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Verba Emosi Bahasa Rote Dialek Dengka: Suatu Tinjauan MSA

Mirsa Umiyati

Universitas Warmadewa

 

   Abstrak

            Tulisan ini dilandasi oleh teori Metabahasa Semantik Alami yang digagas oleh Anna Wierzbicka (1996). Teori ini dupakai untuk membedah leksikon bahasa rote dialek dengka (selanjutnya disebut BRDD). Leksikon BRDD yang terwakili oleh leksikon lasa ‘merasa’ dipandang mampu mewakili ungkapan perasaan seseorang dalam memikirkan peristiwa baik yang memiliki acuan yang baik maupun peristiwa yang memiliki acuan yang buruk. Verba yang mewakili peristiwa yang baik diwakili oleh verba umuho’o ‘senang’, koa ‘bangga’, hi ‘suka’ dan sue ‘senang/cinta’. Sedangkan verba yang mewakili peristiwa yang memiliki acuan yang buruk diwakili oleh verba na’amuti ‘benci’, lala mala ‘sakit hati’, sususa’ ‘sedih’, luli ‘marah’, nggahisa ‘tidak sengaja’, fokur ‘kaget’, mae ‘malu’, nggengger ‘terkejut’, masaloe ‘gelisah’, lalamela ‘sakit hati’, na’atu ‘gusar’.

 

Kata Kunci: Metabahasa Semantik Alami, Verba Emosi, Fitur Semantik

 

  1. Pendahuluan

Bahasa Rote dialek Dengka (selanjutnya BRDD) merupakan salah satu dari dua bahasa daerah rumpunAustronesia di Kabupaten Rote-Ndao, Provinsi Nusa Tenggara Timur. Jumlah penutur BRtergolong cukup besar, yakni kurang lebih 200.000 orang, yang bermukim di Pulau Rote, Semau,dan sebagian Pulau Timor (Kumanireng, dkk., 2000:1). Sementara itu, satu bahasa lain yang jugaterdapat di Kabupaten Rote-Ndao adalah bahasa Ndao (BN) dengan jumlah penutur kurang lebih3000 orang, yang bermukim di Pulau Ndao dan Nuse.

Kekhasan BRDD terlihat pada variasi bahasa. Mengutip tulisan Manafe (1884) tentang BR,Fox (1986:178²180) mengemukakan bahwa pengelompokan dialek dalam BR dilakukanmenurut bunyinya. Walaupun dialek-dialek itu memiliki bunyi-bunyi yang berbeda, siapapunyang tinggal di bagian timur pulau itu dapat memahami apa yang dikatakan oleh orang yang tinggal di bagian barat, tanpa mengalami kesulitan. Menurut Fox, dialek BR terdiri atas: (1)Oepao, Ringgou, dan Landu; (2) Bilba, Diu, dan Lelenuk; (3) Korbafo; (4) Termanu, Keka, danTalae; (5) Bokai; (6) Baa dan Loleh; (7) Dengka dan Lelain; (8) Thie; dan (9) Oenale dan Delha.

Mengkombinasikan tradisi filsafat, logika dalam kajian semantik dengan pendekatan tipologi terhadap suatu bahasa berdasarkan atas penelitian empiris lintas bahasa adalah prinsip dasar dari teori Metabahasa Semantik Alami (Weirzbicka, 1996:23). Mempertahankan satu bentuk untuk satu makna (baik makna leksikal, ilokusi maupun makna gramatikal) dan satu makna untuk satu bentuk untuk kata dan konstruksi gramatikal yang lain merupakan salah satu prinsip yang diterapkan di dalamnya.

Metabahasa Semantik Alami menggunakan pendekatan analisis semantis yang didasarkan pada pembentukan parafrasa. Parafrasa diartikan sebagai suatu konsep atau kata yang diperinci kedalam kombinasi konsep atau kata yang lebih simpel, dengan mempergunakan eksponen dari makna asali; makna yang tidak bisa berubah; makna yang dibawa manusia sejak lahir. Parafrasa diharapkan mampu memberikan gambaran tentang komponen dan struktur semantik.

  1. Landasan Teori

Sudipa (2010: 8) mengatakan bahwa makna Asali, salah satu asumsi yang mendasarkan teori MSA adalah makna yang tidak bisa dideskripsikan tanpa perangkat makna asali. Munculnya asumsi ini dilatari pemahaman bahwa sebuah kata merupakan konfigurasi dari makna asali, bukan ditentukan oleh makna kata yang lain dalam leksikon. Jelasnya, makna asali adalah perangkat makna yang tidak dapat berubah (Goddard, 1996:2) karena diwarisi manusia sejak lahir. Makna ini merupakan refleksi dari pikiran manusia yang mendasar. Makna asali dapat dieksplikasi dari bahasa alamiah (ordinary language) yang merupakan satu-satunya cara dalam mempresentasikan makna (Weirzbicka, 1996:31).

Klasifikasi VBRDD juga bertumpu pada (1) skala kestabilan waktu yang di klasifikasikan menjadi tiga, yaitu (a) verba keadaan (b) verba proses, dan (c) verba tindakan; (2) makna asali ‘semantic primes’ yang melekat pada setiap butir leksikon VBRDD. Makna asali ini merupakan salah satu aspek pendekatan dalam teori MSA yang dijadikan tumpuan analisis utama. Verba emosi merupakan subbagian dari verba keadaan.

Sejumlah eksponen yang berada dalam makna asali yang berasal dari penelitian yang dilakukan Anna Weirzbicka terhadap bahasa-bahasa dari kelompok dan benua yang berbeda, dijabarkan dalam tabel berikut :

Tabel I. The English eksponen of Semantic Primitive

            No  

The English Exponents of the Semantic Primitives

1 Substantive I, YOU, SOMEONE, SOMETHING, PEOPLE, BODY
2 Relation Substantive KIND OF, PART OF
3 Determiners THIS, THE SAME, OTHER
4 Quantifiers DO, HAPPEN, MOVE, PUT, GO
5 Attributes BIG, SMALL, GOOD, BAD
6 Intensifiers VERY
7 Mental Predicate WANT, FEEL, THINK, KNOW, SEE, HEAR
8 Speech SAY, WORDS, TRUE
9 Actions, events, movements DO, HAPPEN, MOVE
10 Existence and possessive THERE IS, HAVE
11 Life and death LIVE, DIE
12 Logical concept NOT, MAYBE, CAN, BECAUSE, IF
13 Time WHEN, NOW, AFTER, BEFORE, A LONG TIME, A SHORT TIME FOR SOME TIME, MOMENT
14 Space WHERE, HERE, ABOVE, BELOW NEAR, FAR, INSIDE, TOUCHING (CONTACT)
15 Augmentor MORE
16 Similarity LIKE (HOW, AS)

 

Polisemi Takkomposisi. Polisemi menurut MSA merupakan bentuk leksikon tunggal yang dapat mengepresikan dua makna asali yang berbeda. Hal ini terjadi karena adanya hubungan komposisi antara satu eksponen dan eksponen lainnya karena eksponen tersebut memiliki kerangka gramatikal yang berbeda. Pada tingkatan yang sederhana, eksponen dari makna asali yang mungkin tidak akan menjadi polisemi dengan cara yang berbeda pada bahasa yang berbeda pula. Lebih lanjut dikatakan bahwa ada dua jenis hubungan, yaitu (1) hubungan yang menyerupai pengartian (entailment-like relationship), seperti :MELAKUKAN, TERJADI, dan hubungan implikasi (implicational relationship) misalnya MERASAKAN, TERJADI (Sudipa, 2010 : 10), seperti pada contoh berikut ini :

  • X melakukan sesuatu pada Y

Sesuatu terjadi pada Y

  • Jika X merasakan sesuatu

Maka sesuatu terjadi pada X

Perbedaan sintaksis yang dapat diketahui dari verba melakukan dan terjadi pada contoh (1) diatas ialah bahwa melakukan memerlukan dua argumen, sedangkan terjadi hanya membutuhkan satu argumen. Hubungan implikasi terjadi pada verba terjadi dan merasakan. Misalnya apabila X merasakan sesuatu, maka sesuatu terjadi pada X.

Struktur Semantik Verba keadaan BRDD dibangun oleh predikat mental yang terdiri atas makna asali yang diterangkan dalam tabel berikut.

 

 

 

Tabel II. Struktur Semantik Verba Keadaan BRDD

KATEGORI BHS. INDONESIA BAHASA ROTE
KOGNISI PIKIR DUDU-A
PENGETAHUAN TAHU BUBULU’
KEINGINAN INGIN NAU
EMOSI RASA RASA
PERSEPSI LIHAT ITA
DENGAR LENA

 

  1. Isi Bahasan

3.1 Tipe MERASAKAN dan MEMIKIRKAN

Leksikon dalam Bahasa Rote : lasa ‘merasakan’ mampu mengungkapkan perasaan seseorang dalam hal memikirkan suatu peristiwa. Peristiwa yang diungkapkan bisa terjadi sesuai atau tidak sesuai dengan harapan seseorang. Verba emosi ini dibagi menjadi dua bagian, yaitu : (1) Tipe merasakan sesuatu yang baik dan (2) Tipe merasakan sesuatu yang tidak baik yang akan dijabarkan berikut.

  1. Tipe merasakan sesuatu yang baik

Subtipe MERASAKAN dan MEMIKIRKAN menjelaskan makna umuho’o ‘senang’, dengan variasi: koa ‘bangga’, hi ‘suka’ dan sue ‘senang/cinta’yang berciri makna dasar senang. Dalam eksplorasi makna terkait dengan gabungan polisemi ini, ada dua orientasi yang menjadi acuan dari peristiwa dalam pikiran yang diungkapkan oleh demen, yakni : (a) peristiwa masa sekarang yang memberi ciri bahwa seseorang sekarang merasakan sesuatu yang baik pada dirinya. (b) kadang-kadang orang yang umuho’o diungkapkan oleh boil ‘kagum’ memiliki orientasi masa datang. Orang yang boil mula-mula memiliki sesuatu yang buruk bergejolak dalam pikirannya ‘sesuatu yang buruk terjadi pada X’ tetapi ia kemudian mengetahui bahwa hal ini tidak terjadi. Oleh karena itu orang yang boil adalah orang yang merasakan sesuatu yang baik. Gabungan komponen merasakan dengan peristiwa yang baik, yang terjadi dalam bahasa Rote diungkapkan dengan beberapa leksikon : umuho’o ‘senang’, koa ‘bangga’, hi ‘suka’ dan sue ‘senang/cinta’ . Dengan ciri-ciri khusus pembeda makna masing-masing. Makna dasar leksikon-leksikon ini adalah senang, karena sesuatu peristiwa terjadi sesuai dengan harapan seseorang sebagaimana contoh kalimat berikut.

  1. Au       lala-ngga   loa-loa ne karena au     haue   kelas   lua

1TG   hati-1TG  lega     sekali     karena 1TG   naik   kelas   dua

‘Hati saya lega sekali karena saya naik kelas dua’

 

  1. Au       umuho’o   karena   do     basa       ia   papa-ngga   no    

1TG   bahagia     karena PAR selama ini   bapak-1TG dan

 

      Mama-ngga   esa   sue        esa

Ibu-1TG         satu   sayang   satu

‘Aku bahagia karena selama ini bapak dan ibu saya saling menyayangi’

 

  1. Papa-ngga     no     mama-ngga   esa   sue   esa

Bapak-1TG   dan   ibu-1TG           satu   cinta satu

‘bapak dan ibu saya saling mencintai’

 

  1. Au       lala-ngga   loa-loa ne karena au     haue   kelas   lua

1TG   hati-1TG   lega     sekali     karena 1TG   naik   kelas   dua

‘Hati saya lega sekali karena saya naik kelas dua’

 

  1. Au       umuho’o   karena   do     basa      ia   papa-ngga   no    

1TG   bahagia     karena PAR selama ini   bapak-1TG dan

 

      Mama-ngga   esa   sue        esa

Ibu-1TG         satu   sayang   satu

‘Aku bahagia karena selama ini bapak dan ibu saya saling menyayangi’

 

  1. Papa-ngga     no    mama-ngga   esa   sue   esa

Bapak-1TG   dan   ibu-1TG           satu   cinta satu

‘bapak dan ibu saya saling mencintai’

 

 

 

  1. Au     Umuho’o     saong-ga                         mahine’

saya   senang     istri- (kepunyaan saya)   pintar

‘ Saya senang punya istri pintar’

 

  1. Hataholi     la       koa     aana’ naka soa’a tulufali       hataholi fea’

Orang-orang PART bangga anak itu   selalu menolong orang     lain

‘Orang-orang bangga (terhadap) anak itu yang selalu menolong orang lain ’

 

  1. Au    hi           ua         pao

saya   suka   makan mangga

‘Saya senang makan mangga’

 

  1. Au       sue       ho

Saya     suka   kamu

‘ Aku suka kamu’

 

Berdasarkan contoh kalimat diatas, peristiwa yang terjadi sesuai dengan harapan seseorang, memiliki acuan yang baik, seperti loa-loa ‘lega’, umuho’o ‘bahagia’, sue ‘cinta/sayang’ . Dalam contoh kalimat (1), semula au ‘aku’ sebagai subyek dalam kalimat ini berpikir was-was sehingga tidak berani mengatakan sesuatu karena kecemasan yang dia rasakan, namun tidak berselang lama dari keadaan itu, dia merasakan sesuatu yang baik terjadi, yaitu dia naik kelas. Peristiwa yang sangat diharap-harapkannya sebelumnya membuat dia secara tidak sadar berjingkrak-jingkrak tanda kesenangannya.

Demikian juga dengan contoh kalimat (2), sebelumnya, subyek kalimat dalam hal ini au ‘aku’yang sebelum merasakankebahagiaan, sebelumnya diawali oleh perasaan cemas akan kondisi ibu dan bapaknya. Peta komponen yang bisa digambarkan terhadap situasi ini adalah “ sebelum ini X merasakan sesuatu yang buruk”, tetapi agak berselang, sesuatu yang buruk itu tidak terjadi, sehingga au ‘aku’ merasakan senang dalam waktu yang relative lama. Dari penjelasan diatas, dapat ditarik suatu eksplikasi dari verba umuho’o sebagai berikut.

Eksplikasi umuho’o ‘seneng’

Pada saat itu, X merasakan sesuatu

X memikirkan sesuatu seperti itu

Aku berpikir bahwa sesuatu yang baik terjadi padaku

X merasakan sesuatu seperti itu

  1. Tipe merasakan sesuatu yang tidak baik

Gabungan komponen merasakan dengan peristiwa yang tidak baik, yang terjadi dalam bahasa Rote diungkapkan dengan beberapa leksikon : na’amuti ‘benci’, lala mala ‘sakit hati’, sususa’ ‘sedih’, luli ‘marah’, nggahisa ‘tidak sengaja’, fokur ‘kaget’, mae ‘malu’, nggengger ‘terkejut’, masaloe ‘gelisah’, lalamela ‘sakit hati’, na’atu ‘gusar’. Dengan ciri-ciri khusus pembeda makna masing-masing. yang berbanding kontras dengan peristiwa yang mengacu pada peristiwa yang buruk yang tentunya mengacu pada peristiwa yang tidak sesuai dengan harapan sebagaimana berikut.

