Archive for November, 2011

IMPROVING COMMUNICATION SKILLS THROUGH ONLINE CHATTING

Hilda Cahyani

Mariana Ulfa Hoesny

 

State Polytechnic of Malang, East Java

 

 

ABSTRACT

Making the best use of technology has now become a challenge for language teachers. Most language teachers know how difficult it is to get students to use language in class, even more so in a meaningful way, especially at the oral level. Using online chatting can provide learners with opportunities for language interaction since it is within the context that negotiation of meaning and interlanguage development are most likely to occur. Second language acquisition research indicates that negotiation promotes interlanguage development and that learners are most likely to negotiate if opportunities for language interaction are provided. When used strategically with careful planning and focused discussions, chat can be a powerful learning tool which can engage the students with meaningful learning process. Through one-on-one conversations with the instructor, small group work, pairs, individual study of transcripts, and interviews, chat can accommodate difference learning styles. It can be a valuable option to language class, facilitating learning and enhancing communications. Thus, it is essential that language courses use online chat which can bring students to extend the learning process well beyond the traditional classroom approach, since it leads to effective communication tool that fosters a fascinating, authentic and enriching learning experience. The paper is elaborating how to set up online chatting activities in the learning of English as a foreign language. It also describes the strengths of this approach from a pedagogical point of view.

 

Key-words: communication skills, chatting, interlanguage development, ESP

 

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Many language students, particularly those in foreign language situations, do not have the opportunity to use English extensively outside of the classroom. Students may think that they learn English in order to take a test. In fact, English teaching is criticized for not able to teach students real English. It is thought to be old-fashioned, boring and incomplete. Teachers use text books written in artificial styles and the book consists of no sense and do not focus on enhancing language proficiency. Teachers use authentic materials lacking varieties and sound boring to students. Nowadays, language teachers are challenged with technological breakthroughs which can accommodate the learning and provide the learning variation.

State Polytechnic of Malang is a vocational higher education institution in which foreign languages are taught to the students. At the institution, English is the first foreign language taught for specific purposes (ESP) by emphasizing on oral communication. ESP refers to the role of English in a language course or a program of instruction in which the content and the aims of the course are fixed by the specific needs of a particular group of learners (Richards, et al 1996). In the Accounting department of State Polytechnic of Malang, the general

objective of teaching ESP is that the students will be able to communicate in English orally and in written form, to express ideas, opinions and/or feelings related to business and accounting. English is taught for 6 hours (3 times a week) which is discreetly taught in three language skills (Reading, Writing, and Speaking), while listening is integrated with speaking; and one language component (grammar). English is given for three meetings a week; however, it still gives lack opportunity for the students to use the language in the real context. The extracurricular program of debate and English club are not giving them the equal chances to interact since only those who are already having ability to speak are confident to join the programs.

In handling the teaching and learning activity, it is important to offer a medium which is efficient for learning language, especially English, which seems to be difficult and not easy for students who basically take non-English as their major. Thus, chatting is regarded as one of useful one. Generally, most language teachers know how difficult it is to get students to use language in class, even more so in a meaningful way, especially at the oral level. Using online chatting can provide learners with opportunities for language interaction since it is within the context that negotiation of meaning and interlanguage development are most likely to occur.

Yet many instructors hesitate to use synchronous chat and think it is difficult to manage and adds little or no educational value to their students’ learning. In fact, chat often has a negative reputation because of its potential to become disordered since students communicating simultaneously can obscure the message and make following a conversation difficult. These issues are especially of concern to language instructors since clear communication in the target language (L2) is already a difficult task in the traditional classroom. Nevertheless, with careful planning, synchronous chat can benefit language learners and allow instructors to assess their students’ learning.

 

METHODS

The paper is describing how to use online chatting in teaching English as a foreign language. Furthermore, it reviews the strengths of this approach from a pedagogical point of view and the way to make the learning sustainable.

This paper is a report teaching using online chat activities conducted in two classes of semester 1 and 2, at Accounting department, State Polytechnic of Malang who took general English courses. Some Topics Presented in General English are: Introduction, everyday activities, telling simple stories, telling future plans, opening and closing conversation, telling time and saying dates, asking and giving directions, giving advice, describing appearances, and interviewing.

The design of the program comprises some procedures in which discuss the steps to conduct the program as well as some feasible activities to be done.

 

PROCEDURES

Chat can be used either among students in the same class or between students in the class (either as individuals or in pairs or groups) and outsiders from other parts of the world. The followings are the important points to hinder in using online chatting for students. The following is the figure of teaching procedures of using online chatting.

 

Figure 1. Procedures of Online teaching (adapted from Weber & Leberman, 2000)

Step 1. Teaching Chat Management Techniques

Since doing online chatting is different from doing classroom activity, students need to know ‘chatting etiquette’ (See Appendix). Online chatting may not be the first experience for the student yet in doing online chatting in English, the students need to be equipped with what to do and what not to do. It is recommended to start the discussion the language of chat in class before the students come to the real activity. Likewise, giving helps to the students related to how to use online dictionary and how to use some useful expression. The following section is hint for pre-online chat activities both for the students and the facilitator:

  1. Students make a good preparation and structure which is critical to the success of the students chat session.
  2. Students make themselves familiar with technology. Familiarising students with the technology early on in the course can help them to use chat effectively. Teacher can introduce students to the process by scheduling a practice chat session during the orientation period or during the first week of the course. It is important for students to know what the teacher expects them to accomplish in their chat sessions and the teacher needs to give them feedback after each session either on a class level or individually especially for lower level students or first-time chatters.
  3. Teacher’s Role. Teacher should make a clear role whether she/ he is going to be an active participant or facilitator. She should determine what role she wants to assume as moderator and inform the students so they know what to expect in this program. It is important that teacher’s facilitating style will depend on the level of competency, class personality, the dynamics of the chat group and the activity at hand.
  4. Evaluate Students’ Skills and Abilities. Teacher needs to prepare a questionnaire at the beginning (also at the end) of the course and ask your students to self-evaluate their technical skills (keyboarding, computer literacy, chat room experience, etc.), and for language experience also ask students about their linguistic abilities in the target language (such as reading, writing, listening, etc.). This information can be used to form chat groups or partners. Ideally, students with similar language and computer skills should work together to avoid one of the group members dominating or intimidating the others.

 

Step 2. Creating Online Community

The next step is creating online community in which the teachers and students involve in this stage. In this case, students are independently searching some native speakers and non native speaker pals to chat. They can organise a chat room by visiting some website which establishes language partner exchanges via internet for the individual, even for the whole class with native speaker The teacher’s role is to facilitate them how to create it through some discussion and explanation.

 

Step 3. Doing the Online Chat

On this stage, students do the online chat  on the topic given (in one-on-one conversations with the instructor, small group, pairs, individual). Before doing the online chat, the students need to prepare everything such as: getting their partner ready for the chat, preparing the things that might help them during the chat e.g. useful expression and language of chat.  The topics are presented in the following table.

Table 1. The Topics Presented for Online Chatting

No

Topics

Methods

1

Interview the instructor on everyday activity

Individual work

2

Gather information about something and compare with a friend

Pairwork

3

Interview a person/ friend about her/ his experience

Pairwork

4

Interview a guest from another country of free topic

Individual work

5

Interview a man/ woman from another country who have family about his/ her future plan

Group work

It is crucial for the students to keep the documents of their online chat. They need to save and print the results of their chat for data purposes and the students can track their language use and development.

Step 4. Presenting on Classroom Discussion

The follow-up activity after one task is completed is that students present the transcripts of the dialog to a class conference and complete other tasks: writing summary or a short report. Having the discussion of the chat logs allows students to review the discussions. This activity can create greater interest in the course, which may lead to more active participation and a greater since of community among learners. On this session, the students have already been given a model how to do classroom conference. Students do the oral report which can be working in a pair, small group and classroom discussion depending on the method they are completing the task. If the students need to do the task individually, they will make an individual report. The presentation and discussion in which they have made during the conference, other students are allowed to interrupt and ask questions. After the conference session is made, the students need to hand both their chat logs and summary to the teacher.

 

Evaluation

Since this activity involves students’ active participation during inside and outside the class, the evaluation focuses on these following considerations: the chat transcripts of each session, students’ classroom presentation projects (conference) and students’ participation in the online chat and in classroom conference. The two activities focusing on the communication skills of the students should pay attention to these following criteria: fluency (ability to keep the conversation flowing), richness of vocabulary, use of correct grammar and idiomatic use of language.

 

DISCUSSION

Online Chat and Learning Improvement

Online chat, one of the forms of computer-mediated communication (CMC), takes place in a real time interaction in which during the activities learners are exposed to input, output, attention to feedback and linguistic forms (Gass, 1997; Krashen,1985; Long, 1996; Pica, 1994; Swain, 1985).

Second language (L2) learners tend to differ in terms of culture, knowledge, ability, etc. therefore multimedia must strive to create learning environment that accommodate a variety of learning styles. SLA researches emphasized that literacy development can improve by providing multiple opportunities for learners to interact in communicative setting with authentic materials relevant to students own needs (Krashen, 1982). He also stated that comprehensible input was both necessary and a sufficient condition for the acquisition of language. In making the interaction, learners use the target language to negotiate both meaning and form. They will negotiate meanings while producing output in a social context which is crucial for their language development (Swain, 1995).

Studies point three benefits of CMC. First, CMC provides more equal participation than face-to-face interaction (Chun, 1994; Lee, 2002). The special thing from CMC is that it allows shy and less-motivated learners to interact with others (Kelm, 1992). Second, CMC allows the learners process input, monitor and edit output through a self-paced learning environment (Lee, 2002); at the same time the learner pays attention to certain aspects of discourse (Warschauer, 1997). Learners are more aware with the language they produce. This situation may benefit learners in an attempt to overcome incorrect target language features (Lee, 2002; Pica, 1996). Finally, CMC increases language production (Chun, 1994). The reduction of teacher talk is in favor of learner language production (Lee, 2002).

As what studies of CMC pinpoint, the use of online chat can provide opportunities, yet related, activities for practicing the different skills of listening, speaking, reading, and writing, as well as for enhancing communicative and pragmatics competence. By having opportunities to exchange information with others in different modes and to investigate and process the authentic information, learners are challenged beyond grammatical and syntactic competence to demonstrate discourse competence and pragmatic competence.

Chat for educational purpose can be divided into five categories including Gonzalez (2003): free topic chat, collaborative task-oriented chat, academic seminar or presentation chat, practice chat and evaluation chat. The topics presented in the course may involve: free talk with classmates, self introduction, class discussion, questions and answers in groups, panels or debates, interview someone/ guests/ teachers, guest speaker, collaborative groups working on projects, tutoring/mentoring/ online course, oral presentation, and giving exams in an online chat room.

The topics for online chat course should be carefully set up so that the objectives of the course will finally be embraced as what Poole, Axemann, Calongne & Cox (2003) propose that:

  • Topics presented for online chatting should be related with the topics in the syllabus
  • Students need to understand how to do the chatting activities
  • The chat can be part of continuum of requirements for a course, with pre and post projects and assignments.

Related to the above discussion, Egbert, Chao & Hanson-Smith (1999) have discussed eight conditions for optimal language learning environments, most of which can be fostered in chat: opportunities for interaction and negotiation of meaning, interaction with authentic audiences in the target language, students’ involvement in authentic tasks, exposure to and encouragement to produce varied and creative language, feedback, metacognitive guidance, and an ideal anxiety or stress level.

Seen from the point of view of interaction, chat can promote different types of modes:

  • Student-to-student, to generate richer exchanges of experiences, viewpoints, ways of life, cultural tradition and customs, and peer correction.
  • Student-to-teacher, to allow for individual or group help and guidance, and to foster peer or self-correction.
  • Student-to-expert, to open up contact with outside world, encourage discussion of real-world situations with professionals and to broaden horizons through qualified knowledge.
  • Student-to-online-resource, to encourage timely analysis and discussion of materials available online

Through one-on-one conversations with the instructor, small group work, pairs, individual study of transcripts, and interviews, chat can accommodate difference learning styles. This leads students to have autonomous learning which allows them to fit their online discussions around their commitments and responsibilities.

 

Students’ Attitudes

Online chat gave students an impression that they have more opportunities than what they can get in regular classes. Besides it is more challenging, students think that online chat gave an experience they have not had before. Some said that at the beginning, it was stressful and frustrating but they could get used to it soon. Most of them said that they improve their language and boost their confidence in using the language.

Additional advantages to be obtained from online chat are: it increases computer literacy, the development of communicative skills (carrying on a conversation, interviewing and negotiating meaning). Further, it promotes development of social skills and socialization skills and proper etiquette (greeting others, introducing oneself, leave taking, stating and reinforcing one’s own ideas, interacting politely and appropriately, showing respect and being responsible, making choices, helping, coaching, etc).

At last, it can also help them develop other skills essential for them, such as personal skills (independence and autonomy), interpersonal skills (asking, listening, interviewing, discussing, suggesting, negotiating, helping) and organizational skills (setting objectives, time and project management).

Some students feel excited of picking the frequently use of slang and abbreviations. At first, they felt it was stressful since they were unfamiliar but they could catch up after consulting with their dictionaries, list of chat jargon and even asking the native speaker of the meaning of the words and expressions.

Students also mentioned some unpleasant things they encountered during chatting activities. There are some stories of inappropriate behavior which lead the students uneasy to do this activity. Thus, they need to be able to anticipate when the terrible things might appear during the activity. Freiermuth (1998: 85) argues that it is better to have students chat with other students in the same class for a number of reasons, including that native speakers become disinterested in chatting with non-native speakers of low proficiency, that the language used may be too difficult, that there is not topic, and that the non-native speakers may be confronted with harsh language, insults, etc. However, using chat rooms or other sites that are specifically intended for non-native speakers seems to solve some of these problems. Native speakers who come to such sites are interested in chatting with non-native speakers, and they are likely to be patient with their difficulties in expressing themselves in the target language. In addition, the teacher may give the students certain tasks to fulfill during their time chatting, for example, certain information to ask for.

 

CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS

Language teacher can easily become discouraged by the challenge of using ICT (Information and Communication Technology). They therefore need to focus on students’ needs and choose the best tool for the task. Further, it is crucial to explore familiar technology first before taking on a new technology, although this will depend on the pedagogical purpose.  When approached strategically, chat sessions can enhance the learning experience providing opportunities for high quality and interesting discussions and creative language fluency activities that appeal to many different learning styles. To conclude, chats do not promote learning on their own. Their effectiveness lies in the way the activities are planned and carried out within the framework of the syllabus of a course. It is the responsibility of teachers to learn to use this environment to ensure optimal conditions for the students’ performance. However, for chat to be successful, it must be used for well-planned instructional tasks and not simply for unstructured discussion.

 

REFERENCES

Chat Acronyms. Available: http://www.yourhtmlsource.com/starthere/chatacronyms.html  [2011, January 8]

Chun, D. 1994. Using Computer Networking to Facilitate the Acquisition of Interactive Competence. System, 22, 17-31

Egbert, J, Chao, C & Hanson-Smith, E. 1999, ‘Computer-enhanced language learning environments: An overview’, CALL environments: Research, practice, and critical issues, pp. 1-13.

Freeman, D.  & Richards, J. C. 1996. Teacher learning in language teaching. Cambridge Univ Press.

Freiermuth, M. R. 2002. Internet Chat: Collaborating and Learning via E-conversations. TESOL JOURNAL, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 36-40.

Gass, S. M. 1997. Input, Interaction and the Second Language Learner. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Gonzalez, Dafne. 2003. Teaching and Learning Through Chat: A Taxonomy of Educational Chat for EFL/ESL. Teaching English with Technology: A Journal for Teachers of English, 3 (4). Retrieved from http://www.iatefl.org.pl/call/j_review15.htm

Instant Messaging and Live Chat. Available: http://www.tamingthebeast.net/articles6/messaging-chat-etiquette.htm  [2011, January 8]

Kelm, O. 1992. The Use of Synchronous Computer Networks in Second Language Instruction: A Prelemenary Report. Foreign Language Annals, 25, 441-54.

Krashen, S. 1982. Principles and Practice in Second Language Acquisition. Pergamon: Oxford, UK.

Krashen, S. 1985. The Input Hypothesis. New York: Longman.

Lee, J. F. (2002). Enhancing Learners’ Communication Skills through Synchronous Electronic Inter action and Task-Based Instruction. Foreign Language Annals, 35, 16-24.

Long, M. H. (1996). The Role of Linguistic Environment in Second Language Acquisition. In W.C. Ritchie & T. K. Bhatia, Eds,. Handbook of Research on Language Acquisition: Vol. 2. Second Language Acquisition (pp. 413-68). New York: Academic Press.

Pica, T. (1994). Research on Negotiation: What does it Reveal about Second Language Learning Conditions, Processes, and Outcomes? Language Learning, 44, 493-527.

Pica, T. 1996. Second Language Learning through Interaction: Multiple Perspectives. Working Papers in Educational Linguistics, 12, 1-22.

Poole , B.J., Axmann, M., Calongne, C.M., Cox, D. 2003. To Chat or to Chatter: Making Online Sense of the Chat Room Environment. Paper presented at the TCC 2003 Online Conference, April, 2003. http://makahiki.kcc.hawaii.edu/tcc/2003/conference/presentations/poole_p.html.

Warschauer, M. 1997. A Sociocultural Approach to Literacy and its Significance for CALL. In K. Murphy-Judy & R. Sanders, Eds., Nexus: The Convergence of Research and Teaching through New Information Technologies (pp. 88-97). Durham, NC: University of North Carolina.

Weber, L & Lieberman, J. 2006. ‘Strategies for effective use of chat: When, why, and how to make it work’, Strategies, vol. 2007, p. 2000

ADDING DRAMA TO AN EFL CLASS TO REFRESH STUDENTS’ MIND & IMPROVE STUDENTS’ ENGLISH SKILLS

Lia Agustina

State Polytechnic of Malang

   

ABSTRACT

Comprehending passages, developing vocabularies into dialogues, creating scenes and plays, and its picturing of an approximate real communication provide a dynamic format in which language skills can be introduced and reinforced. The article is a report of the writer’s experience in using of drama in EFL classes. It is aimed at giving an alternative technique in teaching EFL in Indonesian context. It describes (a) the benefits of implementing drama that performing the integrated language skills in EFL classroom b) how to set it up, and c) how to do it. It was proofed that creating and performing a script-based on improvisation can be a highly successful learning experience for ESL students. While it motivates them to generate imaginative and detailed ideas, greatly expand and mobilize their vocabularies, actively practice language skills and attain far greater fluency. It also provides a setting in which they can explore the social values of a different unique characters among students. Participating in this kind of activity strengthens students’ confidence in their academic ability, an essential component of successful language acquisition. Finally, it develops cultural and social awareness, an effective and delightful way to personalize a principle or illustrate a correct thought pattern of live that should be known and implemented by the students.

 

 Key-words: drama, EFL class, refresh students’ mind, improve students’ skills

 

 

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Drama activities are a valuable tool in the language teacher’s tool belt. The activities can give students and teachers alike a break from the daily routine of worksheets, grammar drills, and tests. While maintaining limits, teachers can add the learning by discussing and performing about human characters, social value, culture and art that would develop students’ knowledge, sensitivity, responsibility, attitude, emotion that bring to the mature of the students ‘character while at the same time control a sense of language use.

Many teachers are most comfortable with a teacher fronted classroom and in their role as dispenser of knowledge; drama activities call for the teachers to model language which involving learning about human characters. Rather than merely concentrating on grammatical structures, drama activities serve and explore on releasing emotion, eliciting, acting using physic and expression that incorporate students’ feelings, intellect, and bodies for a truly creative and social language learning experience. Drama activities can also foster self-motivation among students who may find other forms of language learning boring. Although teachers still set up activities by pre-teaching vocabulary or modeling grammatical structures, drama tasks aren’t seen as chores one has to do, but as likable activities that students look forward to. Because students enjoy drama activities and have some controls over the content, students start to take control of their own language learning. In addition, drama activities have a direct correlation to real world activities. By seeing and participating in familiar events being carried out in the target language, students start to see the target language as a living, meaningful part of their world, rather than dead print on a page or meaningless memorized responses to a teachers prompt. Through the tools used in learning language through drama, students can discover new ways to experience the target language that is not only fun but it is also an effective teaching method.

 

BACKGROUND

Students sometimes need a refreshment to avoid boring but still keeping the learning by using a methodology which is not the same as students faced for every meeting students have, a learning methodologies that can make students feel fun and enjoy the atmosphere. Games can be chosen as one of methodologies to be used to fun students (for once in a while) since it can make students happy but generally it doesn’t increase a lot on the knowledge or the experience of the students’ learning, it is used to amuse the students ‘atmosphere. Then drama activities would be a choice which has a complete meaningful of senses, one of the meaningful sense meant is anxiety, Anxiety plays an important affective role in SLA along with other psychological factors such as self-esteem, inhibition and risk-taking (Brown, 1994). MacIntyre, 2002; describes how language anxiety occurs when a student associates anxiety with the second language. Students doing well in other courses may find language-learning to be very different, possibly because of personality, specific problems with language acquisition, or specific reactions to a language learning context.

The notion of facilitative anxiety has been identified as a positive factor by some researchers. The determination to complete a task spurs students to success. Bailey in MacIntyre, 2002, states that facilitative anxiety was one of the keys to success. In Brown, 1994, it is closely related to competitiveness which causes learners to work harder. “Both too much and too little anxiety may hinder the process of successful second language learning.” While Holden, 1981 indicates “the aim of using drama is to bridge a gap between the classroom and outside world; students have learnt English in the overprotected world of the classroom, and are unprepared for the ‘coughs and hesitations’ of the outside world. It is up to the teachers to prepare them for this element of the unexpected and, as we shall see, this can often be done through drama.” …The teacher can provide situations in which his students can experience the emotions and impulses from which communication develops. Drama is a useful medium in the communicative language classroom where the 80 percentage focus is placed on the meaning of the language rather than the form.

 

DRAMA

According to Charlyn Wessels (1987) “Drama is doing. Drama is being. Drama is such a normal thing. It is something that we engage in daily when faced with difficult situations. We get up in the morning with a bad headache or an attack of depression, yet we face the day and cope with other people, pretending that nothing is wrong [….] getting on with our day-to-day lives requires a series of civilized masks if we are to maintain our dignity and live in harmony with others.” Drama is actually an intrinsic part of everyone’s life – not something that demands special talent.

 

Dramatizing is not the same as drama

The word drama may produce the image of an end-of – term play, staged by nervous children, organized by overwrought teacher and watcher by fond parents. But drama is not only about the product (the performance) it is also part of the process of language learning (LiubovDesiatova, 2011). Drama allows students to own the simple and mechanical language students use by involving their personalities. It gives students, who are shy when speaking foreign language, another character to “hide behind “. “Dramatizing” is a better word for this than drama. Dramatizing means that the students become actively involved in a text. This personalization makes language more meaningful and memorable than drilling or mechanical repetition.

 

The benefit of implementing drama in the EFL classroom

Using drama activities has clear advantages for language learning. It encourages students to give them the chance to communicate, even with limited language, using non-verbal communication, such as body movements and facial expression (Jill Hadfield , 1992). There are also a number of other factors which makes drama a very powerful tool in the language classroom. Besides having educational, physical, linguistic, emotional and intellectual benefits, drama in the classroom also has own pedagogical objectives which are the following:  (1) to break the routine of teaching English frontally and traditionally, (2) to have fun and a pleasant teaching practice experience, (3) to provide opportunities for experiencing innovative ideas that could be used in the future, (4) to have a first hand experience in witnessing the language improvement among the participants, and (5) to create an atmosphere of cooperation between student teachers.

According to LiubovDesiatova, (2011) implementing drama in the classroom has a lot of benefits. The benefits are described below.

First, it is to give learners an experience (dry-run) of using the language for genuine communication and real-life purposes; and by generating a need to speak.  In the classrooms, teachers usually expose students to small bits of language such as individual words, rather than whole phrases or “chunks”. Drama is an ideal way to encourage students to guess the meaning of unknown language in a context. Students will need to use a mixture of language structures and functions (“chunks”) if students want to communicate successfully.

Second, it can make language learning an active, motivating experience. In addition same activity can be done at different levels at the same time, which means that all the students can do it successfully.

Third, it can help students gain the confidence and self-esteem needed to use the language spontaneously. By taking a role, students can escape from their everyday identity and “hide behind “another character. When teacher give students special roles, it encourages them to be that character and abandon their shyness. Teacher can use roles to encourage children who would otherwise hold back, and control children who dominate the weaker ones.

Fourth, it can bring the real world into the classroom (problem-solving, research, consulting dictionaries, real time & pace, cross-curricular content). When using drama, the aims can be more than linguistic. Teachers can use topics from other subjects: students can act out scenes from history, work on ideas and issues that run through the curriculum, such as respect for the environment. Drama can also be used to introduce the culture of the new language, through stories and customs, and with a context for working on different kinds of behavior.

Fifth, it can be used to emulate the way children naturally acquire language through play, make-believe and meaningful interaction. Dramatizing is part of students’ life from an early age. Students try out different roles in make-believe play, in day-to-day situations (shopping, visiting doctors). Students rehearse the language and the “script” of the situation and experience the emotions involved, knowing that students can switch back to reality whenever students want to.

Next, it can be used to make what is learned memorable through direct experience and affect (emotions) for learners with different learning styles. Dramatizing appeals to all kinds of learners. When students dramatize they use all the channels (sight, hearing, and physical bodies) and each student will draw to on the one that suits them best. This means students will all be actively involved in the activity and the language will “enter” through the cannel most appropriate for them. Dramatizing allow students to add emotion and personality to a text that they have read or listened to. This makes language memorable.

Seventh, it can be used to stimulate students’ intellect and imagination. Make-believe play encourages students’ creativity and develops their imagination, and at the same time gives them the opportunity to use language that is outside their daily needs. Language teachers can use this natural desire to act out situations.

Further, it can be used to develop students’ ability to empathize with others and thus become better communicators. Students often work in a group or pairs when dramatizing. students have to make decisions as a group, listen to each other, and value each other’s suggestions. Students have to co-operate to achieve their aims.

Ninth, it helps students acquire language by focusing on the message they are conveying, not the form of their utterances. Important messages can be conveyed and explored.  Finally, it helps students imitate and improve their characters by focusing on the actors ‘characters they are learning on the story/drama performed

Drama is picturing of a part human-being’s life from an early age. Students try out to see, to learn and to consider, the bad and the good characters from the actors on the story or drama performed and then students rehearse and perform the characters on the stage, meaning the characters they learnt would describe the picture of human life should be or what they have seen in the real life and although it is only a little but it could influence and keep in their mind and perform on their behavior, because one of the human characters’ has is imitating..

