouth, you must choose a particular language, dialect, style, register, or variety – that is, a particular code” (1998: 86). In addition, the code-choice depends on the social- context, social dimension, and the purposes.

There are many things to be considered in  explaining code-mixing, particularly. The factors are complex, the purposes are also varying. People, in the meantime, keep improving their abilities to master more than one language either to get much information or merely social purposes.

 

CODE

The ‘neutral’ term code can be used, Wardhaugh (1998: 86) explains, to refer to any kind of system that two or more people employ for communication. He, therefore, refers codes to language, dialect, style, register, or variety. People always deal with choosing an appropriate code when they speak. According to Holmes, it involves different dialects of a language, or quite different languages (1992: 6). However, choosing code is not done at random, at any which, any when or anyhow a speaker likes. Holmes (ibid: 2) says that ones choose words carefully according to who they are talking to. Moreover, she says it includes how well we know the person and whether they are socially superior. Nonetheless, people are not quite conscious in choosing one code or more in a situation and another. It is also a matter of solidarity dimensions as Myers-Scotton (1983b and, Scotton, 1983) stated,

 

“Speakers choose, not always consciously by any means, how they say what they want to say. They are generally aware of the power dimensions in the situations they find themselves in and they also know who they want to be identified with, the solidarity dimension. They have some idea too of how they want to appear to others and how they want others to be have toward them…”

(in Wardhaugh, 1998: 109 -110 )

One thing to be considered is the code choice undoubtedly includes linguistic variation as well. Holmes (1992: 6) describes that vocabulary or word choice is one area of linguistic variation. More precisely she says, linguistic variation occurs at other levels of linguistic analysis too: sounds, word-structure (or morphology), and grammar (or syntax) as well as vocabulary. Within each of these linguistic levels there is always variation which offers the speaker a choice  of ways of expression. Holmes, further, relates it to the social contexts in which the variation provides speakers with different linguistic styles for use in different social contexts (ibid). Linguistically speaking, in choosing code one must also consider its appropriateness in his utterance and purpose towards the interaction.

Choosing codes may be based on some factors. Holmes (1992:44) says one of them as, “the technical topics are firmly associated with a particular code and the topic it self can trigger a switch to the appropriate code. “She assumes that people may select a particular code because it makes them easier to discuss a particular topic, regardless of where they are speaking (ibid:29). However, Wardhaugh says that one’s language choices are part of the social identity he claims for himself (1998: 95). Certain codes, therefore, are deemed more appropriate for certain messages than other codes. It means, code and message are inseparable. Consequently, when a choice between codes exists, one must exercise that choice with great care since it can affect what happens to the message one wishes to communicate (Wardhaugh,ii: 112).

Registers

Relating to the codes, the appropriate registers and styles of speaking also have to be considered. The term register is widely used to deal with ‘varieties according to use’, in contrast with dialects, defined as ‘varieties according to user’ (Halliday,  Mclntosh & Strevens, 1964 in Hudson, 1980: 48). More technically,Ferguson(1994: 20) in Wardhaugh (1998:48) describes registers as sets of language items associated with discrete occupational or social groups. For examples, he suggests that surgeons, airline pilots, bank managers, sales clerks, jazz fans, and pimps employ different registers. Associated with these all, Trudgill (1983: 100-1) explains that registers are characterized solely by vocabulary differences either by the use of particular words, or by the use of words in a particular sense. Therefore, registers will relate independently to styles, in which Trudgill says as terms to describe “formality”. He makes an example as “the register of football … could co-occur with a formal style (as in a report in a high status newspaper), or with an  informal style (as in a discussion in a bar). In short, by considering the registers and  styles, one can speak very formally or very informally, depending on the circumstances.

 

Dialect

Considering the external factor of the varieties, ones will never get separated with the term dialect. People from different social and geographical back grounds use different kinds of language. Trudgill (1983: 14) gives the examples as there is an Englishman which, “…comes fromNorfolk, for example, he will probably use the kind of language spoken by people from that part of the country. If he is also a middle-class businessman, he will use the kind of language associated with men of this type.”

Kinds of language of this sort are often, he says, referred to as dialects, the first type in this case being a regional dialect and the second a social dialect. InIndonesia, some good examples to describe these two types of dialects are, Jakartanese and Javanese as regional dialects and Ngoko and Bahasa Gaul as social dialects. These dialects are used in some cases. In general, Trudgill (1983: 15) explains that there is often a mutual intelligibility when someone decides which language to be spoken. He says, if two speakers can not understand one another, then they are speaking different languages. Similarly if they can understand each other, we could say that they are speaking dialects of the same languages. Subsequently, it is defined that the term dialect refers to differences between kinds of language which are differences of vocabulary, and grammar as well as pronunciation (ibid). Overall, the reason of using varieties or codes, Holmes (1992:26) says as, “…a feeling of equality that people have with one another.”

 

Styles

There are two major divisions of styles, they are formal and non-formal. However, a Dutch linguist, Martin Joos divides them into five categories. They are frozen, formal, consultative, casual, and intimate. However, here, the writer will try to discuss the two major divisions of styles, the formal and informal. Trudgill (1983:107) says that style range from the formal to the informal. However, formality is not, in fact something which it is easy to define with any degree of precision, largely because it subsumes very many factors including familiarity, kinship-relationship, politeness, seriousness, and so on. Moreover formality may relate to the choice of grammatical and lexical variation as well. Korean, for example, may have one of the following suffixes attached to the verb forms depending on the relationship between the participants (in Trudgill, ibid: 105-6):

 

intimate : -na
Familiar : -e
Plain : -ta
Polite : -e yo
Deferential : -supnita
Authoritative : -so

 

The degree of style can also be characterized by vocabulary differences (Trudgill, 1983: 107). For example:

(1)     I require you to be punctual

         I want you to come on time

(2)    Father was some what fatigued after his lengthy journey

        Dad was pretty tired after his long trip

These styles more or less resemble the levels of Javanese, which are also signalled by vocabulary differences. Along with scale of formality style, there are also phonological changes. Overall, Trudgill (1983: 111) concludes that these styles can be characterized through differences in vocabulary, including address-forms and pronouns, and in grammar and pronunciation. Thus, in most if not all linguistic communities, differences in social context lead to the use of different styles.

 

Written Language Style  

One of the informal style features in written language is the use of emotions and signs. This style consists of regular vocabulary used in specific ways. It can also make use of the regular word formation devices to create new words. Usually, it is only understood by member of group who use it.

One example of written language style is the English acronym used in plain text chat coined by net speakers. In this case, the effect also refers to certain vocabularies that will rapidly change as well as the use of them. Therefore, this vocabulary is not used in spoken language and some of them are only understood by the community who use them. Also, one will find some mixing numbers and letter,  for example: “h3 13Ft” substitutes the 3 with an E,the caps are ignored, and one will  have “he left”. A few notes on how styles in chatting or in mobile phone messaging are created will be presented in the following lines:

(1)    People tend to extend letters and capitalize them in chatting via text to  convey  emotion, so HEYYYYYYYY BILLLLLLLL, simply means someone is  expressing a lot of emotion in saying hello to Bill.

(2)    Vowels get left out a lot, for example: that’s wrd. In this case, it refers to  weird.

(3)    One will see the letter “z” every where. Usually it replaces “s” or “es” (the  plural of something) i.e.: many billz means many bills. Also “z” gets tossed around a  lot, as in hugzzzz, thankz, or kkz for OK, and soon.

(4)    Some phrases are formed from their initials or very rarely, from letters in  the middle of the words, i.e. laugh out loud becomes LOL, O my God becomes OMG,  and so on. These are some common web acronyms that ones can find in chat room.

But it is also stated to be the acronyms in text messages on a mobile phone (Bookbug,  1998-2000,http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Forum/8078/huh.html:

 

AAMOF As a matter of fact
AAR All About Romance
AB Automatic buy
AFAIK As far as I know
AKA Also known as
ARC Advance reading copy
ASAP Assoon as possible
B&N Barnes and Noble
BB Bulletin Board
BBL Be back later
BEG Big evil grin
BF Boy friend
BG Big grin
BIL Brothet-in-law
BRB Be right back

 

SOCIAL CONTEXT AND SOCIAL DIMENSIONS

Language is a social phenomenon. Therefore, Trudgill (1983: 32) says, “a study of language to tally without reference to its social context inevitably leads to the omission of some of the more complex and interesting aspects of language and to the loss of opportunities for further theoretical progress. “In other words, the approach to sociolinguistics should include everything from considering “who speaks (or writes) what language (or what language variety) to whom and when and to what end” (Fishman, 1972 in Wardaugh, 1998: 16). It means that the same speaker may use different varieties in different situations, for different purposes, or different people, and indifferent functions.

Related closely to this context, Holmes (1992: 12) also proposes social dimensions, consisting of:

1)   A social distance scale concerned with participant relationships,

2)   A status scale concerned with participant relationships,

3)   A formality scale relating to the setting or type of interaction and the last,

4)   Two functional scales relating to the purpose or topic of interaction.

She explains the social distance scale which emphasizes that how well one knows someone will affect this linguistic choice (Holmes, 1992: 13). It, therefore, triggers a speaker to choose a common language to express solidarity. Holmes emphasizes that switches motivated by identity and relationship between participants often express a move along the solidarity/ social distance dimension (ibid: 42). The more intimate participants are, the higher solidarity will be expressed, and vice versa. A status scale is associated to this first dimension, which concerns with the relationships among participants. This scale also points to the relevance of relative status in some linguistic choice. It can be shown by an example provided by Holmes below:

The choice of sir…for instance, signaled that the school principle was the higher status and entitled to a respect term. Similarly the use of Ms by her secretary and Mrs by the caretaker reflected the highest status of Margaret Walker-Billington, since she called both of these people by their first names. (ibid)

The examples imply that a status scale can be inferred by the use of address forms, whether it is respectful or intimate. This status scale can be identified also by the educational and occupational back ground. By providing a simple chart, Holmes (1992: 13)tries to say that the more superior a person is, the higher status he is to be, And vice versa. Holmes therefore says, a switch may also reflect a change in the other dimensions, such as the status between people or the formality of their interaction ibid:42).

Formality scale is useful in assessing the influence of the social setting or type of interaction on language choice. Holmes further explains that the language used will be influenced by the formality of the setting. For a friendly chat, people use colloquial

language. Interestingly, Holmes concludes, “…often degrees of formality are largely determined by solidarity and status relationships” (ibid: 13-4). It is certainly true, since “more formal relationships involve status differences too”(ibid:42). Of course it will be different in a friendly relationship which involves minimal social distance such as neighbour or friend.

The last is the functional scales, they are referential and affective. Language certainly serves many functions, but those two are identified as particularly basic and persistent. Topic, therefore, relates to the function dimension. Of course, in a serious topic, like monetarism for example, the interaction will be quite referential. In general, Holmes says, the more referentially oriented an interaction is, the less it tends to express the feelings of the speaker. By contrast, interactions which are more concerned with expressing feelings often have little in the way of new information to communicate (ibid: 14). Therefore, these factors are also influenced by the code choice to be mixed in a sentence.

 

CODE-SWITCHING AND CODE-MIXING

 

 Most sociolinguists state that code-mixing is a kind of code-switching. Poplack (1980) in Romaine (1989: 122-3) observes three kinds of switching as  follows: tag-switching, inter-sentential and intra-sentential-switching. Tag switching is found when a speaker inserts a tag in one language e.g. English: maybe, I think into an utterance which is otherwise entirely in another language, e.g. Indonesian: may be dia ada di rumah. Meanwhile, inter-sentential-switching involves a switch at a clause or sentence boundary, where each clause or sentence is in one language or another. In other words, a bilingual or multilingual who demonstrates inter-sentential-switching must be more competent in mastering the codes than the one who conducts the tag- switching. The last type is intra-sentential-switching, which occurs within the clause or sentence boundary. This type is what one calls as mixing. It associates with Wardhaugh in identifying the code-mixing as “a switch of codes  within a simple utterance without any associated topic change… (and) this is called intra-sentential code-switching, or code-mixing.”(1998: 108).

 

In further, Wardhaugh (1998) then, describes that code-mixing occurs when conversations use both languages together to the extent that they change from one language to the other in the course of a single utterance, (p. 103). Thus, intra-sentential switching is called as code-mixing where it involves the insertion of single word or a phrase within a sentence. In addition, Fasold (1984) in Lee states, “if some one uses or inserts one word or phrase from another language, he has conducted code-mixing (in Afendras, 1980: 186). The description bring us to an understanding about code-mixing, in which it can be called a switching of codes by inserting one word or phrase words within a single sentence.

Inter-sentential-switching is somehow a language phenomenon which is considered as appositive ability; while intra-sentential switching which will further be called code-mixing, tends to be the opposite. Trudgill (1983: 75) describes code-switching as “…switching from one language variety to another when the situation demands (something most non-standard-English-speaking children are quite often quite good at any way). In line with Trudgill, Holmes states, code-mixing suggests the speaker is mixing up codes indiscriminately or perhaps because of the incompetence, where as the switches are very well-motivated in relation to the symbolic or social meanings of the two codes (1992: 50). Basically, conducting code-switching is encouraged and considered as a good ability, but code-mixing is the opposite. Code-mixing, therefore, is commonly used in an informal situation, but it is possible that a person conducts it in a formal situation.

 

Possible Purposes Triggering Code-Mixing and Switching

There are several reasons for code mixing. The main purpses can be seen in the following paragraphs.

 

Expressing solidarity and intimacy

This is a reason to reduce differences to the addressees. Wardhaugh says, code-mixing/switching can allow a speaker to do many things: assert power, declare solidarity; maintain certain neutrality when both codes are used; express identity and so on.”(ibid: 110)  It maybe done by using a close-distant address-form, for instance in a regional dialect. Example: the use of mas (Javanese) and bang  (Jakartanese) or call the first name rather than pak, tuan and ibu to show close solidarity.Hudson agrees as he says, an easy example of this is the English use of personal names,

The range form is available for the use in referring to John Brown when he is not the addressee, and much the same rules govern the choice of form. Thus, if the speaker sees him as a close subordinate, he will refer to him as John, whereas he will refer to him as Mr. Brown if he sees him as a distant superior. (1980:pp. 127-8)

Of course, it is a good way to get closer with the addressee to whom the speaker can also sign his ethnicity. Holmes says, a speaker may similarly switch to another language as a signal of group membership and shared ethnicity with an addressee (1992:41). Further, she says, “even speakers who are not very proficient in a second language may use brief phrases and words for this purpose”(ibid).

This purpose can also be done by sharing the same idea with the addressee. For example by using the Jakartanese particle, “gitu” or repeating the common language used by the previous speaker. It is part of asking an agreement and getting intimate with the addressee in a conversation. In this case Brown and Levinson (1978:17) in Brown and Yule (1983:4) point out the importance of social relationships of establishing common ground and agreeing on points of view, and they illustrate the lengths to which, speakers in different cultures will go to maintain an appearance of agreement, and they remark ‘agreement may also be stressed by repeating part or all of what the preceding speaker has said’.