  1. Au       nggali           leo   sa     teo-ngga     ume   na karena   bafa            ako’

1TG   tidak senang  tinggal  di     tante-1TG  rumah di    karena   mulut-2TG   cerewet                         ‘Aku tidak senang tinggal di rumah tanteku karena mulutnya cerewet’

 

  1. Fai   ia papa -ngga   talalu   sususa’   karena      aa-ngga        mate

Hari ini   bapak-1TG     sekali susah       karena      kakak-1TG   mati

‘Hari ini bapak saya sangat sedih karena kakak saya meninggal’

 

  1. Mama –ngga luli      odi-ngga   karena    nama na’o   doi’

Mama-1TG      marah  adik-1TG    karena      mencuri       uang

‘Aku memarahi anakku’

 

  1. Aana     naka    nendi lulunggi  sa ume        lala  

Anak      Def      pembawa  sial           di rumah     dalam

 

Karena  soa’a           natota           no           lame  titia’                          ala  

Karena  sering          berkelahi      dengan   tetangga

‘ Anak itu pembawa sial di dalam rumah karena sering berkelahi dengan tetangga’

 

  1. Au       mama-ngga      masaloe   karena    odi-ngga       failua

1TG      mama-1TG         sedih      karena                 sdik-1TG        sudah dua hari

 

Ene-ngga   nea     hau   ume       sa

Tidak         PAR      ke     rumah     di

‘Ibu saya gelisah karena adik saya sudah dua hari ini tidak pulang ke rumah’

 

  1. mama -ngga   lala na nela   karena   papa-ngga      lao            hela     e

ibu-1TG           hati         sakit   karena   bapak-1TG       pergi        bapak PAR

‘Ibu saya sakit hati karena di tinggal pergi bapak saya’

 

  1. Mama Maghda boik   hambu oto     feuk ma lot       BRITAMA

Mama Maghda kaget dapat   mobil baru dari undian BRITAMA

‘ Mama Maghda kaget dapat mobil baru dari undian BRITAMA’

 

  1. Au     luli             eni

1TG   memarahi 3TG

‘Aku memarahi dia’

 

  1. Au     fokur   karena   le   nembe Dela            

1TG kaget   karena   ombak  pantai NAMA TEMPAT

 

tatananala          a-ana’                                           naka

menggulung         anak             itu

‘Saya kaget karena ombak pantai Dela menggulung anak itu’

 

  1. Au       nggengger     karena     unu’      a   sea

1TG   terkejut         karena     gunung PART meletus

‘Aku terkejut karena gunung meletus’

 

Berdasarkan contoh kalimat diatas, peristiwa yang terjadi tidak sesuai dengan harapan seseorang, memiliki acuan yang buruk, seperti nggali ‘tidak senang’, sususa’ ‘sedih’, luli ‘marah’ dan masaloe ‘susah’. Sama halnya dengan verba emosi positif, verba emosi negatif memiliki tingkatan yang berbeda-beda meskipun makna dasarnya sama, yaitu nggahisa ‘tidak senang’. Sabagai contoh, verba fokur ‘kaget’ dan verba nggengger ‘terkejut’ yang berasal dari polisemi MERASAKAN dan MEMIKIRKAN seperti yang dicontohkan pada kalimat (7), (9) dan (10). Au ‘saya’ dan mama Maghda ‘mama Maghda’ merasakan sesuatu yang tidak mungkin terjadi atau susah untuk terjadi sehingga tidak seorangpun yang menyangka tiba-tiba hal itu terjadi, akan tetapi kenyataanya, hal tersebut terjadi.

Semula mama Maghda tidak menyangka akan mendapatkan undian BRITAMA dari bank, sesuatu yang tidak pernah dia bayangkan sebelumnya, kenyataanya, sewaktu undian itu dibuka, ternyata namanyalah yang diumumkan sebagai pemenang. Demikian pula dengan au ‘saya’ yang tidak menyangka sebelumnya bahwa gunung tersebut akan meletus dan atau ombak pantai Dela akan menggulung anak kecil itu. Suatu peristiwa yang tidak pernah dia bayangkan sebelumnya, namun pada kenyataannya hal itu telah terjadi, sehingga pemetaan eksponennya X tidak tahu sebelumnya ini akan terjadi, dan aku tidak menginginkan hal ini terjadi. Eksplikasi verba emosi negatif nggahisa ‘tidak senang’ dijabarkan sebagai berikut.

Eksplikasi nggahisa ‘ tidak seneng’

Pada saat itu, X merasakan sesuatu

X memikirkan sesuatu seperti itu

  • Sesuatu yang buruk akan terjadi
  • Aku tidak menginginkan ini
  • Selang beberapa saat aku tahu sekarang sesuatu yang buruk tidak terjadi

Karena ini : pada saat itu saja aku merasakan sesuatu yang baik

X merasakan sesuatu seperti ini.

Bila diamati secara lebih mendalam, leksikon yang bermakna dasar seneng memiliki sub-subtipe yang dibedakan dengan elemen-elemen khusus yang melekat padanya. Hal ini bisa dibedakan dalam pembagian yang lebih khusus, mengingat ada ciri tambahan yang melekat pada butir leksikon yang bersangkutan. Verba : boil ‘kagum’ dan loa-loa ‘lega’ memiliki ‘senang’ sebagai makna dasar bergabung dengan ‘heran’ dengan unsur tambahan.

  1. Penutup

Verba emosi bahasa rote dialek dengka (selanjutnya VEBRDD) tergolong klasifikasi verba keadaan yang penerapan makna asali, direpresentasikan oleh leksikon lasa ‘merasakan’. Dimensi baru pada verba keadaan BRDD sering muncul berupa pemetaan eksponen dan eksplikasi berbentuk parafrasa terhadap leksikon verba keadaan. Dimensi ini mampu melakukan telaah makna sampai menemukan fitur halus pembeda, sehingga tidak ada lagi makna yang berputar-putar. Produk pendekatan ini diharapkan berupa informasi tuntas bahwa satu bentuk mengandung satu makna dan satu makna diwahanai oleh satu bentuk.

 

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Yoon, Kyung-Joo. 2001. The Semantic Primes THIS in Korean. Proceeding of the 2001 conference of the Australian Linguistic Society Australian [cited 24 november 2003] available from : http:/www.google.com.

INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION IN A DISCUSSION ABOUT T-SHIRTS ON THE ONLINE FORUM MYSTCOMMUNITY.COM

by Bastiko Pradana, Master Candidate in Applied Linguistic, University of Brawijaya, Malang Indonesia

 

As people progress in life, they invariably come into contact with other people. Because people have different characteristics and are brought up in different ways, it would be hard to expect that they would communicate in the same way. This situation presents an issue which concerns how people say what they say in regard to other participants in the communication. This issue is at the center of intercultural communication, which is involved when there are multiple ways and perceptions of communication present. Recognizing these ways and perceptions is the key to make intercultural communication successful.

“Culture” itself is hard to define. One way of approaching the concept is through delineating certain features that culture may have. Hofstede (1997) described a cultural model which includes certain forms (manifestations) and attributes (dimensions). This model stems from the observation that culture is programmed so that people can differentiate one another. From this, culture is manifested as a ring of practices – which can be divided into rituals (activities), heroes (people), and symbols (articles) – that surround a core of values, which regards the perception of people. Within this framework issues do arise, and that is represented by the dimensions of culture, which covers power distance (the level of authority), collectivism versus individualism (how individuals and groups relate), femininity versus masculinity (gender implications), and uncertainty avoidance (dealing with conflict or emotions). However, this model was developed as part of a research done within the environment of a multinational computing company, and as such the model carries an implication of a bias.

A different way of interpreting culture and one that is more apt for describing intercultural communication is described by Scollon, Scollon, and Jones (2012). Instead of forms and attributes which are essentially “objects” that label culture, they describe culture as “actions” that allow culture to be “done”. The body of objects that are used to do this is called “cultural tools”, and when it is used for communication, it is called a “discourse system”. Language is a part of discourse systems, but because it is ambiguous, participants in communication have to make inferences based on what they know – their discourse systems. Successful intercultural communication relies on how aware participants are of the differences between the discourse systems of their own and others.

One place where intercultural communication can occur is on the Internet, and in particular on online forums. Using a forum, members can discuss topics related to a subject and receive feedback from other members; discussions are often moderated so that they do not become heated arguments. One of these forums is MYSTcommunity.com, a discussion forum specifically created for fans of the computer game Myst to discuss developments in this series as well as anything related to it. The members of the forum come from different parts of the world, though many are located in the United States or Europe. As a result, this forum has the potential to harbor intercultural communication. This paper would like to discuss the possibility of this happening in one of the discussion threads, entitled “What’s The Difference Between Guys T-Shirts And Girls T-Shirts?”

Literature Review

Scollon, Scollon, and Jones (2012) outline a discourse system as having four components. One of them is ideology, which covers the underlying ideals of the discourse system. Another component is socialization, and this includes how members of that discourse system achieve the eligibility to be considered part of the system. There is also the component of forms of discourse, which deals with the ways of communication available in the discourse system. Finally, the component of face systems concerns the relationships between members of the discourse system. In contrast to Hofstede’s ring model, the four components of a discourse system can be represented as a pie, with each component having equal status.

Within each component, there are also sub-components that further describe the component. In ideology, the question of whether the discourse system is voluntary (purposive or by choice) or involuntary (natural, no choice) is considered. History and views about the world are also considered, as are beliefs, values, and religion; in the latter three, they regard basic principles such as what is considered “good” and how are people and society supposed to be. In addition, ideology is also considered regarding the placement and relationship with other discourse systems. Thus within the component of ideology, perceptions and values are underscored.

The component of socialization covers the legitimacy of participation that a member would have in a discourse system. One of the sub-components of this component is education, enculturation, and acculturation; this is a determiner of whether certain practices in the discourse system are formally, informally, or forced to be learned. Whether learning is informal or formal is also determined by primary or secondary socialization, respectively. Members can further be evaluated by how far the participation of the member is in the discourse system (expert and novice participation). Within a discourse system, theories of the person and learning, including the consideration of the nature of good or evil, individuals and the collective, and the life cycle or age divisions of people, are also part of socialization. This component is therefore a representation of how well a member participates in a discourse system.

Forms of discourse of a discourse system collectively represent the ways communication is generally accepted in a discourse system. A major part of this component is the concept of the grammar of context, which itself is made up of seven elements: scene, key, participants, message form, sequence, co-occurrence patterns, and manifestations; these seven elements describe properties of the context. Other parts of this component include rhetorical strategies, functions of language, and production formats, which deal with the role and relationship of discourse. Modes of communication, media, and emplacement are the last part of this component, all of which cover the realization of discourse by the members of the discourse system. Overall, forms of discourse shows how communication works within a discourse system.

The last component of a discourse system is the face system. This component describes how members are supposed to be interrelated. Face systems may take the forms of deference, solidarity, and hierarchy, depending on power, distance, and weight of imposition; depending on appeal to positive and negative face aspects, it may be either involvement or independence, respectively. Face systems also involve social organization, reflected in the sub-components of kinship (familial relationships), the concept of the self (what elements make up an individual), and ingroup-outgroup relationships (how others consider individuals belong). The face system within a discourse system accordingly characterizes the links that individuals may have in and out of a discourse system.

Findings

The discussion thread being examined is located in a forum section called “The Blah Place”. This area is reserved for discussion topics that do not directly pertain to the main subject matter of the forum, which in this case is the game series Myst; most online forums have such an area reserved for that purpose. In this thread, there are 17 postings made by 11 members. Five of the members state that they come from the United States, while there are four members that state that they come from Germany, New Zealand, the Netherlands, and England, and two members whose location are not stated. In terms of gender, two members state that they are female; the rest state that they are male while one does not disclose this information. Most of the members state birth dates in the 1980s, except for three members who state birth dates in 1961, 1978, and 1991. Additionally, the researcher is a member of the forum, but did not participate in the discussion.

Grammar of Context

The grammar of context here represents that of the situational discourse system, which is the forum of Mystcommunity.com. Beginning with the scene, the setting is the virtual space of an online forum situated on the Internet; though the actual discussion is conducted over a period of several days, the discussion remains available in that virtual space. The topic being discussed is the difference between t-shirts for men and t-shirts for women. The purpose of the discussion is to see if there is any difference between the two kinds of shirts. The discussion itself started out with a few questions and answers, but later postings shifted to a more commentary form.

The key of the discourse system is represented by the tone and mood of the discussion; in this discussion, the tone is informal and the mood is rather lighthearted. This is indicated primarily by the use of emoticons as well as the presence of jocular statements in some of the posts (posts 3, 8, and 13). In regard to participants, in this discussion, any member was allowed to participate, including members of the moderation and administration team; although the role of the moderation and administration team (in part) is to keep the discussion from becoming out of hand, they can still participate in discussions, and in fact, two administrations posted within this discussion. However, their capacity in this discussion was purely contributive and they acted as ordinary members.

As this discussion was conducted over the Internet using web pages, the message form is purely written. Further, as each participant is clearly tagged on each post, the attribution of each post is quite clear. As for the sequencing in the discourse system, the thread follows a set schedule in that each new post is appended to the end of the thread, but members could openly contribute to the discussion, and there is always room for the discussion to grow and extend.

An online forum such as this is expected to generate discussions. However, in this particular discussion, jocular statements are present in several of the posts, one of which in particular (post 13) directly jests about the t-shirt in question, and does not relate directly to the discussion. Thus, these jocular statements constitute marked co-occurrence patterns, unexpected for the discussion. The existence of these co-occurrence patterns also creates tacit manifestations that should be considered, in addition to the rest of the discussion which is mostly explicit, with some exceptions being the comments in posts 16 and 17 which have to be inferred. This and all the other features above make the grammar of context of the situational discourse system significant to the understanding of the intercultural means of the discussion.

Situational Discourse System

Other important characteristics lie in the situational discourse system. The discourse system itself is purposive or voluntary, as it is up to individuals whether they want to be members and participate, or not. The history of the forum itself goes back to 2001, when it was opened to facilitate another place where fans of the computer game Myst to discuss what is happening with the game series. Any fan that is willing to talk and contribute to the forum is welcome to join with the forum. While there are many other similar discussion forums, this forum does not preclude its members from joining others, nor does it preclude those that are already in others to join the forum. This is generally the case for many online forums.

Aside from technical requirements governing new members (Capella 2011) there is nothing that hinders the identity of a member, though the member is expected to abide by the rules, which provides some enculturation. There is no primary or secondary socialization, and the forum does not consider anyone to be an expert above others, except those in administration or moderation positions. Any member is only expected to “…be an active, valuable member, with interesting, insightful threads and replies.” From this statement it can also be seen that it is better to contribute well than not (considering good and evil) and to participate (considering the individual and the collective). As for life cycle, though by technicality there is a point when a member is considered a “veteran” and there is a titular rank system which is decorative, it is only expected that each member contribute as equals.