 

Drama Reveals Aspects of the Human Condition

Drama is a method to reveal aspects of the human condition; life is nothing more than a grand series of improvisations (Price 1980). Through the games, students begin to realize the importance of shared space, time, attention, information and ideas. The games spark spontaneity and minimize self-consciousness which often inhibits learning. The games are also good for developing concentration and trust in the classroom. While students are having all this fun, they are developing skills of coordination, imitating, focusing on the task at hand. The improvisation enables students to flex their emotional, mental as well as physical muscles in a safe and controlled setting. A good example of this was a role-play one group performed where student displayed their displeasure with the school principal. There was no harm done and all the students were feeling the same.

 

Class Experience

Below is a report on the writer has done with her students in the class using drama.  The student-made script can be seen in the appendix.

How to Set It Up

For a class of about 25 students, this activity requires about a half hour of class time twice a week for approximately four weeks. The amount of time can be increased or decreased according to the length of the script, the degree of participation and the level of performance desired by the students. The class and the teacher (writer):

  1. Choose a dramatic life situation, such as: an immigration interview, the first day of school, a bank loan, a college interview, a first date, a new job, a new neighborhood, the school bully, work problems, trouble in a foreign country, a frightening experience, getting lost, finding something valuable, writes of passage, getting married, winning the lottery.
  2. Create two characters basic to the situation. Ask for volunteer actors.
  3. Using chairs, the desk and a few props, create a simple set. Block actors in place, elicit the opening dialogue from the class, and introduce new and familiar vocabulary, sentence structure and verb tense. Write the opening script on the board or overhead projector. Have everyone copy it.
  4. Using simple stage directions have the two characters read and rehearse the script. As students read, have the class create new characters one at a time. As each is created, elicit an opening dialogue, write the script on the screen, and have the class copy it.
  5. Rehearse the play from the beginning as often as possible for three to four weeks. Be sure the scripted dialogue is repeated before the actors are allowed to improvise.
  6. Integrate writing assignments as the play evolves that analyze plot, characters and themes, as well as reinforce vocabulary, grammar and sentence structure.
  7. If possible, perform and videotape the completed play in an audio-visual studio before invited guests.

Tips for Avoiding Pitfalls

Be flexible. This encourages improvisation as well as language expression and experimentation. By allowing for variation, the play can more closely simulate real life communication:

  1. Be flexible about roles in case students do not work out. Allow students to try each others roles until they find comfortable ones. This also enables creative ideas to germinate.
  2. Be flexible about the script. Include various choices if the students suggest them.
  3. Don’t rehearse scenes excessively. Keep the momentums of the play going.
  4. While assignments can be precise, let the improvisation stimulate expression, variation and fluency.

 

How We Did It

Our class chose “Job Interview,” a write of passage that everyone had either anticipated or already experienced. This situation possessed the key elements that would stimulate self-generated, adaptive language: the flexibility to include a range of characters, and the need to refer to all time planes: past, present and future.

The “kernel” plot consisted of the president of an important manufacturing company, and Mr. Jose Martinez, a job applicant. Scripting the beginning of the interview, the class immediately created a third character, the president’s secretary. The scene opened with the president seated at our desk, the secretary standing nearby, and Mr. Martinez waiting outside in the hall. The class wrote the initial introductions and the questions the president would ask Mr. Martinez about his education, work experience, present circumstances, and future expectations, along with Mr. Martinez’s responses. Inevitably, the script required different types of sentences, varying syntactical patterns and shifting verb tenses. To describe the position, the president required a greatly expanded vocabulary to cover its responsibilities and salary; the company’s benefits (health insurance, expense accounts, bonuses, sick days and vacation time); the working environment (physical facilities, colleagues and office hierarchy); and possibilities for advancement (promotion, lateral moves, travel). After Mr. Martinez departed, the president interviewed a competing applicant. This conversation was not scripted but entirely improvised based on the previous dialogue.

Dividing the class into groups, the class then brainstormed for potential conflicts. After discussing their ideas, crises erupted in rapid succession: an unexpected visit from the president’s angry wife whose birthday had been forgotten; desperate phone calls from their two children after a high school suspension and car accident at college; an emergency phone call from the president’s brother in the company’s South American factory about a violent workers’ strike; a disturbing phone call from a scheming cousin demanding a share of the family business; an emotional phone call from the president’s mistress, threatening to call his wife; various phone calls from meddling neighbors, concerned friends, anxious relatives and pressured business associates. At the end of the improvisation, all the characters arrived at the president’s office for a climactic, full-scale confrontation.

Every student participated in the play, volunteering for roles with increasing confidence. As the plot developed, students improvised dialogue that recalled prior vocabulary and sentence patterns, and experimented with new variations. Significantly, as the drama evolved, the class began to address issues other than language; under the “cover” of their roles, students debated American social and cultural norms that differed from those of their native cultures. This aspect of the experience became an added stimulus to expression. After several weeks of rehearsal, the class videotaped the entire play in the audio-visual studio where unexpected expression on the president’s part spontaneously produced a surprising end to the conflict.

During the weeks that the improvisation evolved, the class also read about jobs and working, reviewed grammar that pertained to the dialogue and wrote a variety of papers including a full “master” script of their own improvised scenes, character analyses, imagined conversations between characters, interpretations of the social, psychological and moral issues of the story from their own and their character’s point of view, and descriptions of actual employment experiences that had happened to them and others students interviewed, all of which enriched their contributions to the play.

The role of the teacher

In this technique, students have more responsibility for their own learning. However, this does not diminish the importance of the teacher in the instructional process. It is the responsibility of the teacher to guide the language learning process by:  (a) modeling pronunciation, intonation, stress, rhythm, and oral expression, (b) facilitating comprehension of vocabulary, idioms, cultural aspects, and plot, (c) stimulating interest and conversation, and interacting with the students, (d) establishing an acting workshop atmosphere, and (e) creating a student-participatory language learning experience.

CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONS

Creating and performing a script-based improvisation can be a highly successful learning experience for ESL students. While it motivates students to generate imaginative and detailed ideas, greatly expand their vocabulary, actively practice language skills and attain far greater fluency, it also provides a setting in which students can explore the social values of a different culture. Finally, participating in this kind of activity strengthens students’ confidence in their academic ability, an essential component of successful language acquisition.

If teacher could plan it carefully, students will take it seriously and perform better, therefore benefiting more and wanting to do more. Some important points to consider in preparation for an English lesson using drama are presented below.

First, choose the right activity. When teacher plan a drama activity teacher need to know our aims. There can be activity for different purposes. The students’ age affects the kind of activity teacher plan. The more dramatizations the students do and the more students reflect on what they have done, the better students will become.

Second, start in small steps. Not all students are good at acting, especially if drama isn’t part of their curriculum. Introduce drama into our classroom in small steps. Start with easy guided activities and move on to less-controlled ones.

Third, give feedback. Teacher are not training professional actors and actresses but giving students an enjoyable way of practicing and using their English. Teacher need to give feedback on what  students have done, not only the end product and language, but also the process that students went through, the way students co-operated with each other and how students came to decisions. Find something positive to comment on. There will be areas of students’ work that can be improved and this should be part of teacher feedback to students. While students are doing the activities, teacher watch and listen to them, try not to interfere, and take notes on what are observing. The process is teacher main aim, but students will see that “the performance” as the most important part of the lesson. Teacher need to value students’ performance. When teacher have finished give students feedback. There are many ways of doing this in oral or written forms. If constructive feedback becomes a regular part of dramatization activities, the students will gradually improve their dramatizing abilities and their language.

 

 

REFERENCES

Brown, H.D. 1994. Principles of Language Learning and Teaching. U.S.A.: Prentice Hall

Charlyn, Wessel. 1987, Drama, Oxford; OUP, Resource Books for Teachers

Jill Hadfield , 1992, Classroom Dynamics ,Oxford; OUP Resource Books for Teachers

MacIntyre, P.D. 2002. Motivation, Anxiety, and Emotion in Second Language Acquisition. in P. Robinson. (Ed.) Individual Differences and Instructed Language Learning.Philadelphia: John Benjamin’s PublishingCo.

LiubovDesiatova, Russian Federation– humanizing language teaching- in association with Pilgrim, Retrieved August 20, 2011, http://iteslj.org/Articles/Boudreault-Drama.html

Price, Pamela (1980). Creative Play Production in the Classroom. Yale, Yale Publishers


APPENDIX 1

Students’ drama-script (already performed in the classroom)

D3- Semester 4-Accounting students – 2010/2011 – State Polytechnic of Malang

Kartika as Timus Mas

Agus Rudi as ButoIjo

Vita Wardha as Mother

Oki as Herbal Seller

Fajar as Hermit

Riska as Sylph

 

DIALOG DRAMA TIMUN MAS

Act. 1

Once upon a time, in a place deep inside the forest, there were a green giant named ButoIjo and a sacred hermit. They were best friends since toddlers. One day, the hermit came to the grotto to see his best friend.

Hermit : Is anyone inside? [Walks inside the grotto]

ButoIjo : I’m here.

Hermit : There you are Hermit,  what are you doing?

ButoIjo : Eating. Can’t you see it?

Hermit : Oh… I see. What are you eating?

ButoIjo : [No response, just continue eating]

Hermit : You’re so annoying! Can I have some?

ButoIjo : [Turns his body away, not willing to share his foods with the hermit]

Hermit : [Little bit angry] As usual, you never share me your foods though I always shared mine with you! You stingy giant! I loathe you!

ButoIjo : Hah.. As if I care! [Continue eating]

Hermit : Someday your greed will get its return! Don’t regret it! I’m leaving! [Gets out of the grotto with anger]

 

Act.2

One day, there was a widow. She lived in a village near the forest. Unfortunately, she didn’t has any children yet. Everyday she prayed to God for a child. The widow has a friend, the herb seller.

Mother : Oh God… please give us a child. I promise I will always protect my child. Please answer our prayer. Thank you God.

Herb Seller : [Comes to the widow] don’t be sad. I have heard that there is a giant in grotto that can help you to fulfill your request.

Mother : Really?! Would you accompany me to there?

Herb Seller : ha?! Now? To the grotto?

Mother : yes.

Herb seller : Okay. 5 thousand!

Mother : Come on… we are best friend, aren’t we?

Herb Seller : Hmmm. Okay, Let’s go.

Act. 3

[In front of the grotto]

Herb Seller : spadaaaaa~ anybody here?

Mother : Hi stop shout please! Oh, that’s him. He is seemingly sleeping. Let’s we wake him up.

Herb Seller : Buto, buto..

Butoijo : [angry] I’m still sleepy. Grrr. Why do you wake me up ha? You’re so annoying me. grrr

Mother : I’m sorry if I wake you up, but I need your help now. I have been desired this so long. I believe that you can help me. Please buto..

Butoijo : ah you are so fussy. What do you want?

 

Mother : ooh thank you ButoIjo, thank you so much. I want.. I want.. emmm I forgot it!

Herb Seller : You want have a baby, don’t you?

Mother : oh yes, I remember. Please give me a baby.

Butoijo : oooo that’s easy, I can manage it. But…

Mother : I will do everything that you want if you grant my wish.

Butoijo : hmmmmmmm. I will grant your wish if you give your daughter to me after she is 17 years old.

Mother : okay.

Butoijo : [giving some cucumber seeds] Plant this seeds behind your house till it has results and the color’s gold.

Mother : Thank you ButoIjo.

Act. 4

In heaven, Sylph and Sacred hermit met. They have been best friend since they were child. With ButoIjo of course. Hermit looked sad and confused.

Sylph : Hi Hermit. What are you thinking about?

Hermit : I’m thinking about how’s the way to protect Timun Mas. Any idea?

Sylph : hmmmm. We should work together before she was hurt by ButoIjo. You have to prevent ButoIjo when he will hurt Timun Mas. And I will give an incantation to her so she will be guarded. Do you agree?

Hermit : That’s good idea. I hope it can be success.

Act. 5

One day in widow mother’s house, mother found out the seed that she have plant before has result.

Mother : [Farming] Woaa this cucumber has had golden. But, I’m still afraid to pick its. I have to call Herb Seller to help me.

[Mother met Herb Seller on the way to the Herb Seller’s house coincidentally]

Herb Seller : What happened miss? You look panic.

Mother : Come on follow me. Help me to pick the golden cucumber. Hurry up!

[Herb seller and mother run into the garden so fast. Then pick the golden cucumber and bring it to the mother’s house]

[Mother and Herb Seller split the golden cucumber and find a baby out.]

Mother : hah?! Why is this baby inside this cucumber? [she’s shocked]

Herb Seller : hmmm. Maybe this was the promise of Butoijo long time ago.

Mother : oooooooh yes, I remember it. Aihh she’s so funny. Hmmmm I will call her Timun Mas, because she was born from golden cucumber. Is it good ha?

Herb Seller : How a unique name it is! Good.

[Hermit and Sylph appear between them suddenly]

Mother : Hei, Who are you?

Sylph : I am a fairy and I will protect your daughter by my incantation. When she’s 17 years old, ButoIjo can’t hurt her. And beside me, he’s Hermit, my friend whose help me in protecting Timun Mas.

Hermit : Hi all.

Mother : Thank you. You have been protecting my daughter from ButoIjo. Thank you.

[Sylph’s spelling]

Hermit : I give you this necklace. Later, if Timun Mas has 17 years old, put this around her neck. When she’s threatened, this necklace gives a signal to us to help her as soon as possible. [while giving the necklace]

Mother : Okay, thank you hermit. I will put this necklace away well.

Act. 6

17 years later, Timun Mas has growth. One day, she went to the forest to looking for some fresh flowers. In there, she met ButoIjo.

Butoijo : hahahahahaha . . . . .

Timun Mas : [frightened] wh who are you?

ButoIjo : I will eat you Timun Mas. hahahahahhahahahahahahaha . . . .

Timun mas : Don’t hurt me please.. Don’t hurt me..

[Timun Mas run to her house and shouted]

Timun Mas : Help! Help! Help me!

ButoIjo : Don’t run away!!

[Timun Mas still runs]

 

 

Act. 7

Timun Mas was frightened because there was a giant want to eat her. Then she runs, came home to keep save.

Timun Mas : Mom..Mom.. help me!

Mother : What happened? What happened?

Timun Mas : There is a giant who want to eat me when I went to the forest just now. I’m so fear mom. Huuuuhuuu~ [ crying ]

Mother : What? ButoIjo comes back. You must be careful dear.

Timun mas : Who’s ButoIjo mom? Why did he want to eat me?

Mother : Timun,, I must tell you about a thing honestly. A long time ago, I requested a baby to a giant, ButoIjo. He will grant my request if I give you to him when you are 17 years old.

Timun Mas : No! Then, what must I do mom?

Mother : Calm down please. I remember something, wait a minutes. [goes to the room to looking for the necklace]

Timun Mas : Okay mom.

[few minutes later…]

Mother : Timun, take this necklace and don’t ever you put this out. Remember this! This necklace will help you in danger. [put the necklace to TimunMas’s neck]

Timun Mas : Yes mom, I will remember it. Thank you

[The following day, ButoIjo goes to the Mother’s house to dun her promise]

*DUM.DUM.DUM

ButoIjo : Open the door! Open the door! Where’s my Timun Mas?!

[Mother and Timun Mas are frightened]

Timun Mas : That’s him! The giant.

[Mother and Timun Mas are panic]

[Sylph comes between them suddenly]

*criiiiing

Sylph : Go far away from here, Timun. I will replace you here. And mother, open the door please and don’t be panic!

[Timun Mas and Mother keep nodding. Then, Timun Mas go away to the forest]

ButoIjo : Hoi, open the door!!!!! [angry]

Mother : Why do you here?

ButoIjo : Give your daughter now! Where’s she? [still angry]

[Sylph as Timun Mas meet ButoIjo]

Sylph : I’m here Buto. I know you want me to be your food but, please give me one day to life. I want spend my time with my beloved mother just a day.. Please Buto..Please..What a pity I am..Please..

ButoIjo : [after thinking] hmmm. Okay. I give you a chance to alive. But remember, just a day! Then, the following day I will back to eat you.

Sylph : Thank You Buto.

[Buto comes back to the forest and goes home]

Act. 8

On the way to the forest, Timun Mas met The Herb Seller.

Herb Seller : Timun mas! [shouted] Timun Mas!!

Herb Seller : Why you look so frightened? What happened?

Timun Mas : Help me. ButoIjo is looking for me now. I want to be his food by him. Where I must go? Help me. [in a hurry and panic]

Herb Seller : What? ButoIjo’s coming back to eat you?! Okay, calm down. I have something for you. [She’s looking for a package in her pocket]. [gives the package to Timun Mas] Use these if ButoIjo chase after you. Throw these one by one to the ButoIjo’s body. Go far away now! Hurry!

Timun Mas : Okay, I’ll do what you say miss. Thank you. Bye.

[ButoIjo meets Timun Mas in the forest]

ButoIjo : She is Timun Mas, isn’t she?! So, who have been in that house just now? [Thinking]

[after few minutes]

ButoIjo : Timun Mas!!!! Come back to me!!

[Timun Mas runs away]

ButoIjo : Don’t go! Comes here!! Hei!! [angry]

Timun Mas : Help!! Help!!!!

[throw few salt, some needles, and shrimp paste to ButoIjo]

Timun Mas : Go away!! Go far away from me!!!

ButoIjo : Arrrrgh! Stop it! Stop it!

[Timun Mas still throw few salt, some needles, and shrimp paste. Its make ButoIjo drown to the mud river ]

[Hermit appears between them suddenly]

*criiing

ButoIjo : Help!! Help me!!!

Hermit : How pity you are. That’s your consequent of your greed.

ButoIjo : Help me hermit, please..

Hermit : I will save you if you promise that you won’t disturb Timun Mas again. Will you?

ButoIjo : Yes, I will. I promise, I won’t disturb Timun Mas again.

[Hermit reads the incantation and ButoIjo saved from the mud flood. Then, ButoIjo apologizes to Timun Mas]

ButoIjo : Thank you Hermit

[Sylph comes close to Timun Mas who’s running away]

Sylph : Timun..Timun..

Timun : Oh..You.. Sylph!

Sylph : Calm down, Timun.. ButoIjo will not bother you again. So, follow me. I will deliver you to your mother.

Timun : Thank you Sylph. You’ve helped me. Thank you so much.

[in front of the house]

Mother : Oh Timun.. My daughter. [hold Timun] Thankfully, you’re survived. Don’t cry Timun. So, how about ButoIjo?

Sylph : ButoIjo promised, he will not bother you again. So, from now, live together in peace and happiness.

[ButoIjo comes back to the grotto with Hermit. Timun Mas and her mother live happily ever after]

HANDICAPS IN USING ENGLISH FACED BY STUDENTS OF ACCOUNTING DEPARTMENT, STATE POLYTECHNICS OF MALANG

Sigit Budisantoso

State Polytechnic of Malang

 

ABSTRACT

Practicing English is always a big problem to many students in Accounting Department, State Polytechnic of Malang. They have their own reasons not to be confident. A learner will certainly get a loss if he/ she cannot speak the targeted language because a language is learnt to be used as a communication means. In general, a learner will not be confident to practice his/ her English because of the following reasons. First, they are afraid of making grammatical mistakes. It is right that Indonesian grammar derives from English grammar. But Indonesian grammar does not have some aspects that are used by English grammar, such as tenses, plurality, different prepositions, and different pronouns. Second, they are afraid of making wrong pronunciation. English words are pronounced differently. Many of the respondents are not confident to pronounce English words. Third, they always feel that they are lack of vocabulary. The explanation of this problem is simple. They feel lack of English words because they do not like reading English books, English magazines, or any other English works. Forth, the people around them do not support them. In other words, they are afraid of practicing their English because the people around them are always mocking on them when they are practicing their English. In conclusion, learners have their own reasons why they are not confident to practice their English. That is why an English teacher is always demanded to create a suitable teaching strategy for his classrooms so that most of his/ her students are confident to practice their English.

 

Key words: communication means, grammatical mistakes, teaching strategy

 

*** 

English taught in Accounting Department, State Polytechnics of Malang is categorized as English for Specific Purposes (ESP). What is ESP? Dudley – Evans (2001) states that the term ESP is divided into two: English for Academic Purposes (AEP) and English for Occupational Purposes (EOP). In general, the focus of the teaching-learning a language is on how to make learners speak. English is learnt to be used as a communication means. That is why when the students are in the English classrooms they have to express their ideas in English only. They may not speak any other languages but English. English that is taught in Accounting Department, State Polytechnics of Malang is categorized as EOP. Thus, the teaching-learning process is focused on speaking ability. Unfortunately,   many students who learn English in this department are not confident to speak English although they have spent years in learning English. As we know students in Indonesia start learning English when they are in the third or fourth year.  On present days, kindergarten students in big towns have even started learning English. What happens with their English when they have graduated from Senior High School? They cannot communicate well in English as if they were beginners again. What has been wrong with English teaching-learning in Indonesia? What has made that phenomenon happen from year to year? Is it because of the curriculum, the teachers’ competence, or there may be another factor?

Seen from the students’ sides, they have their own reasons why they are not confident to practice their English. Some students say that their grammar is still bad. Some say that they do not have enough vocabulary to speak. Some others say that they are afraid. They just feel afraid without knowing why they are afraid. There are a number of students who do not want to practice their English because their environment does not support them. Their friends often mock on them when they are practicing their English. Since the situation is repeated again and again, the students do not have any more motivation to practice their English. The above handicaps are found in the study done in The State Polytechnic of Malang. The study is not conducted in all departments. It is conducted in the Accounting Department only. The respondents are students of the fifth semester.

Despite the repeated factors that are always faced by the students from year to year, English teachers should keep trying to minimize them. Otherwise, the graduates’ capability in speaking English will decrease from year to year. To Polytechnic graduates, the impact if they are not competent at English is that they cannot be competitive in the job markets. If it happens, it means that the objective of teaching-learning English in the Accounting, State Polytechnic of Malang has failed. As we know English is one of some subjects that can make Polytechnic graduates be absorbed in the job markets quickly.  In this global era, a college/ university graduate who cannot communicate in English must face an unpleasant situation in the job market. They must compete against those who are good at English. They must also compete against foreigners who try to get jobs in Indonesia. That situation may take place in Indonesia because in this global era, any people from any country may apply for jobs in Indonesia. But, usually, foreign investors prefer recruiting workers from their own countries or people who can communicate well in English to skilled domestic workers who cannot communicate in their language or English.

The current article is a report of a research conducted in The Accounting Department, State Polytechnic of Malang. The research was conducted from March to June 2011. The object was fifth semester students. Fifth semester students are chosen as the object because they are going to write their abstracts in English and they will have graduated from the college in e few months.  It is hoped that by knowing the students’ weaknesses, the teacher can make his/ her priority in healing his/ her students’ weaknesses. He/ she can choose which strategy meets the situation of his/ her class’ problem.

 

THE STUDY OF ENGLISH AS A FOREIGN OR SECOND LANGUAGE

In Netherland and Israel, most children are required to study at least one foreign language in school, and sometimes several (Dulay at al, 1982:9).  It indicates that the two countries have realized the importance of mastering international languages. In this case, we talk about English. Economic futurists state that from 1980’s to the twentieth century  the role of a foreign language will be among business skills (Dulay, at al, 1982: 9).

Although international languages play a very important role in industrial and scientific world, so many people from non-European countries do not master any international languages. Indonesia is included in those countries. So many Indonesian people cannot communicate in English or one of the international languages.

In a smaller scope, around 60 % of students in Accounting Department, State Polytechnic of Malang cannot communicate well in English. It is true that they get 4 to 6 hours for English a week. The fact is that only 40 % or less of them who can communicate in English well. That phenomenon always happens from year to year. Many of the 60 % still make very basic mistakes, such as:

  • “I am like apple”, instead of “I like apples”.
  • “I was go to Surabaya”, instead of “I went to Surabaya”.
  • “She not teach English”, instead of “She does not teach English”, and many others.

Berry (1978) categorizes the most common mistakes that are made by people as follows:

a. Commonly confused words

b.Errors in using words commonly misused

c. Errors in using pronouns

d.Errors in case

e.Errors in Using verbs

  • Errors in using adverbs

g. Errors in using comparisons

h.Redundancies

  • Errors in using prepositions

 

In Indonesia, other kinds of errors must be added to the above list. Errors in using tenses, errors in using correct structures and grammar are common errors that are made by Indonesian students.

 

WHY DO STUDENTS MAKE SUCH ERRORS?

Elllis (1986:19) quotes that second language acquisition is strongly influenced by the learner’s first language (L1). He gives the following example: When a Frenchman speaks English, his English sounds French. The learner’s first language will also influence the vocabulary and grammar. When he/ she is facing a problem, he/ she will commonly do a language switch. He/ she will use his/ her first language rules to transfer his ideas into the target language (L2). That is why people who do not speak English as the second language often do that language switch. That language switch does not only cover grammar but it also covers choice of words and pronunciation.

 

METHODOLODY

First thing first is observing the students that are going to be used as the population. The population includes the fifth-semester students of Accounting Department, State Polytechnic of Malang. The observation is related to the factual problem faced by the population. The problems are then analyzed and sorted based on the kinds.

The instruments employed in this study are students’ classroom assignments, daily tests, structured tests, home assignments, and English abstract writing assignment that would be used for the students’ Final Reports. The classroom assignments cover how to make sentences using S + Verb, S + To Be, how to use tenses, how to make QW-questions, and several numbers of translation works based on the materials discussed.

The home assignments are also related to the discussed materials. The difference is on the way they are given to the students. Classroom assignments are certainly given in the classroom and are based on the material being explained by the teacher. The classroom assignment is given after a certain material is explained by the teacher. By giving a classroom assignment the teacher will be able to detect whether the material he has explained is understood by the students or not.

Information from another teacher in charge of teaching fifth semester students is also recorded. The information received from the other teacher who is in charge of teaching fifth semester students is that most of his students also face the same problems. Most of them cannot implement correct patterns in making sentences. Implementing correct tenses is another problem faced by other classes. Based on this case, the effectiveness of the teaching strategy employed in the previous semesters can be questioned. As seen from the GBPP of The Accounting Department, State Polytechnic of Malang, the objective of teaching English is to make the students able to speak English. Considering the objective written in the GBPP, the teachers who teach in the previous semester do not pay too much attention to the students’ sentence accuracy. The important point is that the student can communicate in English and the classmates can receive the messages. That is why the problem that is related to sentence accuracy is always taking place every year.