 

Asserting Status, Pride and Power

This purpose is done by mixing another code which is considered more prestigious. It is to make superiority expression which will increase the speaker’s status and power. In this case, confidence and pride may also trigger the mixing/ switching of codes as Nababan says, “another reason is also because the person wants to show his status or to show his being educated” (1986: 32). In accordance, Wardhaugh states, “the ability to mix codes…is now often a source of pride…” (1998: 109). In addition, Holmes (1992:48) adds the word “confidence” referring to this purpose. This purpose usually triggers a speaker to switch/mix codes which are more prestigious, in which he can not obtain when using his previous code. The mixing word usually is not related specifically to the topic and there is always a word to substitute it in the first language. Example: the use of English instead of Bahasa: ‘convert’ replaces ubah, ‘timing’ replaces waktu, to be more confident and prestigious.

 

 Lexical Needs

This purpose occurs since there is no proper word or expression in the Language being used. Holmes (1992: 50) states people may also borrow words from another language to express a concept or describe an object for which there is no obvious word available in the language they are using. Borrowing of this kind generally involves single words –mainly nouns-and is motivated by lexical need. In addition, this mix occurs since the term will have no exact meaning if it is translated to another language. Example: Spot box, The Fed, etc.

Nababan says that English is used commonly in international social-politic and scientific communication also in trade (1986:4). Richards-Schmidt then relates this  as”…English has more appropriate lexical items for something they (the speakers) want to express in a particular situation and they incorporate these into the grammatical structure of other language.”(2002:80)

 

Incompetence

This reason occurs since there is a lack of vocabulary knowledge in the language being used. Holmes (1992: 50) states clearly that code-mixing suggests a speaker to mix up codes indiscriminately or perhaps because of the incompetence. It means, when a speaker does not know how to say a word in a language, he will mix another language in his utterance. Holmes further says that this switch is triggered by lack of vocabulary {ibid).There is an example of Chinese students flatting together in English speaking countries which shows this purpose. In speaking with each other, they use Cantonese, but in discussing their studies they switch to English. Holmes (ibid: 44) describes this is partly because they have learned the vocabulary of their study in English, so they do not always know the words for certain terms in Cantonese. The incompetence in mixing a code, further, is identified by the occurrence of pause or filler (erm…, apa namanya…, etcetera) which is also preceded by no well-organized structure. Example: A: “Saya rasa itu meng… erm… create sebuah masalah baru ya.

 

Expressing Self-Emotion

This purpose occurs when a code-mixing is conducted to express a speaker’s self-emotion, such as sadness, happiness. Yet, sometimes, a speaker can even switch or mix another code to show his anger and disapproval. A language switch in the opposite direction, from the low to the high variety, is often used to express disapproval so a person may switch language because they are angry (Holmes, 1992: 47). But a speaker usually uses regional dialects to express sadness and happiness.

 

Making Jokes

The purpose occurs when a code-mixing is conducted to set a humorous  effect. This purpose also indicates the formality of a conversation. An example in  Paraguay shows that Guarani, the low variety is considered more appropriate for joking and humorous anecdotes (Holmes, 1992:46).In any means, the more often the  occurrence of making jokes, the less formal the conversation.

 

Being More Informative

This purpose occurs when a code-mixing is conducted since the speaker is  message-oriented. For instance, it happens because his occupation and education use  the codes often. Holmes(1992:29) says that people may select a particular variety or  code because it makes it easier to discuss a particular topic, regardless of where they  are speaking. It can also be done by quoting an important recitation. In this case, “the  speaker wishes to be accurate-the exact words are important” (ibid: 45). Yet, here, the purpose is more neutral, no status-oriented motif, for instance. Example: a speaker who is a pilot may mix some English terms while telling about an aerial matter.

These reasons may only be slightly different one to the other. In addition, ometimes, one code mixed may show more than one purpose but there will be only one which is more dominant. Furthermore, such purposes need not to be at all conscious, for apparently many speakers are not aware that they have used one particular variety of a language rather than another or sometimes even that they have switched languages either between or within utterances (Wardhaugh, 1998: 102-3). In other words, the tendencies of the speaker mix codes are important to the choice. Also, by switching or mixing two or more codes, a speaker can convey affective meaning as well as information (Holmes, 1992: 50). Moreover, to classify the purpose of code-mixing properly, one has to look carefully to the discourse fragments.

 

CASE

This is a dialog in “Duduk Perkara”, December 6, 2004. The topic is Indonesian Air flight. The speakers invited are Oetarjo Diran, the professor of Aeronautical Department of ITB; Dudi Sudibyo, the director of Dirgantara Angkasa Magazine, and Chappy Hakim; the General of TNI AU (Air force Defense). Here, one may see that these speakers are the experts of air flight, and they are needed to discuss the Indonesian Air flight related to the Lion Air accident.

The presenter:      …Betulkah bandara domestik atau internasional di Indonesia runway-nya kurang panjang?

Chappy Hakim:    … Seorang penerbang tidak akan membawa pesawatnya menuju suatu runway yang tidak cukup untuk dia landing

Oetarjo Diran:     … anda bisa melihat dari kepan-jangan landasan, what air kah can land there, kalau perlu restrictively.

Dudi Sudibyo:      …tetapi pada umumnya kalau runway-nya tidak mencukupi ya  kita larang.

From the examples above, it can be seen that all those utterances draw to a certain topic, which is about air flight, mixed with English words and phrases. The words and phrases are run way, landing, what air, can land there, and restrictively. In this case its insertion of English words and phrase is a sociolinguistic phenomenon that is called code-mixing. Some English words inserted by the speakers, run way and landing are somehow their preference to explain air flight terms. Even one knows that  Indonesian words can replace those words as landasan and mendarat, but the experts are commonly used those words in their occupational field term (as related to the topic). While, the other phrases such as what air, can land there, and restrictively are merely a matter of the speaker’s preference. He chooses those words as he is speaking to some experts who have ability in English. Yet, here he does not complete his whole English sentence as he is aware that people (the participants) from various educational  background see and may not understand him. Indeed, he actually can use Indonesian words pesawat tipe apakah yang dapat mendarat di sana, and dibatasi. In this case, the contexts of doing code-mixing in those utterances are participant and topic.

From the examples above, one can see that there is a unique phenomenon of how language is used. It will also include the use of vocabulary of certain language in the conversation taking place among the group members. In this case, English as an international language which has been acknowledged since years ago is commonly used. Nababan says that English is used commonly in international social-politic and scientific communication also in trade. (1986:4) Mean while, the main factors of how language is used are participants, situation, topic, and function of interaction. In other to, what he is talking about, where the conversation is taking place, and also, what is the purpose of the conversation.

 

 CONCLUSION

One can see that there is a unique phenomenon of how language is used.  Code-mixing and code-switching can deliberately occur both in informal and formal situation. These phenomena are connected to the varying motivations and purposes of  code-mixing and switching. The codes to be mixed and switched may be not only  languages but also styles, or even dialects. The most important thing, in conducting  code-mixing and switching, speakers must select the code related to the social  contexts and social dimensions.


REFERENCES

Brown, G and Yule, G. 1983. Discourse Analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Brown, P. and Levinson, S. C. 1978. Universals in language usage: politeness Phenomena in (ed.) E.N. Goody.
Bookbug on the Web. 1998-2000. Acronyms Used by Romance Readersand Chatters.
Gumperz, J.J. 1970. Language in Social Groups. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Holmes, Janet. 1992.An Introduction to Sociolinguistics. London: Longman Group UK Limited.
Hudson, R.A. 1980. Sociolinguistics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Lee, Koh Beng and Liamazon, Teodoro A. Patterns in the Acquisition of Bilingual Ability and Language Use in Three South East Asian Countries in Evangelos A. Afendras (Ed). 1980. Patterns of Bilingualism. Singapore University Press.
Richards, Jack and Richard Schmidt. 2002. Longman Dictionary of Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics (3rdEd). Pearson Education Limited.
Romaine, Suzane. 1989. Bilingualism. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.
Trudgill, Peter. 1983. Sociolinguistics: An Introduction. England: Penguin Books Ltd.
Wardhaugh, Ronald. 1998. An Introduction to Sociolinguistics (Third Edition). Oxford: Blackwell Publishers Ltd

PENERJEMAHAN FILM DAN TANTANGANNYA: STUDI KASUS SERIAL FILM “SEX AND THE CITY”

HILDA CAHYANI

Politeknik Negeri Malang

  

ABSTRAK

Ditengah menggeliatnya industri film di Indonesia, kebutuhan akan subtitling tak bisa dihindari. Subtitling, atau terjemahan film, berfungsi membantu penikmat film dalam memahami cerita. Makalah ini mengupas uniknya penerjemahan film dan mengevaluasi ketepatan penerjemahan dalam film “Sex and the City”, suatu serial drama komedi TV HBO yang terkenal. Pendekatan pragmatik dilakukan dalam mengevaluasi ketepatan terjemahannya dan dibuktikan bahwa kualitasnya baik. Meskipun demikian, beberapa ungkapan yang syarat dengan muatan budaya seperti ungkapan humor dan vulgar hendaklah menjadi perhatian seorang subtitler untuk memelihara aspek pragmatiknya disamping mereka juga harus mempertimbangkan ruang dan waktu (segi tampilan) dalam subtitling.

Kata kunci: subtitling, makna, gaya dan aspek teknis.

***

Subtitling yang merupakan suatu wujud terjemahan di era global dewasa ini makin marak dibutuhkan dalam industri perfilman. Subtitling adalah terjemahan dialog film yang biasanya muncul di bawah layar.Dalam menerjemahkan terjemahan film seorang subtitler menghadapi suatu tantangan untuk menampilkan sebuah terjemahan yang sesuai dengan aturan yaitu sesuai dengan pembatasan waktu dan tempat, yaitu setiap pemunculan suatu teks film (subtitle) tidak lebih dari dua baris yang terdiri 30-35 huruf setiap barisnya (Gottlieb, 1997; Hatim &Mason,1997). Disamping itu, pemirsa memiliki waktu yang relatif pendek dalam membaca subtitle yaitu 2,5 sampai 3 detik untuk satu baris subtitle atau 5-6 detik untuk dua baris subtitle. Selain itu perbedaan budaya dan bahasa juga membawa kesulitan bagi penerjemah saat dia harus menerjemahkan film dengan genre yang berbeda-beda. Dengan adanya tantangan tersebut membuat penerjemahan film berbeda dengan bentuk penerjemahan yang lain.

 

 PENERJEMAHAN FILM DAN MASALAHNYA

Menerjemahkan film bukanlah suatu hal yang mudah. Selain harus menyelaraskan gaya dan mood suatu film, kategori pemirsanya juga harus dipertimbangkan. Jika film tersebut untuk orang dewasa dan berpendidikan, wajarlah jika subtitle dibuat panjang dengan melibatkan banyak kata dan kalimat yang rumit. Sedangkan film khusus anak-anak, harusnya subtitle dibuat singkat dan tidak rumit. Berikut adalah contoh subtitling untuk orang dewasa yang terlihat padat dan sarat isi.

Teks Asli Subtitle Bahasa Indonesia
We’re gonna find you a gown that’s black and slimming and you’re gonna look great Kita akan carikan gaun hitam yang melangsing-kanmu dan kau akan terlihat cantik (Film Desperate Housewives)

Akan sedikit berbeda jika penonton film adalah anak-anak, maka subtitling akan lebih efektif jika lebih singkat dengan bahasa yang sederhana.

Teks Asli Subtitle Bahasa Indonesia
You know, horrible things are going to happen. It could happen to you..to you and you!!! Sesuatu mengerikan akan terjadi padamu!!(Film The Simpsons)

Karena subtitle harus dibaca singkat dalam beberapa detik, maka janganlah membuat pemirsa sibuk membaca subtitle. Penerjemah film yang baik haruslah mampu menolong pemirsa untuk menikmati dan memahami film, bukan membuatnya sibuk membaca subtitle yang terlalu panjang. Oleh karena itu, seorang penerjemah haruslah dapat memastikan bahwa suatu subtitle dapat terbaca dan dipahami dengan mudah dalam suatu unit, seperti  layaknya kita memahami teks yang komplit.

Walaupun penerjemahan film ini harus singkat, padat dan penuh arti, adanya gambar dalam layar yang memuat adegan pemainnya akan membantu pemirsa untuk lebih memahami cerita. Dengan kata lain, konteks yang ada di film juga membantu pemirsa memahami subtitle. Seperti dalam film komedi, bukan hanya dialog saja yang bisa membuat penonton tertawa, tetapi adegan dalam film juga membantu terlekatnya pesan kepada pemirsanya, seperti pada contoh subtitling dalam film komedi “Friends” berikut ini:

Teks Asli Subtitle Bahasa Indonesia
Monica: Rachel, you just put an empty carton back in the fridge? Rachel, kau taruhbungkusan kosong kembali ke kulkas?
Rachel: I know but the garbage was full. Aku tahu, tapi sampahnya penuh.(Film Friends)

Gambar yang ada dilayar film secara tidak langsung memang dapat membantu penonton memahami pesan film, tetapi tidaklah mudah untuk menerjemahkan film yang bermuatan humor karena perbedaan budaya dari kedua bahasa akan membawa perbedaan kesan pada penonton dalam menanggapi suatu gurauan, seperti pada contoh di bawah ini:

Teks Asli Subtitle Bahasa Indonesia
If you see a liitle version of me in the map, kill it! Jika kau lihat versi kecilku dipeta itu, bunuh dia!(Film Friends)

Jika yang menonton film tersebut adalah penonton yang mengerti bahasa Inggris, maka dia akan tertawa karena memahami konteks humor dalam film tersebut. Akan tetapi, jika si penonton hanya mengandalkan terjemahan saja, maka sulit baginya untuk tertawa dan menganggap bahwa ungkapan di atas adalah lucu.