In addition to the grammar of context, there are other elements included within forms of discourse. In this informal space, any form of cohesion and rhetoric is applicable for discussion so long as they are within the rules, but regarding cohesion, there is an extra element that enhances the aspect: the quote tag, which is standard for an online forum and allows references to be clearly indicated. As far as other elements go, here language functions to inform and ratify relationships, not so much to create and negotiate them, and individualism is more evident; due to the members being clearly tagged on each post (and when the quote tag is used) animator, author, and principal are often one and the same, except in cases where they are dubiously vague or clearly differentiated. Due to the use of virtual space, all mode of communication is disembodied and verbal and non-verbal may overlap when images are used. The forum is located on the Internet and thus utilizes it as well as computers as the media. Finally, as this forum is accessible from anywhere with an Internet connection, the potential for emplacement is high, and even the “general discussion” forum can be thought of as an emplacement in a forum that regards a specific subject such as this one.

Because of the preferred participation, the face system in this discourse system prefers a solidarity relationship, and the face strategy demands involvement. A hierarchy system and an independence strategy may be involved only when dealing with the administration and moderation in their capacities as such. Kinship is not expected to be present, unless it happens that relatives of a member also join as members. Regarding the concept of the self, as a result of the preferred participation, members of the discourse system are aware of some of the things that have been done in the past and try to make explicit how it should be regarded as a group in the rules; in doing so they are trying to weaken the collectivist ingroup aspect of the relationship in favor of a more individualist outgroup appearance.

Background Discourse System

Considering the above descriptions, it appears that the discourse system of the discussion forum mirrors portions of the Utilitarian discourse system, a point well-described by Scollon, Scollon, and Jones (2012). Per the Utilitarian ideology, technology can be used to advance individual freedom, increase happiness, and express creativity, in this case through discussions. The ingroup aspect of a discussion forum illustrates the liberty, equality, and fraternity aspect and how it reflects an asymmetrical and hierarchical face system to those in the outgroup. The form of discourse in the form of posts is considered equal for all and has to be acceptable to the forum. Even though there is no “education”, there is still some form of “socialization” in the form of listed rules. Despite only representing a part of the Utilitarian discourse system, it is nonetheless a small reflection of that system.

For any particular discussion, there are many possible discourse systems available for members to interact within and across. This is due to the information that members have publicly disclosed as above. Due to the varied origins of the members, they may be able to communicate to reflect the discourse system typical of their origin, or may be forced to accommodate for the discourse system of others. Due to the various ages of the members, they may be able to speak among those of their own generation, or alternatively have to transcend generational understanding. Also, as both genders are represented, it is possible that members have to reach outwards to the other gender. This last set of systems for this particular discussion is key, as it touches upon gender issues.

Discussion

Among the many functions of a discourse system, Scollon, Scollon, and Jones (2012) mention that one of them is to enable participants to gain an understanding of their identity. With that in mind, the many background discourse systems present in this discussion present many ways for the participants to assume identities. However, there is one particular discourse system that is invoked because it is pertinent to the discussion. This discourse system is the set of gender discourse system; this discourse system is related to the discussion, which concerns clothing of both genders, and it is here that the participants in this discourse disclose their perceptions, thus attempting to cross the gender systems and recognize their identity.

Speech Events and Acts

Each individual post in the discussion can be considered a single speech act, since the particular member that made the post is identifiable. In the sequence of posts, two patterns can be identified. The first eight posts represent a question-and-answer sequence as the initial post started with a question, and successive posts in that range either answer the question (post 2) or clarify it (post 5); the remaining nine posts are comments that complement the discussion as they provide additional answers and no questions. These two patterns can be construed as two speech events. These speech events can, in turn, be construed as a single speech situation.

There are certain patterns that can be identified from the discussion. Within the question-and-answer sequence, four posts (1, 4, 6, and 8) are made by the member who originally started the discussion, and these posts correlate in sequence with each other. Posts 2 and 3 attempt to answer the questions posed at the start of the discussion and are only linked to post 1. However, post 4, which attempts to clarify post 1, is answered by post 5, which is in turn answered by post 6, which also clarifies post 4. Similarly, post 6 is answered by post 7, and post 8 both answers post 7 and clarifies post 6. The remainder of the posts attempt to add to this core part of the discussion, but are not directly tied to the sequence of posts.

Faces

Although the discourse system prefers a solidarity face system and an involvement face strategy, this does not preclude certain members from creating posts that appeal to a deference face system and an independence face strategy. In fact, within this discussion, posts 4, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, and 17 were created with independence and deference in mind. Posts 4 and 7 were made with a pessimistic tone, while posts 9, 13, and 15 were made with the intent of minimizing threat to the original poster, and post 11 was made with the intent of minimizing assumptions of the hearer. The remaining deference-independence post, post 17, was made by utilizing a taciturn strategy. Notably, all of these posts were made by male speakers that participated in this discussion, and posts 4 and 7 are part of the main question-and-answer sequence.

The remaining posts were made to appeal to solidarity and involvement, but for different reasons. In posts 1, 5, and 10, the member tried to notice or attend to the original poster, while in posts 3 and 6, exaggeration of interests were made. Posts 8 and 12 used the strategy of trying to assert common ground. The rest of the posts used three different involvement strategies. For post 2, the member tried to indicate the recognition of the wants of the original poster; for post 14, the member attempted to be voluble or explicit; and for post 16, the member went for an assumption of reciprocity. The female members that posted in this discussion did so at posts 2, 10, and 16, using three different involvement strategies.

Problems

In this discussion, only two female members were present. One of them contributed with two posts, while the other contributed with only a single post. However, this was still enough to facilitate an inter-gender discussion. Regardless, this instance of intercultural communication is considered successful. The reason for this is due to the interactions between their posts; these posts relate to the original member that posted this thread as well as to the posts of other members. This interaction is additionally made possible by the fact that this discourse system can be considered a “community of practice” in regard to gender-based discourse system interaction.

In their discussion of gender-based discourse systems, Scollon, Scollon, and Jones (2012) describe two common approaches for those discourse systems. One approach is called the “difference” approach, wherein the two gender discourse systems are treated as having separate ways of communication. The other approach is the “dominance” approach, wherein the masculine gender system is taken as prevailing to the feminine one. The problem with these two approaches is that they do not apply universally and they represent a critical viewpoint. Thus, where these two approaches do not generally apply, a different concept to multiple discourse systems is needed. This concept is called the “community of practice” or “nexus of practice”. The concept is based on the observation that people can and do participate in multiple discourse systems, and that they can affect each other to create different identities. As the background discourse system in this discussion does accommodate for this to happen, this concept is appropriate to describe the situation.

Post 2 was made within the scope of the central question-and-answer sequence in relation to the first post, by using the involvement strategy of indicating the recognition of the wants of the member who made the first post. Post 10 was made by the other participating female member, this time by noticing the member who made the first post, and the same member who made post 2 posted again in post 16, with an assumption of reciprocity; these were done in the outer section of additional posts. Considering the topic of the discussion and the fact that the original member that started the discussion was actually male in gender, it can be seen that the female members here tried to step out of their discussion boundaries to help the male member. They recognized that the egalitarian nature of the situational discourse system as well as its high visibility demands that they contribute in a manner that is helpful to another member, while affirming their identity as belonging to their own gender discourse system. In effect, they recognized the situational discourse system as a community of practice that puts value on not only the original member that posted as a member of the other gender discourse system, but also puts value on themselves representing their own gender discourse system. Doing so allowed their communication to succeed, evidenced by the fact that no negative reactions to their contributions appeared.

In relation to posts made by other members, the three posts that were made by female members attempted to stand out among the contributions made by the other male members that posted in the discussion. Post 2 can be seen as trying to be both descriptive and concise in its provision of answers to the original post, in comparison to post 3, which used exaggeration to hint better interests for the original member that posted. Post 10 appears as an encouraging answer, in comparison to post 11, which, while minimizing assumptions, also appears discouraging. Both post 15 and 16 try to provide the answer to the member who originally started the discussion, but post 16 does so in an illustrative way while post 15 includes an opinionated view. Using different face strategies, what the female members tried to do was to set examples. In the former two cases, the two posts gave a definitive way of answering within the question-and-answer and commentary patterns; the latter case can be thought of as trying to rectify the previous opinionated view. By trying to stand out from the other posts, they were once again able to recognize the situational discourse system as a community of practice, this time by setting straight their own identity as belonging to the female gender discourse system, while at the same time outlining a way for the male gender discourse system to act, though this is not readily followed. Still, by the absence of negative reactions, this way of communication ultimately succeeded.

Conclusion

Intercultural communication does not always result in failure. In some cases, intercultural communication can succeed, as it did in this discussion. Even though only two female members participated in the discussion and only for three posts, this was enough to spur good interaction between them and other members of the male gender discourse system. The female members knew that the situational discourse system of the forum demands them to make good contributions, and as a result, they did so by appealing to the original member that started the discussion. This allowed them to create an identity for their gender discourse system, by transgressing their own discourse system. This identity was further enhanced by the fact that their contributions were different from the others. Essentially, the female members were able to see the situational discourse system as a community of practice, and they crafted their own gender identity using their posts to suit the discourse system and the community of practice. As other members did not react negatively to the posts, the female members accomplished their identity creation and thus intercultural communication within this community of practice.

The identity of the female members perfectly represents how culture can be acted and not just referred to. By making use of their situational discourse system, in particular face systems and strategies, as well as their community of practice, they produced communication that spoke for themselves, their identity, and how they should be perceived. The female members are aware that what they do represents what they are, and so they made use of the cultural tools in their discourse system and communities of practice to show the best way to participate. As a result, they do not come off as being misunderstood; instead, they made themselves understandable; they created communication that bridged their perceptions with the others, making the communication successful.

References

Capella. (2011, 28 January) Official MYSTcommunity Rules and Guidelines [Forum message]. Retrieved from the MYSTcommunity forums on 23 March 2014: http://www.mystcommunity.com/board/index.php?/topic/36869-official-mystcommunity-rules-and-guidelines/

m01ety et al. (2007, 11 April) What’s The Difference Between Guys T-Shirts And Girls T-Shirts? [Forum message]. Retrieved from the MYSTcommunity forums on 23 March 2014: http://www.mystcommunity.com/board/index.php?/topic/26433-whats-the-difference-between-guys-t-shirts-and-girls-t-shirts/

Hofstede, G. (1997) Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind. London: McGraw-Hill.

Scollon, R., Scollon, S., and Jones, R. (2012) Intercultural Communication: A Discourse Approach. West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell Publishing.

 

Appendix: Discussion Thread – What’s The Difference Between Guys T-Shirts And Girls T-Shirts?

 

What’s The Difference Between Guys T-Shirts And Girls T-Shirts?

Seriously, I Am Confuddled. Hewp pweeze?

 

#1 User is offline   moiety

 

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Posted 11 April 2007 – 12:44 PM

So I’ve been trying to get this shirt for my brother for, like, half a year now,

At first Threadless mixed up my order with that of some guy from Belgium, and by the time

they figured out things were wrong and charged the cashmoney back on my card, the shirt

was out of stock. Of course, even though I asked Threadless to notify me when it was back

in stock, I wasn’t, even though it was reprinted.

Except now the reprinted ones are almost gone, too! My brother would need a Medium, and

that is sold out.

However, the “Girly Tee” version of Medium isn’t sold out.

So I’m wondering. What’s the difference between Guys and Girly, really? Is a Girly Medium

smaller than a Guys Medium? Essentially, is there any Girly version I can get that would

fit and look good on a guy?

The division seems arbitrary to me. Can someone explain this to me?

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#2 User is offline   Tay

 

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Posted 11 April 2007 – 12:48 PM

 

moiety, on Apr 11 2007, 01:44 PM, said:

The division seems arbitrary to me. Can someone explain this to me?

Perhaps they’ve already answered your question. :)

Generally, “girl” versions of shirts have more room to accommodate *ahem* certain body

parts, fit snugger around the shape of the torso to be more “flattering,” as well as

usually being a bit smaller.

Tay 😛

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Posted 11 April 2007 – 01:00 PM

I vaguely seem to recall a certain physical feature that, starting with puberty, tends to

separate women’s upper bodies from men’s in a rather significant manner.

But then, I’m not an expert on clothing. 😛

Possibly of help:

Posted Image

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Posted 11 April 2007 – 04:25 PM

Clothing is confusing. 😛

So I guess the answer is “Yes, a Girly Tee would look wrong on your brother”?

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#5 User is offline   chucker

 

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Posted 11 April 2007 – 04:29 PM

Well, the answer certainly is “girly tees tend to be noticeably smaller (despite the same

size label), and tend to slightly account for the chest”. As to whether the particular

shirt would “look wrong on him”, that’s really something he’d have to decide for himself

by trying it out… the actual differences between girl and boy cuts of clothing vary in a

completely random manner. 😛

…but yes, most of the time, the answer is “you’d rather want to wait for a man’s

version”. (Perhaps this is why Threadless didn’t notify you? Maybe they only had women’s

sizes and figured your case wouldn’t apply?)

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Posted 11 April 2007 – 04:36 PM

 

chucker, on Apr 11 2007, 06:29 PM, said:

Perhaps this is why Threadless didn’t notify you? Maybe they only had women’s sizes and

figured your case wouldn’t apply?

No, I’m certain they reprinted all of them at the same time, because they didn’t even have

small, and it would make no sense for them to only reprint small men’s shirts. The reason

for lack of notification is their a) crappy service and b) terrible web store software. 😛

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Posted 11 April 2007 – 04:38 PM

 

moiety, on Apr 12 2007, 12:36 AM, said:

No, I’m certain they reprinted all of them at the same time, because they didn’t even have

small, and it would make no sense for them to only reprint small men’s shirts. The reason

for lack of notification is their a) crappy service and b) terrible web store software. :)

Fair ’nuff. Just playing devil’s advocate. 😛

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Posted 11 April 2007 – 04:41 PM

 

chucker, on Apr 11 2007, 06:38 PM, said:

Fair ’nuff. Just playing devil’s advocate. 😛

I like playing. :)

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Posted 11 April 2007 – 08:26 PM

MACGYVER!

I’ve ordered a lot of t-shirts for my team, and I’m surprised they bothered to break up

the sizing between girls and guys. I guess in that case they’d be smaller (already

answered), but I really don’t see the point, especially since they aren’t numbered sizes.

You see, I pretty much just wanted to shout MACGYVER! I want that shirt… 😛

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Posted 12 April 2007 – 06:28 AM

I have several girls and guys t-shirts. Most of my girls tees are indeed smaller and wider

in the chest. Some are even smaller and supposed to… well… But none of mine are belly

The guys shirts are just wider. I suppose that if he’s really conscious about it, you

could get the biggest Girl’s Tee size they have and try it on him. It just depends on how

broad shouldered and big around your brother is. They do have Extra Larges in stock, so

you could try that.

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Posted 12 April 2007 – 10:07 AM

Even if you just got a bigger girl’s shirt to make up the difference, I think it’d still

be noticeable. I’ve noticed that girl’s shirts’ sleeves are different from those of guy’s

shirts. Not only are they more form-fitting, but they’re not as long….and it comes

across to me as a distinctly feminine style :) So I really wouldn’t think you’d want to

get a girl’s shirt.

</2cents>

😛

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#12 User is offline   Fireymarbles

 

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Posted 12 April 2007 – 11:30 PM

Yeah, I got given a women’s T-shirt last year… the idiots who ordered the team T-shirts

for a production my school did last year forgot that not all the dancers were female, and

also that the backstage and lighting crew were over half male, so they only bought women’s

shirts, almost all of which were medium. I’m only just comfortable in a large men’s size.