 

FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION

1. Difficulties in finding suitable English words

( choice of words problem)

Some students found difficulties in finding suitable word in speaking/writing English. It seems that they resorted to mother tongue word and then it is translated into English.

Examples:

(a)The girl who using the red dress is my sister.

(b) I cannot speak English with good.

Example (a) the structure is made by some Polytechnic students who live in Malang. The basic idea is from Javanese language “Arek wedok sing gae klambi abang ika adikku”. That Javanese structure is then translated into English. The English sentence above is the result of the process. Despite the incorrect structure, we can see clearly that the example of the English sentence is influenced by the mother tongue. As addition, the word “using” is translated from “gae”. “Gae” is a Javenese. In Indonesian, it means “mengenakan”.

In example (b), there is no doubt that the above structure is translated from “Saya tidak bisa berbicara bahasa Inggris dengan baik”. The Indonesian structure is directly translated into English. The above structure was found in an assignment done by a Polytechnic students. There are a number of papers with the same mistakes.

 

2. Difficulties in implementing English Tenses

This sort of mistake is commonly made by beginners. It is quite understandable since there is no such rule in Indonesian language. In Indonesian, a speaker does not need to change any verb to indicate a different time signal. In English grammar, this mistake is commonly called as “There is no existence of Tenses”. It is true that Indonesian language does not employ Tenses. It does not have changes of verbs because of time. That is why Indonesian students often make the following mistake.

Examples:

(c) Yesterday father was go to Surabaya.

(d) I am go to school by motorbike.

In example (c) beginners think that the existence of the TO BE in the sentences has fulfilled the requirement of Present Tense. Many of them do not know that they have to make changes in the verbs. Since there is not any change of verb related to time in Indonesian language, Indonesian learners think that by putting a past TO BE or present TO BE after the subjects of their sentences, they have met the requirement of good sentences.

Example (d) is actually of the same mistake as the previous example. In the second example, the learners employ “A Present To Be” to indicate Present Tense. Some students made a funny mistake in this sentence: I am very like apple or I very like apple. Actually they want to write: I like apples or I like apples very much.

 

3. Difficulties in answering questions tags

Learners cannot answer questions tags because their way of thinking is just the same as when they are answering Indonesian question tags. It will not bring any confusion when they are speaking Indonesian. But it may bring some confusion when they are speaking English.

Example:

(e) Your father is not a fisherman, isn’t he?

Many Indonesian learners may answer “Yes” to indicate that their father is not a fisherman. They may be influenced by the way to answer this Indonesian question tag “Ayahmu bukan seorang nelayan, kan?”. An Indonesian may say “Ya” to indicate that his father is not a fisherman.

The listener may think “Oh, ayahnya memang bukan seorang nelayan”. But in English the reply “YES” indicates that his father is a fisherman. A funny answer can even be seen  in the following example:

Statement:

“Your father is not a fisherman, isn’t he?”

Reply:

“Yes. My father is not a fisherman”.

It is very obvious that the reply maker is influenced by Indonesian sentence,” Ya. Ayah saya memang bukan seornag nelayan”.

 

 

4. Difficulties in choosing English Pronouns

Most English personal pronouns (I, he, she, it, we, they) are confusing to Indonesian learners. Indonesian personal pronouns are not so detailed. Besides, they are also confused with V + s/ es. Many Indonesian students do not know that he/ she can be used to represent a male/ female animal. That is why they always use IT to represent an animal.

Examples:

(f)  We don’t likehers style.

(It must be “We don’t like her style”)

(g)  They don’t like hers.

(The speaker wants to say  “They don’t like her”)

(h) We don’t like she

(It must be “We don’t like her”)

 

CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONS

Through this article the writer tries to give some inputs to the readers about the students’ handicaps in using English. There are a number of reasons in English that make most students in Accounting Department are afraid of practicing their English.    Many students always feel that they are lack of vocabulary. Many other get a big problem in implementing English tenses. The other handicap faced by students is about how to apply the function of question tags. Many of them do not have any problem to answer question tags. But they do not know how to implement the functions. Indonesian question tag may not give confusion to a listener. When a speaker is saying, “Kalian tidak pernah pergi ke perpustakaan, bukan”. The listener may reply, “Ya”. The speaker knows that the listeners never go to the library. But in English when a speaker is saying, “You do not go to school by car, do you?”. An Indonesian listener may reply, “Yes” although he actually does not go to school by car. Actually, the answerer wants to say,” I do not go to school by car”. He is influenced by Indonesian concept. He simply translates the speaker’s statement first and then he translates his own reply into English. Another minimal requirement that makes students confused is how to use pronouns.  Example: I don’t like hers style. It should be,” I don’t like her style”.

At the end of the study, it is found that many students in the Accounting Department, State Polytechnic of Malang face handicaps in practicing their English. Based on the interviews with the students, the analysis on the students’ works, and interview with another teacher, many of them are not confident to practice their English.  Many of  the respondents do not practice their English at home because the environments are not conducive. Many of the respondents do not practice speaking English because they are afraid of making grammatical mistakes. Most of them do not read English sources (magazines, newspapers, articles). A number of respondents try to improve their English through listening to music the lyrics of which are written in English.

 

Suggested remedies

                The following is the suggested remedies that may be employed to heal or at least to minimize the students’ weakness:

  1. Students are given more time for speaking
  2. More drills on speaking should be given during the teaching-learning process
  3. Drills on spoken forms and written forms should are given at the same time.
  4. The teachers drill the students on the functions of grammar.
  5. Students do frequent presentation on English articles/ papers.
  6. The teacher should speak English during the teaching-learning process

But, the teacher should notice that not all of the suggested remedies will be applicable in other classes although they are in the same department. The situation, quality of the students, students’ interest in English may influence the result of the remedy. The following inputs may be applicable and have similar results if they have the same or at least similar condition.

 

Why should drill?

Ornstein (1990: 74) states that drills have the following functions:

  • Checking or re-teaching the previous day’s work in order to proceed to new skills or concepts
  • Reviewing the previous day’s homework, receiving the students’ feedbacks on difficult items, and re-teaching if necessary
  • Practicing skills and concepts necessary to do the next day’s homework
  • Permitting students to correct each other’s paper or exercises and re-teaching common problems
  • Providing students with independent practice and drill
  • Providing weekly or monthly reviews in test or non-test forms

 

The use of drills in teaching-learning English

                Ellis (1986:9) states that drills have advantages for both students and teachers.
For students, drills can …

  • provide for a focus on accuracy.
  • provide learners with intensive practice in hearing and saying particular words or phrases.
  • provide a safe environment for learners to experiment with producing the language.
  • help students notice the correct form or pronunciation of a word or phrase.
  • provide an opportunity for learners to get immediate feedback on their accuracy in terms of teacher or peer correction.
  • help memorization and automization of common language patterns and language chunks.
  • meet student expectations.

 

For the teacher, drills can…

  • help in terms of classroom management, enabling us to vary the pace of the lesson or to get all learners involved.
  • help us recognize if new language is causing problems in terms of form or pronunciation.

 

The conclusion of the above study is that the teacher should observe the condition of his/ her classroom first. After he/ she gets the students’ weaknesses, he/ she can set the necessary remedy. It is true that the suggested remedy has been employed in certain classroom in The Accounting Department, State Polytechnic of Malang. But, as stated in the previous lines, not all the remedies can heal the students’ weaknesses in other classes. The suggested remedies may work if the other classrooms has the same or at least similar condition as the ones in which the suggested remedies have been employed. It is suggested that each classroom has its own specific remedy to heal the weakness of the classroom.

 

REFERENCES

 Berry, Thomas Elliot. 1978. The Most Common Mistakes in English. New York: McGraw Hill, Inc

Borg, W and Gall,M.R.,1983.Educational Research (5th Ed). London: Longman.

Burns, Anne and Joice, Helen. 1997. Focus on Speaking. Sidney. National Centre for English language Teaching and Research. Macquarie University.

Davies, Paul, 2000. Success in English Teaching. United Kingdom. Oxford University Press.

Dick, W. & Cary, L. (1990), The Systematic Design of Instruction, Third Edition, Harper Collins

Diknas.2007. Sosialisasi KTSP: Pengembangan Bahan Ajar.www.diknas.go.id

Dulay, at al. 1982. Language Two. Oxford: Oxford Unicerisyt ress

Ellis, Rod. 1986. Understanding Second Language Acquisition. Oxford: Oxford University Press

Harmer, Jeremy.1998. How to Teach English. England. Addison Wesley Longman Limited.

Hughes, Rebecca. 2002. Teaching and Researching Speaking. Great Britain. Pearson Education.

Hutchinson, Tom and Waters, Alan, 1987. English for Specific Purposes. Cambridge. Cambridge University Press.

Omaggio, C. Alice. 1986. Teaching Language in Context. Boston, Massachusetts 02116 USA. Heinle & Heinle Publishers, Inc.

Oxford, Rebecca. (2006). Task-Based Language Teaching and Learning: An    Overview. http://www.asian-efl-ournal.com/Sept_06_ro. php

Politeknik Negeri Malang, 2005. Buku Pedoman Akademik. Penerbit Politeknik Negeri Malang

Richards, C. Jack and Rodgers, S. Theodore. 2001. Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching. United States of America. Cambridge University Press.

Ur, Penny. 1996. A Course in Language Teaching. Great Britain. Cambridge University Pres.

  


APPENDIX 1

Examples of students’ sentences

                The followings are students’ sentences quoted from their English abstracts. Not the original works but re-typed as what they are.

01)      Indonesian sentence: Salah satu alat yang digunakan untuk mengendalikan biaya produksi adalah menetapkan biaya standar kemudian menganalisis varians produksi.

Student’s translation: To control production cost is to establish standard cost than analize variance of production.

Note:

It is written “analize” not “analyze”.

02)      Indonesian sentence: Keberhasilan operasi, kinerja, dan kelangsungan hidup perusahaan tergantung pada banyak keputusan yang terus menerus dibuat oleh tim manajemen dengan tepat pada permasalahan yang dihadapi karena segala keputusan akan berpengaruh pada keadaan perusahaan pada masa kini dan masa yang akan datang.

Student’s translation: Successful of company’s operation, performance, and life depend on more decision which are made by management team continuously correct on the happened problems because all of decision will have to influence on condition of company now and future.

 

03)   Indonesian sentence: Perkembangan ilmu pengtahuan dan teknologi yang sangat pesat, membawa perubahan pada kebutuhan akan adanya system informasi akuntansi yang baik bagi perusahaan.

Student’s translation: The development of knowledge and technology is very rapidly, makes change on requirement about how well is accounting information system in the company.

 

04)   Indonesian sentence: Penelitian ini dilaksanakan pada KUD DAU Malang yang beralamatkan di Jl. Sidomakmur 26, Kec. Dau, Malang.

Student’s translation: This Final Report was conducted at KUD DAU Malang addressed at Jl. Sidomakmur 26, Dau, Malang.

 

05) Indonesian sentence: Tujuannya adalah mengefisienkan jumlah pajak terhutang melalui penghindaran pajak (tax avoidance) tanpa harus melanggar undang-undang perpajakan …

Student’s translation: Purpose is to efisiensi the text expense by tax avoidance without trangessing the tax law…

 

06) Indonesian sentence: Lembaga keuangan, khususnya perbankan mempunyai peranan penting dalam menggerakkan roda perekonomian suatu Negara. Oleh sebab itu peranan suatu lembaga Perbankan harus “Sehat”, agar tidak kehilangan kepercayaan dari nasabahnya.

Student’s translation: The finance institution, especially bank’s, have an important role in improving the economical growth. Therefore, a bank should be healthy, since it would not losing the customers trust

 

07)  Indonesian sentence: Berdasarkan hasil tersebut, PT Bank PAsar Trikarya Waranugraha dari tahun 2008 sampai dengan 2010 memiliki nilai kredit factor yang berturut-turut sebesar 97,7, 98,5, dan 96,3. Dengan kategori sehat.

Student’s translation: Based on the result above (2008 – 2010), the credit value factors of PT BP Trikarya Waranugraha were 97,7, 98, 5, and 96, 3 and catagoring healthy.

 

08)  Indonesian sentence: Penyusunan anggaran pada PR. Djagung Padi hanya dilakukan menggunakan prosentase berdasarkan data historis.

Student’s translation: The budget of PR Djagung Padi is made by a percentation of the lost data.

 

09) Indonesian sentence:  Sistem Akuntansi Pemerintah Daerah (SAPD) adalah serangkaian prosedur mulai dari proses pengumpulan data sampai dengan pencatatan keungan dalam rangka pertanggungjawaban pelaksanaan APBD yang ditetapkan dengan entitas pelaporan dan entitas akuntansi.

Student’s translation: Government accounting system is collecting start data process until write financial to typical APBD with accounting entity and reporting accounting.

 

10)  Indonesian sentence: Sistem akuntansi adalah organisasi, from, catatan, dan laporan yang dikordinasikan sedemikian rupa untuk menyediakan informasi keungan yang dibutuhkan oleh manajemen guna memudahlan pengelolaan perusahaan.

Student’s translation: Accounting system is a organize, records, and reports that is coordinated to provide financial statement needed by the management to facilities the company management.

 

11) Indonesian sentence: Pengendalian biaya produksi adalah salah satu usaha yang dapat dilakukan perusahaan untuk mendapatkan laba dari setiap penjualan produk yang dihasilkan.

Student’s translation: Controlling cost production is one of method that can be done by a company to get profit in every product sale that produced.

 

12) Indonesian sentence: Proses akuntansi berkembang seiring perkembangan perusahaan, pertumbuhan ekonomi, tingkat pengetahuan karyawan, dan penggunaan teknologi.

Student’s translation: Accounting process is as develop as company developing, growth of economy, education of employee and the use of technology.

 

13) Indonesian sentence: Bona Toserba merupakan sebuah perusahaan yang bergerak dibidang perdagangan khususnya kebutuhan rumah tangga.

Student’s translation: Bona Toserba is a trading company, especially daily needed.

 

14) Indonesian sentence: Berdasarkan hasil perhitungan dengan menggunakan perbandingan, analisis, sumber dan penggunaan dana, dan analisis rasio keuangan dilakukan oleh PT Bank Rakyat Indonesia (Persero) Tbk Kantor Cabang Pembantu Rampal Malang terhadap UD “X” maka pihak bank menilai bahwa perusahaan layak untuk mendapatkan fasilitas kredit karena kondisi keuangan perusahaan yang baik.

Student’s translation: From the calculation that was done by assessing the financial statement of borrowers from 2008-2010 that the results of calculation using ratio analysis, sources and uses of funds analysis, ratio analysis, and preparation of cash flow, showed an increase in assets, reduction in debt, and an increase in capital. So the bank assess the company’s financial condition is very good and deserves credit facility.

 

15) Indonesian sentence: Pengendalian biaya produksi memiliki peranan penting dalam dalam memproduksi barang atau jasa yang berkualitas. Maka dari itu diperlukan suatu standar untuk dijadikan tolok ukur dalam menentukan boleh tidaknya biaya yang digunakan dalam kegiatan produksi.

Student’s translation: Production Cost control have important role function for producted the goods or services that have good quality. For it need a standard to be the role in determinate might or no the cost have been used in production.

 

16) Indonesian sentence: Laporan Akhir ini merupakan hasil penelitian yang dilakukan pada CV. Delta Raya, Batu yang merupakan salah satu Wajib pajak dengan nomor pokok wajib pajak 02.533. 579.5-628.000 dalam kewajiban menghitung, membayar dan melaporkan pajak terutangnya.

Student’s translation: This Final Report represents the reserac result conducted at CV. Delta Raya-Batu is one of the tax payers with Id. 02.533.579.5-628.000 that has a duty incalculating, paying, and also reporting the tax payable.

 

17) Indonesian sentence: Persaingan bisnis akan memacu perusahaan mengatur strategi untuk menarik konsumen. Salah satunya adalah dengan menghasilkan suatu produk berkualitas tinggi dengan harga yang relative terjangkau oleh konsumen.

Student’s translation: Business competition will force a company make strategy to attract their consumer. One of the alternative way to produce high quality products but low in prices.

 

18) Indonesian sentence: Kegiatan perkreditan merupakan kegiatan atau aktivitas terbesar dari perbankan baik kredit investasi, kredit modal kerja, kredit usaha kecil maupun kredit pemilikan rumah (KPR).

Student’s translation: Credit is abig banking activity like investation credit, working capital credit, small credit enterprise and credit for house ownership.

BAHASA ROJAK DI MALAYSIA : ANTARA IDENTITAS DAN REALITAS (KAJIAN SOSIOLINGUISTIK)

Nani Darmayanti*

Universitas Padjadjaran

  

ABSTRAK

Penelitian ini membahas Bahasa Rojak di Malaysia yang ditinjau berdasarkan kedudukannya di antara pembangun identitas dan realitas yang ada di masyarakat. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah metode deskriptif dengan teknik sadap rekam. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa jenis bahasa yang terdapat dalam bahasa rojak ialah (1) bahasa Melayu, (2) bahasa Cina, (3) bahasa Tamil dan (4) bahasa Inggris. Faktor yang melatarbelakangi seorang penutur mencampur-campur  bahasanya ialah (1) keakraban penutur dengan lawan tutur yang memiliki kesamaan identitas, (2) keinginan penutur mempertahankan dan menunjukkan identitasnya kepada lawan tuturnya dan (3)  penutur ingin meningkatkan dan menunjukkan kuasanya di hadapan kelompok umum. Adapun dampak yang dapat ditimbulkan atas penggunaan bahasa rojak dalam masyarakat ini dibagi menjadi dua bagian yaitu dampak positif dan dampak negatif. Kata Kunci : Bahasa Rojak, Identitas, Realitas, Malaysia, Sosiolinguistik..

Kata kunci: Bahasa Rojak, identitas, realitas, penutur, lawan tutur, sosiolinguistik

***

Bahasa ialah prasyarat penting bagi kesuksesan kebanyakan aktivitas kehidupan manusia, baik secara individu, kelompok atau institusi (Idris Aman 2007: 103). Dalam perkembangannya, bahasa senantiasa mengalami perubahan seiring dengan kehidupan masyarakat yang senantiasa berubah dinamis pula. Salah satu faktor yang turut memengaruhi perubahan bahasa dalam masyarakat ialah percampuran budaya. Dalam hampir seluruh bahasa di dunia, fenomena percampuran budaya memberikan dampak juga pada munculnya percampuran  bahasa di lingkungan masyarakat, termasuk di Malaysia.

Saran Kaur Gill (1997 : 47) menyatakan bahwa sebagai negara yang terdiri daripada berbagai etnik, khasnya Melayu, India dan Cina, Malaysia menghadapi banyak tantangan persoalan bahasa yang berlatar belakang penduduk bermacam-macam suku bangsa dan bahasa. Tantangan ini berasal dari dasar yang berbeda untuk mengekalkan dan memelihara identitas linguistik negara, etnik, dan antarabangsa.  Salah satu wujud tantangan persoalan bahasa yang dihadapi Malaysia yang berpenduduk berbilang bangsa ini ialah munculnya suatu fenomena bahasa yang disebut Bahasa Rojak.

Bahasa Rojak ialah fenomena bahasa yang mencampur baur antara bahasa Melayu dengan bahasa asing lainnya. Istilah ini lahir karena mengaitkan sesuatu yang dicampur-campur itu seperti rojak yang merupakan makanan yang terdiri daripada beberapa bahan yang dicampur (Awang Sariyan 2006 : 546 ).

Bahasa Rojak yang terdapat di Malaysia terdiri atas percampuran antara bahasa Melayu, Bahasa Inggris, Bahasa India dan Bahasa Cina.

Sebagian pihak berpendapat bahwa keberadaan bahasa rojak ini dapat merusak Bahasa Melayu sebagai bahasa nasional. Sebagian pihak lainnya berpendapat bahwa bahasa rojak bukanlah hal yang harus ditakuti karena keberadaan bahasa rojak ini sesungguhnya merupakan wujud daripada identitas pengguna bahasa itu sendiri. Selain itu, perlu diperhatikan pula bahwa dalam dunia bahasa sendiri diakui adanya bahasa ragam resmi dan bahasa ragam tak resmi. Dalam ragam resmi, pengguna bahasa harus menggunakan bahasa nasionalnya sebagai identitas kebangsaan. Namun, dalam ragam tak resmi, pengguna bahasa tidak diharuskan menggunakan bahasa nasional karena dalam ragam tidak resmi, identitas etniklah yang umumnya lebih ditekankan. Jadi, bagaimanakah sesungguhnya kedudukan Bahasa Rojak ini di Malaysia? Hal inilah yang menarik peneliti untuk melakukan penyelidikan lebih lanjut.

 

Bahasa sebagai Identitas

Identitas etnik seseorang dibentuk berdasarkan berbagai faktor. Faktor yang membentuk  etnik seseorang tersebut di antaranya ialah amalan, tradisi, bahasa, agama dan sosiobudaya. Lihat faktor-faktor pembentuk identitas seseorang dalam gambar berikut.

Gambar 1. Faktor-faktor pembentuk identitas seseorang

 

Faktor-faktor inilah yang menjadi ciri dan dimiliki oleh setiap orang dalam kehidupan bermasyarakat. Namun, dari semua ciri yang ada, ciri paling penting yang membedakan seseorang ialah bahasa (Saran Kaur Gill 1997: 42).

Bahasa ialah ciri yang menentukan identitas seseorang pada peringkat negara dan internasional, perlulah dirujuk pada Fishman yang menekankan ada pernyataan yang mengatakan bahwa identitas mempunyai kaitan dekat dengan bahasa karena bahasa lisan ialah salah satu terpenting kumpulan etnik (Fishman 1999: 143). Penyataan di atas dikuatkan oleh Spolsky (1998: 57) yang mengulangi pernyataan ini apabila menyatakan penanda identitas penting bagi seseorang ialah bahasa kelompok yang dia ikuti. Kedua-dua pakar linguistik ini menekankan bahwa bahasa ialah bagian penting identitas seseorang.

Dengan demikian dapat kita ketahui bahwa bahasa ialah alat yang dapat menunjukkan ciri-ciri identitas seseorang dan suatu kaum. Setiap kaum/etnik tertentu akan senantiasa menggunakan bahasa kaumnya untuk menunjukkan identitas dan menunjukkan eksistensi kaumnya tersebut. Jika suatu kaum dilarang menggunakan bahasanya sendiri, maka kaum tersebut dapat kehilangan identitas dan eksistensinya.

 

Bahasa dan Realitas

Realitas kebahasaan secara umum dibagi menjadi dua bagian. (1) bahasa ragam resmi dan (2) bahasa ragam tidak resmi. Bahasa ragam resmi dalam masyarakat Malaysia mengharuskan pengguna bahasa di Malaysia menggunakan Bahasa Melayu karena Bahasa Melayu ialah bahasa negara. Bahasa Melayu sebagai bahasa ragam resmi ini mesti digunakan dalam berbagai forum resmi kenegaraan, bahasa resmi pendidikan, dan forum resmi lain yang menunjukkan bahasa Melayu sebagai identitas negara.

Yang dimaksud bahasa Melayu sebagai bahasa negara ialah bahasa kebangsaan Malaysia dan bahasa resmi negara. Ini termaktub dalam Perkara 152 dalam Perlembagaan Negara/Malaysia, Akta Bahasa Kebangsaan 1967, dan Undang-undang Pendidikan Kebangsaan semenjak Akta Pelajaran 1957 hingga ke Akta Pendidikan 1996 (Teo Kok Seong, 2006 : 698).

Sementara itu bahasa ragam tak resmi, di dalamnya mengakomodasi bahasa-bahasa lainnya selain bahasa kebangsaan sebagai sarana komunikasi di kalangan masyarakan umum. Bahasa ragam tak resmi ini umumnya terdiri dari bahasa-bahasa bawahan, seperti bahasa etnik yang mewakili setiap etnik yang ada dalam suatu lingkungan itu sendiri. Bahasa ragam tak resmi ini umumnya digunakan oleh masyarakat dalam proses komunikasi seperti dalam percakapan, senda gurau, jual beli di pasar dan sebagainya.

 

Bahasa Rojak di Malaysia

Bahasa Rojak ialah fenomena bahasa yang mencampur baur antara bahasa Melayu dengan bahasa asing lainnya. Istilah ini lahir karena mengaitkan sesuatu yang dicampur-campur itu seperti rojak yang merupakan makanan yang terdiri daripada beberapa bahan yang dicampur (Awang Sariyan 2006 : 546).

Gambar 2.   Bahasa yang terdapat dalam bahasa Rojak di Malaysia

Di Malaysia, bahasa rojak terdiri dari percampuran bahasa Melayu, bahasa Cina, bahasa Inggris dan bahasa Tamil.

Fenomena bahasa rojak antara kedua-dua atau lebih bahasa ialah fenomena yang berlaku dalam hampir seluruh masyarakat di dunia yang mengalami percampuran budaya. Percampuran antara kedua-dua bahasa itu umumya berlaku dalam konteks tidak resmi, seperti dalam perbualan,  gurau senda, jual beli di pasar dan sebagainya. Terjadinya perkara ini dalam ranah tidak resmi sesungguhnya dapat diterima sebagai suatu realitas sosiolinguistik.

Hal ini karena dalam komunikasi tidak resmi, berlaku keluwesan  atau kelenturan bahasa yang amat ketara, disebabkan wujudnya berbagai variabel sosial dan psikologi. Latar suasana, keperluan, topik dan sasaran komunikasi, misalnya sangat berpengaruh terhadap lakuan bahasa dalam konteks tidak resmi.

 

Alih Kode

Salah satu penanda dalam bahasa rojak ialah alih kode. Cristal (1978) menerangkan bahwa alih kode berlaku apabila seseorang yang dwibahasa menggunakan dua bahasa atau lebih semasa berkomunikasi. Grosjean (1989) pula memberi penjelasan alih kode sebagai situasi di mana penutur dwibahasa menggunakan satu bahasa sahaja atau menukar dari satu bahasa ke bahasa lain semasa pertuturan atau perbualan mereka. Terdapat berbagai bentuk penggunaan bahasa rojak, contohnya, yang menggunakan alih kode leksikal (kata), frasa, dan juga kalimat dari kedua-dua bahasa.

 

Kaedah Penyelidikan

Secara lebih spesifik, penyelidikan ini bertujuan untuk (1) mendeskripsikan jenis dan bentuk bahasa yang terdapat dalam bahasa rojak di Malaysia, (2) mendeskripsikan faktor-faktor yang menyebabkan penggunaan bahasa rojak oleh masyarakat di Malaysia, dan (3) mendeskripsikan dampak-dampak yang dapat ditimbulkan dengan terjadinya bahasa rojak di Malaysia.