Kesulitan menerjemahkan film kemungkinan juga terjadi saat menerjemahkan teks lagu yang memiliki aliterasi dan rima yang biasa kita temukan dalam permainan kata, seperti dalam terjemahan berikut ini:

Teks Asli Subtitle Bahasa Indonesia
I want a revelationAnd sweet salvation Aku ingin sebuah wahyuDan keselamatan
Like sitting meditationYou give me elevation Seperti meditasi dudukKau berikan aku anugrah

(Lagu dalam Film “Music and Lyrics”)

Jika kita rasakan, terjemahan lagu di atas terasa kaku dan penerjemah tidak bisa memelihara rima atau sajak dalam syair film tersebut. Memang tak mudah untuk menerjemahkan lagu agar terlihat sama indahnya jika diterjemahkan. Memelihara rima kata dalam terjemahan walaupun sulit memang perlu dilakukan untuk memberi kesan sama bahwa yang diterjemahkan adalah lagu dan bukan teks biasa.Kenyataannya,kenikmatan sebuah lagu bisa didapat dari asonansi liriknya. Oleh karena itu, penerjemah harus mempertimbangkannya saat menerjemahkan lagu, seperti dalam contoh di bawah ini:

Teks Asli Subtitle Bahasa Indonesia
When you left me all alone at the record hop Ketika kau tinggalkan aku sendiri dalam lantunan lagu
Tell me you were going out for a soda pop Katakan tak akan kau tinggalkan aku demi secangkir madu(Lagu dalam Film Lipstick on Your Collar)

Dibandingkan dengan dubbing, subtitling dewasa ini lebih disukai. Selain bisa belajar bahasa, pemirsa dapat mendengarkan suara asli pemain film tersebut. Dengan bantuan subtitle, pemirsa dapat mendengar suara asli sambil menikmati film. Subtitling mengubah sulih suara kedalam teks film yang ditampilkan dalam layar. Walaupun berupa tulisan, subtitling hendaknya sama dengan maksud ujaran yang ditampilkan oleh pemainnya. Oleh karenanya sifat subtitling haruslah komunikatif. Seperti yang dituangkan oleh Newmark bahwa terjemahan komunikatif adalah terjemahan yang mampu membawa efek yang sama kepada penikmatnya (Newmark, 1988). Dengan kata lain, subtitling yang komunikatif mampu membawa pemirsanya mendapatkan pengalaman yang sama dengan pemirsa asli bahasa tersebut saat menikmati film. Jika yang dilihat adalah film komedi, maka pemirsa harus bisa tertawa. Jika yang dinikmati adalah film thriller yang menegangkan, penonton haruslah ketakutan. Jangan sampai pengalaman tersebut terlewati karena bisa mengurangi kesan dalam film tersebut.

Adabeberapa aturan yang harus diperhatikan oleh penerjemah film (Lina Ho, 2005).

  1. Nama sutradara, produser, aktor dan tim kru yang muncul di opening dan ending-title tidak perlu diterjemahkan.
  2. Lirik lagu hanya diterjemahkan jika merupakan bagian dari isi film. Kalau sekedar merupakan musik ilustrasi, tidak perlu diterjemahkan.
  3. Kalau ada repetisi kata, cukup satu yang diterjemahkan.  Contoh: “come on, come on, come on…” cukup diterjemahkan “ayo”.
  4. Kalau kalimatnya tidak jelas, cukup menerjemah-kan kalimat yang jelas.
  5. Tulisan di papan nama,surat, e-mail, dll. yang ada kaitannya dengan isi cerita harus diterjemahkan.
  6. Ungkapan dan peribahasa jangan diterjemahkan secara harafiah, namun dicari padanannya dalam bahasaIndonesia.
  7. Tidak perlu menerjemahkan semua detil. Kalimat boleh disederhanakan. Detil-detil yang tidak penting boleh dihilangkan. Contoh: “oh, eh, ha ha…”
  8. Dalam subtitling, yang harus diperhatikan adalah timeframe pemunculan subtitle yang didasarkan pada timecode (ukuran waktu dalam hh:mm:ss:ff). Pemunculan subtitle amat ditentukan oleh penentuan in-point dan out-point timecode. Waktu pemunculan subtitle adalah antara 2-7 detik.
  9. Satu subtitle maksimal terdiri dari 2 baris, dan 1 baris maksimal 35 karakter. Pemenggalan kalimat perlu diperhatikan, dengan mempertimbangkan tatabahasa dan logika dalam 1 kalimat.

Contoh pemenggalan yang tidak baik:

Sambil nonton TV, ia makan nasi
goreng buatan ibunya.

Contoh pemenggalan yang baik:

Sambil nonton TV, ia makan

nasi goreng buatan ibunya

 

Dalam makalah ini dibahas bagaimana suatu aliran linguistik, yaitu pragmatik diaplikasikan untuk menilai produk terjemahan. Sebagai obyek penelitian, diambillah suatu film serial “Sex and the City” yang mendapat penghargaan sebagai film drama komedi dengan rating tertinggi yang mendapat pengharagaan Golden Globe Awards (Enrimak, 2006). Serial film ini menceritakan gambar kehidupan di New York yang dipotret dalam enam wanita single yang berusia tiga puluhan. Film ini berisi penuh kebudayaan,gaya hidup, persahabatan dan kehidupan cinta masyarakatNew York. Jelaslah, dengan menonton film, selain belajar bahasa, si penonton juga mempelajari budaya suatu masyarakat yang terpotret dalam suatu film dan tujuan tersebut dapat secara maksimal dicapai salah satunya dengan bantuan subtitling.

Subtitling adalah cabang terjemahan yang menarik untuk dikaji. Sayangnya, belum banyak di Indonesia yang tertarik untuk menelitinya. Kualitas subtitling (dari bahasa Inggris ke Indonesia) dapat dikatakan buruk. Beberapa penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kualitas penerjemahan film perlu dipertanyakan. Seperti terjemahan film “A Few Good Men” format  VCD yang didarkan oleh distributor film terkemuka di Indonesia menunjukkan bahwa kualitas terjemahannya sangat rendah. Hal ini dikarenakan terlalu banyaknya kesalahan penerjemahan menyebabkan penonton mendapat pesan menyesatkan dari film (Cahyani, 2003). Alfons Taryadi dalam harian Kompas membeberkan bahwa banyak sekali produk terjemahan film yang tidak memuaskan. Untuk itu, penelitian di bidang ini masih perlu untuk dilakukan dikarenakan masih jarang dan penerjemahan film ternyata belum banyak mendapat perhatian (Jaskanen, 1999).

 

PENILAIAN KUALITAS PENERJEMAHAN FILM

Sebagaimana yang dinyatakan oleh Nida & Taber (1969) bahwa penerjemahan adalah menciptakan kembali makna dalam bahasa sasaran padanan yang paling mendekati pesan  dalam bahasa sumber, pertama dalam hal makna dan kedua, dalam hal gaya. Pernyataan tersebut berarti penerjemahan yang terpenting adalah pemahaman makna, sebelum sampai pada gaya menerjemahkan.

Pragmatik adalah suatu cabang ilmu linguistik yang menghubungkan sistem tanda dengan si pengguna bahasa. Dalam mengkaji suatu makna, pragmatik merujuk pada apa yang dikatakan oleh si penutur, untuk apa penutur mengutarakan suatu kata, frase atau kalimat. Dengan kata lain pragmatik mengkaji maksud ujaran penutur dengan konteks situasi yang dibangun dalm suatu ujaran. Oleh karena itu, kaidah pragmatik sangatlah cocok jika dihubungkan dengan subtitling yang dalam penerapannya pengkajian suatu makna tidak hanya berdasar pada nilai semantis suatu ujaran/ dialog, tetapi unsur lain seperti situasi, karakter dan jenis film yang dapat mempengaruhi suatu makna. Ada beberapa komponen pragmatik yang bisa dipakai dalam menganalisa terjemahan. Seperti teori tindak tutur oleh J. Austine (1962), prinsip kerja sama (Grice, 1975), teori relevansi (Brown and Levinson, 1987) yang sekarang dikembangkan oleh Sperber dan Wilson (1995).

Penerjemahan dalam pendekatan pragmatik berurusan dengan bagaimana prosedur, proses dan produk terjemahan melihat dari sudut pandang apa yang dimaksudkan oleh penulis di dalam dan diluar teks yang ditulisnya (Hickey, 1998). Apabila suatu teks asli mampu untuk membujuk, menghibur, memohon maaf bahkan menagih hutang, maka penerjemahan dengan pendekatan pragmatik haruslah memiliki kemampuan yang sama. Sehubungan dengan penerjemahan film, penerjemah harus memiliki sensitifitas dalam memahami konteks agar mampu menciptakan terjemahan yang sepadan dengan pesan yang dimaksudkan. Sebagai subtitler, dia harus memelihara koherensi komunikasi antara si pemain film dengan penonton, atau si penulis naskah film dengan penonton. Berbeda dengan teks non literer, penerjemahan karya film (subtitling) perlu melihat suatu makna ujaran bukan hanya dari konteks semantis yaitu makna kata, frase dan kalimat, tetapi juga harus makna yang tersirat, yaitu untuk apa suatu ujaran itu dikomunikasikan.

Makalah ini melibatkan aspek pragmatik dalam menilai produk terjemahan  yang berangkat dari teori dasar penerjemahan oleh Nida dan Taber (1969) yang dilanjutkan oleh pakar subtitling Diaz Cintas (2001) dan  James Heulwen (1998). Beberapa aspek penilaian terjemahan tersebut adalah:

  1. Makna: kriteria ini berfokus sebaik apa penerjemah menuangkan pesan dari bahasa asli ke bahasa sumber. Bagaimana dia memelihara makna yang dimaksud oleh penulis naskah dengan kesulitan-kesulitan seperti dalam area humor, ungkapan yang sarat akan budaya, dsb. Untuk mengkaji hal ini, analisa terfokus pada teori implikatur (Grice, 1975) yang memuat: kuantitas, kualitas, manner (cara) dan relation (hubungan).
  2. Gaya: berhubungan dengan cara penerjemah mengungkapkan terjemahannya dalam bentuk kalimat (Gutt, 1991). Elemengayameliputi:
  3. Struktur teks: penerjemah mampu menciptakan terjemahan yang paling alami dalam bahasa sasaran.
  4. Idiom: penerjemah mampu menerjemahkan idiom dengan sempurna dalam bahasa sasaran.
  5. Diksi : penerjemah berhasil memilih kata yang sesuai dengan konteks yang dimaksud di film.
    1. Aspek Tekhnis: Aspek ini meliputi beberapa aspek yang secara teknis harus dijalani dalam perampungan suatu produk subtitling, yaitu:
    2. Kode waktu: 2,5 sampai 3 detik untuk satu baris subtitle atau 5-6 detik untuk dua baris subtitle
    3. Kesingkronan: pemunculan dan hilangnya subtitle di layar kaca harus sesuai dengan apa yang sedang terjadi dalam film
    4. Susunan: pemunculan suatu teks film (subtitle) tidak lebih dari dua baris yang terdiri 30-35 huruf setiap barisnya
    5. Pemotongan baris: pemotongan baris berdasar pada koherensi subtitle yang muncul dan sebaiknya baris atas lebih pendek dari baris bawah untuk memfasilitasi penonton dalam membaca subtitle.
    6. Huruf: huruf yang digunakan jelas dan berwarna terang sehingga terbaca dengan mudah.

 

MENGEVALUASI PRODUK TERJEMAHAN FILM

Sumber data utama dalam makalah ini adalah subtitle film “Sex and the City” dalam DVD yang terdiri 336 teks terjemahan film dan naskah asli film dalam episode 1 (Anchors Away) season 5. Dalam pengumpulan data, dilakukan beberapa prosedur yaitu pertama menonton film dan mengambil subtitle film dengan media subrip (software untuk mengambil subtitle), dan yang terakhir men-download naskah film dari internet.  Di dalam fase analisa, ada beberapa langkah yang dilakukan:

  1. menentukan kriteria penilaian terjemahan yaitu: makna,gayadan aspek tekhnis
  2. menentukan kriteria ketepatan penerjemahan
  3. mengevaluasi ketepatan penerjemahan
  4. memberikan alternatif  terjemahan

Untuk menentukan kualitas terjemahan film, peneliti memformulasikan suatu kriteria ketepatan penerjemahan yang dipertimbangkan dengan skala kualitatif yang akhirnya dapat diambil suatu kesimpulan umum mengenai kualitas subtitling secara keseluruhan. Kriteria penilaian penerjemahan tersebut terbagi dalam beberapa tingkatan:

1.     Terjemahan tepat:

  • Subtitler dapat  mengalihkan pesan dari bahasa sumber ke bahasa sasaran dengan setia dengan mempertimbangkan konteks pragmatik dalam cerita.
  • Subtitler dapat menerjemahkan dengangayabahasa yang dituangkan dalam kalimat idiomatis dan alami dalam bahasa sasaran dalam konteks: ungkapan, dan pemilihan kata yang tepat.
  • Teks terjemahan film sesuai dengan kaidah teknis subtitling, yaitu dalam hal: kode waktu, singkronisasi, susunan, pemotongan baris dan huruf.

2.     Terjemahan kurang tepat

  • Subtitler dapat mengalihkan pesan dari bahasa sumber ke bahasa sasaran dengan setia dengan mempertimbangkan konteks pragmatik dalam cerita.
  • Subtitler tidak/ kurang dapat menerjemahkan dengangayabahasa yang dituangkan dalam kalimat idiomatis dan alami dalam bahasa sasaran dalam konteks: ungkapan, dan pemilihan kata yang tepat.
  • Teks terjemahan film tidak/ kurang sesuai dengan kaidah teknis subtitling, yaitu dalam hal: kode waktu, singkronisasi, susunan, pemotongan baris dan huruf.

3.     Terjemahan tidak tepat

  • Subtitler tidak dapat mengalihkan pesan dari bahasa sumber ke bahasa sasaran dengan setia dengan mempertimbangkan konteks pragmatik dalam cerita.
  • Subtitler dapat /tidak dapat menerjemahkan dengangayabahasa yang dituangkan dalam kalimat idiomatis dan alami dalam bahasa sasaran dalam konteks: ungkapan, dan pemilihan kata yang tepat.
  • Teks terjemahan film sesuai/ tidak sesuai dengan kaidah teknis subtitling, yaitu: kode waktu, singkronisasi, susunan, pemotongan baris dan huruf.

 

KASUS PENERJEMAHAN FILM PADA SERIAL FILM “SEX AND THE CITY”

Dalam menerjemahkan satu tampilan teks film, penerjemah harus mempertimbangkan ruang dan waktu tanpa meninggalkan tujuan untuk membantu pemirsa memahami cerita dengan mudah. Dalam kasus film serial “Sex and the City” ada terjemahan yang dinilai tepat dipertimbangkan dari tiga aspek: makna, gaya, dan aspek teknis, yaitu seperti dalam kasus di bawah ini.

Teks Asli Subtitle Bahasa Indonesia
Carrie: The time before the baggage and babies began to weigh us down Masa-masa sebelum putus hubungandan bayi mulai membebani kami

Dalam terjemahan di atas, kata baggage (koper) diterjemahkan putus hubungan dalam bahasaIndonesia. Pertimbangan diksi kata tersebut baik sekali dikarenakan kata tersebut membawa makna yang sama. Hanya saja, dalam bahasa sumber, kata “baggage” adalah metafor yang artinya “break up”, sedangkan dalam bahasa Indonesia, si penerjemah dengan mudahnya menggantinya dengan kata “putus hubungan”. Disamping memiliki kualitas makna dangaya memadai, terjemahan ini juga mempertimbangkan aspek teknis, yaitu kode waktunya memadai (5,19 detik), pemunculan teks dengan dialog yang ada di layar singkron, susunan dan pemotongan kata yang sesuai, dan bentuk teks yang menguntungkan pemirsa untuk membaca dengan mudah.