So yeah, this shirt pretty much wouldn’t fit me at all, except that it’s made of stretchy

fabric, in order to be more… erm… accomodating around the chest region, so I can

squeeze into it. Just.

Put shortly, if you do get it, get one a good couple of sizes larger than you would

otherwise, and still don’t expect it to look quite right.

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#13 User is offline   Free Bird

 

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Posted 13 April 2007 – 04:21 AM

I bet MacGyver would know how to turn a girly t-shirt into a guys t-shirt with only a

Philishave… 😛

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#14 User is offline   U

 

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Posted 13 April 2007 – 06:02 AM

the shoulder seams are higher.

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#15 User is offline   Dark Sky

 

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Posted 13 April 2007 – 11:20 AM

And the whole shape of the t-shirt is different

Far be it from me to laugh at anyone who dares to go against the norms of society in terms

of not adhering to gender fashion stereotypes, but generally I would say that if you tried

to give a guy a girl’s t-shirt, he will not be Best Pleased.

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#16 User is offline   Tay

 

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Analisis Wacana Kritis Pemberitaan “Saweran untuk Gedung KPK” di Harian Umum Media Indonesia

Oleh: Mayasari, Nani Darmayanti, Sugeng Riyanto

Universitas Padjadjaran

ABSTRAK

Penelitian ini berjudul “Analisis Wacana Kritis: Pemberitaan Saweran untuk Gedung KPK di Harian Umum Media Indonesia”. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah metode deskriptif dengan pendekatan analisis waacana kritis model tiga di­men­si Norman Fairclough. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah, (1) Mendeskripsikan aspek kebahasaan yang digunakan dalam merepresentasikan tokoh dan topik pem­beritaan, (2) Mendeskripsikan hubungan antara ideologi Harian Umum Media Indo­nesia dan aspek kebahasaan yang dihasilkan, dan (3) Mendeskripsikan situasi sosial, politik, dan budaya yang melatarbelakangi aspek kebahasaan yang digunakan. Hasil penelitian me­nunjukkan bahwa aspek kebahasaan berupa diksi, penggunaan kalimat, dan pe­milihan sumber dalam kutipan langsung yang digunakan Media Indonesia dalam telaah, me­nempatkan tokoh atau institusi khususnya Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat (DPR) dalam representasi yang negatif. Hal ini erat kaitannya dengan ideologi nasionalisme yang dianut oleh institusi Media Indonesia yang lebih membela gerakan anti korupsi melalui Komisi Pemberantasan Korupsi (KPK). Meskipun demikian, representasi selain ber­kaitan dengan ideologi yang dianut, juga memiliki kaitan dengan kepentingan poli­tik dari pemimpin institusi Media Indonesia yang menjadi pendiri dari Partai Nasional Demokrat (Nasdem) dalam melakukan pencitraan positif terhadap partai yang di­pimpinnya.

Key words:   Representasi, Analisis Wacana Kritis, Media, Politik.

 

Latar Belakang Masalah

Bahasa merupakan media bagi manusia dalam berkomunikasi. Melalui bahasa, manusia dapat mengungkapkan ide, pikiran, dan perasaannya. Namun demikian, saat ini definisi bahasa telah berkembang sesuai fungsinya bukan hanya se­bagai alat berkomunikasi. Saat ini, bahasa telah menjadi media perantara dalam pelaksanaan kuasa melalui ideologi. Bahkan bahasa juga menyumbang proses domi­nasi ter­hadap orang lain oleh pihak lain (Fair­clough, 1989:2).

Sejalan dengan pernyataan di atas, Halliday (1978:2) juga menegaskan bahwa sesungguh­nya bahasa bukan hanya terdiri atas kalimat, melainkan juga terdiri atas teks atau wacana yang di dalamnya terdapat tukar-menukar maksud dalam konteks interpersonal antara satu dengan yang lain. Konteks dalam tukar me­nukar maksud itu tidak bersifat kosong dari nilai sosial, tetapi sangat dipengaruhi oleh konteks sosial budaya masyarakatnya.

Perkembangan peran dan definisi bahasa ter­sebut telah membawa pengaruh yang sangat besar terhadap kajian bahasa (linguistik). Lingu­istik tidak lagi bergerak dalam kajian struktural atau gramatikal, tetapi telah berkembang men­jadi kajian-kajian yang lintas disipliner dengan bidang lain, seperti sosiolinguistik, pragmatik, analisis wacana, neurolinguistik, dan psiko­lingu­istik. Kajian-kajian lintas disipliner itu menandai bahwa bahasa memang berperan besar dalam segala bidang kehidupan masyarakat.

Salah satu bidang yang juga memanfaatkan bahasa dalam kaitannya dengan pelaksanaan kuasa dalam ideologi seperti yang dijelaskan di atas adalah bidang media. Sebagian besar bentuk produksi media diwujudkan dalam bentuk bahasa. Dengan demikian, hubungan antara bahasa dan media merupakan dua hal yang tidak dapat dipisahkan. Richardson (2007: 6) me­nyata­kan bahwa “the language used in newspaper is one key site in naturalisa­sion of inqequality and neutralisasion of dissert”.

Pemanfaatan bahasa yang saat ini men­domi­nasi media adalah penggunaan bahasa dalam wacana politik. Wacana politik banyak dihasil­kan oleh media seiring dengan situasi politik Indonesia yang sangat dinamis. Salah satu pemberitaan politik yang saat ini menjadi sorot­an dan publi­kasi media adalah pemberitaan mengenai sa­weran untuk gedung Komisi Pem­berantasan Korupsi (KPK). Pemberitaan sawer­an untuk gedung KPK ini menjadi menarik karena me­libatkan berbagai institusi negara dalam polemik tersebut, khususnya antara KPK dan DPR (Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat).

Kasus saweran untuk gedung KPK ini berawal dari pengajuan dana kepada DPR oleh KPK untuk pembangunan gedung baru bagi kantor KPK, karena gedung yang saat ini di­tempati dinilai sudah tidak layak. Namun, Komisi III DPR tidak mengabulkan pengajuan anggaran untuk pem­bangunan gedung baru KPK tersebut karena me­nurutnya Komisi III, masih layak gedung pe­me­rintah yang dapat memenuhi kapasitas yang di­butuhkan KPK se­hingga tidak diperlukan pem­bangunan gedung baru.

Kasus tersebut di atas menjadi semakin me­narik karena mendapat publikasi dari berbagai media massa di Indonesia, baik cetak maupun elek­tro­nik. Pemberitaan tersebut pada akhirnya baik secara langsung dan tidak langsung mem­bawa pengaruh besar kepada masyarakat se­hingga masyarakat menjadi terlibat dalam saweran pem­bangunan gedung KPK. Berbagai lapisan masya­rakat, mulai dari pedagang, tukang becak, hingga menteri bergerak melaku­kan sumbangan saweran untuk pembangunan gedung KPK ter­sebut.

Salah satu media massa yang aktif melakukan pemberitaan mengenai wacana saweran untuk gedung KPK adalah Media Indonesia Group. Pemberitaan disebarkan baik melalui media cetaknya, yaitu Harian Umum Media Indonesia (MI) maupun melalui media elektroniknya, yaitu http://www.mediaindonesia.com. Luas­nya media penyebaran berita diperkirakan juga membawa dampak yang lebih luas terhadap konsumsi wacana tersebut.

Kasus ini memang bukanlah kasus yang terkini yang terjadi antara KPK dengan institusi negara khususnya DPR. Meskipun demikian, kasus ini me­miliki nilai sejarah yang cukup penting dalam hubungan antara KPK dan DPR, karena se­telah kasus ini muncul kasus-kasus lain yang meng­hiasi hubung­an kedua institusi negara ini. Maka dari itu, kasus saweran KPK ini dinilai sebagai pemicu dari kasus-kasus selanjutnya se­hingga penting untuk dianalisis dan dikaji secara kritis.

 

Identifikasi Masalah

Berdasarkan latar belakang yang telah diurai­kan, dapat dirumuskan beberapa identifikasi masalah sebagai berikut, (1) Aspek kebahasaan apa saja yang digunakan Media Indonesia untuk me­re­pre­sentasikan tema dan tokoh dalam pem­beritaan “Saweran untuk Gedung KPK”? (2) Apa hubung­an antara ideologi Harian Umum Media Indone­sia dan aspek kebahasaan yang dihasil­kan dalam merepresentasikan institusi negara dalam pem­beritaan “Saweran untuk Gedung KPK”? (3) Situasi sosial, politik, dan budaya apa yang me­latarbelakangi aspek ke­bahasaan yang diguna­kan untuk merepresen­tasikan institusi negara dalam pemberitaan “Saweran untuk Gedung KPK” di Harian Umum Media Indonesia?

 

Kegunaan Penelitian

Penelitian ini diharapkan dapat memberi kontri­­busi secara teoretis dan pragmatis. Se­cara teo­retis, penelitian ini diharapkan dapat memper­kaya dan memperluas tema penelitian dalam bidang bahasa, khususnya analisis wacana kritis. Melalui analisis wacana pula di­harapkan peneliti­an-penelitian mengenai bahasa dapat lebih apli­katif dan ramah ter­hadap situasi dan peristiwa sosial yang terjadi di masyarakat se­hingga dapat menjadi solusi dari permasalahan yang ada di masyarakat. Se­cara pragmatis, pe­nelitian ini di­harapkan dapat memberi kesadar­an kritis ke­pada institusi media dan pembaca media untuk lebih awas terhadap segala bentuk pem­beritaan yang di­salurkan melalui bahasa oleh media.

 

Kerangka Teori

Alwasilah (2002:120) mengungkapkan bahwa teori berfungsi untuk membangun model atau peta yang menggambarkan dunia (data) seperti apa adanya. Melalui teorilah, dunia atau feno­mena dapat disederhanakan, tetapi penyeder­hanaan ini dilakukan untuk menjelaskan atau menerangkan bagaimana fenomena itu be­kerja. Selain itu, teori juga merupakan pe­nuntun dalam memberikan pemahaman lebih baik ter­hadap objek yang diteliti dalam sebuah peneliti­an (Su­dar­yanto, 1998:6). Teori yang di­gunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah Wacana Kritis Model Norman Fairclough (1992b, 1995a, 1998, 2000), Eri­yanto (2006), Titscher (2009), Jorgen­sen (2007), dan Richardson (2007). Teori-teori ini digunakan karena selaras dengan per­masalahan yang akan dianalisis dalam peneliti­an yang mengusung bidang analisis wacana kritis ini.

 

Metode Penelitian

Metodologi adalah cara dalam penelitian untuk memperoleh “pengetahuan” dan “pemaham­an” dari objek yang kita teliti. Metodologi dapat di­lihat pada tiga tataran, yakni (1) paradigma yang digunakan (2) metode yang dipilih, dan (3) teknik yang dipakai (Hoed, 2011:7).  Sementara itu, metode adalah cara yang harus dilaksana­kan, teknik adalah cara melaksanakan metode dan sebagai cara, keberhasilan teknik ditentu­kan oleh alat yang dipakai. Metode yang di­gunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah metode deskriptif kualitatif, yaitu metode yang ber­tuju­an memberi­kan deskripsi secara sistematis me­ngenai data, sifat-sifat, dan hubungan feno­mena-fenomena yang akan diteliti (Djaja­sudarma, 2006: 9).

 

Sumber Data

Data dalam penelitian ini merupakan data yang berjenis berita dan fitur bertema “Saweran Gedung KPK” yang hanya terdapat dalam Hari­an Umum Media Indonesia baik cetak, maupun elek­tronik yang diterbitkan pada waktu 26 Juni – 10 Juli 2012. Pemberitaan dalam media di­cetak di­pilih karena sebagai teks tertulis dinilai lebih mapan dibandingkan teks elektronik yang masih memerlukan teknik transliterasi sebelum di­ana­lisis. Secara keseluruhan data yang ber­kaitan dengan tema ini adalah ada 24 buah data. Meski­pun demikian, data yang dipilih untuk dianalisis dalam penelitian ini hanya 17 buah data. Hal ini dipilih karena hanya pada ke­tujuhbelas data ini­lah dinilai memiliki muatan teks yang me­ngandung representasi yang penting untuk di­analisis secara kritis.

 

Analisis Wacana Kritis Model Norman Fairclough

Analisis Wacana Kritis adalah sebuah upaya untuk proses (penguraian) untuk memberi pen­jelasan dari sebuah teks (realitas sosial) dari se­seorang atau kelompok dominan yang kecende­rungannya memiliki tujuan tertentu untuk men­capai tujuan yang diinginkan. Artinya dalam suatu konteks harus disadari adanya kepenting­an. (Darma, 2009:49).

Kerangka teori yang digunakan dalam kajian ini adalah analisis wacana pendekatan Norman Fairclough (1992b, 1995a; 1998; 2000) yang di­kenal dengan nama analisis wacana tiga dimensi. Yang dimaksud dengan analisis wacana tiga dimensi ini ialah analisis yang melibatkan tiga tingkat analisis: (1) analisis teks atau textual (mikro), yaitu pendeskripsian (des­crip­tion) mengenai teks; (2) analisis wacana atau discourse practice (meso), yaitu inter­pretasi (interpretation) hubungan antara proses pro­duksi wacana dan teks; (3) analisis sosio-budaya atau sociocultural practice (makro), yaitu pen­jelasan (explanation) hubungan antara proses wacana dengan proses sosial (Fair­clough, 1992a:73; 1995a:59; Idris, 2006:75).

Figure1-maya

Gambar 1.  Kerangka Analisis Wacana Tiga Dimensi Fairclough

Sumber: Fairclough (1992a:73; 1995a:59; 2000:313)

Dimensi pertama yang merupakan dimensi mikro dalam kerangka analisis wacana kritis Fairclough ialah dimensi analisis teks. Analisis dimensi teks meliputi bentuk-bentuk tradisional analisis lingu­istik – analisis kosa kata dan semantik, tata bahasa kalimat dan unit-unit lebih kecil, dan sistem suara (fonologi) dan sistem tulisan. Fair­clough menadai pada semua itu sebagai ‘analisis linguistik’, walaupun hal itu menggunakan istilah dalam pandangan yang diperluas (Fairclough, 1995a:57; 2000:311).

Dimensi kedua yang dalam kerangka analisis wacana kritis Norman Fairclough ialah dimensi ke­wacanaan (discourse practice). Dalam analisis dimensi ini, penafsiran dilakukan terhadap pe­mrosesan wacana yang meliputi aspek peng­hasilan, penyebaran, dan penggunaan teks. Be­berapa dari aspek-aspek itu memiliki karakter yang lebih institusi, sedangkan yang lain berupa proses-proses penggunaan dan pe­nyebaran wacana. Berkenaan dengan proses-proses insti­tusional, Fairclough merujuk rutini­tas institusi seperti prosedur-prosedur editor yang dilibat­kan dalam penghasilan teks-teks media.

Dimensi ketiga adalah analisis praktik sosio­budaya media dalam analisis wacana kritis Norman Fairclough merupakan analisis tingkat makro yang didasarkan pada pendapat bahwa konteks sosial yang ada di luar media se­sungguhnya memengaruhi bagaimana wacana yang ada ada dalam media. Ruang redaksi atau wartawan bukanlah bidang atau ruang kosong yang steril, tetapi juga sangat ditentukan oleh faktor-faktor di luar media itu sendiri.