Demi menempatkan penyelidikan yang akan dilakukan ini berada pada jalur yang sistematis, maka pengkaji menetapkan beberapa kaedah yang menjadi pedoman utama dalam penyelidikan. Kaedah penyelidikan tersebut ialah sebagai berikut: (1) Metode penyelidikan yang digunakan dalam kajian ini adalah metode kualitatif. (2) Kerangka penyelidikan yang digunakan ialah sosiolinguistik, yaitu ilmu yang berkaitan dengan pengamatan bahasa dalam realitas sosial. (3) Korpus yang digunakan dalam penyelidikan ini ialah korpus bahasa percakapan yang dikutip langsung dari hasil pengamatan langsung di masyarakat, khususnya di kampus Universitas Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), Bangi, Malaysia.

Kajian ini diharapkan memberi manfaat bagi pemerkayaan kajian bahasa dalam realitas sosial dan juga diharapkan bermanfaat bagi pemahaman bahasa sebagai identitas dalam realitas di negara Malaysia yang memiliki percampuran budaya yang tinggi.

 

ANALISIS DATA

Bahasa Rojak di Malaysia: Antara Identitas dan Realitas

Di bawah ini dihuraikan (1) jenis-jenis bahasa yang memberi pengaruh terjadinya bahasa rojak. (2) bentuk-bentuk bahasa yang terdapat dalam bahasa rojak. (3) Faktor-faktor yang melatarbelakangi digunakannya bahasa rojak oleh penutur dan (4) Dampak-dampak yang ditimbulkan oleh penggunaan bahasa rojak oleh masyarakat di Malaysia. Huraian tersebut dilakukan terhadap data bahasa yang telah dikumpulkan berdasarkan pengamatan terhadap mahasiswa di kampus Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia.

 

 Bahasa Tamil dalam Bahasa Melayu (Bentuk: Kata)

(1) Fairuz            : ”Bagi roti cannai dua.”

Mamak         : ”Makan? Bungkus?”

Fairuz            : ”Tah Pau.”

Mamak         : ”Roti cannai onnu. Tah pau.”

Pelayan        : ”ya!”

 

Data (1) di atas memperlihatkan bahwa telah terjadi alih kode bahasa Tamil ke dalam percakapan bahasa Melayu dalam ragam tak resmi. Alih kode yang membentuk bahasa rojak ini berbentuk kata dan frasa, yaitu kata onnu ’dua’ serta tah pau ’bungkus’. Alih kode ini berlaku antara seorang pembeli Melayu dengan seorang Mamak India. Berlakunya bahasa rojak ini dilatarbelakangi pembeli yang berbahasa Melayu mau mengakrabkan diri dengan penjual yang berbahasa India. Selain itu, Mamak ketika memberi perintah kepada pelayannya yang juga berasal daripada India, ia menggunakan bahasa India dilatarbelakangi untuk mempercepat pemahaman atas perintah yang disampaikan. Selain itu, hal tersebut juga dilatarbelakangi keakraban di antara mamak dan pelayannya yang sama-sama beretnik India

 

Bahasa Inggris dalam Bahasa Melayu (Bentuk: Kata dan Frasa)

(2) Nor Diana    : Kak Nani, best tak kasut

                              (sepatu) baru saye ni?

 Nani              : Wah, best sangat lah Didie. You beli kat mane?

 Nor Diana    : Beli kat Mid Valey. Harga benda ni pun less akak.

 Nani              : Very Good lah tuh Die.

 

Data (2) memperlihatkan bahwa telah terjadi alih kode bahasa Inggris ke dalam percakapan bahasa Melayu dalam ragam tak resmi. Alih kode yang membentuk bahasa rojak ini berbentuk kata iatu kata dan frasa best ’bagus’, you ’kamu’,  less ’murah’ dan very good ’sangat bagus’. Alih kode ini berlaku di antara dua orang kawan yang sama-sama berbahasa Melayu. Berlakunya bahasa rojak ini dilatarbelakangi karena penutur dan lawan tutur mahu mengakrabkan diri dan menunjukkan eksistensi/kemampuannya berbahasa asing (Inggris). Perkara ini kerap terjadi dalam masyarakat yang berstatus pendidikan tinggi. Hal ini bertujuan untuk menunjukkan bahwa dengan menggunakan bahasa Inggris penutur/lawan tutur memiliki status yang tinggi/dinilai lebih berpendidikan. Penggunaan bahasa rojak dalam ragam tak resmi seperti kasus di atas sesungguhnya dapat diterima sebagai realitas sosiolinguistik karena jika dalam ragam tak resmi diharuskan menggunakan bahasa resmi, maka komunikasi yang terjadi ialah komunikasi yang kaku dan tidak ramah.

 

Bahasa Inggris dalam Bahasa Melayu (Bentuk: Kata)

(3)    Pengerusi       : ”Para hadirin diminta swich off telefon bimbit.”

         Ketua            : ”Ok. now, saudara dipersilakan membentangkan cadangan penyelidikan saudara.”

         Peserta        : ” Terima kasih.”

 

Data (3) di atas memperlihatkan bahwa telah terjadi alih kode bahasa Inggris ke dalam percakapan bahasa Melayu dalam ragam resmi. Alih kode yang membentuk bahasa rojak ini berbentuk kata dan frasa, iatu kata switch off ’memadamkan’, Ok ’baik’ dan now ’sekarang’. Alih kode ini berlaku antara seorang pengurus, ketua program, dan peserta sidang proposal dalam sebuah acara resmi. Berlakunya bahasa rojak ini dilatarbelakangi peserta tutur dalam majelis tersebut terdiri dari orang-orang yang memiliki derajat pendidikan tinggi sehingga mereka ingin menunjukkan status mereka. Akan tetapi, dengan digunakannya bahasa Inggris seperti di atas dalam ragam resmi, justru dapat membawa dampak menghambat pemasyarakatan bahasa Melayu sebagai bahasa kebangsaan dan menjejaskan bahasa Melayu sebagai bahasa persatuan dan kesatuan daripada negara Malaysia. Dalam ragam resmi sepatutnya penutur dan lawan tutur menggunakan bahasa Melayu sebagai identitas kebangsaan.

 

Bahasa Cina dan Bahasa Inggris dalam Bahasa Melayu (Bentuk : Kata)

(4)    Swaresh  : ”Cepat-cepat jangan bagi kereta itu masuk!’

       Ho            : ”He…he…kiasu betullah you ini mah.”

 

Data (4) di atas menunjukkan bahwa telah terjadi alih kode dari bahasa Cina dan bahasa Inggris ke dalam percakapan bahasa Melayu dalam ragam tak resmi. Alih kode ini berbentuk kata, yaitu kiasu dan you. Alih kode ini berlaku antara dua orang kawan yang berasal daripada etnik Cina dan etnik India. Berlakunya bahasa rojak ini dilatarbelakangi keakraban antara kedua kawan tersebut. Penutur yang beretnik India berusaha mengungkapkan maksud yang ingin disampaikannya dengan menggunakan bahasa Melayu (bukan bahasa Tamil) karena selain ketidakmampuannya berbahasa Cina, juga untuk menghormati kawannya yang hanya mampu berbahasa Melayu dan bahasa Cina.

 

Bahasa Melayu dalam Bahasa Inggris (Bentuk: Kata)

 (5)    Dekan           : ”Bagaimana dengan penyelidikan lanjutan ini?”

       Dr. Ahmad   : ”I fikir we cant do that?”

       Dekan           : ”Why?”

       Dr. Ahmad   : ”Because, This is impossible project”.

 

Data (5) di atas memperlihatkan bahwa telah terjadi alih kode bahasa Melayu ke dalam percakapan bahasa Inggris. Alih kode yang membentuk bahasa rojak ini berbentuk, yaitu kata fikir. Alih kode ini berlaku antara dua orang Melayu yang menggunakan bahasa Inggris dalam percakapan sebuah acara resmi (rapat fakultas). Tujuan digunakannya bahasa Inggris dan mencampurkannya dengan bahasa Melayu dalam percakapan tersebut dilatarbelakangi keinginan penutur dan lawan tutur untuk menunjukkan identitasnya sebagai kalangan yang berpendidikan. Namun, dengan digunakannya bahasa Inggris seperti di atas dalam ragam resmi, justru telah membawa dampak buruk bagi perkembangan bahasa Melayu sebagai bahasa kebangsaan karena dalam ragam resmi sepatutnya penutur dan lawan tutur menggunakan bahasa Melayu sebagai identitas kebangsaan.

 

Bahasa Cina dalam Bahasa Melayu (Bentuk: Kalimat)

(6)    Xixia          : ”Berape harga benda ini mah?’

      Penjual      : ”30 Ringgit je”

      Lee            : ”Zhe xie xie de zhi liang bu hao, bu yao zai zhe mai.”

        Penjual        : ”Macam mane? Nak Tak?”

       Xixia               : ”Tak. Maaf.”

        Penjual        : ”Eh, awak cakap ape tadi? Kenape jadi tak nak?”

 

Data (6) menunjukkan bahwa telah terjadi alih kode dari bahasa Cina ke dalam percakapan bahasa Melayu dalam ragam tak resmi. Alih kode yang membentuk bahasa rojak ini berbentuk kalimat, yaitu kalimat Zhe xie xie de zhi liang bu hao, bu yao zai zhe mai.’Kualiti kasut ini tak bagus. Jangan kamu beli barang ini di sini’. Alih kode ini berlaku di antara dua orang kawan yang sama-sama beretnik Cina dan seorang penjual kasut beretnik Melayu. Berlakunya bahasa rojak ini dilatarbelakangi karena penutur yang memiliki kesamaan etnik (Cina) dengan lawan tutur yang bermaksud mengungkapkan sesuatu yang bersifat sulit di hadapan lawan tutur lainnya yang beretnik Melayu. Dengan demikian penutur mengalihkan kode dari percakapan berbahasa Melayu menjadi bahasa Cina. Penggunaan bahasa rojak seperti kasus di atas dapat pula menimbulkan kecurigaan atau kesalahpahaman dari lawan tutur yang tidak memahami kalimat yang diungkapkan penutur (Lee) tersebut. Hal ini dapat menimbulkan gangguan dalam proses komunikasi yang berlangsung. Oleh itu, seorang penutur jika berhadapan dengan lawan tutur, sebaiknya menghindari penggunaan bahasa yang tidak dipahami lawan tutur karena dapat menghambat keramahan proses komunikasi yang berlangsung. Dalam hal inilah bahasa Melayu sebagai bahasa negara dan bahasa persatuan sebaiknya digunakan.

 

SIMPULAN

Berdasarkan hasil analisis yang telah dilakukan pada bab II, diperolehi beberapa kesimpulan. Kesimpulan yang dirumuskan di dalam bab III ini dibagi menjadi tiga bahagian sesuai dengan tujuan penyelidikan yang telah dihuraikan pada bahagian 1.2.

Pertama, jenis bahasa yang terdapat dalam bahasa rojak ialah (1) bahasa Melayu, (2) bahasa Cina, (3) bahasa Tamil dan (4) bahasa Inggris. Keempat bahasa ini saling bercampur menjadi bahasa yang digunakan dalam percakapan sehari-hari oleh masyarakat umum di Malaysia. Percampuran bahasa inilah yang disebut sebagai bahasa rojak. Sementara itu, Bentuk-bentuk percampuran bahasa dalam bahasa rojak terdiri daripada bentuk (1) kata, (2) frasa dan (3) kalimat.

Kedua, berbagai faktor melatarbelakangi seorang penutur mencampur-campur bahasa yang digunakannya. Faktor tersebut antaranya ialah (1) Keakraban penutur dengan lawan tutur yang memiliki kesamaan identitas, (2) Keinginan penutur mempertahankan dan menunjukkan identitasnya kepada lawan tuturnya dan (3)  Penutur ingin meningkatkan dan menunjukkan kuasanya di hadapan kelompok umum. (dalam kasus penutur yang mencampurkan bahasa kebangsaan dengan bahasa Inggris).

Ketiga, dampak yang dapat ditimbulkan atas penggunaan bahasa rojak dalam masyarakat ini dibagi menjadi dua bahagian yaitu dampak positif dan dampak negatif. Dampak positif daripada bahasa rojak ini antaranya ialah (1) keakraban antara penutur dan lawan tutur, (2) kemudahan pemahaman dari pesan yang disampaikan, dan (3) terwujudnya identitas dari masing-masing penutur. Sementara itu, dampak negatif dari bahasa rojak ini di antaranya ialah (1) Membawa dampak buruk bagi perkembangan bahasa Melayu sebagai bahasa kebangsaan, (2) Menghambat pemasyarakatan bahasa Melayu sebagai bahasa kebangsaan, (3) Melemahkan bahasa Melayu sebagai bahasa persatuan dan kesatuan negara Malaysia dan (4) Dapat menimbulkan kecurigaan lawan tutur.

Penggunaan bahasa etnik dalam ragam tidak resmi ini tidak dapat dipersalahkan karena dalam ragam tak resmi yang lebih ditekankan adalah bahasa yang dapat menunjukkan dan mempertahankan identitas penuturnya baik secara pribadi maupun secara kelompok etniknya.

 

SARAN

Keberadaan bahasa rojak bukanlah sesuatu yang harus dikhawatirkan. Penggunaan bahasa rojak justru menunjukkan bahwa di Malaysia ialah negara yang memiliki nilai budaya yang kaya yang berasal dari gabungan ragam etnik yang ada di Malaysia. Penggunaan bahasa rojak dalam ragam tidak resmi dapat diterima sebagai suatu fenomena kebahasaan yang dinamis. Akan tetapi, dalam forum resmi yang memerlukan penunjukan identitas kebangsaan, maka masyarakat di Malaysia semestinya menghilangkan penggunaan bahasa rojak ini dan mesti  beralih   menggunakan   bahasa    Melayu sebagai bahasa kebangsaan. Kesadaran antara menggunakan bahasa Melayu dalam ragam resmi, dan menggunakan bahasa etnik dalam ragam tak resmi perlu dilakukan secara sungguh-sungguh oleh seluruh masyarakat Malaysia. Dengan demikian, bahasa Melayu sebagai identitas kebangsaan semakin terbentuk dengan baik dan kokoh, dan bahasa etnik pun sebagai identitas perseorangan dapat tetap lestari di Malaysia yang terdiri daripada berbagai etnik ini.

 

 

DAFTAR PUSTAKA

Awang Sariyan. 1996. Bahasa Kacukan: Antara Realitas Sosiolinguistik dengan Idealisme Perancangan Bahasa. Jurnal Bahasa. 6 (4)  Kuala Lumpur : Dewan

Bahasa dan Putaka.

Fidsman, J.A. ed. 1999. Handbook of Language and Ethnic Identity. New York. Oxford University Press.

Idris Aman. 2007. Bahasa dan Linguistik : Penyelidikan dan Pendidikan. Bangi: Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia.

Nor Hashimah Jalaluddin, Imran Ho Abdullah, Idris Aman. 2007. Linguistik Teori dan Aplikasi. Bangi: Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia.

Saran Kaur Gill. 1997. Kekompleksan ’Prihatin Bahasa’ dalam Masyarakat Multietnik Malaysia. Bangi: Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia.

Spolsky, B. 1998. Sociolingustics. Oxford: Oxford University Press

 

Nani Darmayanti adalah staf pengajar di Jurusan Sastra Indonesia, Fakultas Ilmu Budaya, Universitas Padjadjaran dan Alumni Universitas Kebangsaan Malaysia dalam bidang analisis wacana kritis. Beliau dapat dihubungi melalui alamat email nanidarma@gmail.com.

TEORI BELAJAR KOGNITIF DAN APLIKASINYA DALAM PEMBELAJARAN BAHASA

Abdullah Helmy

Politeknik Negeri Malang

ABSTRAK

 

Artikel ini membahas perihal teori belajar kognitif dan penerapannya yang ber­kaitan dengan proses belajar mengajar. Artikel ini menguji beberapa teori pembelajar­an yang ber­kembang dalam rangka memaksimalkan pembelajaran seperti teori beha­viorisme, konstruktivisme dan kognitivisme. Kegiatan belajar selalu terkait dengan unsur psikis bagi subjek yang melaksanakannya. Beberapa deskripsi tentang teori kog­nitif di antaranya adalah perolehan, penataan dan penggunaan pengetahuan setiap perilaku mental yang berkaitan dengan pemahaman, pertimbangan, peng­olahan informasi, pemecahan masalah, kesenjangan dan keyakinan. Utamanya, pe­nyampaian materi dalam proses belajar mengajar dalam pandangan teori kognitif adalah bagai­mana membuat ranah cipta seorang siswa dapat berkembang dan ber­fungsi secara optimal. Ranah cipta ini merupakan ranah dominan dalam ke­jiwaan yang ber­pusat di otak dan mengendalikan ranah rasa dan ranah karsa.

 

Kata kunci:   teori belajar kognitif, proses belajar mengajar, kegiatan belajar, ranah cipta, ranah rasa, ranah karsa

 

***

 

Untuk memperoleh hasil maksimal dalam pem­belajaran, pengetahuan tentang pem­belajaran merupakan perihal yang tidak dapat di­abaikan oleh seorang pengajar; seperti halnya se­orang petani harus mengetahui bagaimana tumbuh­nya padi, pe­mupukannya, selain musim tanam dan tumbuhnya dan tekno­logi pertanian.

Ada beberapa macam teori tentang pem­be­la­jaran atau bagaimana seseorang belajar; yang secara garis besar dibagi menjadi teori behavio­risme dan kognitivisme. Meskipun demikian be­berapa ahli menambahkan teori belajar ber­dasarkan psikologi sosial dan teori belajar dari Gagne serta konstruktivisme.

Belajar adalah proses seseorang memperoleh ber­bagai kecakapan, keterampilan, dan sikap. Belajar dimulai sejak masa kecil ketika bayi mem­peroleh sejumlah keterampilan seder­hana, seperti memegang botol susu dan me­ngenal ibunya. Selama masa kanak-kanak dan masa remaja, diperoleh sejumlah sikap, nilai, dan ke­terampilan hubungan sosial, demikian pula di­peroleh kecakapan dalam berbagai mata ajaran sekolah. Ketika usia dewasa, seseorang di­harapkan telah mahir mengerjakan tugas atau pekerjaan tertentu dan keterampilan-keteram­pilan fungsi­onal yang lain. Termasuk di sini ialah me­ngen­darai mobil, membuat neraca buku cek pribadi, dan bergaul dengan orang lain (Gredler, 1991).

Pembelajaran didefinisikan sebagai upaya untuk membelajarkan siswa (Degeng, 1989; 1990). Dalam definisi ini terkandung makna bahwa dalam pembelajaran terdapat kegiatan memilih, menetapkan, serta mengembangkan metode ataupun strategi yang optimal untuk mencapai hasil pembelajaran yang diinginkan, bahkan kegiatan-kegiatan inilah yang sebenar­nya merupakan kegiatan inti pembelajaran.

Salah satu kegiatan manusia adalah belajar. Kegiatan belajar merupakan kegiatan yang ber­proses dan juga merupakan unsur yang paling funda­mental dalam setiap penyeleng-garaan jenis dan jenjang pendidikan atau pem­be­la­jaran. Dalam hal ini berhasil atau gagalnya pen­capaian tujuan pendidikan itu berarti sangat ter­gantung pada proses belajar yang dialami oleh pembelajar, baik ketika ia berada dalam lingkungan sekolah maupun dalam lingkungan rumah atau keluarganya (Syah, 1996).

Karena demikian pentingnya arti belajar, se­bagian besar riset dan eksperimen psikologi pendidikan diarahkan kepada tercapainya pe­mahaman yang lebih luas dan mendalam me­ngenai proses perubahan manusia. Perubahan dan kemampuan untuk berubah merupakan batasan dan makna yang terkandung dalam belajar. Karena kemampuan berubahlah, manu­sia secara bebas dapat mengeksplorasi, me­milih, dan menetapkan keputusan-keputusan penting untuk kehidupannya. Edward Thorn­dike (1993) memprediksikan, “jika ke­mampuan bela­jar umat manusia dikurangi setengahnya saja maka peradaban yang ada sekarang tak akan ada gunanya bagi generasi mendatang, bahkan mungkin peradaban itu sendiri akan lenyap di­telan zaman”  (Chaplin, 1972).

Mc. Keachie (1976), mendefinisikan teori se­bagai seperangkat asas yang tersusun tentang kejadian-kejadian tertentu dalam dunia nyata. Satu ciri teori yang penting ialah bahwa teori itu “membebaskan penemuan penelitian secara individual dan kenyataan kesementaraan waktu dan tempat untuk digantikan dengan suatu dunia yang lebih luas” Ratna (1988). Membagi dua tahapan perkembangan teori belajar dan pembelajaran; pertama, dimulai sebelum abad 20 seperti teori disiplin mental (mental dis­ci­pline), teori pengembangan alami (natural un­foldment) atau teori aktualisasi diri (self actuali­zation), dan teori appersepsi (uppersep­tion). Hingga saat ini teori-teori tersebut masih di­rasakan  pengaruhnya di sekolah-sekolah. Dan jika ditinjau dari aplikasinya ketiga teori ter­se­but dikembangkan tanpa dilandasi eksperi­men-eksperimen. Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa dasar orientasinya lebih bersifat filosofik dan speku­latif. Kedua, teori belajar yang di­kembangkan selama abad 20 yang dapat di­klasi­fi­kasikan ke dalam 3 kelompok, yaitu teori belajar behavio­ristik, teori belajar kognitif, teori belajar huma­nistik. Degeng (1989), mengemuka­kan bahwa teori pengajaran menunjukkan hubungan ke­giatan peng­ajaran dengan proses-proses psiko­logis dalam diri pembelajar, sedangkan teori belajar meng­ungkapkan hubungan ke­giatan pem­belajar dengan fenomena yang ada dalam diri pembelajar.

Ruang lingkup  pembahasan  makalah ini, di­fokuskan pada deskripsi teori kognitif dalam belajar dan aplikasinya dalam pembelajaran. Rumusan masalah tersebut meliputi: (a) des­kripsi tentang teori kognitif, (b) tokoh-tokoh teori kognitif beserta pandangannya, dan (c) apli­kasi teori kognitif dalam belajar dan pem­belajaran.

Oleh karena itu, di dalam tulisan  ini akan di­bahas secara singkat teori belajar kognitivisme dan penerapannya dalam pembelajaran dan se­jumlah pandangan psikologi-kognitif yang ber­kaitan dengan proses belajar dan pem­be­la­jaran. Hal tersebut mengingat bahwa kegiatan bela­jar tidak akan terpisah dari unsur psikis (ke­ter­libatan emosional dan mental) bagi subjek yang melaksanakan kegiatan tersebut.

 

DESKRIPSI TENTANG TEORI KOGNITIF

Istilah “Cognitif” berasal dari kata “Cognition” yang padanannya “Knowing”, berarti menge­tahui. Dalam arti luas, cognition (kognisi) ialah perolehan, penataan dan penggunaan penge­tahuan (Neissser, 1976). Dalam perkembangan selanjutnya, istilah kognitif menjadi populer dan menjadi salah satu domain atau wilayah atau ranah psikologis manusia yang meliputi setiap peri­laku mental yang berkaitan dengan pemaham­an, pertimbangan, pengolahan infor­masi, pe­mecahan masalah, kesenjangan dan keyakinan. Ranah kejiwaan yang berpusat di otak ini juga berhubungan dengan konasi (ke­hendak) dan afeksi (perasaan) yang bertalian dengan ranah rasa (Chaplin, 1972).

Istilah “cognitive of theory learning” yaitu suatu bentuk teori belajar yang berpandangan bahwa belajar adalah merupakan proses pemusatan pikiran (kegiatan mental) (Slavin (1994). Teori belajar tersebut  beranggapan bahwa individu yang belajar itu memiliki kemampuan potensial, sehingga tingkah laku yang bersifat kompleks bukan hanya sekedar dari jumlah tingkah laku yang sederhana, maka dalam hal belajar me­nurut aliran ini adalah mementingkan proses belajar dari pada hasil belajar. Belajar tidak hanya sekedar melibatkan stimulus dan respon. Lebih dari itu, belajar juga melibatkan proses ber­pikir yang sangat kompleks. Yang menjadi priori­tas perhatian adalah pada proses bagai­mana suatu ilmu yang baru bisa ber­asimi­lasi dengan ilmu yang sebelumnya di­kuasai oleh masing-masing individu.

Teori kognitif ini, yang didasari oleh pandangan adanya mekanisme dan proses  pertumbuhan, yaitu dari bayi kemudian anak berkembang menjadi individu yang dapat bernalar dan ber­fikir menggunakan hipotesa. Asumsi dasar yang melandasi deskripsi demikian ialah pengertian Jean Piaget mengenai perkembangan intelek dan konsepsinya tentang hakikat kecerdasan (Gredler, 1991).

Dalam praktek belajar, teori kognitif terwujud dalam: “tahap-tahap perkembangan belajar” oleh Jean Piaget, “belajar ber­makna” oleh Ausuber, dan “belajar penemuan secara bebas” (free discovery learning) oleh Jerome Bruner. Ini mendasari ilmu pengetahuan yang menurut kognitifist dibangun dalam diri se­se­orang me­lalui proses interaksi dengan lingkung­an yang ber­ke­sinambungan. Proses ini tidak terpisah-pisah, tetapi merupakan proses yang meng­alir serta sambung-menyambung, dan me­nyeluruh. Seperti halnya proses membaca, bukan sekedar menggabungkan alfabet-alfabet yang terpisah-pisah; tetapi meng­gabungkan kata, kalimat atau paragraf yang di­serap dalam pikiran dan ke­semuanya itu menjadi satu, mengalir total se­cara ber­sama­an.

Tidak seperti model-model behaviorisme yang mempelajari proses belajar hanya sebagai hubungan  S –  R yang bersifat superfisial, kogni­tivisme merupakan suatu bentuk teori yang sering disebut model kognitif atau perseptual. Di dalam model ini tingkah laku seseorang di­tentukan oleh persepsi serta pemahamannya tentang situasi yang berhubungan dengan tujuan-tujuannya.

Belajar itu sendiri menurut teori kognitif adalah perubahan persepsi dan pe­mahaman, yang tidak selalu dapat terlihat sebagai tingkah laku. Teori ini juga menekankan pada gagasan bahwa bagian-bagian suatu situasi saling berhubungan dengan konteks seluruh situasi tersebut. Mem­bagi keseluruhan situasi menjadi komponen-komponen kecil dan mempelajarinya secara ter­pisah adalah sama dengan kehilangan se­suatu yang penting.