Untuk kasus penerjemahan yang kurang tepat, perhatikan dua dua contoh berikut.

Teks Asli Subtitle Bahasa Indonesia
Charlotte: It’s tragic you were in love andit didn’t work Ya. Tragis sekali bahwa kau jatuh  cinta dan tidak berhasil

Kasus di atas menunjukkan bahwa, dalam segi makna terjemahan tak bermasalah, tetapi dalam segi gaya dapat kita rasakan bahwa kata “tidak berhasil” tidak dapat kita sandingkan dengan konteks orang jatuh cinta karena terasa kaku dan aneh. Oleh karena itu, haruslah penerjemah mempertimbangkan keidi-omatisan suatu ungkapan dalam bahasa sasaran agar teks terbaca alami bukan seperti terjemahan.

Teks Asli Subtitle
Samantha: and I caught him eating another woman’s pussy.Police woman: Carry on, mam Dan aku memergokinya tidur dengan wanita lain./ lanjutkan, bu.

Contoh terjemahan film di atas menunjukkan bahwa penerjemah memutuskan untuk memperhalus kata vulgar ‘eating another woman’s pussy’ kedalam bahasa Indonesia ‘memergokinya tidur dengan wanita lain’. Keputusan tersebut kurang tepat karena dapat mengurangi efek pragmatik dari film tersebut. Konteks di dialog ini terjadi saat ada seorang perempuan bernama Samantha yang sedang memasang gambar pacarnya ‘Richard’ dan menuliskan kata ‘pengkhianat’ di tempat-tempat umum di New York. Tentu saja perilaku Samantha mengundang seorang polisi wanita untuk memperingatkan bahwa hal tersebut melanggar hukum. Tetapi dengan mudahnya Samantha memberitahu polisi itu bahwa dia menempel gambar pacarnya karena dia memergokinya tidur dengan wanita lain. Sehingga, polisi tersebut yang merasa sama wanitanya menyuruh Samantha melanjutkan pekerjaan itu. Mungkin secara pintas, memperhalus kata vulgar bisa membuat pemirsa menerima kata yang dijinakkan tersebut dengan baik. Tetapi, yang harus juga dipertimbangkan adalah efek pragmatiknya. Jika suatu ilokusi dari suatu ungkapan dalam terjemahan diabaikan, maka akan menghasilkan suatu tindakan perlokusi yang tidak relevan. Jadi, jika terjemahan yang dimaksudkan adalah ‘aku memergokinya mengulum anunya wanita lain’ kenapa harus diperhalus dan akibatnya akan tidak relevan pula saat polisi wanita itu langsung menyuruh Samantha melanjutkan pekerjaan itu jika ia tidak mendengar kata-kata vulgar yang diucapkan Samantha.

Dalam kasus penerjemahan yang tidak tepat, dapat dilihat dari dua contoh berikut.

Teks Asli Subtitle Bahasa Indonesia
Carrie:  have we missed the boat? Apakah kami sudah ketinggalan kapal?

Subtitle di atas membawa makna ungkapan (idiom) yang lazimnya tidak diterjemahkan secara literal. Ungkapan ‘apakah kami sudah ketinggalan kapal?’ itu tidak ada dalam bahasa Indonesia yang dampaknya bisa membingungkan penonton. Karenanya, akan lebih baik jika penerjemah mencari idiom sepadan dalam bahasa Indonesia, atau jika tidak ada menuangkannya dalam kalimat yang bermakna sam, seperti menerangkannya dalam kalimat ‘Apa kami sudah tak pantas lagi?’.

Teks Asli Subtitle Bahasa Indonesia
Carrie: and it made me feel desperate.I was now fresh out of great loves. Dan itu membuatku putus asa.Kini aku siap mencari cinta sejati.

Terjemahan di atas dapat dikatakan tidak tepat karena pesan yang terkandung dari bahasa sumber ke bahasa sasaran tidak sepadan. Hal ini terjadi mungkin karena penerjemah salah menginterpretasi suatu kata, seperti kata ‘fresh out’ berarti ‘siap’ (ready). Hal tersebut dapat mengakibatkan perubahan pesan, yang nantinya berdampak pengertian yang berbeda pada penonton film tersebut.

 

KESIMPULAN DAN SARAN

Mengevaluasi penerjemahan film dapat dilihat dari segi pragmatis yang bertumpu pada: makna,gayadan aspek teknis. Dalam aspek makna, terjemahan haruslah memiliki kualitas makna yang sepadan, sehingga banyak aspek yang perlu dipertimbangkan seperti presuposisi, dalam situasi apa suatu dialog terjadi dan tujuan dari suatu teks. Janganlah gara-gara terbatasnya ruang dan waktu, penerjemah mengorbankan makna yang penting dari dialog. Hal tersebut dapat mengakibatkan terlewatnya pesan dari film. Dalam halgaya, penerjemah haruslah menstruktur  kalimat yang alami kedalam bahasa sasaran sehingga dapat meningkatkan kualitas makna dari terjemahan tersebut. Dengangayayang tepat, si penerjemah dapat menjembatani maksud dari penulis asli sehingga terciptalah kontak yang efisien diantara penonton dan cerita dalam film. Sebagai penentu akhir, aspek teknis adalah yang membawa tampilan produk subtitling. Secara keseluruhan, ketiga criteria tersebut memiliki poin penting dalam penentuan ketepatan penerjemahan.

Hasil evaluasi ketepatan penerjemahan menunjukkan bahwa kualitas subtitling dalam film “Sex and the City” adalah baik dikarenakan ketepatan penerjemahan yang ditemukan lebih dari separuh dari keseluruhan subtitles yang ada di film (56,55%). Selain itu, terjemahan kurang tepat hanya ditemukan lebih sedikit daripada terjemahan yang tepat (39,58%) dan akhirnya terjemahan yang tidak tepat ditemukan dengan prosentase terkecil, yaitu 3,87%.

Bahasan di atas menunjukkan bahwa produk subtitling film “sex and the City” adalah baik, tetapi hendaklah kita membuka mata lebar-lebar bahwa pembuktian satu penelitian saja tidak cukup, sehingga penelitian-penelitian lain masih sangat dibutuhkan untuk memperkaya kritik terjemahan. Kasus penerjemahan film di film ini menunjukkan banyaknya ungkapan vulgar yang dijinakkan atau diperhalus dengan harapan dapat diterima dalam bahasa sasaran. Keputusan si penerjemah dalam melakukan hal itu kurang benar karena pemirsa drama komedi ini adalah orang dewasa.  Walau memilki perbedaan budaya, bukan berarti penjinakan bisa dilakukan. Pertimbangan audien adalah yang terpenting bagi penerjemah untuk menentukan register penerjemahannya. Selain itu, penerjemah film hendaknya lebih sensitif dalam memahami makna pragmatik dalam adegan film. Bukan hanya butuh kemampuan berbahasa dalam bahasa sumber dan sasaran, subtitler juga butuh kejelian dalam memahami konteks cerita dan pemahaman akan budaya bahasa sumber dan memiliki kompetensi dalam berbahasa sinema, yaitu berbahasa singkat, padat dan bermakna.

 

 DAFTAR PUSTAKA

Erinmak’s TV synopses Sex and the City.mht. 2006. Last updated on: 15/05/2006 06:40:30

Gottlieb, Henrik. 1997. You Got the Picture- On the Polysemiotics of Subtitling Wordplay. In Dirk Delabastita (ed) Essays on Punning and Translation.Manchester: St.Jerome: 206-232.

Hatim, B & Mason.1997. The Translator as Communicator.London&New York: Routledge.

Hickey, Leo. 1998. The Pragmatics of Translation. Clevedon: Cromwell Press Ltd.

James, Heulwen. 1998. Screen Translation Training and European Co-operation.  Papers from the International Conference Languages & The Media,Berlin, 22-23 November 1996. Ed. Yves Gambier.Turku:University ofTurku,. 243-258.

Jaskanen, Susanna. 1999. On the Inside Track to Loserville, USA: Strategies Used in Translating Humour in Two Finnish of Reality Bites. Unpublished Post Graduate Thesis:University ofHelsinki.

Newmark, Peter. 1988. Approaches to Translation. London: Prentice Hall.

Nida, Eugene, A., & Taber, Charles R. 1969. The Theory and Practice of Translation. Leiden: E.J. Brill.

Ho, Lina. 2005. Penerjemahan Film Televisi. Sebuah Gambaran Umum. PT Indosiar Visual Mandiri.

Sex and the City.  1999-2004. DVD movie. Time Warner Entertainment Company, HBO. Movie Line EntertainmentIndonesia.

Sex and the City film script. 1999. TWIZ TV l Sex In The City Episode Transcript.htm

ENGLISH TEACHING AND ‘RSBI’ SCHOOLS

Subekhi Hadi Purnomo

State Polytechnic of Malang

  

ABSTRACT

Bilingual education programs in Indonesia are becoming popular and many parents are very keen on sending their children to these bilingual classes. Bilingual classes which are offered by many schools, which usually have the label of RSBI or SBI have not been running without criticisms. Critics ask about the effectiveness of the bilingual learning. Questions are also raised about the issues of high rates of school fee and the English competence of the teachers. Nevertheless, parents believe that bilingual classes can provide their children with better education because these classes are equipped with better facilities and technologies and more qualified teachers. Then, what can be the trend of the bilingual classes in the future?

Keywords: bilingual, bilingual classes, RSBI/SBI, English

***

What so called bilingual school or class is now becoming popular among parents who hope to get better education for their children. More and more parents registering their children to enter these bilingual classes which more and more schools are offering to meet this increasing “demand.”

Bilingual classes are usually offered by a school which has been appointed to be an RSBI (Rintisan Sekolah Bertaraf International) or SBI (Sekolah Bertaraf International). However, some schools which are not RSBI or SBI are also offering bilingual classes, and they are always looked forward to by many parents. According to UU No. 20/2003 (Sistem Pendidikan Nasional) each municipal must have at least one school to be an SBI (Article 50 Verse 3). This requires the local government (lit. Dinas Pendidikan) to choose one school or more which has met some certain criteria set up by the Ministry of Education.

There are some questions that should be raised about this bilingual education. These questions are (1) what is actually bilingual education, (2) why parents want their children to go to the bilingual classes, (3) the problems with bilingual education, and (4) what will this kind of education look like in the future? This article attempts to answer these questions. This article is summarized from many different sources.

 

BILINGUAL EDUCATION OF RSBI/SBI

What is actually a bilingual education program, and why was it established? Bilingual education is the practice of teaching the core subjects in at least two different languages as the media of instruction (Subadi, 2009). In bilingual education where English is used as a second or foreign language, the students are taught math and sciences in the foreign language and social studies in their native language (Williams, 2009).

Now then, why is this bilingual education is implemented? In the Indonesian context, the purpose of this program is to improve the quality of the human resources to compete in the global era. We have already realized that education in Indonesia is not as good as that in other countries, even the ASEAN countries. According to the report of Monitoring Global Report issued by the UNESCO in 2005, Indonesia was the 10th of 14 developing countries in Asia-Pacific area, and the first rank was Thailand. A survey of World Competitiveness Year Book 2007, Indonesia ranked 53 among 55 countries being surveyed. Thus, the quality of human resources is still very low, and this has become the concern of the Ministry of Education.

For this reason, the Ministry of Indonesia launched a Peraturan Pemerintah (PP) 19/2005 about the National Standard of Education in which each municipal must have at least one international school as stated in Article 61 Verse (1):

“Pemerintah bersama-sama pemerintah dae-rah menyelenggarakan sekurang-kurangnya satu satuan pendidikan pada jenjang pen-didikan dasar dan sekurang-kurangnya satu satuan pendidikan pada jenjang pendidikan menengah untuk dikembangkan menjadi satuan pendidikan bertaraf internasional.”

This PP covers eight key standards which are the standards of (1) content, (2) process, (3) competency of graduates, (4) educators and educational human resources, (5) facilities, (6) management, (7) financing, and (8) educational evaluation.

These standards are parts of the requirement that a school should meet to be labeled as an RSBI or SBI. When these are not met they are required to improve themselves to meet the requirements. To enrich the requirements, the curriculum for the RSBI or SBI should refer to the one which has been roughly outlined in the PP and to the curriculum adopted from the education system of a developed country. By doing this, it is hoped that the graduates will have better qualification and can continue their study to a school or university overseas.

The main purpose of the RSBI/SBI is to develop awareness toward the importance of continuous learning and better achievement due to the changing and developing sciences and different cultures. The teacher of RSBI/SBI are designed to be a figure who understands well the meaning of learning concepts such as deep-learning, higher order thinking skills, and contextual learning and knows well different characteristics of his/her students (Fahriza,  2009). The students are eventually led to develop independent learning, responsibility, cooperation with other students, honesty, and tolerance. With these they can be better human resources who can compete globally.

 

PARENTS’ EXPECTATIONS

RSBI or SBI seems to have become a magnet to many parents who want to register their children to these schools. They have the understanding that these schools are more qualified than the regular ones. They may be right about this but is it because these schools use English as the language of instruction? Or are there other reasons for entering these schools.

There are several pieces of eminence, which make RSBI or SBI better than the regular schools. Some of them are described here.

1)    The use of English as a medium of instruction in the classroom can improve the students’ mastery of English. Though there have been debates over this issue, it still attracts many parents.

2)    With enough fund from the government and high rates of school fee the school can improve the facilities for the teaching-learning process. Most of the RSBI or SBI classrooms are equipped with LCD projectors, or television sets with DVD or VCD players. The laboratories are also renewed with more sophisticated tools or machines. This can eventually improve the quality of the teaching-learning process where IT is applied in the classes.

3)    The requirements set for RSBI or SBI by the government require the schools to improve all things related to the school management and the learning. The eight national standards make the schools to fix everything, which will eventually also change the mindset of the teachers and educational staff. It, of course, will increase the quality of the schools.

4)    The adoption and/or adaptation of the curriculum and teaching-learning methodologies from a developed country make the graduates possible to achieve international standard of education. As a result they may continue their study overseas to any school or university which has similar standards.

Despite the four advantages above, more issues about RSBI/SBI can be added to the list. Prestige is one of them. Parents feel to have more prestige when their children can go to RSBI/SBI, sometimes not considering the cost that they have to pay.

 

PROBLEMS WITH RSBI OR SBI

The implementation of RSBI or SBI has not been successful without criticisms. Many criticisms have been expressed by people of many different professions, from the students themselves to experts of education. The following are some points of the problem which are summarized from many different references.