Fairclough (1992a:67) menyatakan bahwa praktik sosial memiliki berbagai orientasi, seperti eko­nomi, politik, sosial, budaya, ideo­logi, dan se­ba­gainya, dan wacana merupakan gambaran dari semua masalah tersebut. Dengan demikian, ana­lisis dimensi praktik sosial merujuk kepada usaha menjelaskan persoalan yang berkaitan orientasi seperti di atas, seperti berkaitan nilai, keper­ca­ya­an, ideologi, filosofi, budaya, dan lain-lain yang terdapat di dalam wacana (Idris, 2006:81).

Penggunaan aspek kebahasaan dalam penelitian ini merujuk kepada analisis teks atau didefinisi­kan sebagai suatu bentuk pemanfaatan aspek-aspek bahasa, dari aspek morfologis, sintaksis, dan konteks dalam pemberitan kasus saweran gedung KPK. Dengan kata lain, ekspresi ke­bahasa­an juga dapat didefinisikan sebagai upaya pe­man­faatan alat-alat bahasa diekspresi­kan atau di­guna­kan dalam pemberitaan kasus tersebut di atas.

Sementara itu istilah representasi dalam pe­neliti­an ini menunjuk pada bagaimana sese­orang, satu kelompok, gagasan, atau pendapat tertentu ditampilkan dalam pemberitaan. Re­presentasi atau misrepresentasi tersebut ada­lah peristiwa kebahasaan. Bagaimana sese­orang ditampilkan, dapat terjadi pertama-tama dengan mengguna­kan bahasa. Melalui bahasa­lah berbagai tindak representasi ini ditampilkan oleh media dan di­hadirkan dalam pemberitaan. Oleh karena itu, pemakaian bahasalah yang perlu dikritisi dalam pemberitaan yang dilaku­kan oleh media (Eri­yanto 2006:116).

Analisis Mikro Pemberitaan “Saweran untuk Gedung KPK”

Dari berbagai alat kebahasaan yang digunakan media Indonesia dalam pemberitaan “Saweran untuk Gedung KPK”, terdapat tiga alat yang me­nandai representasi tema dan tokoh yang ter­libat dalam pemberitaan tersebut di atas. Yaitu melalui diksi, penggunaan kalimat luas sebab akibat, dan pemilihan sumber dalam kutipan langsung. Penggunaan diksi aksi saweran yang lebih mendominasi dibandingkan dengan diksi sumbangan telah menandai bahwa Media Indo­nesia lebih menempatkan tindakan pengumpul­an dana untuk pembangunan gedung KPK ter­sebut sebagai suatu “gerakan massa” yang ter­jadi di Indonesia. Sementara itu, pemanfaatan kalimat luas dengan konstruksi sebab akibat telah me­nempatkan DPR dalam representasi yang negatif karena diposisikan sebagai pihak yang menjadi penyebab terjadinya aksi gerakan tersebut. Demi­kian pula halnya pemilihan nara-sumber pada kutipan langsung, Media Indonesia lebih domin­an menyuarakan pendapat dari pihak yang berpihak kepada KPK daripada me­nyuarakan pendapat yang memihak kepada DPR. Hal ini menempat­kan KPK pada represen­tasi yang positif dan DPR pada representasi yang negatif.  Di bawah ini adalah analisis dari aspek kebahasaan tersebut.

(1)      Aksi saweran gedung KPK yang dimulai 27 Juni lalu, hingga saat ini mencapai sekitar Rp 200 juta. (MI, 9 Juli 2012).

(2)      Ide menggalang dana publik tercetus karena Komisi III DPR belum menyetujui anggaran pembangunan gedung baru KPK meski telah diminta sejak 2008. (MI, 27 Juni 2012).

(3)      Sumbangan masyarakat ke Komisi Pem­berantasan Korupsi untuk pembangunan gedung baru terus mengalir. (MI, 21 Juni 2012).

(4)      Penggalangan dana untuk membangun gedung Komisi Pemberantasan Korupsi (KPK) juga berlangsung di Kota Solo, Jawa Tengah. (MI, 23 Juni 2012).

Contoh data (1) – (4) menandai bahwa untuk kasus dalam konteks yang sama, Media Indo­nesia memilih diksi yang bermacam-macam, yaitu diksi aksi saweran, ide menggalang dana publik, sumbangan masyarakat, dan peng­galangan dana. Keempat diksi tersebut memiliki makna semantik yang berlainan pula. Secara sematik leksikal, makna kata sumbangan masya­rakat yang berarti ‘pemberian sebagai bantuan dari masyarakat’ me­miliki makna yang lebih netral dibandingkan aksi saweran dan peng­galangan yang memiliki makna ‘gerakan me­ngumpulkan dana dari masyarakat’.

(5)      Gara-gara DPR menolak rencana pem­ba­ngunan gedung baru Komisi Pemberantas­an Korupsi (KPK), pimpinan KPK sudah sepakat untuk ikut saweran untuk rencana pemba­ngun­an gedung KPK. (MI, 29 Juni 2012).

(6)      Ide menggalang dana publik tercetus karena Komisi II DPR belum menyetujui anggaran pembangunan gedung bari KPK meski telah diminta sejak 2008. (MI, 27 Juni 2012).

(7)      Komisi III DPR bersikukuh keberatan untuk mengabulkan permohonan anggaran untuk pembangunan gedung baru Komisi Pem­berantasan Korupsi (KPK). DPR masih men­dorong kepada KPK untuk memakai gedung pemerintah yang kosong.

Sementara itu, contoh data (5), (6), dan (7) me­rupakan contoh data pemanfaatan strategi lingu­istik yang berupa struktur kalimat. Kalimat luas pada data (5) di atas memiliki hubungan sebab-akibat yang ditandai dengan konjungsi gara-gara di awal kalimat karena anak kalimat mendahului induk kalimat. Sementara itu, data (6) me­miliki hubungan akibat-sebab yang di­tandai dengan konjungsi karena setelah induk kalimat. Strategi yang senantiasa membanding­kan KPK dan DPR dalam konstruksi kalimat sebab akibat seperti ini menempatkan DPR se­bagai penyebab polemik yang terjadi dan me­nempatkan KPK se­bagai korban dan dirugikan atas polemik ter­sebut.

Selain aspek kebahasaan secara struktural atau gramatikal, yang tidak kalah menariknya adalah cara Media Indonesia menyuarakan inspirasi­nya melalui kutipan langsung para tokoh yang men­jadi narasumber. Berdasarkan data yang ada, se­cara kutipan langsung dapat diketahui bahwa Media Indonesia lebih menyuarakan pihak yang mendukung KPK dibandingkan men­dukung DPR. Hal tersebut dapat dibuktikan dengan data berikut yang berupa beberapa contoh data berupa tentang kutipan langsung me­ngenai issue pemberitaan Saweran untuk Pem­bangunan Gedung KPK.

(8)      “Maksud dan tujuan JCW membuka posko ini adalah sebagai bentuk keprihatinan JCW karena gedung KPK harus segera di­adakan.” 1.4.7 (JCW- Ketua Jogja Corrup­tion Watch).

(9)      “Saya dengan senang hati menyumbang gaji saya selama enam bulan untuk pem­bangunan gedung KPK,” ujar Dahlan Iskan. 2.3.5 (Dahlan Iskan – Menteri Badan Usaha Milik Negara)

(10)  “Kalau KPK membutuhkan kita harus dukung,” kata Prabowo saat ditemui usai menghadiri Sarasehan Kebangsaan.4.2.3 (Prabowo – Partai Gerindra)

(11)  “Saya dukung pembangunan gedung KPK” 6.6.9 (Effendi Choirie, Anggota Komisi I DPR PKB).

(12)  “Sebagai orang awam, aku hanya ingin Indonesia tanpa korupsi.”6.10.10 (Charlie Van Houten – Mantan Vokalis ST 12)

(13)  “Kami hanya ingin membantu KPK. Ini bukan kehendak KPK, tapi kehendak rakyat. Buruh sangat geram kepada DPR RI yang tidak menyetujui anggaran untuk pem­bangunan gedung baru KPK.” 7.4.5 (Soe­harno – Ketua PBSI)

(14)  “Jadi silakan saja jika publik, termasuk PKL (pedagang kaki lima), ingin menyumbang pembangunan gedung KPK.” 8.6.7 (Mahfud MD – Ketua MK)

(15)  “Saya terharu mendengar KPK mau mem­buat gedung baru tapi anggarannya masih terkendala di DPR.”10.3.5 (Darjo – Warga)

(16)  “Itu membuktikan dukungan besar masya­rakat kepada KPK yang selama ini dinilai paling berhasil mengungkap kasus korupsi.” 11.3.3 (Taufikurahman Syauri – Anggota Komisi Yudisial)

(17)  “Ini jangan dibiarkan, jelas-jelas melanggar undang-undang (UU) dan kalau dibiarkan, nanti juga aparat atau pejabat akan me­lakukan hal yang sama. Kenapa pihak ke­polisian membiarkan hal tersebut.” 12.2.3 (Indra Sahnun Lubis – Ketua Presiden Kongres Advokat Indonesia (KAI)

(18)  “Kami melihat KPK itu dari dulu sudah banyak memberantas korupsi. Pandangan kami, KPK perlu gedung untuk meningkat­kan kinerja. Tapi kan tidak diberi oleh DPR.” 13.4.4 (Rizky – Ketua  Ikatan Maha­siswa Muhammadiyah)

(19)  “Kami hanya memberi catatan kecil, coba usahakan gedung-gedung yang sudah ada,” papar anggota Komisi III DPR dari F-PPP Ahmad Yani di Komplek Kepatihan Kantor Gubernur DI Yogyakarta.” 14.2.3 (Ahmad Yani – Anggota Komisi III)

Dari beberapa contoh di atas dapat diketahui bahwa Media Indonesia memilih narasumber yang lebih memihak kepada KPK dalam pem­beritaannya, yaitu Ketua Jogja Corruption Watch, Dahlan Iskan (Menteri Badan Usaha Milik Negara), Jumakir (pengemudi becak), Prabowo (Dewan Pembina Partai Gerindra), Effendi Choirie (Anggota Komisi I DPR PKB), Charly Van Houten (Mantan Vokalis ST 12), Suharno (Ketua SBSI), Mahfud M.D. (Ketua M.K.), Darjo (warga), Tau­fi­qurrohman (Anggota Komisi Yudisial), dan Rizky (Ikatan Pelajar Muhamadiyah). Sementara itu, narasumber yang memihak kepada DPR hanya­lah dari Indra Syahnun Lubis (Presiden Kongres Advokat Indo­nesia (KAI) dan Ahmad Yani (Anggota Komisi III DPR).

Isi wacana yang disampaikan melalui kutipan langsung tersebut juga sangat mengeksplisitkan dukungannya terhadap KPK dibandingkan ter­hadap DPR seperti kutipan sebagai berikut. “Saya dengan senang hati menyumbang gaji saya se­lama enam bulan untuk pembangunan gedung KPK,” ujar Dahlan Iskan. (2.3.5) “Kami melihat KPK itu dari dulu sudah banyak mem­berantas korupsi. Pandangan kami, KPK perlu gedung untuk meningkatkan kinerja. Tapi kan tidak di­beri oleh DPR” (13.4.4). “Kami hanya ingin mem­bantu KPK. Ini bukan ke­hendak KPK, tapi ke­hendak rakyat. Buruh sangat geram ke­pada DPR RI yang tidak me­nyetujui anggaran untuk pem­bangunan gedung baru KPK.” (7.4.5).

 

Analisis Meso Pemberitaan “Saweran untuk Gedung KPK”

Media Indonesia terbit pertama kali pada tanggal 19 Januari 1970 sebagai koran dengan jangkau­an nasional dimana koran Media Indo­nesia dapat diperoleh di 33 propinsi yang ter­sebar di 429 kabupaten / kotamadya di seluruh Indonesia. Direk­tur Utama Media Indonesia adalah Surya Paloh dan Teuku Yousli Syah se­bagai Pimpinan Redaksi.

Berdasarkan hasil survei yang dikeluarkan oleh Mark Plus Insight menempatkan Media Indo­nesia pada urutan ke-3 besar (12.22%) sebagai koran yang dibaca para eksekutif untuk meng­akses berita ekonomi dan bisnis. Readership Profile Media Indonesia adalah: 63% pria dan 37% wanita, Usia produktif 20-49 tahun (87%), Social Economic Status A1-A2-B Class (76%), Mayoritas pekerjaan White collars (44%),  Psikografis pem­baca Media Indonesia adalah western minded, optimist dan juga settled (Sumber: Media Indo­nesia online).

Visi yang diemban Harian Umum Media Indo­nesia adalah  menjadi surat kabar independen yang inovatif, lugas, terpercaya dan paling ber­pengaruh. Independen artinya adalah menjaga sikap non-partisan, dimana karyawannya tidak menjadi pengurus partai politik, menolak segala bentuk pemberian yang dapat mempengaruhi objek­tifitas, dan mempunyai keberanian untuk bersikap beda. Inovatif berarti terus-menerus me­­nyempurnakan serta mengembangkan SDM (sumber daya manusia), serta secara terus me­nerus me­ngembangkan rubrik, halaman, dan penyempur­naan perwajahan. Lugas berarti selalu melaku­kan check dan re-check, meliput berita dari dua pihak dan seimbang, serta selalu melakukan in­vestigasi dan pendalaman. Ber­pengaruh berarti dengan target bahwa Media Indonesia dibaca oleh para pengambil keputus­an, memiliki kuali­tas editorial yang dapat mem­pengaruhi peng­ambilan keputusan, mampu membangun ke­mampuan antisipatif, mampu membangun net­work narasumber dan memiliki pemasaran / dis­tribusi yang handal.

Berdasarkan uraian di atas dapat diketahui bahwa sebagai media terbesar ketiga, Media Indo­nesia merupakan harian umum yang dapat mempengaruhi opini masyarakat Indo­nesia dengan cukup luas. Rangkaian produksi teks di Media Indonesia juga bukan hanya merupakan rangkai­an yang berdiri sendiri, tetapi merupa­kan rang­kai­an institusional yang melibatkan wartawan, redaksi, editor, bahkan pemilik modal, dll. Reali­sasi teks yang dihasilkan Media Indonesia khususnya dalam hal pemberitaan Saweran Gedung KPK ini juga dinilai selaras dengan visi yang di­emban yaitu, inovatif, lugas, terpercaya dan paling berpengaruh, meskipun di dalamnya ter­kandung pencitraan yang nega­tif terhadap pihak tertentu.

 

Analisis Makro Pemberitaan “Saweran untuk Gedung KPK”

Situasi sosial politik yang terjadi saat pem­berita­an “Saweran untuk Gedung KPK” ini juga tidak dapat dilepaskan konteks yang mem­bangun pemberita­an tersebut. Dapat diketahui ber­­sama bahwa se­panjang tahun 2011-2012 ter­jadi berbagai konflik terbuka antara KPK dan DPR, mulai dari kasus berkaitan dengan Badan Anggaran DPR, tentang Undang-Undang KPK, hingga tentang Saweran Gedung KPK. Seluruh peristiwa tersebut men­dapat liputan yang luas dari berbagai media yang ada di Indonesia ter­masuk Media Indonesia.