Belajar merupakan suatu proses internal yang mencakup ingatan, retensi, pengolahan infor­masi, emosi dan faktor-faktor lain. Belajar, men­cakup pengaturan stimulus yang diterima dan dinyesuaikan dengan struktur kognitif yang terbentuk di dalam pikiran sesorang berdasar­kan pengalaman-pengalaman sebelum­nya.

Jadi hubungan S – R pada teori kognitivisme adalah sebagai berikut:

S ——-> Perubahan internal tiap individu

R ——-> Respons

 

JENIS-JENIS TEORI  BELAJAR  KOGNITIFISME

Di dalam subbab ini disajikan beberapa teori belajar secara umum. Setelah itu akan dibahas aplikasinya di dalam pembelajaran bahasa.

 

Teori Perkembangan Jean Piaget

Jean Piaget (1896-1980) lahir di Swiss, seorang pakar terkemuka dalam disiplin psiko­logi kogni­tif, yang pada awal mulanya bukanlah seorang psikolog melainkan seorang ahli bio­logi, tetapi telah berhasil menulis lebih dari 30 buku ber­mutu, yang bertemakan perkembangan anak dan kognitif (Syah, 1996:66).

Menurut Piaget perkembangan kognitif me­rupakan suatu proses genetik, artinya proses yang didasarkan atas mekanisme biologis yaitu perkembangan sistim syaraf. Dengan semakin ber­tambahnya usia sesesorang maka semakin komplekslah susunan sel syarafnya dan makin meningkat pula kemampuannya.

Pada saat seseorang tumbuh menjadi dewasa, akan mengalami adaptasi biologis dengan ling­kungannya dan akan menyebabkan adanya pe­rubahan-perubahan kualitatif dalam struktur kognitifnya. Apabila seseorang menerima infor­masi atau pengalaman baru maka informasi ter­sebut akan dimodifikasi hingga sesuai dengan struktur kognitif yang dimilikinya. Proses ini di­sebut asimilasi. Se­baliknya, apabila struktur kognitifnya yang harus diseuaikan dengan infor­masi yang di­terima, maka proses ini disebut akomodasi. Jadi asimi­lasi dan akomodasi akan terjadi apabila terjadi konflik koginitif atau suatu ketidak seimbangan antara apa yang telah diketahui dengan apa yang dilihat atau di­alaminya sekarang. Adaptasi akan terjadi apa­bila telah terjadi keseimbangan dalam struktur kognitif. Tugas seorang dosen dalam proses belajar mengajar adalah menyajikan materi yang harus dipelajari mahasiswa sedemikian rupa sehingga menyebabkan adanya ke­tidak seimbangan kog­nitif pada diri maha­siswa. Dengan demikian ia akan berusaha untuk mengadopsi informasi baru ke dalam struktur kogni­tifnya yang telah ada.

Menurut Piaget proses belajar seseorang akan mengikuti pola dan tahap tahap perkembangan tertentu sesuai dengan umurnya. Penjenjangan ini bersifat hirarkis artinya harus dilalui ber­dasarkan urutan tertentu dan orang tidak dapat belajar sesuatu yang berada di luar tahap kog­nitifnya. Di sini terdapat empat macam jenjang, mulai jenjang sensomotorik (0 – 2 tahun) yang bersifat eksternal, pre-operasional (2 – 6 tahun), operasional konkrit (6/7 – 11/12 tahun) dan jenjang formal (11/2 – 18 tahun) yang bersifat internal (mampu berfikir abstrak atau meng­adakan penalaran). Untuk lebih jelas­nya dapat dilihat  perkembangan individu  ter­sebut pada 4 tahapan. Yang pertama adalah sensori motor, yakni perkembangan  ranah kog­nitif yang ter­jadi pada  usia 0 – 2 tahun. Yang kedua adalah pre-operational, yakni per­kembangan ranah kognitif yang terjadi pada usia 2 – 7 tahun. Yang ketiga adalah concrete operational, yakni per­kembang­an ranah kognitif yang terjadi pada usia 7 – 11 tahun. Yang terakhir adalah formal operational, yakni perkembangan ranah kog­nitif yang terjadi pada usia 11 sampai dewasa awal (Slavin, 1994:14).

Yang merupakan titik pusat teori Perkembang­an Kognitif Piaget ialah bagaimana individu meng­alami kemajuan tingkat perkembangan mental atau pengetahuan ke tingkat yang lebih tinggi. Hal yang pokok dalam teori ini adalah ke­per­cayaan bahwa pengetahuan di­bentuk oleh indi­vidu dalam interaksi dengan lingkungan yang terus-menerus dan selalu berubah.

Dalam usahanya memahami mekanisme per­kembangan kognitif, Piaget menyampaikan fungsi kecerdasan dari tiga perspektif. Ketiga­nya ada­lah: (1) proses mendasar yang terjadi dalam inter­aksi dengan lingkungan (asimilasi, akomo­dasi, dan ekuilibrasi), (2) cara bagaimana pe­nge­tahuan disusun (pengalaman fisik dan logis-matematis), dan (3) perbedaan kualitatif dalam berfikir pada berbagai tahap per­kem­bangan (skema tindakan) mulai dari senso­motorik, pra­-opera­sional, operasional konkrit dan operasional formal.

Perkembangan kognitif menurut Piaget (1977) dipengaruhi oleh tiga proses dasar: asimilasi, akomodasi, dan ekuilibrasi. Secara singkat, asi­milasi ialah pemaduan data atau informasi baru dengan struktur kognitif yang ada, akomodasi ialah penyesuaian struktur terhadap situasi baru, dan ekuilibrasi ialah penyesuaian kembali yang terus-menerus dilakukan antara asimilasi dan akomodasi  (Gredler, 1991:311).

Berikut adalah kelemahan-kelemahan dari teori Piaget. Belajar individual tidak dapat dilaksana­kan karena untuk belajar mandiri diperlukan ke­mampuan kognitif yang lengkap dan kompleks dan tidak bisa diuraikan dalam jenjang-jenjang. Hasil-hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa ke­terampilan-keterampilan kognitif tingkat tinggi dapat dicapai oleh anak-anak yang belum men­capai umur yang sesuai dengan jenjang-jenjang teori Piaget. Sebaliknya, banyak orang yang tidak mencapai tahap operasional formal tanpa ada­nya manipulasi hal-hal yang bersifat konkrit seperti pemakaian gambar, demonstrasi, pem­berian model dll. Keterampilan ternyata lebih baik dipelajari melalui urutan, bukan berdasar­kan tahapan umur.

 

Teori Kognitif Jerome S. Bruner

Jerome S. Bruner adalah seorang pakar psiko­logi perkembangan dan pakar psikologi belajar kognitif, penelitiannya dalam bidang psikologi antara lain persepsi manusia, motivasi, belajar, dan berpikir. Dalam mempelajari manusia, ia menganggap manusia sebagai pemroses, pe­mikir, dan pencipta informasi (Dahar, 1988).

Dalam pembahasan perkembangan kognisi, Bruner menekankan pada adanya pengaruh ke­budayaan pada tingkah laku seseorang. Bila Piaget menyatakan bahwa perkembangan kog­nitif berpengaruh pada perkembangan bahasa se­se­orang, maka sebaliknya Bruner menyata­kan bahwa perkembangan bahasa besar pe­nga­ruh­nya ter­hadap perkembangan kognisi.

Menurut Bruner, perkembangan kognisi se­se­orang terjadi melalui tiga tahap yang di­tentu­kan oleh cara dia melihat lingkungannya. Tahap pertama adalah tahap en-aktif, di mana indi­vidu melakukan aktivitas-aktivitas untuk me­mahami lingkungannya. Tahap kedua adalah tahap ikonik di mana ia melihat dunia atau lingkungannya melalui gambar-gambar atau visualisasi verbal. Tahap terakhir adalah tahap simbolik, di mana ia mempunyai gagasan secara abstrak yang banyak di­pengaruhi bahasa dan logika; komunikasi di­lakukan dengan bantuan sistem simbol. Makin dewasa makin dominan pula sistem simbol se­se­orang.

Untuk belajar sesuatu, Bruner berpendapat tidak perlu menunggu sampai anak mencapai suatu tahap perkembangan tertentu. Apabila bahan yang diberikan sudah diatur dengan baik, maka individu dapat belajar meskipun umurnya belum memadai. Dengan kata lain, per­kem­bangan kog­nitif seseorang dapat ditingkatkan dengan cara mengatur bahan yang akan di­pe­la­jari dan me­nyajikannya sesuai dengan tingkat per­­kem­bangannya. Penerapan sistem ini dalam dunia pen­didikan disebut “kurikulum spiral” di mana satu obyek diberikan mulai dari sekolah dasar sampai perguruan tinggi dengan materi yang sama tetapi tingkat kesukaran yang ber­tingkat, dan materinya disesuaikan pula dengan tingkat per­kembangan kognisi seseorang.

Prinsip-prinsip belajar Bruner adalah sebagai berikut. Makin tinggi tingkat perkembangan intelektual, makin meningkat pula ke­tidak­ter­gantungan individu terhadap stimulus yang di­berikan. Pertumbuhan seseorang tergantung pada perkembangan kemampuan internal untuk menyimpan dan memproses informasi. Data atau informasi yang diterima dari luar perlu diolah secara mental.

Perkembangan intelektual meliputi peningkat­an kemampuan untuk mengutarakan pendapat dan gagasan melalui simbol. Untuk me­ngem­bang­kan kognisi seseorang diperlukan interaksi yang sis­tematik antara pengajar dan pem­be­lajar. Dalam Per­­kembangan kognisi seseorang, semakin tinggi tingkatannya semakin me­ning­kat­ pula ke­mam­pu­an untuk memikirkan be­be­rapa alter­natif secara serentak dan kemampuan untuk mem­berikan per­hati­an ter­hadap bebe­rapa stimuli dan situasi sekaligus.

Menurut Bruner, berpikir intuitif tidak pernah dikembangkan di sekolah, bahkan mungkin di­hindari karena dianggap tidak perlu. Sebaliknya di sekolah banyak dikembangkan cara berfikir analitis, padahal berfikir intuitif sangat penting untuk ahli matematika, biologi, fisika, dll. Se­lanjutnya dikatakan bahwa setiap disiplin ilmu mem­punyai konsep-konsep, prinsip-prinsip dan pro­sedur yang harus dipahami sebelum sese­orang mulai belajar. Cara terbaik untuk belajar adalah me­mahami konsep, arti dan hubungan melalui proses intuitif hingga akhirnya sampai pada satu kesimpulan (discovery learning).

 

Teori Belajar Bermakna David Ausubel 

Ausubel (1968) adalah seorang pakar psikologi pendidikan dengan teorinya yang berpijak pada psiko­logi kognitif, dan dalam teorinya memberi pe­nekanan kepada belajar bermakna, serta retensi dan variabel-variabel yang berhubungan dalam belajar. Belajar menurut Ausubel dapat diklasi­fikasikan ke dalam dua dimensi: (1) ber­hubung­an dengan cara informasi atau materi pelajaran disajikan pada siswa, baik melalui eks­pository maupun inquiry, (2) menyangkut cara bagai­mana siswa dapat mengaitkan data atau infor­masi itu pada struktur kognitif yang telah ada (Romiszowski, 1981).

Kelemahan-kelemahan teori belajar Ausubel tersebut pada umumnya adalah bahwa terlalu menekan­kan belajar asosiatif atau menghafal. Belajar asosiatif, materi yang dipelajari perlu di­hafal se­cara arbitrari, padahal belajar seharus­nya adalah apa yang disebut dengan asimilasi bermakna. Asi­mi­lasi bermakna, materi yang di­pelajari, perlu diasimilasikan dan dihubungkan dengan pengetahuan sebelumnya yang telah ada. Untuk itu diperlukan 2 persyaratan, yaitu: a) materi yang secara potensial bermakna dan di­pilih serta diatur oleh pengajar harus sesuai dengan tingkat perkembangan dan pengetahu­an pem­belajar; dan b) suatu situasi belajar yang ber­makna. Faktor motivasional memegang pe­ran­an yang penting di sini, sebab pembelajar tidak akan mengasimilasi materi baru tersebut apa­bila mereka tidak mempunyai keinginan dan pengetahuan bagaimana melakukannya. Hal ini juga perlu diatur oleh pengajar sehingga materi tidak dipelajari secara hafalan.

Sifat atau karakteristik untuk teori ini adalah apa yang disebut advance organizers yang apa­bila dipakai dapat me­ning­kat­kan ke­mampuan pembelajar untuk mem­pelajari infor­masi baru. Advance organizer ini merupakan kerangka ber­bentuk abstraksi atau ringkas­an-ringkasan dari konsep dasar apa yang harus di­pe­la­jari serta hubungannya dengan apa yang telah ada dalam struktur kognisi pem­belajar.

Dalam proses belajar mengajar, seorang peng­ajar dapat menerapkan prinsip belajar ber­makna oleh Ausubel, melalui langkah-langkah sebagai beri­kut. Pertama, mengukur kesiapan mahasiswa (minat, kemampuan, struktur kog­nisi) melalui tes awal, interview, review, per­tanyaan dll. Ke­dua, memilih materi, mengatur­nya dan me­nyajikan konsep-konsep inti, di­mulai dari contoh konkrit dan contoh kon­tro­versial. Ke­tiga, meng­identifikasi prinsip-prinsip yang harus di­ketahui dari materi baru dan me­nyajikan suatu pan­dangan menyeluruh tentang apa yang harus dipelajari. Keempat, memakai advance organi­zers; agar pembelajar dapat memahami konsep-konsep dan prinsip-prinsip yang ada dengan memberikan fokus pada hubungan yang ada.

 

PERBEDAAN DAN PERSAMAAN TEORI BRUNER DAN AUSUBEL

Perbedaan antara teori Bruner dan teori Ausu­bel adalah Teori Bruner menekankan adanya pe­nemuan sedangkan Ausubel menekankan ada­nya materi yang disajikan dan dapat di­inter­na­li­sasi­kan oleh pembelajar. Sedangkan per­sama­annya adalah keduanya menekankan be­la­jar bermakna dan pemahaman, meskipun me­nurut Bruner hal ter­sebut harus ditemukan se­cara induktif. Namun me­nurut Ausubel hal ter­sebut dapat diasimilasi se­cara deduktif; yakni belajar tidak hanya me­rupakan pengulangan secara verbatim.

Pendapat keduanya menekankan adanya suatu hubungan. Bruner menekankan bagaimana se­suatu itu dipelajari dan dihubungkan dengan bahan-bahan lain serta bagaimana me­nemukan arti hubungan tersebut. Sedangkan menurut Ausubel, apa yang dipelajari seseorang harus di­hubung­kan dengan apa yang telah ada dalam struktur kognitif.

Keduanya menekankan pentingnya mem­pe­la­jari konsep dan prinsip. Keduanya merupakan teori belajar kognitif yang mempelajari proses dalam pikiran.

 

APLIKASI PRINSIP KOGNITIVISME  DALAM PEMBELAJARAN

Ada dua kajian mengenai teori kognitif yang penting dalam perancangan pembelajaran, yaitu: (1) teori tentang struktur representasi kognitif, dan (2) proses ingatan (memory). Struktur kognisi di­definisikan sebagai struktur organisasional yang ada dalam ingatan sese­orang ketika meng­inte­grasikan unsur-unsur pe­ngetahuan yang ter­pisah-pisah ke dalam suatu unit konsep­tual. Proses ingatan merupakan pe­ngelolaan infor­masi di dalam ingatan (memory) dimulai dengan proses penyandian informasi (coding), diikuti penyim­panan informasi (stro­rage), dan kemu­dian mengungkapkan kembali informasi-infor­masi yang telah di simpan dalam ingatan (retrieval).

Dengan adanya konsep tersebut, maka sebagai kata kunci dalam teori psikologi kognitif adalah “Infor­mation Processing Model” yang men­des­kripsikan: proses penyandian informasi, proses pe­nyimpanan infor­masi, dan proses peng­ung­kapan kembali suatu infor­masi atau pe­nge­tahuan dari kon­sepsi pikiran. Model tersebut akhir-akhir ini se­makin men­dominasi sebagian besar riset atau pembahasan mengenai psiko­logi pendidikan atau pem­belajaran. Jadi, dalam model ini peristiwa-peristiwa mental diuraikan sebagai transfor­ma­si-transformasi informasi dimulai dari input (masuk­an) berupa stimulus hingga menjadi output (keluaran) be­rupa respon (Slavin, 1994).

Dengan demikian, fokus pada masalah belajar adalah: suatu kegiatan berproses, dan se­lanjut­nya suatu perubahan bertahap. Dalam tahap pe­ngelolaan informasi yang berasal dari stimu­lus eksternal, Bruner menyampaikan tahap ter­sebut menjadi tiga fase dalam proses belajar, yaitu: (1) fase informasi, (2) fase transformasi, dan (3) fase evaluasi (Barlow, 1985). Dan me­nurut Witting (1981) setiap proses belajar akan selalu berlangsung dalam tiga tahapan, yaitu: (1) Acquisition (tahap perolehan atau pe­ne­ri­maan informasi), (2) Storage (tahap pe­nyim­pangan informasi), dan (3) Retrieval (tahap me­nyampaikan kembali infor­masi). Dan untuk mengaplikasikannya dalam proses belajar dan pembelajaran meliputi: (a) pembelajar akan lebih mampu mengingat dan memahami se­suatu apabila pelajaran ter­sebut disusun dalam pola dan logika tertentu, (b) penyusunan materi pelajaran harus dari yang sederhana ke yang rumit, (c) belajar dengan memahami lebih baik daripada dengan hanya menghafal tanpa pe­ngertian penyajian, dan (d) adanya perbedaan individual pada pem­belajar harus diperhatikan.

 

PERBEDAAN TEORI BELAJAR BEHAVIORISME DAN KOGNITIVISME

Proses belajar menurut behaviorisme merupa­kan suatu mekanisme yang periferik dan ter­letak jauh dari otak, sedangkan menurut  kogni­tivisme proses belajar terjadi secara internal di otak dan meliputi ingatan dan pikiran.

Hasil belajar menurut behaviorisme merupakan kebiasaan dan ditekankan pada adanya urutan respons yang lancar. Sebaliknya kognitivisme menganggap hasil belajar sebagai suatu struktur kognitif tertentu.

Menurut teori Behaviorisme, belajar merupa­kan proses trial and error, dan adanya unsur-unsur yang sama antara masalah sekarang yang di­jumpai dengan apa yang pernah dijumpai se­belumnya. Sedangkan Kognitivisme, menekan­kan adanya pemahaman tentang apa yang di­hadapi seka­rang dengan yang telah dijumpai sebelum­nya. Para pakar psikologi kognitif me­lihat situasi belajar erat kaitannya dengan memori. Memori yang biasanya diartikan ingat­an, yakni merupakan fungsi mental yang me­nangkap informasi dari stimulus, dan merupa­kan storage system, yakni sistem penyimpanan data informasi dan pengetahuan yang terdapat dalam otak manusia. Dan dalam diri manusia ada yang dikenal dengan struktur sistem akal yang terdiri dari tiga sub-sistem, antara lain: (1) Sensory register, (2) Short term memory, dan (3) Long term memory (Bruno, 1987).

Dengan adanya sistem penyimpanan informasi dalam proses belajar ini, maka pem­belajar di­harapkan agar dapat memusatkan perhatian. Karena banyak faktor yang dapat mem­pe­nga­ruhi perhatian pem­belajar.

Lindsay dan Norman menyampaikan tiga aturan umum untuk memperbaiki memory (ingatan). Pertama, menghafal perlu adanya usaha; hal ini seringkali tidak mudah untuk dipenuhi. Kedua, materi yang harus dihafal atau diingat seharus­nya berhubungan dengan hal-hal: menguraikan dengan kata-kata sendiri dan menggambarkan dalam imajinasi; ini mungkin dapat membantu. Ketiga, menghafal atau meng­ingat memerlukan organisasi materi. Materi dapat dibagi dalam kelompok atau bagian-bagian kecil kemudian diletakkan kembali bersama-sama dalam pola ingatan yang berarti (Dahar, 1988).

 

PENUTUP

Penyampaian informasi atau materi pelajaran dalam proses belajar mengajar menurut sudut pandang­­ kognitif, yaitu suatu cara untuk me­ngembangkan ranah cipta siswa agar berfungsi se­cara optimal. Pengembangan ranah cipta (kognitif) dalam proses belajar mengajar ter­se­but di­pandang vital dan strategis, karena ranah inilah yang paling dominan dalam kejiwa­an. Ranah psikologis yang bermarkas di dalam otak ini merupa­kan sumber dan sekaligus pe­ngen­dali  ranah-ranah psikologis lainnya, yakni ranah rasa (afektif) dan ranah karsa (psikomotorik). Otak dengan segala perangkatnya yang sifatnya unik dan rumit tidak hanya berfungsi sebagai mesin penggerak akti­vitas akal semata, tetapi juga sebagai menara pengontrol aktivitas pe­rasaan dan perbuatan.

 

DAFTAR PUSTAKA

Ballard, Brigid & John Clanchy. 1984. Study Abroady:  A Manual for Asian Studens. Selangor Malaysia: Darul Ihsan.

Bruno, Frank. 1987. Dictionary of Key Word Psy­cho­logy, London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

Chaplin, J. P. 1972. Dictionaryof Psycology. New York: Dell Publishing Co. Inc.

Dahar, Ratna Willis. 1988. Teori-Teori Belajar. Jakarta: Depdikbud Direktorat Jendral Pendidikan Tinggi PPLPTK.

Degeng, I Nyoman Sudana. 1997. Strategi Pem­belajaran Mengorganisasi Isi dengan Model Elaborasi. Malang: Penerbit IKIP Malang bekerjasama dengan Biro Pe­nerbitan Ikatan Profesi Teknologi Pen­didikan Indonesia-Jakarta.

Degeng, I Nyoman Sudana. 1988. Ilmu Pengajar­an: Taksonomi Variable. Jakarta: Dep­dikbud, Direktorat Jendral Pendidikan Tinggi PPLPTK.

Gredler, Margaret & E. Bell. 1986. Learning And Instruction Theory Into Practice. Mc.­Mi­lan Publishing Company. Diterjemah­kan oleh Munandir. 1991. Jakarta: Raja­wali.

Neiser, Uris. 1976. Cognition and Reality: Principles and Implication of Cognitive Psycology. San Fransisco: Freman and Company.

Sujana, Nana & Ahmad Rivai. 1989. Teknologi Pengajaran, Bandung: Sinar Baru.

Romiszowki, A. J. 1981. Designing Instructional Systems. London: The Ancher Ltd.

Syah, Muhibbin. 1996.  Psikologi Pendidikan: Suatu Pendekatan Baru. Bandung: Remaja Rosdakarya.

Slavin, Robert E. 1994. Educational Psycology: Theory and Practice. America: The United States of America.

Witig, Arno F. 1981. Psycology of Learning. New York: Mc.Grow Hill Bokk Company.

ENGLISH VOCABULARY ENRICHMENT IN THE VIEW OF SOCIOCULTURAL CONTACT AND DEVELOPMENT

Subekhi  Hadi Purnomo

State Polytechnic of Malang

 

 

ABSTRACT

The cultural and language contacts have occurred in the English language for centuries, and enriched its vocabulary. This article reviews how English vocabulary was enriched from the view of sociocultural contact and development. European Countries’ Colonization of England has surely shown some influence on English vocabulary. This can be traced from words that can be referred back to the influence of Roman and Saxon cultures (German, Norman, and French cultures). Interestingly, English was also enriched by the languages of the countries England colonized (e.g. Czech, Dakota, Danish, Dutch, Egyptian, Finnish, German, Guarani, Gullah, and Haitian). In the modern era, English vocabulary is influenced by politics, economy, social affairs and religions. This proves that language is an important part of culture, and culture contact always leads to language contact.

 

Key-words: sociocultural contact, vocabulary enrichment, culture, contact

 ***

 

Groups of people are different among others due to their ways of life, or culture.  Culture is a way of life within which we exist, think, feel, and relate to others, and this is ‘a “glue” that binds a group of people together (Brown, 2000:176). What makes the groups different among others is that each group makes its norms or rules among the   members to be approved, and the norms one group makes are not really similar with other   groups as each group, consisting of unique members, has different agreements on many   things. The agreement usually comes from individual experiences building background    knowledge of other members.

What makes each member of the cultural group understands what he/she thinks or feels is that, generally, each uses a language. This means that” Language is the greatest achievement of culture” (Vladimir Alexandrov in Lederer, 1991: 178) because, as   Sapir (1956: 1)  states, ” … language is an essentially perfect means of expression and   communication among every known people.   Of all aspects of

culture, it is a fair guess  that language was the first to receive a highly developed form and that its essential   “perfection is a prerequisite to the development of culture as a whole” (Greenberg,ed., 1963: 226). The needs that cultural groups have to meet lead to a contact between, or even among, groups. The contact of cultural groups creates a language   contact, making borrowing in a group’s language as the influence ‘of the socio-cultural setting toward the language, as what Sapir states that

The simplest kind of influence that one language may exert on another is the” borrowing” of words. When there is cultural borrowing there is always the likelihood that the associated words may be borrowed, too. (Sapir,1949: 193).

The cultural and language contacts have occurred in the English language for centuries, and enriched its vocabulary. This simple article reviews how English vocabulary was enriched from the view of sociocultural contact and development.

 

CULTURE CONTACT AND LANGUAGE CONTACT

Culture has been defined in different statements among experts, but whatever they state, it is in relation with society. Larson and Smalley (1972: 39) state culture

… guides the behavior of people in a community and is incubated in family life. It governs our behavior in groups, makes us sensitive to matters of status, and helps us know what others expect of us and what will happen if we do not live up to their expectations. Culture helps us to know how far we can go as individuals and what our responsibility is to the group (Brown, 2000: 176-7).

As culture is guides, it contains norms, customs, ideas, and many things that each member has to take due to other members’ acceptance in a society. The society’s culture, then, things deal with people’s knowledge about “know-how” (Wardhaugh, 1988: 212) in their living since” a society’s culture consists of whatever it is one has to know or believe in order to operate in a manner acceptable to its members, and to do so in any role that they accept for anyone of themselves (Good enough cited in Wardhaugh, 1988: 212).

There is always a relation between language and culture due to the fact that

 

a language is a part of culture, and a culture is a part of language; the two are intricately interwoven so that one cannot separate the two without losing the significance of either language or culture (Brown, 2000: 177).