Some of the problems with the bilingual program (lit. RSBI or SBI) that follow the birth of this program can be listed as follows:

  1. The government, through the Ministry of Education, seems to make the program as to meet the requirements that have been stated in the national act (lit. Undang-undang), and they did not look carefully at the readiness of the schools to do the program. This could have made the program not run well because it was not prepared well either.
  2. The schools, on the other hand, accept to do the program because of the finance that they will get when they do it even though they might not be ready and do not have enough facilities to meet the requirements.
  3. In practice, the local government (lit. municipal education agency) tends to distribute the opportunity evenly to the schools without looking at the quality of those schools. Usually it prioritizes the state schools, not private ones though they are better.
  4. The school fees of RSBI and SBI are so high that only rich parents will be able to send their children to these schools. For this reason the abbreviation RSBI is frequently slipped to be “Rintihan Sekolah Bertarif International (lit. a moan for an international school fee).
  5. According to Santoso (2010) the RSBI or SBI schools are not well implemented and organized. The person(s) in charge are not able to complete the reports which are needed for evaluation. From all RSBIs or SBIs in Indonesia (136 SDs, 300 SMPs, 320 SMAs and 118 SMKs), there were 139 schools last year which could not complete the report on time. It may show that when these schools are not well organized, their quality may deteriorate.

Furthermore, according to Pillai (2005), the problems with the bilingual schools are as the following. Though his opinions are not related directly to RSBI or SBI in the Indonesian context, they may be applicable to this kind of school. There are five points that he raises.

  1. The system of bilingual education requires special teachers with certain criteria of competence and special classrooms with certain facilities to facilitate leaning. This causes gaps between the teachers and different treatment and facilities which as a result causes social gaps amongst the students, teachers, and parents.
  2. The bilingual education program in the USA eventually increased the drop-out rates. The bilingual program was unsuccessful which resulted in 35% rate of drop out. This makes people feel that this rate doesn’t justify the costs involved in providing bilingual education.
  3. Bilingual education requires a number of trained teachers who are proficient in both English and their native language, in which English is one of the mediums of instruction in most cases. However, the available number of these teachers is not equal to the demand. In Indonesia, many teachers were not brave enough to teach in the bilingual classes.
  4. As mentioned previously, the bilingual program requires special classrooms that can accommodate the bilingual learning. In the teaching and learning process the students and the teachers are expected to use optimally the facilities which can facilitate the use of the second or foreign language.
  5. Bilingual program requires a lot of money for the facilities which are needed. These include the development of the curriculum, the materials, the classroom equipment, etc. Nevertheless, the schools do not usually have enough money to afford them. School fees are not enough, thus government funding is very necessary.

 

THE FUTURE OF RSBI OR SBI

What will this kind of education be like in the future? Looking at the advantages and disadvantages of these schools, parents will still choose them as the place for their children to study, regardless the high school fees that they have to pay. In spite of the disadvantages mentioned earlier, the schools are developing to achieve all objectives that have been set up by the government.

This kind of school will still be implemented until the government of Indonesia finds that the quality of human resources is better than or at least equal to that of ASEAN countries. The quality of Indonesian human resources should be continuously improved as required by the relevant legal acts; therefore, RSBI or SBI will be continuously implemented and improved along the way. With the government financial support the schools will be able to make progressive improvement.

At the earlier stage of the establishment of RSBI/SBI problems and constraints may have existed along the way, but as it is progressing and developing these problems and constraints are solved and eliminated. Better design and format of the teaching-learning process will also be achieved which leads to better accomplishment of the objectives of the schools.

When RSBIs or SBIs can eventually provide significant evidence that they are qualified schools, parents will keep sending their children to the schools.

 

REFERENCES

Abuja, Gunther. –. European Centre for Modern Languages: Bilingual Education – Resume of the work from 1995 to 1998. Centre for School Development, Graz, Austria.

Fahriza,  Fahmi. 2009. Tentang Sekolah Bertaraf Internasional. Harian Sinar Harapan, Selasa 12 Mei 2009 [online] from http://www.sinarharapan.co.id/ detail/article/tentang-sekolah-bertaraf-internasional/

Pillai, Prabhakar. 2005.  The advantages of bilingual education. Retrieved from http://www.buzzle.com/articles/advantages-of-bilingual-education.html

Pillai, Prabhakar. 2005.  The disadvantages of bilingual education. Retrieved from http://www.buzzle.com/articles/disadvantages-of-bilingual-education.html

Rumongso. 2010. Rintisan Sekolah Bertarif Mahal. Harian Joglo Semar. Retrieved from: http://www.harianjoglosemar.com/berita/rintisan-sekolah-bertarif-mahal-17419.html

Santoso, Paulus Waris. 2010. (Rintisan) Sekolah Berstandar Internasional Itu. Retrieved from: http://www.kompasiana.com/waris_santoso-11 May 2010.

Subadi. 2009. RSBI Terus SBI, Gurunya Bagaimana? Harian Jambi Ekspress. Senin, 13 Juli 2009. Retrieved from: http://www.jambiekspres.co.id/index.php/guruku/4330-rsbi-terus-sbi-gurunya-bagaimana.html

What is bilingual education? Retrieved from: http://www.proenglish.org/issues/ education/What is bilingual education1.mht – Feb 24, 2010

Williams, Margaret M. 2009. Teach ESL Students in Native Languages or Through English Immersion. U.S. Bilingual Education Controversy Continues. Retrieved from http://esllanguageschools.Suite 101.com/ article.cfm – Sep 13, 2009.

DEVELOPING COMMUNICATIVE SKILLS-BASED READING MATERIALS FOR TECHNICAL ENGLISH COURSE OF CIVIL ENGINEERING STUDY PROGRAM STATE POLYTECHNIC OF MALANG

Tutuk  Widowati

State Polytechnic of Malang

 

ABSTRACT

Reading is the most suitable skill in English for Specific Purposes (ESP) teaching and learning process. However, other skills should be accommodated in it. This study aims at developing appropriate communicative skills-based reading materials for Technical English 1 (TE 1) Course at Civil Engineering Study Program (CESP) State Polytechnic of Malang. The proposed materials had to go through expert verifications and revisions. Then the revised materials experienced field try-outs and revisions to be validated as a final product. A recycle was done to strengthen the validation. There are 7 units of reading developed based on Contextual Teaching and Learning (CTL) method, completed with appropriate learning activities and assessment techniques. The implementation of CTL approach has brought about betterment in the teaching and learning process of TE 1 Course for CESP students State Polytechnic of Malang.

Key Words: skills-based, CTL, recycle, betterment

 

***

So far the teaching of TE 1 Course at CESP was not optimum as the method was  teacher-centered with presenting a reading text, doing the exercises, and doing homework. The achievement of  TE 1 Course of 2006 Academic Year was 52.80% dominated by  grade C and the grade class average  was from 2.39 to 2.58. Gebhard (2000:49) also states that some English as a Foreign Language (EFL) classes are taught in a fairly teacher-centered fashion.

In his unpublished paper Baradja (2004) states that the purpose of teaching ESP is to help students read and understand books, manuals, journals, etc. on their field of study. The time allotment of once a week for ESP teaching at the university is not sufficient. In such conditions he suggests the teaching be emphasized on reading and comprehension.

In Indonesia where English is taught as a foreign language, the learning-teaching of reading is of particular importance (Baradja, 1999:1). Learners are expected to read a lot if they are really serious in their effort to master English well. This is the cheapest, easiest, and most effective way to acquaint them-selves with the language, the customs, the political adherence, the kinship system, the educational sys-tem, the beliefs, etc. of the English speaking people.

Hutchinson and Waters (1987) say for some reasons, there is already an established tradition of  ESP teachers producing in-house materials. It is teacher’s awareness of knowing much about the situational condition of his/her class, students’ type, students’ needs, and students’ ability that makes in-house materials developed.

As the teaching of English in Indonesia has been considered ineffective (Baradja, 2004; Latief, 2002), a radical revolutionary change in the educational paradigm has been done from Behavioristic to Constructivistic (Contextual) paradigm. Audiolingual method is not suggested, it must be replaced with communicative techniques in which Contextual Teaching and Learning (CTL) is included.

ESP teaching at CESP is best based on CTL. It can be defined as a learning concept which helps the teacher to connect the teaching materials with the students’ real world and supports the students to connect their knowledge with the application in their daily lives.

 

ENGLISH FOR SPECIFIC PURPOSES

 

The scope and diversity of human thought and experience place great demands on language (O’Grady, 1989:1). Widdowson  in Nunan (1993:24) says “ … ESP is essentially a training operation which seeks to provide learners with a restricted competence to enable them to cope with certain clearly defined tasks”.

According to Suryawinata (1993:4) teaching ESP is an activity which should involve the students, their minds, and their emotions. It should interest them and make them enjoy. In this way they will be motivated to use ESP to express their own ideas, and this induces their creativity, which in turn results in real communication and learning.

Different interests and needs contribute to the rise of ESP and result in the development of relevant courses to the needs. The standard way of achieving relevance was to take texts from the learners’ specialist area (Hutchinson and Waters, 1987).

Related to the needs, Algadrie (2002:106) states needs analysis is most often needed where the learners in need of specific situation face very similar difficulties. The purpose of the analysis is not only to identify elements but also to find relative importance: what is the most desired. For example Herbolics in Hutchinson and Waters gives five reasons for choosing an object of the project:”The mechanism should be (1) relatively new to the students; (2) related to a field of engineering; (3) a device which allowed the attainment of new lexis; (4) a device which actually would operate; and (5) enjoyable to construct and test”.

In conclusion, to develop ESP materials needs analysis must be taken into account, and the concept of learning must be the root of the activities. Teaching aims at making the students learn.

 

 CONTEXTUAL TEACHING AND LEARNING

“Contextual Teaching and Learning (CTL) is a holistic system that helps students see meaning in the academic material they are studying by connecting academic subjects with the context of their daily lives” (Johnson, 2002:25).

Johnson describes CTL as a teaching and learning process based on the philosophy that students will learn something when they find meaning in the instructional materials and be able to link new information with their prior knowledge and experiences. Contextual approach is a teaching method that emphasizes learning by doing.

Further she quotes that teaching should be offered in context. ‘Learning in order to know ‘ should not be separated from ‘learning in order to do’ (US Department of Labor in Nurhadi, 2003). “Contextual” is derived from ‘context’ which replaces ‘applied’. Contextual also directs thinking toward experiences. When ideas are experienced, used in context, they have meaning.

In conclusion CTL is a learning concept which helps the teacher to connect his teaching materials with the students’ real world and supports the students to connect their knowledge with the application in their daily lives.

Latief (2002:254) sums up seven components of effective learning which characterize CTL. They are (1) constructivism, (2) questioning, (3) inquiry, (4) modeling, (5) learning community, (6) authentic assessment, and (7) reflection.

 

Constructivism

 

Constructivism is a philosophical basis believes that knowledge is constructed by humans degree by degree whose result is expanded through a limited context. It does not occur in a sudden. Latief says that the characteristics of constructivistic teaching paradigm is the active involvement of the students in learning process in accordance with one’s ability, prior knowledge, and learning style with the teacher’s help as a facilitator who helps them when they find difficulties in learning.

 

Questioning

Constructivistic paradigm is a specific characteristic of contextual-based learning in which the students raise some questions in the teaching and learning process (Latief, 2002:256). Such process able to build students’ eagerness for quest is said to be a successful one. Questioning is a fundamental for the teacher and the students in an inquiry-based teaching and learning.

In other words, questioning is an essential strategy for both the teacher and the students. For the teacher it is a teaching activity able to encourage, guide, and assess the students’ understanding skill; for the students it is an important means to obtain information, to bring information to their knowledge, and to nurture the vivid ideas. To question well is to teach well (Cooper in Nurhadi, 2003:45).

 

Inquiry 

Inquiry is a scientist strategy in which the students are encouraged to do observing, questioning, answering, gathering information, and concluding (Latief, 2002:257). Beginning with observation, questioning which require answers follow. To answer the question, the students have to gather information through analyses to produce rational conclusions.

Inquiry learning gives active and concrete experiences to the students to take the initiative, to solve problems, to make decisions, and to conduct researches which lead them to life-long education. Hence, the students learn to use their critical and creative thinking.

 

Learning Community

Learning community is created based on the concept of collaborating. CTL encourage students to engage in a mutual learning activity to help each other by sharing one’s different knowledge, experiences or skills to enlarge others’. In this case, everyone in the group is expected to be able to ask question and concern other’s opinion. They have none of competition or domination. All of them are responsible to succeed their group instead (Latief, 2002:259). A student in collaboration with his/her peers will gain better achievement than individual learning.

 

Modeling

Modeling refers to the existence of a model to imitate in the teaching and learning process (Nurhadi, 2003:49). Both the teacher and the students can be the model of the teaching and learning activities. At first the teacher should demonstrate or ask a student to demonstrate how to do something to the class so the others can imitate it. Besides, modeling can be given when finding difficulties or getting stuck. However, the teacher should let the students creatively find the most suitable way of learning for themselves.

 

Authentic Assessment

The right alternative to conventional technique of evaluating is authentic assessment (Latief, 2002:261). It is a process of evaluating the contextual-based teaching and learning process which does not only assess the students based on the standardized test but also on the inquiry learning process.

The term authentic assessment is to describe the multiple forms of assessment that reflect students learning, achievement, motivation, and attitudes on instructionally-relevant classroom activities (O’Malley, 1996:4).

Latief also mentions some characteristics of authentic assessment: (1) assessment is not separated from teaching and learning process, (2) the result of the assessment can be used to improve the teaching and learning process, (3) task is not too different from the real world.

 

Reflection

According to Latief (2002:262) reflection is a self-evaluation of the effectiveness of the teaching by the teacher and the effectiveness of the learning strategies by the students. By doing so, the teacher is able to see what activities are not appropriate and the student is able to see his/her own mistakes. These inputs are required to improve the teaching and learning process.

 

RESEARCH METHOD

Qualitative research is employed as the developer wants to nurture a specific style (Bogdan, 1998: 235). This study is a Research and Development which employs a series of activities to develop and validate reading materials.

Respondent and Sampling

There were 3 different groups of respondents consisting of about 90 CESP students each. The first was of the first year going to take the course called the prospective subjects; the second was of the second year taking the course called the present subjects; and the last was of the third year having got the course called the past subjects.

Ninety sets of questionnaires were returned by the present subjects. Random sampling is employed and the writer took 50 samples which represents more than 50% of the entire population to generalize findings.

Instruments

There were three different questionnaires. The first was given to the prospective subjects to reveal their needs of English materials and expectation of English teaching at CESP. The second was given to the present subjects to give feedback from the developed materials. The third was given to the past subjects to see the result of the developed materials.

Interviews about the marks, the background, the attitude, the motivation, the level of difficulty, the significance of English acquisition, and the preference of learning English style were given to the present subjects.

Data  Collection

Try-out was employed to evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of the revised materials. This was to obtain data of material validity including the appropriateness of the materials, strengths, and weaknesses. The first try-out was when experts re-viewed the materials. The second was field tryout in which the reviewed materials were implemented. On-going observations were conducted to validate the materials, and the results were used to revise the materials again.