Selain hal tersebut di atas, situasi politik dalam kaitannya dengan pemberitaan di atas adalah bahwa pada saat pemberitaan berlangsung, situasi politik Indonesia sedang menghangat menjelang Pemilihan Umum tahun 2014 di mana Direktur Utama Media Indonesia, Surya Paloh, juga menjadi pendiri partai sekaligus Ketua Umum Partai Nasional Demokrat (Nas­dem) yang didirikan pada tanggal 26 Juli 2011. Partai ini merupakan satu-satunya partai baru yang lolos untuk mengikuti Pemilu 2014. Dengan mengusung moto Gerakan Perubahan, partai Nasdem selalu menyuarakan perubahan untuk Indo­nesia yang lebih baik dan terbebas dari korupsi, kemiskinan, dan dis-integrasi.

Meski tidak berkaitan secara langsung, tetapi dapat ditarik benang merah atas pemberitaan yang dihasilkan oleh Media Indonesia, erat kait­an­nya dengan pengaruh Surya Paloh selaku Direktur Utama Media Indonesia dan juga se­laku Ketua Umum Partai Nasional Demokrat. Ada motivasi tertentu melalui pencitraan nega­tif dalam pemberi­taan tentang KPK dan DPR. Opini pembaca digiring untuk memberikan pen­citraan negatif pada para anggota DPR sekaligus partai yang ada. Dengan demikian diperlukan suatu gerak­an perubahan melalui partai baru yang diusung oleh Surya Paloh yang secara tidak langung memberikan pencitraan positif bagi partai yang dipimpinnya.

 

Kesimpulan

Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa aspek ke­bahasaan diksi, penggunaan kalimat, dan pe­milihan sumber dalam kutipan langsung yang di­gunakan Media Indonesia dalam telah me­nempat­kan tema pemberitaan sebagai sebuah gerakan masyarakat, selain itu aspek kebahasa­an juga telah menempatkan tokoh atau institusi khususnya Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat (DPR) dalam representasi yang negatif. Hal ini erat kait­annya dengan ideologi nasionalisme yang dianut oleh institusi Media Indonesia yang lebih mem­bela gerakan anti korupsi melalui Komisi Pembe­rantasan Korupsi (KPK). Meskipun demi­kian, re­presentasi selain berkaitan dengan ideo­logi yang dianut, juga memiliki kaitan dengan kepenting­an politik dari pemimpin institusi Media Indonesia yang menjadi pendiri dari Partai Nasional Demo­krat (Nasdem) dalam me­lakukan pencitraan posi­tif terhadap partai yang dipimpinnya.

—oooOooo—

 

DAFTAR PUSTAKA

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Kiat Pengamanan Bahasa Indonesia (Tinjauan Skeptis pada Era Global)

Oleh: Mujianto

Politeknik Negeri Malang

ABSTRAK

Akhir-akhir ini bahasa Indonesia mulai terancam keberadaannya. Ancaman ini berasal dari dua hal, yaitu penerapan otonomi daerah, yang berdampak pada semangat ke­daerah­an termasuk adanya kebijakan dalam penggunaan bahasa daerahnya masing-masing dan terutama gencarnya globalisasi yang berdampak pada penggunaan bahasa asing, khususnya bahasa Inggris. Banyak istilah dalam bahasa Inggris yang di­gunakan dalam berbagai situs kehidupan, baik di dunia pendidikan maupun di media massa. Jika kondisi demikian dibiarkan, maka akan ada peran bahasa Indonesia yang di­ganti­kan atau digeser oleh bahasa Inggris. Upaya penyikapan terhadap isilah asing dilaku­kan dalam tiga bentuk. Pertama, men­jaga agar setiap kata asing yang masuk mem­peroleh padanan yang berterima, sesuai dengan situasi pemakaiannya. Kedua, men­jaga agar tata bahasa Indonesia tidak ber­ubah dan agar tetap dikuasai oleh para pe­nuturnya. Ketiga, menggalakkan penulisan dalam ber­bagai bidang dengan bahasa Indonesia sesuai dengan ragam dan larasnya. Upaya pemaksimalan peran bahasa Indonesia dalam berbagai ranah kehidupan. Per­tama, ranah kehidupan bermasya­rakat, yang meliputi rumah-tangga, pergaulan (anak-anak, remaja, ibu-ibu, bapak-bapak), acara seremonial (upacara adat, tempat ibadah) dan lain-lain. Kedua, ranah ber­­bangsa dan ber­negara, yang meliputi petunjuk iden­titas kewarganegaraan, re­presen­tasi hasil karya ilmu pe­ngetahuan, tekno­logi, seni dan lain-lain. Ke­tiga, ranah kepeme­rintah­an, yang meliputi: perkantoran, pendidik­an, lembaga kenegaraan, re­pre­sentasi ke­bijakan bidang ideologi, politik, eko­nomi, sosial budaya, dan lain-lain.

Keywords:    bahasa Indonesia, ancaman, pengamanan bahasa, ragam, laras.

 

Berdasarkan kesejarahan lahirnya bahasa Indo­nesia lebih karena faktor politis, yakni karena ke­­butuhan persatuan seluruh wilayah nusan­tara yang memiliki kesamaan nasib dalam per­juang­an melawan penjajahan. Hal ini ter­cermin dalam ikrar pemuda seluruh nusantara pada tanggal 28 Oktober 1928 yang dikenal dengan sumpah pe­muda. Sejak itulah bahasa Indonesia memiliki fungsi politis, menjadi alat pemersatu seluruh wilayah nusantara dalam koridor bangsa Indo­nesia. Dalam perkembangannya bahasa Indo­nesia di­angkat sebagai bahasa negara atau bahasa nasional dan bahasa resmi. Sebagai bahasa nasi­onal, bahasa Indonesia digunakan sebagai alat komunikasi oleh seluruh bangsa Indo­nesia. Sementara itu, sebagai bahasa resmi, bahasa Indonesia digunakan sebagai alat komu­nikasi pada situasi-situasi resmi kepemerintah­an. Secara hukum kedudukan bahasa Indo­nesia se­bagai bahasa negara atau bahasa nasional ter­tuang dalam UUD 1945 pasal 36.

Sejak bahasa Indonesia ditetapkan sebagai bahasa negara dan bahasa resmi, bahasa Indo­nesia telah digunakan sebagai media komuni­kasi dalam berbagai ranah kehidupan ber­masya­rakat, berbangsa dan bernegara. Pada daerah dan kota tertentu bahasa Indonesia telah digunakan untuk berkomunikasi dalam kehidupan sehari-hari, mulai di lingkungan rumah, masyarakat, per­gaul­an antarteman, pasar, sekolah, dan kantor pe­merintah. Namun, sebagian besar di wilayah negara Indonesia bahasa Indonesia hanya di­gunakan sebatas ranah resmi dan ilmiah. Di luar ranah itu, mereka menggunakan bahasa daerah. Hal ini di­perkuat oleh adanya penerapan undang-undang otonomi daerah, yang membawa nuansa kesukuan lebih mengemuka dan sikap kedaerah­an yang berlebihan. Implikasinya, banyak daerah yang membuat kebijakan peng­gunaan bahasa daerah masing-masing sebagai peng­antar dalam pendidikan terutama pada kelas rendah. Hal ini tentu berdampak pada me­nurunnya semangat penggunaan bahasa Indonesia di daerah ter­utama pada tingkat anak-anak, yang pada akhir­nya berpengaruh pada rendahnya kemahiran berbahasa Indonesia bagi anak-anak.

Pada sisi lain, globalisasi telah menembus batas kewilayahan (kenegaraan) dan ber­bagai situs ke­hidupan manusia (ekonomi, sosial, budaya, pen­didikan, politik, dan tekno­logi). Segala peris­tiwa yang terjadi di belahan dunia mana pun dapat dengan mudah di­ketahui oleh masya­rakat dunia, termasuk di berbagai pelosok di Indo­nesia me­lalui tekno­logi informasi, baik melalui jaring­an tele­visi, internet, maupun media lainnya. Salah satu dampak globalisasi bagi bangsa Indo­nesia akhir-akhir ini adalah ‘euforia’ pengguna­an bahasa asing, khususnya bahasa Inggris dalam berbagai situs ke­hidupan se­hari-hari di masya­rakat, misalnya di sekolah dan per­guruan tinggi (bilingual, moving class, learning university, entre­preneur university, education for all, domain dan sebagainya), mall (Malang Town Square, Malang Olympic Garden, Batu Town Square dan se­bagai­nya), televisi (TV-One, Trans-7, Metro TV, dan sebagainya), koran (Metro­polis, sportain­ment, total football, show and celebrity, dan se­bagainya), komputer (spasi, font, paste, dan se­bagainya), internet (browsing, chatting, e-mail, dan sebagainya), iklan (rent car, tour and travel, corner drink, buy 2 get 1, dan se­bagai­nya).

Penggunaan bahasa asing secara terus-menerus dalam segala sisi kehidupan memang nampak dapat mencirikan sosok masyarakat yang maju, berpendidikan, bahkan terkesan ‘keren’. Namun, pada sisi lain kondisi tersebut dapat meng­ancam keberadaan bahasa Indonesia. Jika bahasa asing digunakan dalam berbagai ranah yang sangat akrab dengan kehidupan sehari-hari masyarakat Indo­nesia, maka bahasa Indo­nesia jarang ter­dengar oleh mereka. Akibatnya, masya­rakat Indonesia akan terbiasa dengan bahasa asing dan tanpa sadar akan meninggal­kan bahasa Indonesia. Dengan demikian, bahasa Indonesia akan ke­hilangan peranannya dalam beberapa ranah kehidupan bermasyarakat, misal­nya dalam per­gaulan sekolah, periklanan, koran dan maja­lah, teknologi informasi, dan sebagai­nya.

Fakta lain, sebagaimana yang dikemukakan oleh Pusat Bahasa Kemendiknas RI, bahwa minat masyarakat Indonesia untuk belajar mahir ber­bahasa Indonesia kalah jauh di­bandingkan ke­inginan masyarakat untuk mahir berbahasa asing. Bahasa Indonesia tidak terlalu diminati, bahkan sedang mengalami proses pengabaian. Dengan kata lain, bahasa Indonesia tidak di­anggap penting untuk dipelajari dan hanya di­jadikan bahasa tutur yang dipelajari secara ala­miah karena faktor lingkungan. Demikian pula dengan sikap positif masyarakat Indonesia ter­hadap bahasa Indonesia yang berada di pering­kat ketiga, ter­tinggal dibanding bahasa asing dan bahasa daerah. Kenyataan itu menunjuk­kan bahwa bahasa Indonesia belum dapat men­jadi lambang supremasi bahasa di tanah air sen­diri. Se­jumlah survei pendidikan menyebutkan bahwa nilai yang diraih para pelajar pada mata pe­lajar­an bahasa Indonesia tidak selalu men­dekati sem­purna. Sementara itu, nilai pada mata pelajaran bahasa Inggris lebih tinggi. Kita harus menyadari bahwa bahasa Indonesia di negeri ini belum me­miliki pamor untuk dijadi­kan simbol pencitraan negara di inter­nasi­onal. Di kandang sendiri, bahasa Indonesia masih kalah menarik di­bandingkan dengan bahasa Inggris, bahkan bahasa Arab. Mahir berbahasa Inggris atau ber­bahasa Arab bagi orang Indo­nesia lebih men­datangkan kebanggaan dari­pada mahir ber­bahasa Indonesia. Ke­mahiran ber­bahasa Indo­nesia dianggap sesuatu yang lumrah, umum, dan tidak prestatif. Inilah problem peng­hargaan kita terhadap Bahasa Indonesia, kata Wakil Menteri Pen­didik­an dan Kebudayaan Bidang Kebudaya­an, Wiendu Nuryati, di Jakarta, Selasa (29/11/2011).

Untuk menghindari terancamnya keberadaan bahasa Indonesia akibat perannya di­geser oleh bahasa asing ada dua kiat pengamanan yang dapat dilakukan, yaitu pe­nyikapan terhadap masuk­nya istilah asing dan pemaksimalan peran bahasa Indonesia. Kedua kiat pengamanan itu akan diuraikan pada bagian berikut.

 

Kiat Pengamanan Bahasa Indonesia

1.  Penyikapan Istilah Asing

Untuk menyikapi derasnya istilah asing yang masuk dalam situs-situs kehidupan bermasya­rakat sehari-hari ada tiga hal yang perlu dilaku­kan.

1)    Menjaga agar setiap kata asing yang masuk memperoleh padanan yang berterima, se­suai dengan situasi pemakaiannya. “Globa­lisasi tidak bisa dibendung. Bahasa asing memang akhirnya populer, sampai tempat makam saja terasa keren dengan nama ke­inggris-inggris­an. Dalam kondisi seperti ini, jika bahasa Indonesia mau populer, harus terus dike­depankan dengan kata-kata yang padanan­nya tidak kalah keren dengan bahasa asing,” kata Wakil Menteri Pendidikan dan Kebudaya­an, Bidang Kebudayaan, Wiendu Nuryati, di Jakarta, Selasa (29/11/2011). Kecuali untuk tujuan pencendekiaan, se­baik­nya kita tidak memperkenalkan kata baru bila kata yang se­makna sudah ada dan ber­terima, meskipun merupakan kata serapan (pinjam­an) sebagai akibat dari pe­ner­jemahan fono­logis. Alter­natif kata baru yang terlalu banyak dapat mem­bingungkan masyarakat. Pada aspek pengem­bangan yang pertama, dilaku­kan penerjemah­an. Ada dua jenis pe­ner­je­mahan yang di­anggap paling “mudah” di­laku­kan, yaitu (a) peng­alihan pesan dengan men­carikan padan­annya, dan (b) penjiplakan struktur (calque). Pe­ner­je­mahan yang ideal adalah penerjemah­an dengan cara memper­oleh padanan yang berupa unsur dari bahasa Indonesia, bahasa Melayu, atau bahasa daerah. Namun, biasa­nya cara ini memerlu­kan waktu yang cukup lama. Contoh, kata ‘effective’ di­terjemahkan ‘me­laku­kan kegiat­an yang tepat sesuai tuju­an’, kemudian di­cari­kan padan­an­­nya dari bahasa daerah Palem­bang yang me­miliki arti yang hampir sama, yaitu kata ‘sangkil’ dan ‘efficient’ di­cari padanannya dengan kata ‘mangkus’. Dalam keadaan men­­desak, tindak­an “darurat” yang dilakukan adalah melaku­kan pe­nerjemahan fonologis, yakni meng­ambil bentuk kata asing itu dan disesuaikan dengan sistem bunyi dan ejaan bahasa Indo­nesia. Ini sudah dilakukan sejak lama, misal­nya wanita (Sanskerta), kudeta (Prancis), dan nafsu (Arab) (Alwi, 1986:78). Saat ini muncul kata dari bahasa Inggris seperti real estate, mal dan kon­do­mi­nium. Dewasa ini pe­ner­je­mah­an fonologis, yang tadi­nya merupa­kan upaya darurat bila terjadi tekanan deras bahasa asing, akhirnya men­jadi upaya yang makin sering digunakan karena di­anggap paling “mudah”, khususnya apabila tidak cukup waktu untuk mencari padanan bahasa Indonesia atau bahasa daerah. Oleh karena itu, perlu dikembang­kan prose­dur penerje­mahan fonologis yang se­suai dengan kaidah fono­logi dan kaidah tata bahasa Indonesia se­bagai pelengkap prose­dur pembentukan isti­lah. Harus diketahui pula bahwa dalam bahasa teknis biasa­nya ter­­dapat dua laras, yakni laras “tinggi” yang di­guna­kan oleh para pakar dalam penulis­an ilmiah, dan laras “rendah” yang digunakan oleh para montir / pekerja tingkat praktek yang pada umumnya terdapat dalam bahasa lisan. Di bidang ke­dokteran, pada laras “rendah” ter­dapat istilah-istilah untuk para awam bukan dokter, seperti kencing manis (laras “tinggi” = diabetes meli­tus), demam ber­darah (laras “tinggi” = demam dengue), atau cacar air (laras “tinggi” = varicella). Di bidang kompu­ter, pada laras “tinggi” di­kenal di-on-kan (laras “rendah” = dinyalakan), di-safe (laras “rendah” = di­simpan), atau di-copy (laras “rendah” = di­salin). Di bidang me­ka­nik oto­motif, pada laras “rendah” dikenal roda gila (laras “tinggi” = eksentrik), stang (laras “tinggi” = tuas), stir (laras “tinggi” = kemudi), dongkrak (laras “tinggi” = peng­ungkit), atau as (laras “tinggi” = poros).