 

Since culture deals with knowledge, belief, and value, language provides a means of encoding it. The example can be taken from Tahitians. The people do not have a distinction between ‘sadness’ and ‘sickness’, so they use the same word for both. This happens because of their belief that sickness and sadness are the condition showing an attack of evil spirit. Such belief can be odd for other people from other cultures (Holmes, 2001:329). It seems that different cultures lead to different languages. Wardaugh states that if language A has a word for a particular concept, then that word makes it easier for speakers of language A to refer to that concept than speakers of language B, who lack such a word and are forced to use a circumlocution (1988: 215). For example, the German word Weltanschauung has no exact equivalent in English (Wardaugh, 1988: 216).

When a group of culture meet and mix with another group of culture, meaning culture contact, it leads to “biculturalism (participation in two cultures) as well as bilingualism, diffusion of cultural traits as well as linguistic elements” (Weinreich, 1968: 91). In such contact, one group learns from the other that the gap found in vocabulary of  each group “may need filling by borrowing” (Weinreich, 1968) that is ” The process whereby  bilingual speakers introduce words from one language into another language, these loan  words eventually becoming accepted as an integral part of the second language”  (Trudgill, 2003: 19). In this condition, a small group usually borrows many words from a large one as Linton (cited in Weinreich ) states “… when a large and a small group are  brought into contact, the small group will borrow more extensively than the large one…. . A hundred individuals can learn a new thing as readily as one” (1968: 91).

 

ENGLISH SOCIOCULTURAL CONTACT AND ITS VOCABULARY ENRICHMENT

 England under European Countries’ Colonization

 It is really untraceable to find the real English people. What can be traced is the Celts who probably came from central Europe, and southern Russia. This people were better than the local one who were driven to Wales, Scotland, and Ireland, later controlled the areas of Britain, and were joined by the new arrivals from Europe. The last Celtic arrival was the Belgic tribes. The Celtic tribes are the ancestors of the people ‘in Highland Scotland, Wales, Ireland, and Cornwall, and Celtic languages are still spoken in these areas (McDowall,1995: 6-7)

The coming of Roman to chase the Celts of Gaul, France, who hid in Britain, became the first colonizer. The word “Britain” comes from “Pretani”, the Greco-Roman word for the inhabitants of Britain, but it was mispronounced to become “Britania”. The Romans brought Latin and Greek, and they were literate, while the Celtic were illiterate. The Roman culture in handling the people was that the Roman divided them into three groups living in three different areas, such as coloniae for Roman settlers, municipia for those with Roman citizenship, and civitas for the Celtic. These areas were walled, and called castra the Latin word for camp which has remained today as the names of some cities with the’ ending chester, caster or cester: Gloucester, Leicester, Doncaster, Winchester, Chester, Lancaster, and many others.

The Saxon invasion that is the settlement of the Germanic tribes: the Jutes, the Angles, and the Saxons as the, second colonizer brought another culture and language making contact with the Celtics. These tribes gave the land a name “Englaland, the land of the Angles, and the language Englisc, because the Angles were the chief group at that time” (Lederer, 1991: 21). The strong culture of the Anglo-Saxon influenced the death of the Celtic culture and language in England except the names of some rivers, Thames, Mersey, Severn and Avon, and two cities, London and Leeds (McDowall, 1995: 11).

The influence of their culture is obvious today. The names of days of the week were taken from Germanic gods: Tig (Tuesday), Wodin (Wednesday), Thor (Thursday), Frei  (Friday) (McDowall, 1995), so when ,someone says ‘Wednesday’, it means “the day. of Odin”  (Brooks,1960: 15).

Another part of Saxon’s culture remaining today is names of some cities showing family villages. The ending -ing meant folk or family, thus “Reading” is the place of the family of Rada, “Hasting” is the family of Hasta. Ham means farm as in the place-name Birmingham, Nottingham, and ton for settlement as in Southampton. The  Saxon government divided the-land into areas administratively called ‘shire’ or county  (Norman word) under the king’s local administrator shire reeve shortened to “sheriff’ (McDowall, 1995: 12). The Vikings of Norway and Denmark who invaded England and forced the Saxons to give some part of the land to the Viking made the Saxons build  walled settlements called  burghs later spelt borough such as cities: Irthlingborough, Wellingborough, Gainsborough, just to mention the names.

The coming of the Normans to claim the throne of England in 1066, as the fourth colonizer, brought also the culture and the language, French. French was used by the  royal family and the French nobles as King William could not speak English or Old  English spoken by ordinary people as “serfs” that was the lowest level’ of governmental hierarchy. The highest level was the King governing the country using a system called “feudalism” from a French word feu (McDowall, 1995: 24). The names of live animals that were bred by the ordinary people were Old English such as sheep, cow, ox, swine, calf, deer, and chicken, but these animals brought to the castle for the noble feast had French names: mutton, beef, pork, bacon, veal, venison, and pullet (Lederer, 1991: xv).

French was then considered to be better to cease Anglo-Saxon words to use, for example,  stool the Anglo-Saxon word for a piece of furniture was replaced by the French word chair, and stomach ,the French word, replaced the Anglo-Saxon word belly.  French words that were adopted by the ordinary people, and the changing language evolved was called Middle English. Latin words, meanwhile, had mingled with the English language since the beginning of the Roman conquest of England and the influence of the Roman church and missionaries. However, it was after the Norman Conquest Latin influenced English more, though the use of Latin was rather for formality than everyday conversation. The result of this mingled history is that the vocabulary among Anglo-Saxon, French, and Latin has the meaning, as the following examples in Table 1.

 

Table 1. English Vocabulary from Latin/Greek

Anglo-Saxon French Latin / Greek
askdeadend

fair

fear

help

rise

thin

questiondeceasedfinish

beautiful

terror

aid

mount

spare

interrogatedefunctconclude

attractive

trepidation

assist

ascend

emaciated     (Lederer, 1991 :23)

 

Lederer also states that the single syllabic Anglo-Saxon words show directness, brevity, and plainness, and make the English people feel more deeply and see things more truly. French words show grandeur, sonority, courtliness, and more literary level of expression. The precision and learnedness of Latin and Greek vocabulary arouse the minds to more complex thinking and the making of fine distinctions (Lederer, 1991).

The Middle Ages ended when there was a technical development: the first English printing press set up in 1476 by William Caxton after learning the skill of printing in Germany (McDowall, 1995: 65). With this printing press, books, previously written manually, became cheaper and plentiful. This led to standardization, and it was London English, a mixture of south Midland and southeastern English. “For the first time, people started to think of London pronunciation as “correct” pronunciation” (McDowall, 1995: 85).

 

 

3.2 English Colonization

Under Henry VII, the Tudor, England avoided war, and built merchant ships as his policy to make England independent, strong and powerful was by making England have good business. This means that England began to trade with other countries, which later led England to be a colonizer because she needed market shares to sell her products. The invention England made gradually changed England from agricultural to industrial country or capitalism country. The contact with other countries, cultures, and languages in parts of such four  continents as Africa, America, Asia, and Australia has enriched its vocabulary as English has been open to accept words from many different languages, and”… has never rejected a word because of its race, creed, or national origin” (Lederer, 1991: 25). The following list in the next table contains fifty familiar English words, along with the languages from which they descend.

Table 2. Englilsh Vocabulary from Colonized Cultures

aardvark: Afrikaansmoose: Algonquinalcohol: Arabic

poncho: Arauncanian

boomerang: Australian

zebra: Bantu

anchovy: Basque

bungalow: Bengali

typhoon: Cantonese

hurricane: Carib

Eskimo: Cree

camel: Hebrew

saber: Hungarian

whisk: Icelandic

banshi: Irish

opera: Italian

tycoon: Japanese

batik: Javanese

tundra: Lapp

bantam: Malagasi

ketchup: Malay

kiwi: Maori

coyote:Mexican Indian

shingle: Norwegian

wigwam: Ojibwa

polka: Czechteepee: Dakotaskill: Danish

boss: Dutch

oasis: Egyptian

sauna: Finnish

kindergarten: German

jaguar: Guarani

jukebox: Gullah

canoe: Haitian creole

ukulele: Hawaiian

bazaar: Persian

mazurka: Polish

molasses: Portuguese

pal: Romany

vodka: Russian

sugar: Sanskrit

rodeo: Spanish

smorgasbord: Swedish

boondocks: Tagalog

tattoo: Tahitian

polo: Tibetan

jackal: Turkish

flannel: Welsh

kibitzer: Yiddish (Lederer, 1991:25-6)

 

4. English Sociocultural Development and Its Vocabulary Enrichment

The coming of other peoples made the cultural development in such aspects as politics, economy, social, and religion. The spreading and teaching of Christianity,  bringing words such as ” bishop and angel” ( Sapir, 1947: 193), through dramas in  churches led to the development of English dramas especially under Elizabeth I period in  which William Shakespeare created many poems and plays. Excluding the contact with,   other countries, Shakespeare influenced the native tongue with many words that he used  in writing for the first time: accommodation, amazement, apostrophe; assassination,  bedroom, countless, dwindle, exposure, frugal, generous, hurry, impartial, laughable, monumental, obscene, pedant, radiance, road, sneak, useless, etc. (Lederer,  1991: 94).

Some other literary men and women also created some words: Sir Thomas More’s utopia in 1516; William Tyndale’s scapegoat in 1530; Sir Thomas Elyot’s irritate  in 1531; Ben Jonson’s diary in 1581; Sir Thomas Browne’s hallucination in 1629;  Jonathan Swift’s yahoo 1726, and many others. On April 15, 1755, there was” a turning point in the history of our tongue” (Lederer, 1991: 102) when Samuel Johnson produced Dictionary  of the English Language with 43,000 words and 114,000 supporting quotations from  every fields of study though there is subjectivity as it can be seen from the following   examples dealing with the political aspect:

 

Tory. One who adheres to the ancient constitution of the state; and the apostolical Hierarchy of the church of England, opposed to a whig.

Whig. The name of faction. [Johnson, of course, belonged to the Tory party and despised the Whigs.] (Lederer, 1991: 106)

 

From Dictionary of the English Language with 43,000 words, today’s dictionaries such  as Webster’s Third New International Dictionaries lists 450,000 words, and Oxford  English Dictionary lists 615,000 words excluding technical and scientific terms, family  words slang and argot, and spanking-new creations that totally would be two million. Comparing to other languages, German has 185,000 words and French fewer than 100,000 (Lederer, 1991: 24). Despite the fewer-than 100,000 French words, “English borrowed an immense number of words from the French of the Norman invaders” (Sapir, 1949: 193).

The inventions of telephone by Alexander G. Bell of United States in 1876 ,  television by John L. Baird of Scotland and Charles F. Jenkins of United States in 1925,  and telestar (first television satellite) by U.S. scientists and industry (Edgar, 1963: 119)  have made people leave” postage system” (McDowall, 1995: 135) invented in 1840. These inventions made developments in communication technology in the late twentieth century especially “for visual communication” (Goodman and Graddol, 1996:1). The computer functions much more than counting as ‘to compute means to count’.  PC can means “politically correct” and” personal computer” (Lederer, 1991:45). In computers,  the words” back up, bit, boot, crash, disk, hacker, mail, memory, menu, mouse, park,  scroll, virus, and windows” (Lederer, 1991) have different meanings with what can ‘be found in  dictionaries because these belong to ” a new user-friendly vocabulary” including other  words like” desktop, laptop, micro” (Lederer, 1991), and others.

For Simeon Yates in Goodman and Gradoll (1996: 106-7), the rapid growth of communication technologies has created the new world with cable and satellite  television, fax machine and multimedia computers, and the growing data network called  the ‘information superhighway’. With this technology, come the words internet, cyberspace, electronics mail, bulletin boards, ‘Usenet’ newsgroup, modem, World Wide Web, and others.

Rich Hall of the United States created the term a sniglet that is “any word that doesn’t appear in a dictionary but should” (Lederer, 1991: 62). The new words below will not be found in dictionary as they are sniglets dealing with students’ life. For Lederer, through sniglets, it seems that “No language has a net wide enough to throw over all of reality. There will be more  things and ideas than there are words” (Lederer, 1991: 62). See the examples below.

cryptocarnophobic (adj.) How one feels when mystery meat is placed on the table at  evening seated    meal.

postpost (v.) To check your post office box five times a day even on Sunday when you know there can’t be anything there.

SATarrhea (n.) The urge to go to the bathroom while taking the Scholastic Aptitude Test. (Lederer, 1991: 63).

 

CONCLUSION

Language is an important part of culture, and culture contact always leads to language contact. English socioculture has made contacts with other sociocultures and has enriched its vocabulary through borrowing. Besides, English is open to accept any words needed. The development of English socioculture has provided new words. The development of language is along with the sociocultural contact and development.

 

 

REFERENCES

Brown, H,Douglas, 2000. Principles of Language Learning and Teaching ( Fourth Edition). New York: Pearson Education.

Goodman, Sharon and David Graddbf, 1996. Redesigning English: New Text,. New Identities. New York: Routledge.

Greenberg, Joseph H. (ed), 1961. Universals of Language. Cambridge: The M.I.T. Press.

Holmes, Janet, 2001. An Introduction to Sociolinguistic (Second Edition). Harlow: Pearson Education.

Lederer, Richard, 1991. The Miracle of Language. New York: Pocket Book.

McDowall, David, 1995. An Illustrated History of Britain. Harlow: Longman.

Sapir, Edward, 1949. Language (Renewed by Jean V. Sapir). Loll(_on: A Harvest Book.

Sapir, Edward, 1956. Culture, Language, and Personality. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Tharp, Edgar, 1963. Giants o.fInvention. New York: Grosset.& Dunlap.

Trudgill, Peter, 2003. A Glossary (_fSoci()linguistics. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University     Press Ltd.

Wardaugh, Ronald, 1988. An Introduction to Sociolinguistics. Oxford: Basic Blackwell.

Weinreich, Uriel, 1968. Language in Contact. Paris

SPEECH FUNCTIONS AND POLITENESS IN INDONESIAN COMMUNICATION

Kun Mustain

State Polytechnic of Malang

 

ABSTRACT

In communication, people care for politeness in their speech so as to successfully communicate the meaning they want to express. This article starts the discussion from speech function and then goes to the one on politeness theories in communication. From the speech functions section, the writer discussion several types of speech function provided with Indonesian language examples. One of the most popular theories on the speech and communication is Gricean maxims, i.e. quantity, quality, relation, and manner maxims. Basing the discussion on this theory, the writer discusses how politeness is achieved in Indonesian language communication.

 

Key-words: Gricean maxims, politeness, language, speech function

 

 ***


What differs, human being from animal is the language. Human language is spoken, creative and developed, but animal language is not. Even when an animal can speak, like cockatoo, its language is hardly developed. The language of a normal person always develops as he/she grows older. Chomsky in Brown (2000: 24), believes that human being is endowed by God with an innate capacity of language that enables him/her to improve the linguistic mastery in a short time. The natural capacity is embodied in a “little black box” called language acquisition device (LAD). Therefore, a human being can adapt his/her language to the context where the language is being used and to the audience with whom s/he is conversing.

The development of human language encourages many experts to study it more thoroughly. One of the branches of linguistic study is sociolinguistics in which we relate language to the community speaking the language. A sociolinguist is interested in explaining why we speech differently in different social context and he/she is concerned with two things, namely:

1) identifying the social functions of language

2) the ways it is  used to convey social meaning.

This paper, however, will deal with a more specific discussion in the speech functions. In this case, the discussion will be focused on the question “what are speech functions?” and “How should one show politeness in the Indonesian language?”.  The examples will be shown in this paper will be taken from Indonesian language.

 

LANGUAGE AND SPEECH

Language has a wider sense than speech because language refers to speaking, writing and gesturing. We, for instance, recognize spoken language, written language, body language and gestural communications of the deaf and dumb etc. Linguistics only deals with spoken language (speech) and written language.

While speech is always spoken language, Robins (19891: 78) defines speech as follows:

“one human being, by movements beginning at his diaphragm and involving ‘various parts of his chest, throat, mouth, and nasal passages creates disturbances in the air around him, which within a limited distances  from  him  have  a  perceptible effect on the ear-drums and through them on the brains of other people, and the hearer can,   if  they belong  to the  same

 

 

language community, respond to these disturbance, or noises, and find them meaningful”.

 

In general linguistics, speech can be studied in phonetics and pronunciation. In sociolinguistics, it is related to the culture of community where the speech is produced and functional and it called that speech functions. In this case, body language may involve.

 

SPEECH FUNCTIONS

Language serves a range of functions. It is usually adjusted the speech to suit the social context of speech. The language we talk to a child may be different from the language we talk to our customer or colleague though the purpose is the same. The different purposes of talk can also affect the form of language and the variety of ways.  Why do we say the same thing in different ways? The answers to the question basically imply the speech functions.

Cripper and Widdowson in Allen and Corder (ed.) (1975:195) divides speech function into seven classifications. They are the referential, the expressive (or emotive), directive (or conative), phatic (contact), contextual, metalinguistic and poetic. In line with the three functions, they explain more that the referential function relates to topic, the expressive to addresser, and the directive to addressee.  Phatic or contact function refers to psychological link between addresser and addressee. Contextual function often serves to give formal notice of a set of conditions which best to certain rights and impose certain obligations on the participants in the speech event. Metalinguistic function has the principal purpose of ensuring the addressee to understand the meaning of a certain code used by the addresser. While poetic function serves a play upon words and sounds.

Holmes (1992:286) classifies speech functions into six categories, namely expressive, directive, referential, metalinguistic, poetic and phatic. The six speech functions will be connected to the principle of politeness in Indonesian communication and will be discussed successively in section III.

 

 

PRINCIPLES OF POLITENESS IN COMMUNICATION

 

Politeness is universal, but the way to show politeness is culturally bound. Besides linguistic factors, there is non-linguistic factor considered to be influencing the process of communication, namely politeness. Politeness is much more influenced by sociocultural aspects of the speaker. In the process of communication, both speaker and addresser are obliged to follow the cooperative principles, even when what s/he means is not uttered explicitly. Grice (1975) suggests four maxims called cooperative principles. They are quantity, quality, relation, and manner.

Quantity maxim suggests us to make our contribution as informative as it is required for current purpose of the exchange. Domination of conversation is not allowed in this case. This maxim also offers us not to make our contribution more informative than is required. We do not need to have exaggerated description of something or otherwise we will be called the big mouth. Below is a very short account of the maxims.

Maxim of quality teaches us not to say what we believe to be false. It means that both speaker and the receiver is not allowed to tell a lie. In this case, we are also ordered not to say for which we lack of adequate evidences. Relation maxim suggests us to be relevant, meaning that what we talk about must be relevant to the topic we are discussing. We do not need to go far from the track. Manner maxim implies that what we talk about must be clear. Grice (1975) divides this maxim into four items 1) avoid obscurity, 2) avoid ambiguity, 3) be brief, and 4) be orderly.

Besides the four cooperative principles of communication discussed above, we still need to see some other principles that fundamentally influence the process of communication. Lakoff (in Cook, 1989) offers three principles of politeness in communication, namely: 1) don’t impose, 2) give option, and 3) make your receiver feel good.

One of the communicative strategies-commonly done by a speaker to sustain the social interaction indirect expression. In our daily conversation, we may see someone reminding his/her student who is wearing wet raincoat in the class by saying “John, why have you got the wet raincoat on inside?”. This indirect expression, in fact, implies command. The teacher wants John to put off the raincoat in indirect command.  The indirectness of the speech shows that the teacher tries to be polite to his/her student in spite of the age difference.

Politeness takes very important role in maintaining social relationship between speaker and someone he/she is speaking to. The complexity is not only caused by linguistic factors, but also non-linguistic factors. A speaker does not only choose an appropriate grammatical formula and diction, he also has to consider the cultural value associated with the expression he/she performs. Hudson (1980) suggests that role relationship factors, age, and social stratification take a definitely important role in social interaction.

The factor of role relationship in a social interaction is considered to be very important. An employee, for example, has to consider the communicative strategy when he/she is speaking to his boss; a student, when he/she is talking to hi/her teacher must consider the communicative strategy too. The communicative strategy used by a child to the parents, on the other hand, is different from the one used by two friends because the role of the participants are different. In Indonesia when an employee is talking to his/her  boss, the choice of appropriate expression is not sufficient, he sometimes has to use body language to show his/her respect by ducking down his/her head. This kind of salutation, even, becomes one of Javanese attitudes of life (De Jong, 1984), especially to the one who has higher social status such as local leader or religious leader.

Age can become an important factor in the process of communication. A child, for example, is not polite to use direct order to someone older than his/her. When a child wants his/her mother to do something for him/her, an interrogative sentence will be considered more polite. For example:

1) “Bisakah ibu membawakan tas ini?”

(Could you bring this bag, mom?)

2) “Bu, tolong bawakan tas ini”

 (Mom, please bring this bag ).

3) “Bu, bawakan tas ini”

( Mom, bring this bag)

 

The expression (1) is generally considered more polite and more formal than the (2). The sentence (2), to some extent, is normally used by a child to his/her mother in Indonesia. Grammatically, sentence (3) is not wrong as a form of command but pragmatically it is not appropriate to convey an order to an older person. The difference of age urges a younger speaker to choose the accurate expression to keep up the relationship in social interaction.

Social stratification determines the form of daily speech. In Javanese community, we recognize three speech levels, namely ngoko, krama madya and krama inggil (Geertz, 1977) and Poedjosudarmo  in Rahardi (2001:58) offers more detailed classifications. Ngoko, for instance, is divided into basa antya, antya basa and ngoko lugu , krama madya is divided into madya krama, madyantara and ngoko . While krama  inggil is divided into mudha krama, kramantara and wredha krama.

 

 

SPEECH FUNCTIONS AND POLITENESS IN INDONESIAN COMMUNICATION

 

As it is explain in the former session, this paper will elaborate the speech functions defined by Holmes (1992:286) and relate it to the politeness in Indonesian communication. As Holmes admits, one speech may serve more than one function.

 

Expressive utterances

Expressive utterances express the speakers’ feelings. This function serves the declaration of a speaker’s ambiance. In Indonesian communication, expression is used to keep up social relationship. When someone is meeting a friend or someone he/she is familiar with, he/she will greet him/her to make sure “here, I am your friend or your neighbor”.

The following are the form of utterances that serve expressive function:

 

(1) Selamat pagi, ibu.

(Good morning, mom? )

(2) Hari ini cerah sekali

(very lovely day)

(3) Terimakasih banyak

(Thank you very much)

(4) Jangan kapok dalang lagi  ya ?

(Come here again, some time) .

(5) Senang sekali bias  beristirahat di tempat yang tenang seperti ini .

(It is nice to have a rest in this silent place)

(6)  Oh tidak apa-apa , ini enak sekali

(No problem, it is very nice)

 

All the utterances above could be categorized as expressive function, though the first, usually can be put into phatic function slot. People usually express their feeling like sentence (4) when a guest is asking for permission. This expressive utterance is used to show that the host/hostess is happy with the guest and he/she wants the guest to come  again next time. Sentence (6) serves both expressive and informative functions.

 

Directive utterances

Directive utterances attempt to get someone to do something. In Indonesian communication, directive function can be articulated by imperative sentences, interrogative sentences as well as declarative sentences. Orders and commands are normally expressed in imperative form. The standard of polite utterances in requesting people to do something, somehow, is not only seen from the form of interrogatives or declaratives , but intonation, tone’ of voice, and context also determine it . A gentle “Bawakan tas ini” may be more polite than a thundered “Bibi, tolong bawakan tas ini “.  The following are the instances of directive utterances:

 

(1) Pergi!

(Go away! /Leave me alone!)

(2) Bawakan tas ini !

(Bring this bag )

(3) Bibi, tolong bawakan tas ini.

(Auntee , please bring this bag !)

 

(4) Silahkan minum, ibu

(Please have a drink)

(5) Bisakah anda duduk ?

(Could you sit down ?)

 

The sentences above indicate directive speech functions in the form of imperatives. Sentence (1) and (2) are considered to be rude because these sentences depict, direct order. These utterances are usually used by an older person to a younger one. Those are also commonly used by two persons that has different social status – the superiors to  those of subordinate status. While sentences (3), (4) and (5) show more delicate sense that  are normally used by someone to order others in a more polite way.

 

(6) Apa kamu sudah memberi makan kucingmu?

(Have you fed the cat?)

(7) Apakah kucingnya sudah diberi makan?)

(Has the cat been fed?)

 

The Utterances (6) and (7) are slightly different. Both illustrate an order or command in interrogative forms that show politeness. Sentence (6) uses active verb (memberi) and the subject (kamu) is clearly mentioned. In this case, the utterance serves two possibilities – the speaker really wants to know whether the addresser has fed the cat  or the speaker indirectly orders the addressee to feed the cat. Sentence (7) applies passive verb (diberi) and the subject is omitted. The omission of the subject indicates a more tender order that makes the addressee fells happy with the speaker’s statement. This means that the person to whom the speaker is speaking does not feel insulted, though he/she knows that the one who is supposed to feed the cat is the addressee. There is no sense of ordering or being ordered in the sentence. That is why the passive mode is frequently used in Indonesian communication.  The, following are declarative sentences that explicate directive function of speeches.  This kind of utterances is regarded as moderately polite in Indonesian communication. Intonation, tone and context, however, definitely determine the ethics.

 

(8) Ayah, aku ingin dibelikan sepeda baru.

(Daddy, I want you to buy me a new bike)

(9) Aku kira, kita sekarang butuh sesuatu untuk diminum.

(I think, we need something to drink now)

(10) Kamu bisa lebih nyaman kalau mau duduk 

(You would be more comfortable sitting down.)

 

In our daily conversation, we often come across some indirect directive ‘expressions. For example, when a man is working until midnight in his living room, his wife says to him:

 

(11) Pak, sudah malam.

  (Daddy, it has been late.)

 

This utterance can be multi-interpretable. This may provide directive as well as informative. His wife’ may remind him to check the doors and the windows because of security reason. She can intend to ask her husband to stop working because she is worried about his health or she does not want him to be sleepy in his work place. This utterance can also mean informative function – the wife informs her husband that it is time to stop working.

 

Referential utterances

Referential utterances provide information. Politeness in these utterances can be seen from the substance of cooperative principles – quality, quantity, relation and manner. The value of politeness, in the same way, a great deal depends on intonation, tone of voice and context too. The following utterances are instances for the referential function:

 

(1) Kami akan berangkat ke Jakarta besuk pagi jam 9

(We will leave for Jakarta tomorrow at 9 a.m.)

(2) Bayi kami selalu terjaga jam tiga pagi.

(Our baby always wakes up at 3 a.m.)

(3) Beres

     (No problem)

(4) Ibukota negara Indonesia adalah Jakarta

(The capital city of Indonesia is Jakarta)

 

Sentence (3) serves both referential and expressive function. Had it occurred without the utterance which precedes it, it could have served as referential in function, depicting information that the task could be finished in the time. It serves expressive when it is intended as reassurance.