The try-out design was first applied for opinions, comments, suggestions, or even criticisms from the experts to revise the proposed materials. The second was applied for feedback from the class who used the revised materials. Based on the feedback, the revised materials were revised again and implemented in the next class teaching. Observation was carried out to see whether the materials needed revising or not.

First of all, a survey was conducted to get the data of needs assessment. Based on the result of the needs survey, a set of reading materials completed with some techniques of delivery, learning activities, and assessment techniques were developed through selecting and sequencing.

The proposed materials were verified by experts who are a master in teaching ESP and a master in teaching material development. Then the result of the verifications was used to revise the materials and the revised materials were tried out in the classroom teaching to validate. In order to produce appropriate product for the designated students, some revisions were made based on expert and empirical validations.

The first questionnaires addressed to the prospective subjects contributed crucial data to the materials development since they represented the students’ needs.

The second questionnaires given to the present subjects were intended to see the attainment of each topic, the teaching technique, the level of difficulty, and the applicability.

The third questionnaires addressed to the past subjects also contributed important data to see whether the developed materials meet the needs or not. The questionnaires comprise the appropriate-ness, level of difficulty, interest, and the inclusion of the seven components of CTL.

Interviews were conducted to get some supporting information of the present subjects like the background, the attitude, the motivation, the preference of learning English style, etc.

Further, interviews and discussions were also carried out to the verifiers (experts) to gather information concerning the suggestions, comments, and opinions of the developed materials.

The first verification data presented the analyses of instructional objectives, material sequence, teaching and learning activities, and the presentation of the material.

Validation was done by discussing the data collected through questionnaires, observations, and interviews with the experts to revise the material.

Verification was done by revising the materials based on the feedbacks from both the experts and the subjects.

 

FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONS

The findings cover results of: (1) needs analysis, (2) expert verifications, (3) field try-outs, (4) interviews, (5) validations, and (6) product of communicative skills-based reading materials.

Result of Needs Analysis

The findings of the needs are based on the data of the needs survey covering questionnaires for prospective subjects, interviews and questionnaires for present subjects, and questionnaires for past subjects.

Table 1 Priority of the Four Skills

Skill Respondents Percentage
ListeningSpeakingReadingWriting

6

36

6

2

12%

72%

12%

4%

The finding shows that Speaking is the top priority and it is in line with the emphasized skill to acquire according to Buku Pedoman Politeknik Negeri Malang. It implies that students realize the learning needs that will direct them from lacks to necessities. The ability of speaking can be used to measure one’s language acquisition. That is why most job recruitments require the applicants’ English speaking ability.

 

Table 2 Significance of Listening

Significance   Respondents    Percentage
TOEICSongs/filmsInstructionsMiscellany

13

4

24

9

26%

8%

48%

18%

 

Students’ needs for Listening mostly are for understanding instructions. Almost half of the respondents agree to acquire listening in order to understand instructions which reveal an idea of students’ awareness of learning English. This is in line with the objective of teaching ESP that is to under-stand written or oral instructions. It means that the students already know the purpose of learning English.

 

Table 3 Significance of Speaking

  Significance   Respondents    Percentage
Job interviewPresentation/DiscussionConversation

Miscellany

12

15

17

6

24%

30%

34%

12%

 

Conversation takes priority over presentation or discussion and job interview though the difference is slight. It is understood as most of the students are   familiar with conversation.

The result pictures students as learners who consciously know the importance of speaking. Knowing the importance is a trigger for the students to speak. What the writer has to do is providing a conducive atmosphere (Murdibjono, 2001) in which the students are eager to share their knowledge and experience in a presentation or discussion.

 

Table 4 Significance of Reading

   Significance   Respondents   Percentage
Test questionManualTextbookMiscellany

8

16

22

4

16%

32%

44%

8%

 

Reading textbook is significant. It implies that students deal with some books in English. Compared to answering test question, reading manual is more important. It stands to reason as CESP students read a lot of manuals/instructions. Both evidence stud-ents’ definite purpose of reading which is in line with the purpose of ESP teaching stated by Baradja (2004) and Suryawinata (1993).

 

Table 5 Significance of Writing

   Significance   Respondents    Percentage
Test questionReportAbstractMiscellany

8

10

25

7

16%

20%

50%

14%

 

Abstract writing seems to dominate in the table as half of the respondents consider writing skill is significant to writing abstract. It is reasonable since at the end of the study CESP students to write abstract of their final project in English.

The second priority is for writing report. Students consider it is prior to answer test question due to their tasks of writing report after workshop or laboratory practice.

 

Table 6 Needs of English Material 

English   Respondents    Percentage
GeneralTechnicalBusinessMiscellany

9

35

2

4

18%

70%

4%

8%

 

It is clearly shown in the table that most of the students agree to get technical English. When technical English is dominant, it means that the students already know what they need to support their study.

 

Table 7 Needs of English Teaching

         Base   Respondents    Percentage
GrammarHigh school-likeCompetenceMiscellany

7

4

35

4

14%

8%

70%

8%

 

Having the same number of respondents with material needs, the choice of English teaching is competence-based. It implies that the students smartly think about the need of skill able to support their hard skill.

Twenty out of fifty respondents stated that English teaching in high school was pleasing, yet only five want to have high school-like teaching. It means that they need refreshment in learning English.

The materials were developed to provide the third semester CESP students of State Polytechnic of Malang models and exercises designed to enliven the students’ English skills.

In developing the materials, first the developer got the learning objectives of each unit which cover cognitive strategy, motor skills, and attitude domain (Gagne, 1985). Secondly, she chose the texts as the  models that were suitable for the learning objectives.

Each unit comprises four types of exercises as the following: context analysis  to assist students understand the text, language point  to raise students’ grammatical awareness of form and use, writing exercise to direct students to practice their knowledge in making a report, presentation to encourage the students to practice their English.

 

  Data Analysis

The data obtained from the questionnaires were quantified, criticisms and suggestions were classified. Both the verification data from the questionnaires and suggestions from the experts were analyzed to revise the proposed materials. Revisions for the revised material were made when, of course, negative responses was greater than positive ones as the result of the questionnaires from the students and classroom observations. Respectively, the results of classroom observation were used to revise the teaching strategies.

 

Expert Verifications

With reference to the expert verifications, re-visions were carried out before the revised materials were tried out in the classroom teaching.

 

Result of Field Try-outs

Having been revised based on the expert verifications, the materials had to be tried out to the students for empirical validation. The questionnaires were randomly given to five present subjects of each class after the implementation of a unit to evaluate the materials. The following is the result with 70 respondents.

Most respondents (71.4%) rated the attainment ‘sufficient’, ‘a lot’ was rated by 10% and ‘not too much’ to learn by18.6%. According to 81.4% respondents the teaching was ‘good’, 18.6% stated ‘moderate’. The complexity was judged ‘sufficient’ by 84.3% followed by ‘too difficult’ by 8.5% and ‘easy’ by 7.2%.

The developer had taken the texts and dialogue from the students’ specialist area as suggested by Hutchinson and Waters, the materials were considered ‘sufficient’ by 64.3% respondents; ‘interesting’ by 34.3%; and ‘not interesting’ by 1.4%. According to them the teaching and learning process was not boring, but the comprehension must be cleared. The materials were understood, but the explanations were at a fast pace. Further, they suggested that the teacher should guide the students and be close to them.

They also stated the teaching method was good and interesting, so they were still enthusiastic to join the class in the last periods. Teacher was supposed to maintain the teaching style and give more vocabularies. In conclusion, the content and the method are already based on the student’s reason for learning as stated by Hutchinson and Waters.

 

Result of Interviews

Interviews were also conducted to 30 present subjects from different classes to get the personal background. The interviews were about the English subject marks, the graduates, the attitude, the motivation, the acquisition, the difficulty, the significance, and the learning style. The following is the result.

Most (56.67%) of the students were good at English subject as they got 7- 9. It implies that they will be potential to get good marks in TE 1 Course.

Although vocational high school graduates are expected to enroll in Polytechnic, the numbers of senior high school have been dominant (60%). In such condition, the students’ English achievement must be good too as it is noted that senior high school graduates achieve better than vocational high school graduates.

More than a half of the respondents (53.34%) acquire good attitude to English subject. Obviously, it is expected to be a trigger to learn TE 1 Course. While the poor (6.66%) contributes laziness as they were not sure of the benefit of English.

It seems that attitude and motivation are in line. When students acquire good attitude (53.34%) toward English subject, they are expected to be strong motivated to learn TE 1 Course. At the same time the low motivated (13.32%) contributes denial and tire-some as English is not a major subject.

To most students (66.66%) English is not too difficult to acquire. On the other hand, it is difficult to acquire by 16.67% of the respondents. After all it is still a good hint of good TE 1 Course achievement.

Further the difficulties vary from grammar (33.33%), vocabulary (30%), to speaking (20%). They become inputs to consider, especially the 16.67% who have difficulty in grammar, vocabulary, and speaking. The learning activities of the developed materials are expected to cover the difficulties.

According to 50% of the respondents English acquisition is significant, but not much for 13.32%. It seems that significance has a close relationship with attitude and motivation. Logically, when students know the significance, they will have good attitude and strong motivation.

Concerning the learning style, 63.34% of the respondents like to learn in group which is agreeable with a CTL component of learning community. How-ever, 16.67% is still confident with teacher-centered style.

Result of Validations

The developed materials were verified by experts to get some feedback to revise the materials. Next, the revised materials were tried out in the classroom teaching, evaluated, and  revised again when necessary to get expert and empirical validations. Table 8 is the result of expert validations.

 

Table 8 Result of Aspects Validations

Aspect Very Good Good Poor
1.Instructional  Objectives2.Theory of Learning3.Theory of Language

4.Validity

5.Authenticity of Language

6.Appropriateness of Topics

7.Currency of Topics

8.Proficiency Level

9.Variety from Control to Free

10.Clarity

v

v

v

vv

v

v

vv

vv

v

vv

v

v

v

v

v

v

Having been discussed and revised, the validations result in good ranging of the tasks. The tasks provide authentic activities and contexts. In addition, they are challenging to think since the students have got some subjects dealing with the topics. As a result, students are able to link their learning with their daily lives. In other words, the learning activities are appropriate for the designated level.

 

Product of Developed Materials

Having been verified, revised, tried out, and re-cycled, the communicative skills-based materials were completed. Out of 50 respondents, 94% state the appropriateness is of high relevance as the reading materials supply topics relevant to civil engineering. The areas of good material criteria are indicated by 64% who agree that the complexity is moderate, 20% state that the materials are easy, and 16% state they are difficult. A material is said to be good when it is neither too difficult nor too easy for the learners (Baradja, 2004). It is supported by 54% who agree that the materials are applicable, 44% sufficient, and 1 respondent agrees they are less applicable.

Brain storming is sufficiently given in teaching and learning process according to 72% respondents and 20% say ‘often’. It means that constructivism contained in the materials meets approval.

Question and answer of questioning component is said to be ‘sufficient’ by 52% and ‘often’ by 42%. Another CTL component of inquiry represented in problem solving is ‘sufficient’ according to 56% and ‘often’ according to 40%.

Group work and discussion—the representation of learning community—gets 58% for ‘sufficient’ and 22% for ‘often’. It implies that learning com-munity has been sufficiently accommodated.

Concerning the instruction and example as modeling, ‘sufficient’ is in the first position with 50%, ‘clear’ with 44%. It means that modeling has been carried out well.

Following ‘often’ with 58%, ‘sufficient’ with 42% occupies the second position in authentic assessment which is represented in presentation. It means that authentic assessment has been conducted very well.

At the same time reflection—the last component of CTL represented in drawing conclusion—is more than enough. It is proved by 56% who state ‘sometimes’ and 32% state ‘often’.

 

CONCLUSION

 

The practical understanding of CTL components has met the purpose of the research to develop 7 units of communicative skills-based reading materials appropriate for TE 1 Course of CESP State Polytechnic of Malang. As quoted by Nunan, it is a training operation to meet the demands and relevance of teaching and learning process, so it is completed with appropriate learning activities and assessment techniques.

The materials were developed based on needs analysis which shows speaking as the first priority. This is in line with the institutional objective of State Polytechnic of Malang. Further, this priority was taken into account in the framework of developing communicative materials. Besides, the topics are developed and adapted based on the students’ specialist area and teacher’s field experiences to make the teaching and learning process interesting and enjoyable as a result of involving students’ minds and emotions as stated by Suryawinata.

The inclusion of writing and speaking skills enlivens meaningful learning activities which, in turn, will result in better understanding as they demand learning by doing. Based on the result of CESP judicial decision in the odd semester of 2007 Academic Year, grade B dominated TE 1 Course after the implementation of the developed materials. It shows betterment from C (52.8%) to B (59.1%) with Grade Class Achievement (GCA) of 2.45 to 3.13. the odd semester recycle to 2008 Academic Year students also resulted better GCA of 2.74 to 3.33.

 

REFERENCES

 

Algadrie, L. 2002. Needs Analysis: Strategic Issue on the Teaching of English for Specific                            Purpose for the Study of Sciences and Technology. TEFLIN Journal, Vol. XIII, No. 1, February.

Baradja, M.F. 1999. Learning-Teaching EFL Reading. A paper presented at a Seminar on   Teaching English in State Polytechnic of Malang.

Baradja, M.F. 2004. Selayang Pandang Mengenai Belajar Mengajar Bahasa Inggris yang Efektif dan Efisien. A paper presented in a Workshop on English Teaching and Learning. Civil Engineering State Polytechnic of Malang. June.

Bogdan, R.C, Sari Knopp Biklen. 1998. Qualitative Research in Education. An Introduction to Theory and Methods. Needham  Heights, M A 02194. A Viacom Company. Third Edition.

Gagne, R. 1985. The Condition of Learning. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.

Gebhard, J.G. 2000. Teaching English as a Foreign or Second Language A Teacher Self-development and Methodology Guide. The University of Michigan Press.

Hutchinson, T. and Waters, A. 1987. English for Specific Purposes. Great Britain. Cambridge University Press.

Johnson, E.B. 2002. Contextual Teaching and Learning. California: Corwin Press, Inc., Thousand Oaks.

Latief, M.A. 2002. Pembelajaran Bahasa Inggris Berbasis Konteks. Bahasa dan Seni, Jurnal Bahasa, Sastra, Seni, dan Pengajarannya. Tahun 30, Nomor 2, August.

Nunan, D. 1993. Syllabus Design. Oxford University Press.

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Suryawinata, Z. 1993. Methods and Materials in ESP. Paper presented at the 40th TEFLIN Seminar. February.