2)    Menjaga agar tata bahasa Indonesia tidak ber­­ubah dan agar tetap dikuasai (secara tidak sadar) oleh para penuturnya. Dengan demi­kian, gejala penjiplakan tata hahasa asing ke dalam bahasa Indonesia harus dicegah. Dalam pengembangan istilah dan ungkapan, termasuk dalam hal kodifikasinya, perlu mem­perhatikan laras tata bahasa Indonesia. Pada aspek ini  harus diamati seringnya ter­jadi pe­langgaran atas kaidah tata bahasa Indonesia sebagai akibat adanya penjiplak­an. Ini ter­lihat antara lain, pada pelanggaran atas hukum DM (diterangkan menerangkan) dan penjiplakan struktur bahasa Inggris ke dalam bahasa Indonesia. Hukum DM sudah sering di­langgar, misal­nya dalam pemberian nama toko seperti Sentosa Ban atau Setia Motor. Hal ini juga terlihat pada seluruh kata asing yang diambil alih melalui penerjemahan fonologis dan pen­jiplakan, seperti kata makro-ekonomi, mikro­-ekonomi, agro­indus­tri dan agro­bisnis. Tindak­­an penjiplakan itu salah dan “ber­bahaya” bagi pemertahanan kaidah bahasa Indonesia, walau­pun se­benar­nya tindakan itu sering ter­jadi karena ke­tidak­-pahaman penutur bahasa Indonesia tentang struktur ungkapan asing yang di­jiplak. Dalam hanyak hal, struktur MD tidak disadari oleh penutur, karena ke­seluruh­an ungkapan asing itu di­pandang sebagai satu satuan unsur bahasa. Kalau pemakai sadar bahwa struktur­nya harus disesuaikan maka ungkapan ter­sebut akan dibaca eko­nomi makro dan bisnis agro. Namun, dewasa ini masih ada saja pe­makai­an konstruksi hasil jiplak­an dari kon­struksi MD, misalnya Gunung Geulis Resor atau Modern Bakeri.

3)    Menggalakkan penulisan dalam berbagai bidang dengan bahasa Indonesia sesuai dengan ragam dan larasnya. Bidang penulis­an dengan bahasa Indonesia itu sejalan dengan per­kembangan ilmu pengetahuan dan tekno­­logi. Oleh karena itu, seluruh bidang keilmu­an, baik ilmu pengetahuan alam (kedokter­an, biologi, matematika, fisika, teknologi) mau­pun ilmu pengetahuan sosial (budaya, poli­tik, eko­nomi, manajemen, filsafat)  sebaiknya di­tulis dengan bahasa Indonesia sesuai dengan kaidah tata bahasa Indonesia. Pengembang­an tata bahasa Indonesia juga perlu terus di­galak­kan peng­gunaannya dalam bidang non-ilmiah, seperti perdagangan, periklanan, mode, seni, me­masak, pariwisata, dan ke­su­sastraan (Hoed, 2011:9-10). Kepala Pusat Bahasa Depdik­nas Dendy Sugono mengata­kan, sebenarnya pembakuan istilah dan peng­’­indonesia’an kata dan ungkapan asing sudah lama dilakukan oleh Pusat Bahasa, namun kalang­an pers jarang menggunakan­nya. Me­nurut Yosi Herfanda (2010) penulis­an istilah asing yang diserap dalam penulisan teks berita media massa masih beragam dan sangat banyak yang salah. Bahkan, kesalah­an yang terjadi jumlahnya jutaan. Seperti kata ‘shalat’ dipakai 1.380.000 kali, kata ‘sholat’ (1.139.000) dan ‘salat’ (270.000). Kata ‘ustad’ (3.110.000), ‘ustaz’ (2.470.000), dan ‘ustadz’ (681.000). Kata ‘wudhu’ (151.000), ‘wudlu’ (59.300), dan ‘wudu’ (9.340). Kata ‘gender’ (924.000) dan ‘jender’ (76.000). Kata ‘objek’ (1.890.000), ‘obyek’ (1.840.000), dan ‘objek­tif’ (432.000), ‘obyek­tif’ (290.000). Serta kata ‘even’ (6.650.000), ‘event’ (6.650.000) dan  kata ‘iven’ digunakan 290.000 kali. Menurut Yosi Herfanda, terjadinya per­beda­an peng­guna­an istilah serapan itu karena perbedaan pedoman pembentukan istilah atau pe­nyerap­an bahasa asing Pusat Bahasa dan kalangan pers. Perbedaan cita rasa yang hendak di­lekatkan pada istilah asing yang di­serap ke dalam bahasa Indonesia. Anggapan dari kalangan pers bahwa pusat bahasa lamban dalam menyerap dan mem­bakukan bahasa asing ke bahasa Indonesia, se­hingga kalang­an pers melakukan pem­bakuan se­cepatnya dengan cara masing-masing yang berbeda.

2. Pemaksimalan Peran Bahasa Indonesia

Dalam upaya peningkatan peran bahasa Indo­nesia dalam berbagai aspek kehidupan perlu di­ke­mukakan betapa pentingnya fungsi bahasa bagi umat manusia. Samsuri (2000:4) ber­pen­dapat:

“Sejak bangun tidur pagi hari sampai malam hari, pada waktu istirahat manusia tidak lepas dari bahasa, bahkan ketika tidur lalu ber­mimpi pun menggunakan bahasa. Ketika se­orang ber­diam diri pada hakikatnya dia ber­bahasa, karena bahasa adalah alat untuk ber­fikir, me­renung, merasa, berkeinginan, dan mem­pe­ngaruhi. Bahasa sangat berakar bagi peng­gunaannya. Bahasa adalah tanda kepri­badi­an yang baik maupun yang buruk, tanda yang jelas bagi budi manusia. Dari pembicara­an se­se­orang kita dapat menangkap keingin­annya, latar belakang pendidikan, pergaulan, dan adat istiadatnya”.

Secara umum fungsi bahasa adalah alat komu­ni­kasi dalam berbagai aspek kehidupan sehari-hari. Di samping fungsi umum itu, bahasa me­miliki fungsi khusus. Ada beberapa pendapat ber­kait­an dengan fungsi khusus bahasa. Fino­chiaro (1983) berpendapat bahwa fungsi bahasa meliputi fungsi: (1) personal, (2) interpersonal, (3) direk­tif, (4) referensial, dan (5) imaginatif. Selanjut­nya, Halliday (1973) dalam Suparno (1994:18) berpendapat bahwa bahasa memiliki 7 (tujuh) fungsi, yaitu (1) instrumental, (2) regula­tori, (3) re­­pre­sen­tasional, (4) interaksional,(5) personal, (6) huristis, dan (7) imaginatif.

Mengacu pada dua pendapat ahli bahasa ter­sebut, bahasa memiliki peran yang sangat penting dalam kehidupan nyata. Bahasa me­miliki peran dalam semua aspek kehidupan ber­masya­rakat. Bahasa yang dapat difungsikan dalam ber­bagai dimensi kehidupan adalah bahasa yang memiliki ketahanan yang kuat. Se­baliknya, jika bahasa itu hanya digunakan dalam ranah ter­tentu saja, maka bahasa itu tidak me­milki  posisi yang kuat di masyarakat. Semakin sedikit ranah bahasa itu digunakan, maka se­makin kecil peran bahasa itu dalam masyarakat, yang pada akhir­nya akan digeser oleh bahasa lain yang lebih banyak perannya dalam ber­bagai ranah yang ada di masyarakat. Dalam rangka pe­­maksimalan peran bahasa Indonesia perlu di­­lakukan reka­yasa bahasa. Menurut Takdir Ali­syahbana (dalam Moeli­­ono, 1985), aspek penting dalam rekayasa bahasa meliput (1) pem­bakuan bahasa, (2) pe­moderenan, dan (3) pe­nyediaan perlengkapan seperti buku pelajaran dan bacaan. Haugen (1972:287-293) dalam salah satu tulisnnya yang berjudul “Language Planning, theory and Prac­tice”, menyarankan agar reka­yasa bahasa di­mulai dengan pengetahuan situ­asi ke­bahasaan, setelah itu disusun program kegiat­an yang me­liputi penetapan sasaran, pe­netap­an kebijakan untuk mencapai sasaran itu dan se­jumlah pro­sedur untuk meng­imple­men­tasi­kan kebijakan itu.

Dalam rangka pemaksimalan peran bahasa Indo­nesia dalam berbagai situs kehidupan ber­masya­rakat, ada dua hal yang perlu diperhatikan. Per­tama, memperhatikan faktor-faktor yang dapat menggeser posisi bahasa. Kedua, meningkatkan peran bahasa Indonesia dalam ranah ber­masya­rakat, berbangsa, dan bernegara.

2.1   Faktor Pergeseran Bahasa

Secara konseptual yang dimaksud dengan per­geseran bahasa (language shift) adalah per­ubah­an penggunaan bahasa secara evolusi dan konstan oleh penuturnya dari satu bahasa (asal) ke bahasa yang lain (bahasa target) (Holmes, 2001:51). Hal ini terjadi akibat adanya perubah­an profesi atau  pindah ke daerah lain sehingga secara sosial tidak memungkinkan  penggunaan bahasa asalnya dalam kehidupan sehari-hari, yang menyebabkan terjadinya pergeseran peng­­gunaan bahasa asal ke bahasa target. Pergeser­an bahasa, penurunan fungsi bahasa, dan peng­hilangan bahasa, dapat terjadi karena faktor per­­ubahan sosial yang sangat cepat (Aitchison, 1991:50). Di dalam perkembangannya pergeser­an bahasa tidak hanya disebabkan oleh adanya perubahan profesi dan perpindahan, tetapi ada beberapa faktor lain. Faktor penyebab per­geser­an bahasa dikemukakan sebagai berikut.

  • Faktor Politik

Setiap negara senantiasa berusaha mem­per­tahankan keberadaannya sebagai sebuah  negara yang berdaulat. Satu aspek untuk mem­pertahankan keberadaan negara adalah mem­perlakukan bahasa nasionalnya sebagai alat komunikasi resmi kenegaraan. Setiap orang yang berinteraksi dalam konteks formal harus meng­gunakan bahasa nasional. Oleh karena itu, jika seseorang akan memasuki suatu negara, yang bersangkutan harus me­mahami bahasa nasional negara yang akan dimasuki. Dengan demikian, jika ada orang asing akan bekerja di Indonesia, atau negara lain akan bekerja sama dengan Indonesia, maka sesorang atau negara itu harus memahami dan menggunakan bahasa Indo­nesia, bukan justru sebaliknya seperti yang selama ini terjadi.

  • Faktor Sosial

Pergaulan pada kelompok sosial yang memiliki pengaruh kuat pada lingkungannya akan mem­percepat pergeseran bahasa. “Kelompok  sosial yang kuat biasanya menjadi idola dalam segala perilaku sosial, termasuk perilaku penggunaan bahasa” (Holmes, 2001:51). Sebagai contoh, anak-anak dari keluarga pernikahan yang ber­beda latar belakang bahasa pertama (B1), mereka cenderung menggunakan bahasa Indo­nesia (B2) untuk ber­komunikasi di lingkungan keluarganya. Di dalam keluarga tidak mungkin di­ajarkan penggunaan bahasa vernacular (ragam bahasa kasar). Namun, karena pergaulan di luar rumah dengan kelompok bermain sehari-hari dengan waktu bermain yang leluasa, mereka memperoleh pilihan kata / ragam bahasa verna­cular yang akhirnya terbawa dalam komuni­kasi di lingkungan keluarga. Dengan kata lain, ter­jadi­lah pergeseran bahasa, yakni dari ragam bahasa tinggi bergeser dengan ragam vernacular.

  • Faktor Sikap Apatisme

Sikap apatisme terjadi karena kurangnya ke­sadaran masyarakat untuk mempertahan­kan bahasa etnisnya. Mereka tidak menyadari jika tidak ada usaha mempertahankan bahasa etnis­nya, maka bahasa etnisnya akan tergeser oleh bahasa asing yang digunakan dalam berbagai ranah masyarakat. Dengan kata lain, “sikap apa­tis masyarakat ter­hadap bahasa etnis, akan meng­ancam ter­hadap eksistensi bahasa etnis mereka” (Ibrahim, 1998: 57). Dalam konteks pe­mertahanan bahasa Indo­nesia dari ancaman bahasa asing, sikap apatisme terhadap bahasa Indonesia harus dihilangkan. Hal ini dapat di­laku­kan dengan cara memberi­kan motivasi tentang kesetaraan prestise peng­guna­an Indonesia dengan bahasa asing.

  • Faktor Ekonomi

Dalam kehidupan sehari-hari perekonomian me­rupakan aspek  yang paling menonjol  dilakukan manusia. Hampir seluruh aktivitas manusia ber­kaitan dengan perekonomian.  Bahkan, karena tuntutan ekonomi seseorang harus merantau  ke daerah lain atau kota lain (urbanisasi). Para urban akan kehilangan bahasa etnisnya, ketika setiap hari harus meng­gunakan bahasa asing (B2) dalam mengerjakan aktivitas  kesehariannya dan dalam waktu yang relatif lama. “Untuk men­dapatkan pekerjaan merupakan alasan yang paling jelas untuk mempelajari bahasa lain” (Holmes, 2001:58). Sebagai contoh, para pencari kerja dari daerah yang menuju Jakarta tentu harus mampu berbahasa Indonesia karena bahasa yang digunakan sehari-hari di Jakarta adalah bahasa Indonesia. Di samping itu, akti­vitas per­ekonomian senantiasa dilakukan dengan menggunakan bahasa Indonesia, sehingga se­cara pelan-pelan bahasa Pertama (B1) akan tergeser oleh bahasa Kedua (B2).