 

Metalinguistic utterances

Metalinguistic utterances comment on language itself. Holmes (1992:286) gives the example of this function is like ‘Hegemony’ is not a common word. While Cripper and Widdowson in Allen and Corder (ed.) (1975:1997) explain that the utterances of this kind focus on the code or the language. The principle purpose of metalinguistic is to make sure that the addressee understands the meaning of the code which the addresser is using. In Indonesian communication, we often find metalinguistic function of speech in scientific discussion.

 

(1) Poetic art adalah seni penulisan karya sastra.

(Poetic art is the art of writing a literary work.)

(2) Stylistics adalah ilmu mengenai gaya bahasa dalam karya sastra.

(Stylistics is science about language style in a literary work.)

 

Poetic utterances

Poetic utterances focus on aesthetic features of language. This speech function is rarely used in daily conversation. In special occasion, like in the ceremony of engagement in North Sumatra community, anyway, poetic function is commonly used. RRI Tanjung Pinang broadcasts a special program named Serumpun Melayu that is this program dealing with the reproduction of Pantun Melayu on air (Srinthli, 2005). The following is the utterances of the broadcaster, Wan Abidah:

 

Pohon pinang disambar petir

Tumbang menimpa pohon kedondong

Kalah menang jangan dipikir

Yang penting penampilan , dong…

 

(Palm tree is struck by lightning

It falls over kedondong tree

Don’t think of losing or winning

The important thing is the performance)

 

Poetic utterances may be found in daily conversation, but it seldom happens in Javanese community. When it happens, the purpose is to raise a humorous effect between people who are close friends.

 

Kucing kurus mandi di papan

Papan nama kayu jati

Badan kurus bukan tak makan

Memikirkan si jantung hati

 

(Skinny cat takes a bath on a board

Nameboard made of jati tree

Skinny body is not because of lack of food

But thinking of the sweet heart)

 

Phatic utterances

Phatic utterances express solidarity and empathy with other. This speech function always exists in all community, but the form is different. In other words, this expression is culturally linked.

(1) Mau ke mana?

(Where are you going?)

(2) Mari singgah dulu.

(Please drop in.)

 

Utterance (I) is Indonesian distinctive expression that often make western people offended. For English community “Where are you going?”  is such a sensitive  greeting. This is too private question that someone who is greeted that way will be feeling spied and unsecured. That is why the possible answer to this question may be “It is none of your business”. On the other hand, in Indonesian daily social interaction, “where are you going” is a part of communicative strategy for breaking the ice. This expression is commonly used to start a conversation or to show one’s care of others. This greeting may become a ‘lip-service’ that is to show “I am your friend and I care of you”. This is apparently a form of phatic expression in Indonesian vernacular.

We often hear “Mari singgah dulu” in Indonesian daily communication and it serves a social function too. The offering is usual1y done by a speaker to someone he/she is familiar with – someone to his/her neighbors. Sometimes someone offers his friend or his neighbor to drop in his/her house. He offers something, but he actually does not mean so. He just wants to demonstrate utterly that” you are my friend”.

 

(3) “Mari makan.

(Let’s have a meal.)

 

It happens very often in a campus canteen when a person is about to eat his/her meal and his/her friend comes then he/she will say “Mari makan”. The statement of offering food is sometimes merely a lip-service. The speaker does not intend to share his food with the addressee. What he has in mind is that “well you are my friend”‘. Cook (1989) calls this “the phatic function of the language”. As this expression is only a lip­ service, so the addressee usually applies the same strategy, namely flouting co-operative principle, by uttering “Terimakasih, saya baru saja makan”.  Meanwhile, accepting the offer sometimes can cause embracement because the food may not be enough for two persons. Conversely, when two persons are very close friends, the acceptance of the proposal is reasonable.

 

CONCLUSION

From the discussion above, it can be concluded that in Indonesian speeches serve many functions too, namely expressive, directive, referential, metalinguistic, poetic, and phatic.  The most sensitive function of the speech is directive function because misunderstanding can mostly happen in this field. It would be considered rude when someone does not have enough knowledge of using this directive expression. Lack of this knowledge in a long run will ruin the social relationship.

The purpose of communication is not only delivering messages, but it also means keeping up the social relationship. To maintain the social interaction, some one needs to understand the co-operative principles and politeness principles. Co-operative principles sometimes need to be conformed so as to understand the message delivered, but at the same these principles have to he flouted to maintain the social relationship. That is why the study of speech functions and politeness in many speech communities is important.

 

 

REFERENCES

 Allen and Corder (ed.). 1975. Papers in Applied Linguistics Language Teaching. Sociolinguistics and Teaching.

Brown, H. Douglas. 2000. Principles of Language Learning and Teaching. San Fransisco : Addison Wesley Longman, Inc.

Cook, Guy. 1989. Discourse. Hongkong:Oxford University Press

De Jong .S. 1984. Salah Satu Sikap Hidup Orang Jawa . Yogyakarta:Yayasan Kanisius.

Holmes, Janet. 1992. An Introduction to Sociolinguistics. London and New York: Longman.

Hudson, R.A.. 1980. Sociolinguistics. Great Britain: Cambridge University Press.

Rahardi , Kujana . 2001. Sosiolingulstik, Kode dan Alih Kode. Yogyakarta: Puataka Pelajar

Robins, R.H.1989. General Linguistics. New York: Longman Inc.

PERTARUNGAN KEKUASAAN DALAM TEKS MEDIA (Studi Analisis Wacana Kritis: Kasus Mesuji dalam Koran Jawa Pos)

Mujianto

Politeknik Negeri Malang

ABSTRAK

Media masa merupakan arena pertarungan kekuasaan. Hal ini berarti, di satu sisi media bisa menjadi sarana legimitasi kekuasaan, sekaligus pula sebagai kontrol wacana publik. Namun, pada sisi lain media masa juga bisa menjadi alat resistensi ter­hadap kekuasaan, se­kaligus bisa menjadi instrumen perjuangan bagi kaum tertindas untuk membangun kekuasaan tandingan. Oleh sebab itu, berita di media tidak pernah netral, selalu ter­dapat maksud dan tujuan tertentu. Terkait dengan pemberitaan kasus Mesuji oleh media cetak Jawa Pos, dapat diidentifikasi pihak-pihak yang terlibat, bentuk, dan strategi pertarungan kekuasaan yang ada. Dengan menggunakan pisau AWK (Analisis Wacana Kritis), dapat diketahui pihak yang terlibat dalam pertarungan kekuasaan adalah Jawa Pos, Polri, masyarakat Mesuji dan sekitarnya, dan TPGF (Tim Gabungan Pencari Fakta). Demikianlah bentuk pertarungan ke­kuasa­an keempat pihak tersebut berbeda-beda.

 

Kata kunci:   analisis wacana kritis, pertarungan kekuasaan, teks media, legitimasi kekuasaan, wacana publik

 

 ***


Sebagaimana diketahui, media masa me­miliki peran yang penting dalam ke­hidup­an manusia, antara lain adalah se­bagai sarana informasi, hiburan, dan pendidikan. Media masa telah mengubah pola kehidupan manu­sia. Pada awal­nya manusia menempatkan media hanya se­bagai pengisi waktu ‘senggang’, sekarang me­nempat­kan media massa dalam jadwal utama. Kegiatan membaca koran, maja­lah, browsing in­ternet, dan menonton televisi me­rupakan ke­giatan utama seseorang sebelum melaku­kan kegiatan lain. Jalaludin Rakhmat (1997:235-242 da­lam Anang, 2006:70) bahkan me­nye­butkan, bahwa media televisi ada­lah se­bagai insti­tusi informasi yang menjadi ‘Tuhan Pertama’ dalam kehidupan manusia sehari-hari.

Media masa merupakan sarana yang paling efektif untuk menyampaikan informasi kepada publik, baik oleh individu, kelompok, maupun instansi pemerintah. Melalui media, baik secara perorangan maupun kolektif dapat mem­bangun persepsi kepada pihak lain. Di samping sebagai alat untuk menyampaikan berita, pe­nilaian, atau gambaran umum tentang banyak hal, media massa juga mampu ber­peran se­bagai institusi yang dapat membentuk opini publik, bahkan menjadi kelompok pe­nekan atas suatu gagasan yang harus diterima pihak lain (Sobur, 2009:31). Media me­miliki andil besar dalam menjelaskan peristiwa dan bagai­mana peristiwa itu dimaknai dan di­pahami oleh masyarakat (Hall, 2007:31).

Terkait dengan strategisnya media masa dalam masya­rakat, pada tahun 1960 di Amerika telah dilakukan studi tentang pentingnya media. Hasilnya, media masa dapat digunakan sebagai sarana untuk menyampaikan kepentingan yang berbeda oleh masyarakat yang pluralis sehingga dapat mencapai titik persamaan atau ekui­li­brium. Penelitian tersebut pada dasarnya me­rupakan perlawanan terhadap Frankfurt, yang berpandangan bahwa media memiliki peran besar dalam memanipulasi ke­sadaran dan ke­nyataan.  Menurutnya pula, media masa hanya dimiliki dan didominasi oleh kelompok dominan dalam masyarakat, dan menjadi sarana untuk meneguhkan kelompok dominan, sekaligus me­marjinalkan kelompok minoritas (Eriyanto, 2011:22-23).

Berita dalam media terdapat per­bedaan antara paham pluralis dengan para­digma kritis. Me­nurut paradigma pluralis, war­tawan dan media masa adalah entitas yang otonom, sehingga berita yang dihasilkan haruslah meng­gambar­kan reali­tas yang terjadi di lapangan. Semen­tara itu, paradigma kritis mempertanya­kan posisi warta­wan dan media dalam ke­seluruhan struktur sosial dan kekuatan sosial yang ada dalam masyarakat. Menurutnya, posisi tersebut  mempengaruhi berita, sehingga berita yang muncul bukanlah realitas yang sesungguh­nya. Lebih jauh lagi paradigma kritis berpendapat, bahwa hasil liputan berita mempunyai ciri (1) cerminan ideologi wartawan dan kepentingan sosial, ekonomi, atau politik tertentu, (2) tidak objektif, karena wartawan adalah bagian dari kelompok/struktur sosial tertentu yang lebih besar, (3) bahasanya menunjukkan bagaimana kelompok sendiri diunggulkan dan me­marjinal­kan kelompok lain (Fairclough, dalam Eriyanto, 2011:31-33)

Paradigma kritis memandang media masa bukanlah sebagai entitas yang bebas nilai. Media me­rupakan alat bagi kelompok yang do­minan untuk me­nguasai dan memarjinalkan kelompok yang tidak dominan. Media masa membantu kelompok do­minan menyebarkan gagasannya, me­ngontrol kelompok lain, dan membentuk kon­sensus antar anggota komu­nitas. Lewat media, ideo­logi yang dominan, baik yang buruk mau­pun yang baik, dapat dimapan­kan (Eri­yanto, 2011:36).

Menurut Bennett (1982:288), media masa dipandang sebagai agen suatu konstruksi sosial yang mendefinisikan rea­litas sesuai dengan kepentingannya. Jadi dengan demikian, media bukan sarana yang netral yang menampilkan kekuatan dan kelompok dalam masyarakat apa adanya, tetapi kelompok dan ideologi yang dominan itulah yang akan tampil dalam pem­beritaan.

Mengacu pada beberapa pendapat di atas, dalam media masa terdapat apa yang disebut dengan bias berita. Hal tersebut dikarenakan media tidak berada dalam ruang yang vakum. Media masa sesungguhnya berada di tengah realitas sosial yang sarat dengan berbagai ke­pentingan, konflik, dan fakta yang kompleks dan beragam. Menurut Louis Althusser (1971, dalam Al Zas­trouw, 2000), sebuah media dalam hubungannnya dengan kekuasaan, menempati posisi yang sangat strategis, karena ke­mampu­annya se­bagai sarana legimitasi. Media masa merupa­kan bagian alat kekuasaan negara yang bekerja secara ideologis guna membangun ke­patuhan khalayak terhadap kelompok yang ber­kuasa (ideological states apparatus).

Pendapat Althusser ini dianggap oleh Gramsci (1971 dalam Al zastrouw, 2000) meng­abaikan resistensi ideologis dari kelas ter­sub-ordinasi dalam ruang media. Bagi Gramsci media masa merupakan arena pertarungan ideo­logi yang saling berkompetisi. Hal ini, ber­arti, di satu sisi media bisa menjadi sarana pe­nyebaran ideologi penguasa, alat legimitasi, se­kaligus sebagai kontrol wacana publik. Namun, pada sisi lain media masa juga bisa menjadi alat resistensi terhadap kekuasaan. Media bisa menjadi alat untuk membangun kultur dan ideologi yang domi­nan bagi kepentingan kelas domi­nan, se­kaligus bisa juga menjadi instrumen perjuangan bagi kaum tertindas untuk mem­bangun kultur dan ideologi tandingan.

Berdasarkan berbagai kemungkinan peran yang dapat dimainkan itu, media masa merupakan sebuah kekuatan raksasa yang sangat di­per­hitungkan. Dalam berbagai analisis tentang ke­hidupan sosial, ekonomi, dan politik, media sering ditempatkan sebagi variabel determinan. Bahkan, media masa dalam posisinya sebagai institusi informasi dapat dipandang sebagai faktor yang paling menentukan dalam proses perubahan sosial budaya dan politik (Sobur, 2009:36). Me­nurut Karl Deutsch (dalam Effen­dy, 2000:325) media masa sebagai institusi informasi dapat menjadi ‘urat nadi pemerin­tah’. Me­nurutnya, hanyalah orang yang mem­punyai akses informasi yang kuat, yang bakal menguasai per­caturan kekuasaan. Artinya, ‘urat nadi pe­merintahan’ sebenarnya ber­ada di jaring-jaring informasi.

Oleh karena itu, untuk mengetahui bagaimana media menjalankan praktik kekuasaannya ter­sebut, penggunaan bahasa menjadi unsur penting untuk diamati. Hal ini mengacu pada pernyataan  Hidayat yang mengatakan bahwa pemanfaatan bahasa dalam media masa antara lain bisa diamati dalam wacana media (media discourse). Beliau kemudian menulis, “Media masa adalah salah satu arena sosial tempat berbagai kelompok sosial dan politik dengan bahasa yang mereka kembangkan sendiri. Mereka berusaha menampilkan definisi situasi, atau definisi realitas, versi mereka sendiri pula, yang paling sahih bagi mereka”. Hal tersebut di­lakukan melalui politik bahasa yang di­kembang­kan oleh masing-masing kelom­pok sosial yang terlibat.

 

Bahasa dalam Berita

Berita merupakan representasi dunia dalam bahasa. Karena bahasa adalah kode semiotik, maka bahasa menentukan struktur nilai, sosial, dan eko­nomis terhadap yang di­re­pre­sen­tasi­kan. Jadi berita adalah representasi dalam pe­ngertian konstruksi. Berita bukanlah refleksi fakta yang ‘bebas nilai’. Menurut Fowler (1991: 1 dalam Anang, 2006:74), berita adalah praksis, yakni sebuah wacana yang jauh dari refleksi realitas sosial dan fakta empiris yang netral. Dalam berita terjadilah campur tangan dalam kon­struksi realitas sosial. Selanjutnya, Fowler (dalam Anang, 2006:75) berpendapat bahwa pilihan bentuk linguistik ter­tentu dalam teks berita –leksikalisasi atau wording ter­hadap pilih­an sintaksis, pilihan struktur teks, dan se­bagai­nya– memiliki alasan masing-masing. Pilih­an ini bukan kebetulan dan bukan arbitraris. Pilihan yang dilakukan memiliki per­spektif ter­tentu, agenda tertentu, dan ideologi ter­tentu. Dengan demikian benarlah apa yang dikatakan Tuch­man, bahwa berita pada dasar­nya adalah rea­litas yang telah dikonstruksikan (Sudibyo, Hamad, Qodri, 2001:65). Yang men­jadi per­tanyaan mendasar adalah siapa yang ikut ter­libat dalam pertarungan kekuasaan, bagaimana bentuk dan strategi pertarungan ke­kuasaan yang ada dalam media?

Untuk menjawab permasalahan tersebut, di­perlukan kajian terhadap teks media. Dalam hal ini lingkup kajian ditinjau dari tiga sudut pandang, yaitu teks dalam media masa, media massa, dan periode pemberitaan. Teks dalam media menurut kajian ini adalah teks berita dalam media tertentu yang memuat kasus/ peristiwa Mesuji dan sekitarnya. Dengan demi­kian, teks berita yang tidak berisi kasus Mesuji dan sekitarnya tidak menjadi lingkup kajian ini. Sementara itu, media masa yang di­maksud dalam kajian ini adalah media masa cetak yang memberitakan kasus Mesuji dan se­kitarnya yang berskala nasional, yang dibaca hampir seluruh wilayah Republik Indonesia. Dalam hal  ini, media masa cetak dibatasi pada koran ‘Jawa Pos’. Pemilihan media tersebut karena telah memenuhi kriteria yang dimaksud. Selanjutnya, periode pemberitaan yang di­maksud dalam kajian ini adalah masa pem­beritaan oleh media masa kasus Mesuji dan sekitarnya sejak awal di­beritakan sampai dengan akhir Desember 2011.

 

Teori Kekuasaan

Kekuasaan adalah konsep penting dalam setiap kajian fenomena sosial. Kekuasaan amat ber­pengaruh terhadap kehidupan manusia. Ke­kuasaan sering diwujudkan melalui bahasa, bahkan dilaksanakan melalui bahasa. Bahasa di­gunakan oleh si kuat untuk mendominasi si lemah. Pengaruh kekuasaan itu tampak mulai dari hubungan pribadi antar dua orang sampai hubungan yang luas dalam sistem kenegaraan dan organisasi dunia. Dalam dialog antar­pribadi, misalnya, mengapa seseorang sedikit melakukan pengambilan giliran (turn-taking), salah satu penyebabnya adalah persoalan ke­kuasaan. Dalam relasi antar-negara, mengapa Amerika Serikat memperoleh hak-hak istimewa dalam pelbagai pengambilan keputusan, faktor penyebab yang paling signifikan adalah per­soalan kekuasaan (Anang, Makalah, Jurusan Sastra Indonesia, Universitas Negeri Malang).

Fowler (1985:61) mengemukakan bahwa kuasa merupakan kemampuan seseorang atau insti­tusi dalam mengontrol perilaku dan kehidupan material orang lain. Sementara itu, menurut Fairclough (1995:1) kekuasaan secara konsep­tual memiliki dua makna, yaitu (1) ketidak­simetrisan antarpartisipan dalam peristiwa-peristiwa wacana, dan (2) ketidaksamaan kapa­sitas dalam mengontrol bagaimana sebuah ujaran di­produksi, didistribusikan, dan di­konsumsi dalam konteks sosial budaya.

Dua pertanyaan dari Fuocault terkait dengan kekuasaan perlu kita renungkan. Pertanyaan pertama, “apakah kekuasaan itu dan dari manakah asal kekuasaan.” Berbeda dengan Marx yang memandang kekuasaan itu miliki kelas penguasa atau borjuis, Foucault me­mandang kekuasaan bukan milik kelas pe­nguasa. Kekuasaan adalah sebuah wilayah stra­tegis, tempat terjadinya hubungan yang tidak setara antara si kuat dan si lemah: “di mana ada kekuasaan di situ ada perlawanan.” Ada hubungan yang asimetris antara penghasil teks dan konsumen teks. Rumusan lain menyebut­kan bahwa kekuasaan adalah kekuatan dalam masyarakat yang membuat tindakan terjadi se­hingga dengan menelitinya kita dapat me­ngenali siapa yang mengendalikan apa dan demi kepentingan siapa.

Perlu ditekankan bahwa dalam pandangan Fou­cault kekuasaan tidaklah melulu —atau tidak boleh selalu— dianggap sebagai sarana negatif, se­suatu yang menolak, sesuatu yang menekan, sesuatu yang menegasikan, sebaliknya kekuasa­an adalah sesuatu yang produktif. Foucault me­maparkannya sebagai berikut,

“Kita harus menghentikan penggam­bar­an kekuasaan dan pengaruhnya se­bagai sesuatu yang negatif: membuang, me­nekan, memberangus, menyensor, dan ab­strak: menutupi, dan menyem­bunyi­kan. Kita harus mulai meng­gam­barkan bahwa kekuasaan itu produktif: men­ciptakan, menghasilkan, dan me­lahir­kan realitas, wilayah objek, dan ritual kebenaran.”

Pertanyaan yang kedua adalah, “bagaimana ke­kuasa­an itu dijalankan dan bagaimana penga­ruh­nya”. Jika pertanyaan ini dikaitkan dengan wacana politik, misalnya, pertanyaan yang dapat dimunculkan adalah, bagaimana pe­me­rintah atau rezim yang berkuasa atau partai politik menjalankan ke­kuasaannya dan bagai­mana pengaruhnya dalam kehidupan masya­rakat atau konstituennya. Dalam negara demo­krasi, kita sebagai warga negara memberikan hak kepada para elite politik untuk membuat hukum atas nama kita dan apabila kita me­langgar hukum tersebut, maka kita akan di­hukumnya. “Kekuasaan politik” mengendalikan berbagai aspek dalam kehidupan kita sehari-hari, seperti besarnya pajak yang harus kita bayar, besarnya biaya pendidikan yang harus kita bayar, dan sebagainya.

Jika pertanyaan ini dikaitkan dengan wacana jurnalistik, pertanyaan yang dapat dimunculkan adalah, bagaimana redaktur surat kabar seba­gai kepanjangan pemilik modal menjalankan ke­kuasaannya dalam relasinya dengan pem­baca dan bagaimana pengaruh cara pandang redak­tur terhadap pembacanya. Jika pertanya­an ini dikaitkan dengan wacana jender, per­tanyaan yang dapat dimunculkan adalah bagai­mana super-ordinat relasi jender —yang pada umum­nya adalah laki-laki— menjalankan ke­kuasaannya dan bagaimana pengaruh super-ordinat laki-laki ter­hadap perempuan (Anang, Makalah, Jurusan Sastra Indonesia, Universitas Negeri Malang).

 

Analsis Wacana Kritis (AWK)

Analisis wacana kritis (AWK) menekankan pada konstelasi kekuatan yang terjadi pada proses produksi dan reproduksi makna. Individu tidak dianggap sebagai subjek yang netral dan bisa menafsirkan secara bebas sesuai dengan pikir­annya, karena sangat berhubungan dan di­pe­ngaruhi oleh kekuatan sosial yang ada dalam masyarakat. Bahasa tidak dipahami se­bagai medium netral yang terletak di luar diri pem­bicara. Bahasa dalam pandangan kritis di­pahami sebagai representasi yang berperan dalam membentuk subjek tertentu dengan tujuan tertentu. Oleh karena itu, analsis wacana digunakan untuk membongkar kuasa yang ada dalam proses bahasa, batasan yang di­per­kenan­kan menjadi wacana, perspektif yang harus di­gunakan, dan topik yang dibicarkan (Fairclough, dalam Eriyanto, 2010:6). Melalui bahasa, ke­lom­pok sosial yang saling bertarung dan meng­a­jukan kebenaran menurut versinya, masing-masing dapat dipelajari.

a)    Karakteristik Analisis Wacana Kritis (AWK)

Dalam analisis wacana kritis, wacana tidak dipahami semata-mata sebagai kajian bahasa. Analisis wacana kritis memang menggunakan bahasa dalam teks untuk dianalisis. Hasilnya bukan untuk memperoleh gambaran dari aspek kebahasaan, melainkan menghubungkannya dengan konteks. Hal ini berarti bahwa bahasa dipergunakan untuk tujuan dan praktek ter­tentu, termasuk di dalamnya praktik kekuasaan. Dari kajian terhadap pandangan-pandangan van Dijk, Fairclough, dan Wodak Wodak (dalam Eri­yanto, 2010:8-13) dapat dirumuskan sejumlah karakteristik analisis wacana kritis berikut.

  • Wacana sebagai Tindakan

Dalam padigma kritis, wacana dipahami se­bagai sebuah tindakan. Wacana adalah bentuk interaksi. Wacana tidak ditempatkan dalam ruang yang tertutup dan internal. Tidak ada wacana yang vakum sosial. Hal ini mengandung dua implikasi. Pertama, wacana dipandang sebagai sesuatu yang bertujuan, apakah untuk mempengaruhi, membujuk, menyanggah, mempersuasif. Seseorang yang berbicara atau menulis selalu mempunyai tujuan, besar atau kecil. Kedua, wacana di­pahami sebagai sesuatu yang diekspresikan secara sadar, terkontrol, bukan sesuatu yang di luar kendali atau diekspresikan di luar ke­sadaran. Tidak ada wacana yang lahir tanpa disadari sepenuhnya oleh penutur atau pem­bicaranya.

  • Peran Konteks dalam Produksi dan Inter­pre­tasi Wacana

Dalam paradigma kritis, wacana dipro­duksi, dimengerti, dan ditafsirkan dalam konteks tertentu. Dalam analisis wacana, selalu di­tanyakan: (i) siapa yang meng­komu­ni­kasi­kan, mengapa dan dengan siapa, (ii) khala­yak atau komunitasnya seperti apa dan bagaimana situasinya, (iii) melalui medium apa, (iv) bagaimana perbedaan tipe dari komunikasi yang ber­kem­bang, dan (v) bagai­mana hubungan tiap-tiap partisipan. Bahasa dipahami dalam konteks secara ke­se­lu­ruh­an. Tiga istilah ( teks, konteks, dan wacana) menjadi kata-kata kunci dalam AWK. Waca­na adalah teks dalam konteks. Titik per­hatian analisis wacana adalah meng­gambar­kan teks dan konteks secara ber­sama-sama dalam suatu pro­ses komunikasi. Bahasa selalu berada dalam konteks. Tidak ada tindakan komu­nikasi tanpa partisipan, antar­teks, situasi, dan sebagainya.

  • Wacana sebagai Produk Historis

Dalam paradigma kritis, wacana di­tem­patkan dalam konteks kesejarahan ter­tentu. Wa­ca­na selalu berada pada ruang waktu tertentu dan akan selalu ber­hu­bungan dengan waktu lainnya. Analisis terhadap bahasa politik pasca Orde Baru akan selalu mem­per­tanya­kan (i) bagai­mana situasi politik yang sedang terjadi, (ii) mengapa wacana tertentu itu yang berkembang, dan sebaliknya mengapa wacana yang lain tidak berkembang, (iii) mengapa istilah reformasi dan reformis begi­tu berkembang serta memperoleh nilai posi­tif, dan mengapa istilah status quo menjadi bernilai jelek dan memper­oleh apresiasi negatif, dan sebagainya.