ANALISIS MAKNA METAFORA BAHASA JEPANG: KAJIAN TERHADAP STRUKTUR MAKNA DAN NILAI-NILAI FILOSOFI

Esther Hesline Palandi

Politeknik Negeri Malang

ABSTRAK

Penelitian ini di­latar-belakangi fenomena per­s­pek­tif sti­listika dan es­te­tika pada meta­fora. Ana­lisis menunjukkan inter­pretasi makna Meta­fora bisa juga di­lakukan ber­dasarkan inter­tekstualitas antar teks mau­­­­­pun kon­teks dalam ce­ri­ta. Temuan yang di­per­­oleh ada­­­lah struktur makna Meta­fora, yaitu: versi Ricoeur (No­mi­­­nal, Pre­di­katif, dan Kalimatif), versi Wahab (Kom­pa­ra­si­­o­­nal, Sub­­­sti­­tu­si­o­nal, dan Inter­aksional), dan versi Ri­ffa­terre (Dis­pla­­cing, Dis­tor­­ting, dan Creat­ing of Mean­ing); serta nilai-nilai filo­­­­­so­fi Meta­­fora, yaitu: Etos (etika (ethics) moral, sosial, dan kultural), Logos (lo­gi­­­ka (logic) ke­mati­an / ke­­hidup­an), dan Patos (emo­­­­­­si­o­nal (pathy: sim­pa­ti dan em­pati) yang po­si­­tif, ne­gatif, dan re­la­tif). Dapat disimpulkan Meta­fora me­miliki struktur makna ter­tentu; dan me­rupa­­kan citra­an nilai-nilai Moral, Sosial, Kul­tu­ral, dan Emo­si­o­nal.

Kata-kunci: metafora, studi literatur, interpretasi, inter­teks­tualitas, citra­an, discourse (wacana), pragmatik, semantik, her­me­neu­tik, semiotik.

 

***

 

Dalam hal berkomunikasi lisan maupun tulis, bangsa Jepang sangat me­nyukai estetika atau keindahan dan daya-tarik. Este­tika atau ke­indahan dan daya-tarik dapat ditemukan dalam warna, bentuk mau­pun bunyi. Hal ter­sebut di­karena­­kan sifat dan manifestasi kehidupan jiwa (batiniah) dapat dituangkan dalam wujud lahiriah. Artinya, kehidupan dapat di­ekspresikan dalam ber­bagai eksis­tensi warna, bentuk, dan bunyi; se­hingga wujud lahiriah men­citra­kan sifat / watak ke­hidup­an. Hal ini dapat di­bukti­­­kan pada karya-kar­ya seni dan sastra yang me­miliki style khusus, antara lain gaya meta­fora yang banyak di­gemari dan di­guna­kan oleh para seniman dan sastrawan. Para sastrawan me­nyam­pai­kan ide atau gagasan cerita dalam karya­nya yang ber­isi teks & konteks, baik berupa narasi pe­ngarang mau­pun dialog para tokoh dalam cerita. Mereka me­nyam­pai­kan ungkapan-ung­kap­an­­nya se­­­demikian rupa untuk me­nuang­kan sifat dan mani­festasi kehidupan jiwa atau bati­niah dalam bentuk lahi­riah melalui karya-karyanya. Fenomena inilah yang men­­dasari pe­neliti untuk men­trans­literasikan ungkapan-ungkapan dalam bentuk meta­­fora, terutama dalam novel Norwei no Mori karya Haruki Mura­kami. Di samping itu pula, pemikiran bangsa Jepang dipengaruhi oleh filsafat Cina, yaitu konsep Tao & Konfucianisme”. Ajaran Tao yaitu kehidupan manusia yang ‘lemah-lembut’ dalam ber­sikap dan ber­­peri­laku. Konfucianisme juga menekankan ajaran­nya agar manu­­sia se­bagai mahluk alam, lebih mementingkan hubungan dengan se­sama­nya.

 

METAFORA DAN PENAFSIRANNYA

Metafora secara umum di­definisi­kan oleh Elena Semino (1997:196), se­­bagai suatu fenomena simbolisme dari yang dipikirkan dan dikatakan me­ngenai sesuatu dan lain­nya dalam keadaan bangun / sadar. Definisi atau penjelasan se­cara khusus di­sampai­­kan oleh Lakoff (1987:388), bahwa metafora adalah suatu eks­presi dari pe­maham­an satu konsep ter­hadap konsep lainnya, di mana ter­dapat ke­samaan atau kore­­lasi antara keduanya.

Petutur (pendengar/pembaca), dapat me­­maknai­ Meta­fora me­lalui proses per­jalanan dari pikiran (thought) menuju kon­fi­gurasi makna / pro­po­sisi[1] (pro­po­si­tion). Proses perjalanan ini menurut Goatly (1997:18) ada­­lah: (1) se­bagai per­kira­an / penaksiran (approxi­mative) ketika jarak antara thought dan pro­po­­sition dekat, dan (2) sebagai penggantian / pemindahan (transfer) ke­tika jarak ter­sebut jauh. Contoh:

Artinya, metafora tersebut (1) sebagai approximative, karena binatang ‘lebah’ dan sifat-sifatnya (dalam makna eksplisit) amat familiar dalam budaya petutur, se­hingga dapat di­terima dalam thought petutur, dan dapat segera diolah men­jadi proposition (dalam makna implisit) oleh petutur. Namun, (2) men­jadi trans­fer, karena me­la­lui makna eksplisit petutur dapat me­mahami maksud penutur.

Ditinjau dari sudut pandang kultural, Wahab (1991) membagi Metafora men­jadi dua kategori, yakni: (1) metafora universal, dan (2) metafora khusus.

Meta­fora Univer­sal adalah metafora yang menggunakan simbol dan lambang dengan makna yang telah ada atau umum dan diketahui oleh siapapun. Dasar pe­­mikiran metafora universal adalah keyakinan akan pendapat yang me­nyebut­kan bahwa semua bahasa memiliki sejumlah fitur yang sama serta mampu me­nampil­kan skema organisasi makna yang sifatnya mendasar atau sama. Perhatikan contoh di bawah ini:

 

Contoh-contoh tersebut membuktikan bahwa semua bahasa memiliki sejumlah fitur yang sama serta menampil­kan skema organisasi makna yang sifatnya sama.

Metafora khusus adalah metafora yang terikat oleh budaya bangsa / suku-bangsa / kelompok tertentu, sehingga memiliki medan pragmatik dan semantik yang ter­­-batas. Dasar pemikiran metafora khusus adalah keyakinan akan adanya pengaruh ling­kung­an pada peng­alaman fisik dan pengalaman kultural yang men­cermin­kan budaya peng­guna bahasa itu. Pengaruh lingkungan, pada pengalaman fisik ber­­hubung­an dengan ke­hidup­an flora & fauna, sedangkan pada peng­alam­an kultu­ral ber­hubung­an dengan kehidupan sosial, moral dan seni. Perhatikan contoh di bawah ini:

 

Sumpit (chop-stick) pada Contoh 4 adalah alat makan yang digunakan bangsa Jepang sehari-hari, dan sudah menjadi budaya turun-temurun hingga saat ini. Se­hingga kelompok lain belum tentu menggunakan kata “sumpit” untuk ungkap­an yang sejenis. Sedangkan Kayu (ki) pada Contoh 5 adalah benda keras yang tidak bisa digunakan untuk mengikat, apa­lagi mengikat hidung (hana) se­bagai anggota tubuh yang sangat peka. Bangsa Jepang menggunakan ungkapan demi­kian, saat menyam-paikan pesan jangan berbicara sembarangan. Ke­lom­pok lain (bangsa lain) akan menyampaikan pesan yang sama, namun dengan ungkap­an ber­beda, sesuai dengan budaya dan perilaku umum kelompoknya.

Penge­tahu­an atau informasi baru yang diterima petutur, hanya dapat di­­proses dalam know­ledge frame­works (kerangka pengetahuan). Dalam aktivitas mem­baca & mendengar, tujuan dari fungsi pokok skemata ada­lah kemampuan petutur untuk meng­interpretasikan isi teks melalui ‘kerangka pengetahuan’­nya, sehingga petutur perlu mengaktifasi skematanya selama membaca & men­dengar guna membantunya dalam peng­kodean teks dan meng­gambarkan simpulan. Jadi, yang diperlukan skemata ada­lah bagaimana ‘pe­nge­ta­huan’ yang lebih dulu dari pem­baca dapat mem­pengaruhi pe­mahaman & ingatannya ter­hadap isi, bentuk / struktur, dan bahasa pada teks. Dalam pemahaman makna metafora, klasi­­fikasi skemata berupa isi, bentuk / struktur, dan bahasa pada teks tersebut di­guna­kan untuk inter­pretasi. Klasi­fikasi Skemata ini terkait dengan apa yang di­sebut Meta­kognisi, yang merupakan titik awal metaphorical competence se­se­orang.

Hubungan khusus antara kata (sebagai simbol verbal) dengan manusia, meng­hasilkan makna. Kata-kata, bukanlah tempat makna bernaung, namun kata-kata itulah yang membangkitkan makna dalam pikiran manusia. Maka, dalam pikir­an manusia itulah, hubungan kata-kata dan makna diciptakan. Hubungan ter­­sebut digambarkan oleh C. K. Ogden dan I. A. Richards (1989:11) berikut ini.

Garis putus-putus menunjukkan bahwa tidak terdapat hubung­­an langsung antara simbol dengan referen. Dapat disimpulkan bahwa untuk menghu-bungkan ke­dua­nya maka dipmerlu­­kan sebuah proses yang di­sebut metaphorical competence (ke­mampu­an metaforis), yaitu kemampuan men­cari persamaan sifat antar kata se­cara kontekstual. Selanjutnya teori ini juga diperkuat dengan teori segitiga makna yang telah di­modi­fikasi oleh Subandi (2000:199) guna menganalisis fenomena ter­jadi­nya makna idiomatikal kata majemuk bahasa Jepang di­tinjau dari konsep Meta­fora.

Jadi, makna tercipta dengan munculnya simbol dan reference (referen) atau acuan dalam pikiran. Mengacu pendapat Spradley (1997:121), simbol ada­lah objek atau peristiwa yang menunjuk pada sesuatu. Semua simbol melibatkan tiga unsur: (1) simbol itu sendiri, (2) satu referen atau lebih, (3) hubung­an antar simbol dengan referen. Semua itu merupakan unsur dasar bagi penciptaan makna. Semen­tara itu, makna muncul dari apa yang ‘dirasakan’ dan ‘di­alami’ manu­sia, dan ber­ada dalam pikiran. Demikian pula dengan makna metafora, muncul ber­dasar­kan ‘pe­rasa­an’ dan ‘peng­alam­an’ serta dunia referen ciptaan petutur itu sendiri.

Penafsiran atau interpretasi itu sendiri, menurut Aristoteles (dalam de Inter­pretatione, I.16a.5, dalam Sumaryono, 1999:24) adalah, apa yang diucap­kan atau dituliskan seseorang, merupa-kan konsep atau gambaran (image) dari apa yang di­pikirkan. Sedangkan apa yang dipikirkan dan diucapkan serta ditulis­kan se­se­orang, disebut juga ‘bahasa’. Jadi untuk dapat membuat interpretasi, terlebih dahulu diperlukan pemahaman, yaitu terhadap bahasa, terutama bahasa lisan dan juga ba­hasa tulis. Dari pemahaman yang baik, akan lahir interpretasi yang baik pula.

F. A. Wolf (dalam Sumaryono, 1999:40), mendefinisikan Hermeneutika se­­­bagai suatu seni menemukan makna di balik teks. Teks itu sendiri adalah image dari pikiran. Pikiran pengarang, adalah pengalaman mental pengarang, yang men­­jadi bahan-baku teks. Sedangkan pikiran pembaca adalah gabungan dari teks dan peng­alaman mental pembaca, yang kemudian menjadi bahan-baku inter­pre­tasi.

Menurut Larson (1991:293), jika metafora diterjemahkan secara harfiah, mungkin akan menimbulkan salah pengertian. Hal itu disebabkan karena peng­alam­an berbeda dari budaya yang berbeda, maka komunikasi lintas budaya yang akurat sulit terwujud, dan kesalah-pahaman sering terjadi. Demikian halnya meta­fora yang mengandung makna budaya masyarakat B-Su (Bahasa Sumber) belum tentu sama dengan budaya masyarakat B-Sa (Ba­ha­sa Sasaran). Contoh:

Metafora pada Contoh 6 “membasuh kaki”, mengandung pemahaman budaya, yang bagi bangsa Jepang merupakan perilaku yang membawa perubahan pada kebaikan; sementara bagi bangsa-bangsa Barat merupakan perilaku yang bukan membawa kebaikan atau merupakan kegiatan yang menutup keburukan.
Intertekstualitas dikembangkan oleh Julia Kristeva (Teeuw, 1984:145), untuk menjelaskan fenomena dialog antarteks, kesalingtergantungan antara suatu teks dengan teks sebelumnya. Menurut Kristeva, setiap teks merupakan mo­za­ik, kutip­an-kutipan, penyerapan dan transformasi teks-teks lain. Prinsip inter­teks­tua­litas yang ditegaskan Kristeva adalah bahwa setiap teks sastra harus di­pahami dengan latar belakang teks-teks lain, karena tidak ada satu pun teks yang­ mandiri. Dengan demikian, proses intertekstualisasi yang dilakukan analisis meta­­­­fora kali ini adalah proses pemahaman intertekstualisasi.

 

METODE PENELITIAN

Penelitian ini adalah penelitian kualitatif dengan ciri-ciri menurut Moleong (1991:16), hasil peng­olah­an data disajikan dengan meng­gunakan kata-kata, bukan angka dan tidak diperlukan penghitungan se­sederhana apapun. Ciri-ciri tersebut se­suai dengan pernyataan Bogdan & Taylor (1975:4), bahwa penelitian kualitatif adalah proses penelitian yang meng­hasil­kan data des­kriptif berupa data tertulis/lisan dari objek yang di­amati/diteliti

Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah metode deskriptif, dan usaha yang dilakukan pada penelitian deskriptif ini adalah menciptakan deskripsi, gambaran, dan pen­jelas­an secara siste­matis, faktual, dan akurat mengenai makna metafora, yang merupakan hasil transkripsi, interpretasi dan intertekstualisasi serta deskripsi struktur makna dan aktua­li­sasi nilai-nilai filosofi metafora.

Penelitian ini menggunakan kerangka pikir phenomenologik interpretif dengan pendekatan Post-positivistik karena sumber kebenaran sepenuhnya ber­asal dari realitas empiri sensual. Ini berbeda dengan pendekatan Rasionalistik (Mu­ha­jir, 2002:81-82) yang mencari kebenaran dari empiri logik serta empiri teo­ri­tik, misal­­nya: penelitian ruang angkasa dan jarak cahaya, me­rupa­kan rea­li­tas yang tidak mudah dihayati dengan empiri sensual, melainkan dengan logis dan teoritis.

Grand Concept (konsep utama) yang menjadi payung analisis untuk me­ma­hami fenomena sosial –termasuk sastra dan budaya– dalam penelitian ini, meng­guna­kan konsep Retorika, agar data realitas empiri dapat dimaknai dalam cakup­an yang lebih luas. Hal tersebut nampak dalam proses interpretasi. Retorika sebagai Grand Concept dalam penelitian ini berpijak pada integrasi teori Pragma­tik dan Seman­tik se­bagai logika makro, ber­be­da dengan penelitian kuanti­­­tatif yang biasa­nya ber­pijak pada teori-teori logika mikro.

Fokus penelitian ini adalah makna metafora, dan data dalam penelitian ini ada­lah metafora, dengan bentuk / wujud kongkrit berupa teks, sejumlah 80 data, dari 50 dis­­course, dalam 20 fragmen; yang di­ambil dari sumber data, yakni Norwei no Mori, novel asli ber­bahasa Jepang karya Haruki Murakami. Hal ini se­­suai dengan pen­dapat Brown & Yule (1996:20) bahwa data yang di­guna­­kan dalam analisis wacana adalah di­ambil dari teks ter­tulis atau ujar­an. Maynard (2004:25) juga men­jelas­­kan bahwa semua yang ber­bentuk dis­course, dapat di­jadi­­kan data pe­nelitian.

Adapun alasan pemilihan data berupa metafora tersebut adalah, karena me­­­nurut pengamatan peneliti, dalam novel Norwei no Mori (sumber data yang di­­pilih) terdapat bermacam-macam metafora; di samping itu banyak pula meto­nimi mau­­­pun simili yang mendampinginya. Namun menurut kajian peneliti terhadap Phi­lo­­­­so­phi­­cal Language (Bahasa Filosofis), metonimi dan simili menunjukkan sig­ni­­­fi­­­kan­si yang rendah dibanding metafora. Hal tersebut nampak jelas dalam fre­­kuen­si peng­gunaan ketiga majas tersebut. Seperti dalam medan istilah, yang di­­guna­kan ada­­­lah: (a) meta­­pho­ri­cal com­pe­tence (kompetensi metaforis), bukan meto­­­ni­mi­cal com­­pe­­tence atau si­mi­li­cal competence; dan (b) metaphorical meaning (makna meta­fo­ris), bukan me­to­ni­mi­cal meaning atau similical meaning. Maka, dapat di­simpul­­­kan, bahwa kata Metafora: (1) se­cara gramatikal telah ber­­kembang men­jadi kata sifat di samping kata benda, namun tidaklah demi­kian untuk kata Meto­nimi dan Simili; (2) secara filosofis telah ter­bukti dari makna­nya yang estetis dan sti­lis­tis dalam kajian bahasa dan sastra.

Sedangkan alasan pemilihan sumber data adalah, menurut pengamatan pe­neliti melalui beberapa authorized reviewer (pemberi resensi berotoritas) ter­hadap karya sastra tingkat dunia yang ternama, novel Norwei no Mori me­rupa­kan se­buah karya yang memperoleh rating relatif tinggi. Di samping itu, berdasarkan fokus pe­nelitian ini, novel Norwei no Mori memiliki ciri-ciri yang unik dan me­ngan­dung bermacam-macam metafora.

Prosedur pengumpulan dan analisis data penelitian ini diuraikan se­­cara rinci sesuai teori Miles and Huberman (1992:21-22), yang telah di­modi­fi­kasi se­suai kebutuhan penelitian dan di­gambar­kan pada Gambar 3.

Analisis data pada penelitian ini, menggunakan langkah-langkah se­suai tujuan penelitian, diadopsi dari Miles & Huberman (1992:458), yakni: Data re­duc­tion (reduksi data: Seleksi & Identifikasi data), Data display (pe­ma­par­an data: Transkripsi & Interpretasi data), dan ­­­Data conclusion (pe­nyimpul­an data: Veri­fikasi & Deskripsi data), yang di­modifikasi dan di­gambar­kan pada Gambar 4.

Untuk memeriksa akurasi (kebenaran/kete-patan) pada penelitian ini, pe­neliti melakukan beberapa metode. Memeriksa ke­absah­an data pada pe­nelitian ini, peneliti me­laku­kan metode sesuai pendapat Soenarto (2001:83) yakni Triangulasi (uji kelayakan dengan cara kaji silang) dengan pihak ketiga, dan Peer-debriefing (uji kelayakan dengan cara diskusi) dengan sesama pengajar bahasa Jepang lain, guna meng­ukur kualifikasi data, metode dan hasil analisis. Memeriksa keabsahan hasil penelitian metafora ini, sangatlah penting, oleh sebab itu ke­benaran dan akurasi data yang diperoleh perlu dike­tahui. Hal ter­­sebut sesuai dengan pendapat Guba (dalam Sudikan, 2001:83), penelitian meta­fora tersebut juga meng­gunakan teori Qualitative Validity (Validitas Kua­li­ta­tif) dengan indikator: (1) cre­di­bi­li­ty (kredibilitas/keter­­percaya-an), (2) transferability (trans­fer­abilitas/ketera-lihan), (3) de­pend­a­bility (dependabilitas/ke­­ber­gantung­an), dan (4) confirmability (kon­firmabili-tas/ke­pastian).

 

PEMBAHASAN

Pembahasan penelitian ini dapat digambarkan pada Gambar 5.

Pembahasan penelitian ini merupakan hasil konklusi dari veri­fi­kasi dan deskripsi. Verifikasi adalah proses penyimpulan hasil analisis data, yang berisi: (1) reduksi data, yaitu be­rupa dis­course dan metafora; dan (2) papar­an data, yaitu berupa trans­kripsi discourse dan interpretasi meta­­fora. Ini mendukung jawaban dari per­ma­sa­lah­­an dan tujuan pe­ne­li­ti­an poin per­tama, yaitu: Men­trans­kripsikan makna literal meta­fora yang telah diidentifikasikan dari frase / klausa / kalimat pada dis­course dalam Norwei no Mori (Norwei no Mori); dan poin kedua, yaitu: Menginterpretasikan makna inter­aksi yang di­nego­­­siasi­­kan pe­ngarang kepada­­ pembaca melalui pencitraan Metafora dalam Norwei no Mori. Deskripsi adalah proses penjabaran hasil analisis data yang berisi: (1) inter­pre­tasi data, yaitu mem­beri­kan makna pada metafora secara kon­teks­tual, dan (2) interteks­tualisasi, yaitu mengaitkan makna metafora dengan makna dari frase/klausa/kali­mat pada dis­course lain dalam satu cerita, untuk men­dukung hasil interpretasi. Ini merupa­kan jawab­an dari permasalahan dan tujuan penelitian poin ketiga, yaitu: Meng­inter­teks­tua­li­sasi­kan hasil inter­pretasi makna Metafora dengan frase/ klausa/kali­mat pada dis­course lain dalam Norwei no Mori.

 

TEMUAN

Hasil penelitian berupa temu-an, diperoleh pada saat proses analisis dan pem­bahas­an, dapat digambarkan pada Gambar 6.

Temuan yang pertama berupa struktur makna metafora oleh Haruki Mura­kami dalam Norwei no Mori dalam novel Norwei no Mori, antara lain: (1) struktur Ricoeur (metafora Nominal, meta­fora Pre­di­ka­tif, dan metafora Kalimatif); (2) struk­tur Wahab (metafora Kom­pa­ra­sional/per­­banding­an makna, meta­fora Sub­sti­tusional/ penggantian makna); dan metafora Inter­ak­si­o­nal/ perpaduan makna); dan (3) struktur Riffaterre (metafora Dis­placing of Meaning/peng­ganti­an makna, meta­fora Distorting of Meaning/pe­nyimpang­an makna, dan meta­fora Creating of Meaning/pen-ciptaan makna). Struktur makna tersebut di­jelas­kan dalam Gambar ­7.

 

Temuan utama berupa nilai-nilai filosofis yang terkandung dalam meta­fora yang di­ungkap­kan pengarang (Haruki Murakami) dalam Norwei no Mori. Nilai-Nilai tersebut muncul sebagai ungkapan Etos, Logos, dan Patos. Hal ini me­rupa­kan jawaban dari permasalahan penelitian dan tujuan penelitian poin ke­empat, yaitu Mengaktualisasikan pesan-pesan filosofis yang diungkapkan oleh pe­ngarang (Haruki Murakami) melalui Metafora dalam Norwei no Mori.

Metafora Etos, mengandung nilai-nilai ethics (etika), berkaitan dengan spirit, yakni peri­laku moral, sosial, dan kultural. Metafora Logos, mengandung nilai-nilai logic (logika), berkaitan dengan mind, yakni akal / pikiran tentang ke­mati­an, kehidupan dan ke­se­imbang­an. Metafora Patos, mengandung nilai-nilai pathy, (simpati / sympathy dan empati / empathy), berkaitan dengan soul, yakni pe­­rasa­an / emosional positif, nega­tif mau­pun relatif. Perhatikan Gambar 8­.

SIMPULAN DAN SARAN

Metafora merupakan hal yang membuat pengarang dapat meng­eks­pre­si­kan ide-ide serta pesan-pesannya. Untuk meng­analisis makna dan pemahaman meta­fora, jelas merupakan kajian bahasa, yang memerlukan interpretasi ber­dasar atau mempunyai alasan dan pem­bukti­an yang tepat. Demi­kianlah hasil ana­li­sis makna Metafora pada novel Norwei no Mori karya Haruki Mura­kami, sesuai dengan permasalahan dan tujuan penelitian ini, dapat disimpulkan antara lain:

1.   Hasil intertekstualitas, yaitu berupa ke­ter­kaitan makna yang terjadi antar frase, kalimat, dan dis­course lain untuk mendukung hasil inter­pre­tasi. Inter­pre­tasi yang dilakukan tidak hanya terbatas pada referen dan konteks, tapi pe­ne­­liti menggunakan metode inter­teks­tua­li­tas. Proses intertekstualitas ini dalam pe­ne­litian lain bisa berupa alternatif lain, namun dalam penelitian ini me­rupa­kan tahapan inti setelah proses interpretasi. Sesuai dengan metode kuali­tatif itu sendiri yakni ber­sifat des­krip­tif, proses ini mendeskripsikan inter­teks yang terjadi. Dalam proses ini, nampak ciri sis­tema­ticity pada meta­fora, sesuai pen­dapat Saeed (1997:306), yakni metafora meng­ambil makna dari sebuah titik per­­bandingan antara berbagai macam objek –frase, kalimat, dan dis­course lain–, lalu membangun kerangka logis bagi diri­nya sendiri. Per­bandingan objek pada metafora Haruki Murakami dalam Norwei no Mori, dapat membangun ke­rang­ka logis, sehingga dapat dipahami oleh kalangan pembaca, khususnya pembaca novel Norwei no Mori yang berbahasa Jepang. Hal ini me­nun­juk­kan bahwa ciri sis­tema­ticity dalam Norwei no Mori ter­sebut, dapat diakui.

2.   Struktur Makna Metafora yang diciptakan Haruki Murakami dalam novel Norwei no Mori, antara lain: (1) struktur Ricoeur (metafora Nominal, metafora Pre­di­ka­tif, dan metafora Kalimatif); (2) struktur Wahab (metafora Kom­pa­ra­si­o­nal / per­­banding­an makna, meta­fora Substitusional / penggantian makna); dan metafora Inter­ak­si­o­nal / perpaduan makna); dan (3) struktur Riffaterre (meta­fora Dis­placing of Meaning / peng­ganti­an makna, metafora Distorting of Meaning / pe­nyimpang­an makna, dan meta­fora Creating of Meaning / pen­cipta­an makna). Pro­ses temuan ini adalah tahap penyimpulan dari tahapan inti, yakni inter­pretasi dan inter­teks­tu­a­li­sasi. Dalam proses temu­an ini nampak ciri asymmetry pada metafora, sesuai pen­dapat Saeed (1997:306), yakni meta­fora mem­banding­kan dua objek bukan dari dua arah, melainkan dari satu arah, namun perbandingannya bersifat tidak umum. Meta­­fora merupakan alat pen­dorong bagi pen­dengar (pembaca) untuk me­lekatkan ciri milik source (bahasa sumber) untuk target (bahasa target), dalam proses pe­ner­jemahan. Struktur makna pada metafora Haruki Murakami dalam Norwei no Mori, berasal dari per­bandingan yang demi­kian, ini me­nun­juk­kan bahwa ciri asymmetry tersebut dapat diakui eksistensinya. Proses per­banding­an­nya, merupakan bagian utama dalam penelitian ini; dan hasil per­banding­an­nya di­klasifikasikan untuk mem­peroleh gambaran yang lebih jelas.

3.   Nilai Filosofis Metafora yang diciptakan Haruki Murakami dalam novel Norwei no Mori, antara lain: (1) nilai Etos (etika Moral, etika Sosial, dan etika Kul­tu­ral); (2) nilai Logos (logika Kematian, logika Kehidupan dan logika Relativitas atau keseimbangan); dan (3) nilai Patos atau emosional (emosi Positif, emosi Negatif, dan emosi Relatif). Proses aktualisasi ini me­rupa­kan tahap akhir pe­nyimpul­an. Dalam proses ini nampak ciri abstraction pada metafora, se­suai pen­dapat Saeed (1997:307), yakni meta­­fora berusaha untuk memindahkan sifat yang terdapat pada se­suatu atau perihal yang konkret ke­pada sesuatu atau perihal yang abstrak. Aktua­li­sasi nilai-nilai filosofis pada metafora karya Haruki Murakami dalam Norwei no Mori, dilakukan dengan menggali sesuatu atau perihal yang konkret dipindahkan kepada sesuatu atau perihal yang abstrak yakni metafora, ini me­­nun­juk­kan bahwa ciri abstraction ini benar-benar melekat pada metafora.

Intisari berdasarkan simpulan hasil analisis makna Metafora dalam sastra Jepang dalam penelitian ini, adalah sebagai berikut: (1) Metafora adalah salah satu sosok Reto­rika berwajah Semiotika yang hidup di dunia Pragmatik. (2) Hermeneu­tika dan Semantik digunakan untuk memahami metafora secara kompre­hensif. (3) Metafora memiliki struktur makna: Kom­pa­ra­­si­­o­­nal, Sub­­sti­tu­si­o­nal, dan Interaksio­nal, serta Dis­pla­­cing, Dis­tor­­ting, dan Crea­ting of Meaning). (4) Meta­fora me­­rupa­kan citraan nilai-nilai Moral, Sosial, Kultural, Logika, dan Emosional. Umumnya hal ini ber­manfaat bagi pen­didik­an, khusus­­nya bidang bahasa, sastra dan budaya.

 

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[1] cabang ilmu bahasa yang menelaah konteks sosial dan budaya atau ancangan makna dari mental para pe­­­nutur­nya dan me­miliki infor­masi makna yang kompleks

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