  • Wacana sebagai Perebutan Kekuasa­an

Dalam paradigma kritis, setiap wacana yang muncul, dalam bentuk teks, per­cakapan, atau apa pun, tidak dipandang sebagai se­suatu yang alamiah, wajar, dan netral, tetapi merupakan bentuk per­tarungan kekuasaan. Wacana se­sepele apapun adalah bentuk per­ta­rungan ke­kuasaan itu. Dengan demi­kian, setiap analisis wacana yang muncul selalu di­kaitkan dengan dimensi kuasa itu. Tugas para ana­lis yakni mengkritisi kekuasaan yang ter­sembunyi dalam teks-teks bahasa itu.

  • Wacana sebagai Praktik Ideologi

Dalam pandangan kritis, wacana di­pandang sebagai praktik ideologi, atau pen­cerminan dari ideologi tertentu. Ideo­logi yang berada di balik penghasil teks­nya akan selalu me­warnai bentuk wacana tertentu. Penghasil teks yang berideologi liberalisme atau sosia­lisme tentu akan menghasilkan wacana yang memiliki karakter sendiri-sendiri. Dua catat­an penting yang berkenaan dengan ideologi dalam wacana. Pertama, ideo­logi secara in­heren bersifat sosial, tidak personal atau individu. Ideologi akan selalu mem­butuh­kan anggota kelompok, ko­munitas, atau masya­rakat yang me­matuhi dan mem­perjuangkan ideologi itu. Kedua, ideologi digunakan se­cara internal di antara anggota kelompok atau komunitas. Ideo­logi selalu me­nyedia­kan jawaban tentang identitas kelompok.

Dari paparan singkat itu dapat diperoleh pe­mahaman bahwa analisis wacana tidak bisa lagi menempatkan bahasa dalam sistem ter­tutup, tetapi harus menempatkannya dalam konteks. Analisisnya akan selalu meng­ungkap bagaimana ideologi dari kelompok-kelompok yang ada, ber­peran dalam mem­bentuk wacana (Anang, 2006:60-62).

 

 

b)   Pendekatan Analsis Wacana Kritis

Ada beberapa pendekatan dalam analisis waca­na kritis, yaitu: pendekatan linguistik kritis, pen­dekatan Perancis, pendekatan kognisi so­sial, pendekatan perubahan sosial, pendekatan ke­sejarahan. Pendekatan lingusitik kritis me­nekankan analisisnya pada bahasa dalam kait­annya dengan ideologi (Eriyanto, 2006). Dalam hal ini, ideologi ditelaah dari sudut pilihan kata dan struktur kalimat yang digunakan. Pen­dekat­an Perancis berasumsi bahwa bahasa adalah medan pertarungan kekuasaan (Rusdiati, 2003). Melalui makna yang diciptakan dalam wacana, berbagai kelompok saling berupaya me­nanam­kan keyakinannya dan pemahamannya kepada kelompok lain. Melalui kata dan makna yang di­ciptakan mereka melakukan pertarungan, ter­masuk kekuasaan untuk menentukan dan me­ngukuhkan posisi dominasi kuasa pada yang lain. Pendekatan kognisi sosial merupakan faktor penting dalam produksi wacana (Van Dijk, 1997). Oleh karena itu, menurut pen­dekat­an ini analisis wacana dapat digunakan untuk mengetahui posisi sosial kelompok-kelompok penguasa/dominan dan kelompok marjinal. Selanjutnya, menurut pendekatan perubahan sosial wacana dipandang sebagai praktik ke­kuasaan (Bourdieu, 1994, Rusdiarti, 2003, dan Fasrhri, 2007). Menurut pendekatan ini wacana mempunyai tiga efek dalam perubahan sosial, yaitu (a) memberi andil dalam mengkonstruksi identitas sosial dan posisi subjek, (b) memberi kontribusi dalam mengkonstruksi relasi sosial, (c) memberi kontribusi dalam mengkonstruksi sistem pengetahuan dan kepercayaan (Fair­clough, 1997;73-64). Selanjutnya, menurut pen­dekatan kesejarahan, analisis wacana harus memperhatikan  konteks kesejarahan.

 

Media dalam Paradigma Wacana Kritis

Menurut pandangan kritis media bukanlah en­titas yang netral, tetapi bisa dikuasai oleh yang dominan. Media dipenuhi oleh prasangka, reto­rika, dan propaganda. Paradigma tersebut yakin bahwa media adalah sarana bagi kelompok do­minan (yang kuasa) untuk mengontrol ke­lom­pok yang tidak dominan (dikuasai) dan me­marjinalkan mereka dengan menguasai dan me­ngontrol media. Media di sini dipandang se­bagai arena perang antar kelas. Ia adalah sara­na diskusi publik, yang masing-masing kelom­pok sosial tersebut saling bertarung, saling me­nyajikan perspektif dengan cara memberikan pe­maknaan terhadap suatu persoalan. Target­nya adalah pandanganya dapat diterima oleh publik (Eriyanto, 2011:38).

Selanjutnya, untuk memperoleh gambaran tentang bentuk, strategi, dan dampak per­tarungan kekuasaan dalam Koran ‘Jawa Pos’ ter­kait degan kasus Mesuji dan sekitarnya di­gunakan analisis wacana kritis (AWK) model Fairclough (1996:58). AWK model Fairclough mencakup tiga dimensi, yaitu teks, praktik ke­wacanaan, dan praktik sosio-budaya. Selanjut­nya proses analisisnya dilakukan dengan tiga tahap, yaitu (a) deskripsi, yakni anlisis teks yang dicurigai mengandung pertarungan kekuasaan, baik yang berupa bentuk maupun strategi, (b) penafsiran, yakni mengaitkan bentuk dan stra­tegi pertarungan kekuasaan dengan proses pro­duksi dan penerimaan informasi bias yang di­sampaikan oleh teks berita, dan (c) penjelasan, yakni mengaitkan hasil penafsiran  pertarungan kekuasaan yang ditemukan dalam teks berita dengan konteks sosio budaya media masa se­hingga diperoleh penjelasan yang utuh dan mendalam tentang pertarungan kekuasaan.

Mengingat keterbatasan kajian dan waktu, dalam analisis teks koran ‘Jawa Pos’ yang me­muat kasus Mesuji dan sekitarnya di­fokus­kan pada tingkat tata bahasa. Menurut Fair­clough (1996:58) analisis pada tingkat tata bahasa di­tampilkan dalam dua bentuk, yaitu proses atau partisipan. Dalam bentuk proses: se­se­orang, kelompok, atau kegiatan, di­tampil­kan se­bagai: tindakan, peristiwa, keadaan atau proses mental.

Bentuk tindakan meng­gambar­kan aktor me­lakukan tindakan tertentu kepada seseorang yang menyebabkan sesuatu. Dalam bentuk tindakan, anak kalimat biasanya ber­struktur transitif (subjek + verba + objek). Contoh, ‘Oknum polisi memperkosa wanita’.

Sedangkan bentuk peristiwa biasanya me­masukkan satu partisipan (subjek atau objek saja). Contoh, ‘seorang Oknum polisi me­laku­kan pe­merkosaan’ (meng­hilangkan objek). ‘Se­orang wanita mengalami pemerkosaan’ (meng­hilang­kan subjek). Selain itu, bentuk peristiwa cenderung mempunyai anak kalimat intransitif (subjek + verb). Bentuk keadaan, menunjuk se­suatu yang telah terjadi. Misalnya, ‘mahasiswa terbunuh’. Hanya menggambarkan keadaan, tanpa menyebut dan bisa menyembunyikan subjek pelaku. Sementara itu bentuk proses mental, menampilkan sesuatu  sebagai feno­mena umum, yang membentuk kesadaran khalayak tanpa menunjuk pelaku subjek dan korban secarfa spesifik. Misal, ‘Pemerkosaan terjadi di mana-mana’.

Selanjutnya, bentuk partisipan cenderung me­nampilkan aktor dalam teks, apakah aktor di­tampilkan sebagi pelaku atau korban. Pelaku biasanya ditampilkan dalam bentuk kalimat aktif, aktor melakukan sesuatu yang me­nyebab­kan sesuatu pada objek/sesorang. Sementara itu, korban menunjuk pada sesuatu yang di­sebabkan oleh orang lain. Sehubungan dengan hal tersebut, ada dua strategi wacana, yaitu di­wujudkan dalam bentuk kalimat pasif, yang pe­lakunya dapat disembunyikan dan di­wujud­kan dalam bentuk nominalisasi, yakni di­tampil­kan bentuk kegiatan tanpa menunjuk partisipan atau pihak terkait. Contoh, ‘kemiskinan pen­duduk per­kotaan sudah pada tingkat meng­khawatirkan’. Kalimat ini menunjukkan gejala atau keadaan miskin dengan menampilkan objek ‘rakyat miskin’ tanpa menunjukkan apa atau siapa yang menyebabkan kemiskinan.

Setelah analisis teks dari aspek tata bahasa, di­lanjutkan dengan analisis praktik kewacanaan, yakni menafsirkan hasil deskripsi teks dengan konteks produksi dan penerima teks. Se­lanjut­nya, dilakukan analisis sosio budaya, yakni pen­jelasan dengan mengaitkan hasil penafsiran pertarungan kekuasaan yang ditemukan dalam teks berita dengan konteks sosio budaya media massa sehingga diperoleh penjelasan yang utuh dan dalam tentang pertarungan kekuasa­an.

 

Pertarungan Kekuasaan dalam Media Cetak (analisis tata bahasa, analisis praktik wacana, dan analisis sosiobudaya pada teks media-cetak ‘Jawa Pos’)

Pada awal muncul kasus Mesuji dan sekitarnya, media cetak Jawa Pos tanggal 15 Desember 2011 mengangkat berita dengan judul ‘Pem­bantaian Dua Tahun, 30 Tewas’. Judul yang di­tulis dalam bentuk partisipan dengan strategi nominalisasi menampilkan keadaan dan objek/ korban, tetapi tidak menunjukkan siapa aktor yang melakukan pembantaian. Hal ini me­nunjukkan proses pembuatan teks ini belum ada gambaran yang jelas siapa sebenarnya yang melakukan pembantaian itu.  Di samping itu, sebagai pengelola berita tentu sangat berhati-hati dalam memuat berita yang sangat sensitif dan spektakuler di Indonesia akhir-akhir ini.

Pada bagian berikutnya, terdapat berita ‘Me­nu­rut data resmi yang dicatat YLBHI, serangkaian kekerasan tersebut berlangsung dengan beking aparat’. “Kami mendesak Kapolri bertanggung jawab langsung atas hal ini’, tegasnya. Teks yang berasal dari pemilik berita (YLBHI) dikutip apa adanya oleh pengelola media, Jawa Pos’. Jika dicermati teks tersebut disusun dalam bentuk partisipan dengan strategi menampilkan pelaku. Hal tersebut mengindikasikan adanya ke­yakinan YLBHI terhadap kebenaran kasus Mesuji dan sekitarnya. Dengan demikian, YLBHI juga ingin menunjukkan ‘kekuasaan’ warga Mesuji dan sekitarnya terkait dengan kasus yang sedang terjadi.

Namun, press-release YLBHI tersebut di­tolak oleh Kapolri dengan strategi meng­hindar, yang diwujudkan dalam teks berita berbentuk par­ti­sipan dengan strategi nomi­nalisasi dan bentuk keadaan, yakni hanya menggambarkan keadaan tanpa menunjuk pelaku, bahkan strategi peng­ingkaran. Seperti dalam teks berita berikut. ‘Kapolri Timur Pradopo mengatakan, ada dua kejadian yang ditangani Polri terkait dengan pembantaian Mesuji’. ‘Terkait dengan kejadian di wilayah Mesuji – Lampung, Kapolri mengata­kan adanya masyarakat yang disandera oleh masyara­kat’. ‘Jika memang benar ada pem­bunuhan sadis hingga 30 orang, Sutarman ber­janji menindak tegas. “Menurut saya itu ber­lebih­an”. Bahkan, pada head-line Jawa Pos 16 Desem­ber 2011 tertulis dengan jelas ‘Polri Tepis Pem­bantaian Mesuji’.

Berdasarkan beberapa teks kalimat Kapolri dan Sutarman (Kabareskrim) tersebut, meng­indi­kasi­kan adanya ‘sesuatu’ yang ditutupi oleh Polri, baik terkait dengan pelaku pem­bantaian maupun jumlah korban yang se­benar­nya. Ideal­nya, institusi ini harus mengetahui dengan pasti pelaku dan korban pem­bantaian.

Pada sisi lain, warga Mesuji dan sekitarnya yang didampingi penasihat hukum dari YLBHI me­laporkan kasus pembantaian di Mesuji  kepada DPRRI dan beberapa kali menyampaikan ke­pada masyarakat melalui konferensi pers. Dalam memperkuat laporannya, warga beserta penasihat hukum menyampaikan video sadis pembantaian di Mesuji. Hal ini menunjukkan adanya upaya membangun opini publik tentang adanya ‘kuasa’ masyarakat Mesuji terhadap kasus yang dihadapi. Teks ‘video pembantaian sadis’ dikemas dalam bentuk keadaan, meng­gambarkan keadaan tanpa menyebutkan par­ti­sipan (pelaku dan objek/korban), sehingga me­nimbulkan kesan keraguan terhadap kebenaran isi video. Dengan demikian, pembuatan video itu merupakan strategi membangun opini pada publik, sekaligus membangun ‘kekuasaan’ atas kasus Mesuji dan sekitarnya.

Terkait dengan pembantaian Mesuji yang di­muat dalam Jawa Pos pada tanggal 19 Desem­ber2011’tersebut Mabes Polri meyakini video itu memang tidak orsinil’. “Ada tiga wajah yang bisa dikenali dalam video itu. Salah seorang  di antaranya kami duga adalah perekamnya. Ini sudah kami cetak untuk kami laporkan pada pimpinan”. Jika dianalisis ketatabahasaannya, kalimat-kalimat dalam teks tersebut berbentuk tindakan dengan struktur lengkap (subjek + verba + objek). Dengan demikian, tidak ada par­tisipan (pelaku atau objek) yang dilesapkan.  Hal tersebut berarti tidak ada sesuatu yang di­sem­bu­nyikan, artinya Polri sangat yakin bahwa video itu tidaklah orsinil, sehingga tidak dapat meng­gambarkan kejadian yang sesungguhnya. Bentuk teks ter­se­but mengindikasikan adanya upaya untuk mem­perkuat posisi/’kekuasaan’ sebagai institusi pe­negak hukum di Indonesia.

Namun pada sisi lain, Tim Gabungan Pencari Fakta (TGPF) menanggapi berbeda video yang berisi gambar pembantaian sadis itu. “TGPF akan menelusuri kebenaran video tersebut. TGPF tidak langsung menyimpulkan ke­benar­an sejumlah gambar dalam video itu” (Jawa Pos, 19 Desember 2011). Teks tersebut di­susun dalam bentuk tindakan berstruktur lengkap (subjek + verb + objek). Hal ini me­nunjukkan tidak ada unsur partisipan (subjek atau objek) yang dilesapkan. Dengan demikian, tidak ada sesuatu yang ditutupi, artinya TPGF akan ber­sikap terbuka terhadap seluruh hasil yang di­temukan. Ini sesuai dengan ke­ber­adaan TGPF yang bertugas untuk mencari fakta yang se­benar-benarnya, yang kemudian di­gunakan pe­me­rin­tah sebagai dasar pengambilan ke­bijak­an yang tepat dalam menangani kasus Mesuji.

Pada tanggal 21 Desember 2011 Jawa Pos me­nulis judul ‘Pamswakarsa Lebih Galak daripada Brimob’. Jika dicermati bentuk teks ke­wacana­an, judul itu berbentuk partisipan dengan me­nampilkan aktor sebagai pelaku. Hal ini berarti pelaku menunjukkan sesuatu pada unsur lain, dalam hal ini verba. Dengan demikian, pelaku menunjukkan ‘kekuasaan’ yang lebih dominan di­banding­kan dengan unsur lain. Ditinjau dari etimologis, pamswakarsa berasal dari pam singkatan pengamanan, dan swakarsa berarti kehendak sendiri; artinya pengamanan yang di­lakukan oleh masyarakat sendiri untuk wilayah­nya sendiri. Dengan demikian, pam­swa­karsa yang dibuat oleh perusahaan sebenarnya me­nyalahi konsep swakarsa; kecuali memang di­buat oleh perusahaan dengan maksud dan tuju­an tertentu.

Pada tanggal 24 Desember 2011 Jawa Pos me­muat berita kasus Mesuji dengan judul ‘Tiga Polisi Terlibat’. Jika dicermati bentuk teks ke­wacanaannya, judul itu berbentuk partisipan dengan menampilkan aktor sebagai pelaku. Hal ini menunjukkan pembuktian, bahwa dalam be­berapa siaran pers sebelumnya Kapolri me­nyangkal ada anggota polisi yang terlibat dalam kasus Mesuji. Apalagi hal ini disampaikan oleh TPGF, sehingga Kapolri mengakui bahwa ada anggotanya yang terlibat dalam kasus Mesuji dan sekitarnya.

 

Pihak dalam Pertarungan Kekuasaan

Berdasarkan analisis teks, paraktik wacana, sekaligus praktik sosial yang dilakukan secara simultan pada teks berita koran Jawa Pos ter­sebut dapat kemukakan bahwa  pihak yang ter­libat dalam pertarungan ‘kekuasaan’ meliputi pengelola media, Jawa Pos, Polri, masyarakat Mesuji, dan TPGF. Hal ini karena Jawa Pos sebagai pengelola, selain memproduksi sendiri berita yang mengangkat kasus Mesuji, juga me­ngutip langsung dari pemilik berita atau sumber berita, yaitu dari Polri, masyarakat Mesuji, dan TPGF. Masing-masing lembaga tersebut, me­ngeluar­kan siaran pers yang merupakan hasil kon­struksi dari realitas, versi mereka masing-masing. Dengan demikian, Jawa Pos lebih do­mi­nan se­bagai penyedia arena pertarungan ke­pentingan dan kekuasaan di antara mereka.  Hal ini sesuai dengan pendapat Gramsci (1971 dalam Al zastrouw, 2000). Bagi Gramsci media merupakan arena pertarungan ideologi yang saling berkompetisi. Hal ini berarti, di satu sisi media bisa menjadi sarana penyebaran ideologi penguasa, alat legimitasi, sekaligus menjadi kontrol wacana publik. Namun, pada sisi lain media juga bisa menjadi alat resistensi pada ke­kuasaan. Media bisa menjadi alat untuk mem­bangun kultur dan ideologi dominan bagi ke­pentingan kelas dominan, sekaligus bisa juga menjadi instrumen perjuangan bagi kaum ter­tindas untuk membangun kultur dan ideologi tandingan.

 

Bentuk Pertarungan Kekuasaan

Bentuk pertarungan kekuasaan, oleh para pihak yang terlibat dalam pertarungan kekuasaan, adalah ber­­beda-beda. Bentuk kekuasaan Jawa Pos lebih lebih mengarah pada kekuatan dalam meng­hadirkan pihak yang saling bertentangan dalam kasus Mesuji, yaitu warga masyarakat dengan penasihat hukumnya dan Polri sebagai pihak yang ‘merasa’ terpojokkan. Di samping itu, Jawa Pos juga menghadirkan pihak ketiga, yaitu TPGF yang mengemban misi pemerintah yang dapat menampilkan bukti-bukti untuk pe­nyelesaian kasus Mesuji. Hal tersebut ter­bukti dari berita yang dimuat sebagian besar berupa kutipan langsung dari pemilik berita, warga masyarakat Mesuji, Polri, dan TPGF.

Bentuk kekuasaan Polri yang ditonjolkan dalam teks berita Jawa Pos adalah bentuk keadaan atau proses mental bahwa lembaga Polri me­rupakan lembaga hukum yang merasa paling ber­tanggung-jawab dalam masalah ke­tertib­an dan keamanan, tidak bisa diintervensi pihak mana pun, sehingga Polri selalu meng­hindar dan bahkan mengingkar ketika ada sinyalemen keterlibatan Polri dalam kasus Mesuji.

Bentuk kekuasaan warga masyarakat yang di­tekankan dalam  teks berita Jawa Pos adalah perjuangan dari masyarakat Mesuji dalam me­nuntut pihak-pihak yang melakukan kekerasan dan pembunuhan dan perjuangan untuk pe­nguasaan lahan yang pernah dihuni kemudian diambil alih oleh perusahaan. Dengan demikian motif kepentingan ‘kekuasaan’ terbukti sangat kuat. Di samping itu, bentuk kuasa TPGF adalah pengembanan misi pemerintah dalam me­nye­lesai­kan kasus Mesuji, sehingga TPGF sangat akomodatif tetap tidak mungkin bisa di­inter­vensi oleh pihak mana pun.

 

Strategi Pertarungan Kekuasaan

Perbedaan bentuk pertarungan kekuasaan ter­sebut berpengaruh pada strategi pertarungan kekuasaan. Strategi pertarungan kekuasaan itu terwujud dalam strategi keterwacanaan dalam teks berita Jawa Pos terkait dengan kasus Mesuji dan sekitarnya. Strategi yang digunakan oleh Jawa Pos adalah dengan membuat judul berita yang dikemas dalam bentuk partisipan dengan strategi nominalisasi menampilkan ke­adaan dan objek. Hal ini menunjukkan proses pembuatan teks ini belum ada gambaran yang jelas siapa sebenarnya yang melakukan pem­bantaian itu.  Di samping itu, sebagai pengelola berita tentu sangat berhati-hati dalam memuat berita yang sangat sensitif dan spektakuler pada akhir-akhir ini di Indonesia. Di samping itu, Jawa Pos membuat judul yang berbentuk partisipan dengan menampilkan aktor sebagai pelaku dan teks ini berasal dari TPGF. Kedua hal itu merupakan strategi Jawa Pos dalam me­nunjukkan kuasanya sebagai pe­nyedia arena pertarungan kekuasaan bagi pihak terkait.

Strategi pertarungan kekuasaan yang dilakukan oleh Polri adalah strategi menghindar dan mengingkar yang diwujudkan dalam teks berita berbentuk partisipan dengan strategi nomi­na­lisasi dan bentuk keadaan, yakni hanya meng­gambarkan keadaan tanpa menunjuk pelaku, bahkan strategi pengingkaran. Seperti dalam teks berita ‘Kapolri Timur Pradopo mengatakan, ada dua kejadian yang ditangani Polri terkait dengan pembantaian Mesuji’. ‘Kapolri me­ngatakan, ada masyarakat yang disandera oleh masyarakat’. ‘Jika memang benar ada pem­bunuhan sistematis hingga 30 orang, Sutarman berjanji menindak tegas. “Itu saya kira ber­lebihan”. ‘Polri Tepis Pembantaian Mesuji’.

Selanjutnya, strategi pertarungan yang dilaku­kan oleh masyarakat Mesuji melalui penasihat hukumnya adalah dengan press liris yang diberi label teks ‘video pembantaian sadis’.  Label ini dikemas dalam bentuk keadaan, yakni meng­gambarkan keadaan tanpa menyebutkan par­ti­sipan (pelaku dan objek/korban), sehingga me­nimbulkan kesan keraguan terhadap kebenaran isi video. Dengan demikian, pembuatan video itu merupakan strategi membangun opini pada publik, sekaligus membangun ‘kekuasaan’ atas kasus Mesuji dan sekitarnya.

Sementara itu, strategi pertarungan kekuasaan TPGF adalah dengan menyusun teks berita  berbentuk tindakan berstruktur lengkap (subjek + verb + objek). Hal ini menunjukkan tidak ada unsur partisipan (subjek atau objek) yang di­lesapkan. Dengan demikian, tidak ada sesuatu yang ditutupi, artinya TPGF akan ber­sikap ter­buka terhadap seluruh hasil yang di­temukan.

 

Simpulan

Berdasarkan analisis teks berita Jawa Pos yang memuat kasus Mesuji dan sekitarnya melalui analisis  ketatabahasaan, praktik kewacanaan, dan praktik sosio budaya secara simultan dapat disimpulkan sebagai berikut.

  • Terdapat pertarungan kekuasaan oleh pihak terlibat dalam pemberitaan kasus Mesuji dan sekitarnya, yakni Jawa Pos, Polri, masya­rakat Mesuji dan sekitarnya, dan TPGF.
  • Bentuk pertarungan kekuasaan di antara ke­empat pihak tersebut berbeda-beda. Jawa Pos memiliki kuasa atau kekuatan kekuatan dalam menghadirkan pihak yang saling ber­tentangan dalam kasus Mesuji. Bentuk ke­kuasaan Polri adalah lembaga hukum yang merasa paling bertanggung jawab terhadap masalah ketertiban dan keamanan tidak mau diintervensi oleh pihak mana pun.
  • Bentuk kekuasaan warga masyarakat adalah perjuangan menuntut  pihak-pihak yang me­lakukan pembunuhan dan perjuangan untuk penguasaan lahan. Sementara itu, bentuk kuasa TGPF adalah pengembanan misi pe­merintah dalam penyelesaian kasus Mesuji.
  • Strategi pertarungan kekuasaan yang di­laku­kan oleh masing-masing pihak juga ber­beda-beda. Jawa Pos dengan strategi kewacanaan yang memiliki pola partisipan dengan stra­tegi nominalisasi menampilkan keadaan dan objek. Polri dengan strategi kewacanaan dan pola partisipan serta strategi nominalisasi dan bentuk keadaan, hanya meng­gambar­kan keadaan, dengan tanpa me­nunjuk pe­laku. Masyarakat Mesuji dengan strategi ke­wa­ca­naan yang berpola keadaan, yang meng­gambarkan keadaan tanpa me­nyebut­kan partisipan (pelaku dan objek/korban). Sementara itu, TGPF dengan stra­tegi ke­wacanaan yang berpola tindakan, dengan struktur lengkap (subjek + verb + objek).

 

Saran

Hasil analsis wacana teks berita media ber­dasar­kan ketatabahasaan yang dilanjutkan dengan analisis praktik kewacanaan dan sosio budaya secara simultan tentu hasilnya sangat kurang komprehensif. Untuk itu, perlu di­lanjut­kan dengan analisis melalui dimensi analisis yang lebih lengkap, yakni pada dimensi teks (aspek kosa-kata, gramatika, dan struktur teks), praktek kewacanaan, dan praktik sosio budaya, sebagai­mana yang dianjurkan oleh Fairclough.

 

—ooOoo–

 

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