  • Faktor Budaya

Suatu bahasa dikatakan kuat jika bahasa itu mengakar dalam budaya masyarakat pe­nutur­nya. Jika budaya masih secara aktif berlaku dalam masyarakat, maka bahasa yang menyertai budaya itu masih kuat. Sebaliknya, jika budaya tidak dilestarikan, maka bahasa sebagai media budaya itu akan tergeser, atau bahkan menjadi mati. Sebagai contoh hilang­nya bahasa Jawa “ngujubake” untuk berbagai upacara adat petani di Jawa Timur khusus­nya upa­cara persiapan panen pertanian bagi petani di Jawa Timur. Hal ini disebab­kan budaya itu telah hilang dari masyarakat petani di Jawa Timur.

Di samping itu, akulturasi budaya juga dapat se­cara pelan-pelan menggeser ke­duduk­an bahasa pada masing-masing budaya yang berakulturasi (Holmes, 2001:58). Per­campur­an / perkawinan budaya pada akhirnya akan menghilangkan ke­khasan masing-masing budaya. Mediasi budaya campuran tentu menggunakan bahasa yang netral. Misalnya per­campuran budaya Bali dan budaya Madura mediasinya adalah bahasa Indo­nesia. Dengan demikian, budaya campuran se­cara konstan menyatu dalam kehidupan sehari-hari, dan bahasa yang digunakan adalah bahasa Indonesia. Pada akhirnya bahasa Bali dan bahasa  Madura tergeser posisinya dalam konteks itu.

  • Faktor Perkembangan Teknologi

Bagi negara berkembang teknologi merupakan hasil importasi dari negara lain. Ke­hadiran tekno­logi tentu membawa segala aspek yang berkait­an penerapan teknologi itu. Salah satunya adalah bahasa yang digunakan sebagai representasi teknologi yang ber­sangkutan. Fakta keduniaan dan ilmu pengetahuan teknologi tidak akan ter­komunikasi­kan jika tidak dinyatakan dengan bahasa. Hal ini sejalan dengan fungsi bahasa re­presenta­sional, yakni bahasa berfungsi untuk menyajikan materi kebendaan yang memerlu­kan pe­nunjukan (Halliday, dalam Suparno, 1994:19). Hadirnya teknologi  dapat menghilang­kan fungsi peralatan tradisional, sehingga alat-alat ter­sebut akan ditinggalkan. Sejalan dengan itu tergeser / hilang pula penggunaan bahasa yang melekat  dengan alat tradisional. Sebagai contoh, kata “lesung” alat penumbuk padi, telah hilang di­ganti dengan “huller” alat pe­nyelip padi. Terkait dengan itu, seyogyanya teknologi importasi yang digunakan di Indo­nesia, telah dicarikan padanan­nya dalam bahasa Indonesia, sehingga nantinya tidak ter­geser oleh bahasa negara pengekpsor teknologi ke Indonesia.

2.2 Peningkatan Peran Bahasa Indonesia

Mengacu pada pentingnya bahasa Indonesia se­bagai alat pemersatu bangsa dalam Negara Ke­satuan Republik Indonesia (NKRI) dan banyak­nya faktor yang menyebabkan pergeseran bahasa, sehingga mengancam eksistensi bahasa Indo­nesia, maka perlu ada upaya yang nyata untuk mem­pertahankan eksistensi bahasa Indonesia. Salah satu upaya yang dapat dilakukan adalah dengan meningkatkan peran bahasa Indonesia dalam seluruh domain kehidupan bermasya­rakat, berbangsa, dan bernegara.

  • Peningkatan Peran Bahasa Indonesia dalam Domain Masyarakat

Yang dimaksud peningkatan peran bahasa Indo­nesia dalam domain masyarakat ini adalah mem­fungsikan bahasa Indonesia dalam seluruh aspek  kehidupan bermasyarakat bagi seluruh lapisan masyarakat Indonesia. Hal ini dimaksudkan agar bahasa Indonesia secara fungsional digunakan sehari-hari di dalam rumah tangga, pergaulan (anak-anak, remaja, ibu-ibu, bapak-bapak), upa­cara adat, pasar, warung, masjid, gereja, acara sere­­monial, tempat wisata / hiburan  dan aspek kehidupan bermasyarakat  lainnya. Dengan kata lain, bahasa Indonesia harus mengakar kuat dalam budaya masyarakat seluruh Indonesia. Jika kondisi ini dapat diciptakan, maka eksistensi  bahasa Indonesia akan kuat, tidak akan tergeser oleh bahasa etnis  ataupun  bahasa asing. Se­cara teoritis bahasa Indonesia harus memiliki fungsi personal, interpersonal, direktif, referensial, ima­ginatif, di seluruh lapisan masyarakat Indo­nesia (Nababan, 1987:37).

Sebagai implikasi lebih jauh dari konsep ini di­perlukan pemantapan paradigma lama yaitu bhinneka tunggal ika. Walaupun berbeda latar budaya, sosial, suku, bahasa pertama (B1), dan agama, bahasa Indonesia harus digunakan oleh masyarakat seluruh wilayah Indonesia, baik dalam rumah tangga, pergaulan (anak-anak, remaja, ibu-ibu, bapak-bapak), upacara adat, pasar, warung, masjid, gereja, acara sermonial, tempat wisata, dan aspek ke­hidupan bermasya­rakat lainnya. Dengan demikian, bahasa Indo­nesia akan mengakar pada seluruh masyarakat Indonesia, sehingga bahasa Indonesia betul-betul kuat di seluruh Indonesia.

  • Peningkatan Peran Bahasa Indonesia dalam Ranah Berbangsa dan Bernegara

Telah disadari, bahwa bangsa Indonesia itu lahir karena faktor politis, bukan antropo­logis. Dalam konteks ini bangsa Indonesia telah sepakat me­milih salah satu bahasa lingua fanca, bahasa Melayu, dijadikan bahasa Indonesia. Dengan demikian, peran bahasa Indo­nesia pada saat itu hanya untuk kepentingan alat pemersatu bangsa yang multi etnis  dalam konteks bangsa Indo­nesia. Memang dalam perkembangannya bahasa Indonesia telah di­fungsikan sebagai bahasa nasio­nal, yakni sebagai alat komunikasi seluruh rakyat Indo­nesia dalam konteks kehidupan ber­bangsa.

Namun, sebenarnya masih banyak ranah ber­bangsa dan bernegara yang seharusnya mem­fungsi­kan bahasa Indonesia sebagai media re­pre­sentasinya. Misalnya, sebagai pe­nunjuk iden­titas kewarganegaraan bagi seluruh orang yang meng­aku sebagai  warga negara Indonesia, sebagai re­presentasi hasil karya ilmu pengetahuan dan teknologi masyarakat Indonesia, sebagai repre­sentasi produk perundang-undangan dan sistem hukum di Indo­nesia, sebagai representasi sistem pertahanan dan keamanan negara Indonesia, dan ranah kehidupan berbangsa dan bernegara lainnya. Peningkatan peran bahasa Indonesia dalam ranah berbangsa dan bernegara secara teoritis relevan dengan fungsi instrumental, regu­la­tory, dan reperesentasional (Wahab, 1998:25).

  • Peningkatan Peran Bahasa Indonesia dalam Ranah Kepemerintahan 

Seperti diketahui, bahwa selama ini bahasa Indo­nesia telah diangkat sebagai bahasa resmi. Arti­nya bahasa Indonesia telah digunakan sebagai alat komunikasi resmi dalam konteks resmi ke­pe­merintahan, misalnya perkantoran, pengantar pendidikan, departemen, dinas pemerintah, lem­baga tinggi negara, dan lembaga-lembaga peme­rintah lainnya. Dalam situasi ini bahasa Indo­nesia dapat ditingkatkan peranannya pada berbagai ranah pe­nyeleng­garaan kepemerintahan secara menyeluruh, mulai pemerintahan desa, kecamat­­an, sampai dengan pemerintah pusat. Di samping itu, bahasa Indonesia harus digunakan dalam berbagai bentuk pelayanan pemerintah atau lembaga formal lainnya kepada masya­rakat, se­hingga seluruh ranah pelayanan umum / publik harus menggunakan bahasa Indo­nesia. Selanjut­nya, seluruh kebijakan pemerintah baik berkait­an dengan ideologi, politik, sosial budaya, eko­nomi, pertahanan dan keamanan harus  meng­gunakan bahasa Indonesia (Kar­tadi, 2000:15). Bahkan jika perlu membuat kebijakan yang ketat, siapa pun dan untuk ke­pentingan apa pun yang akan ber­hubungan dengan pemerintah Indo­nesia harus meng­guna­kan bahasa Indonesia.

3.    Simpulan dan Saran

3.1   Simpulan

Berdasarkan paparan di atas, dapat disimpulkan bahwa pada akhir-akhir ini bahasa Indonesia telah terancam keberadaannya. Ancaman ini ber­asal dari dua hal, yaitu  pe­nerap­an otonomi daerah, yang berdampak pada semangat ke­daerahan termasuk adanya ke­bijakan dalam penggunaan bahasa daerahnya masing-masing dan gencarnya globalisasi yang sangat ber­dampak dalam penggunaan bahasa asing, khususnya bahasa Inggris di Indonesia. Banyak istilah dalam bahasa Inggris telah digunakan oleh hampir seluruh situs kehidupan yang akrab dengan masyarakat, misalnya sekolah (SD – PT), koran, majalah, TV, iklan, komputer, dan inter­net. Jika kondisi  demikian dibiarkan, maka ada peran bahasa Indonesia yang digantikan atau di­geser oleh bahasa Inggris. Dengan demikian, ke­dudukan bahasa Indonesia dalam ranah ter­sebut terancam, dan jika ranah lain pun diganti oleh bahasa Inggris, maka tidak lama lagi bahasa Indo­nesia akan ditinggalkan oleh masya­rakat Indo­nesia, terutama generasi penerus. Oleh karena itu, harus ada upaya nyata untuk menangani ancaman keberadaan bahasa Indonesia, yaitu  penyikapan terhadap masuknya istilah asing dan pemaksimalan peran bahasa Indonesia.

  • Upaya penyikapan terhadap isilah asing di­lakukan dalam tiga bentuk, yaitu  (1) men­jaga agar setiap kata asing  yang masuk memper­oleh padanan yang berterima, sesuai dengan situasi pemakaiannya, (2) menjaga agar tata bahasa Indonesia tidak berubah dan agar tetap dikuasai oleh para penuturnya, dan (3) menggalakkan pe­nulisan dalam berbagai bidang dengan bahasa Indonesia sesuai dengan ragam dan larasnya.
  • Upaya pemaksimalan peran bahasa Indo­nesia dalam berbagai ranah kehidupan, yaitu (1)  ranah kehidupan bermasyarakat, yang me­liputi: rumah tangga, pergaulan (anak-anak, remaja, ibu-ibu, bapak-bapak), upacara adat, pasar, warung, masjid, gereja, acara sere­mo­nial, tempat wisata / hiburan, (2) ranah ber­bangsa dan bernegara, yang meliputi: pe­tunjuk identitas kewarganegaraan, represen­tasi hasil karya ilmu  penge­tahuan dan tekno­logi, produk perundang-undang­an dan sistem hukum, sistem per­tahanan dan keamanan negara, dan (3) ranah ke­pemerintahan, yang meliputi: per­kantoran, pengantar pen­didik­an, depar­te­men, dinas pe­merintah, lem­baga tinggi negara, represen­tasi kebijakan dalam bidang ideo­logi, politik, sosial budaya, eko­nomi, per­tahanan dan keaman­an.

3.1   Saran

Dalam rangka kedua upaya menangani ancam­an terhadap keberadaan bahasa Indo­nesia ter­sebut perlu ada payung hukum dari pihak pemerintah Indonesia. Bentuknya dapat berupa undang-undang, peraturan pemerintah, ataupun bentuk kebjakan pemerintah lain­nya. Hal ini dimaksud­kan agar semua pihak menyadari perlunya pe­nguatan peran bahasa Indonesia dalam se­genap lapisan kehidupan di Indonesia, agar tidak ter­gantikan oleh bahasa asing, khusunya bahasa Inggris. Jangan sampai bahasa Indonesia men­jadi bahasa ‘purbakala’, yang diakibatkan hilangnya peran bahasa Indonesia dalam kehidupan sehari-hari dan kehilangan penuturnya.

DAFTAR PUSTAKA

Ahmadun, Yosi Herfanda. 2010. ‘Bahasa Media Massa’. Makalah disampaikan dalam Kongres IX Bahasa Indonesia di Jakarta.

Aitchison, Jean. 1991. Language Change: Progress or Decay? Cambridge: Cambridge Univer­sity Press.

Alwy, Hasan. 1986. Pedoman Umum Pem­bentuk­an Istilah. Pusat Pembinaan dan Pe­ngem­bangan Bahasa RI. Jakarta: PT Gramedia Media Sarana Indonesia.

Finocehiaro, Mary; Burmfit Chirstopher. 1983. The Functional National ApproachFrom Theory to Practice. USA:  Oxford University Press.

Haugen, Einer. 1972. ‘Language Planning in Modern Norway’. Language Science and Natio­nal Development. California: Stanford University Press.

Hoed, Benny H. 2010. Kedudukan Bahasa Indo­nesia dan Tantangan Abad Masa yang Akan Datang. Jakarta: Universitas Indo­nesia.

Holmes, Janet, 2001. An Introduction to Sosio­linguistics. Pearson Education Limited Edin­­bugh Gate. England: Halow, Essex CM 20 2 JE.

Ibrahim, Abd. Syukur. 1998. Panduan Penelitian Etnografi Komunikasi. Surabaya: Pe­ner­bit Usaha Nasional.

Kartadi, Hardiana. 2000. “Ketahanan Nasional Bidang Sosial Budaya”. Jurnal LEMHAN­NAS, Edisi XXII, tanggal 23 November 2000. Jakarta: Lembaga Ketahanan Nasional.

Moeliono, Anton. 1985. ‘Pengembangan dan Pembinaan Bahasa: Ancangan Alternatif dalam Perencanaan Bahasa’. Sen Indo­nesian Linguistics Development Project, W.A.L. Stokhof (ed.); juga dalam versi bahasa Inggris: Language Development and Language Culti­vation: Alternative Approaches in Language Planning. Sen Pacific Linguistics, S.A. Wurm (ed.).

Nababan, P.W.J. 1987. Ilmu Pragmatik (Teori dan Penerapannya). Jakarta: Departemen Pen­didikan dan Kebudayaan.

Samsuri. 2000. Analisis Bahasa Edisi ke-5, Sura­baya: Penerbit Erlangga.

Soeparno, 1994. Linguistik Umum, Jakarta: Depar­temen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan.

Wahab, Abdul. 1998. Butir-butir Linguistik. Sura­baya: Airlangga University Press.

The Role of Language in Nation-Building Process

SAMSUNG CSCby Anna Grzywacz

 Warsaw University

Abstract

Language function can be classified into four categories: cognitive (related to learners’ intellectual development), instrumental (related to the use of language for material purposes), integrative (related to group membership) and cultural (related to cultural appreciation and understanding). In addition to that, language may be also used as a political and social element in the process of building, unification and maintaining of a nation and as an essential element of national identity. This article discusses cases in relation to the social-political related function of language. It shows interesting aspects of three different languages in serving this function. The first is Indonesian language, a neutral language, which was adopted in Indonesia primarily to unite the society in a newly built nation. The second is the Hebrew language, which has been restored to be an initial reference point for the Jewish people, and became an official language of Israel, and become a key element of national identity. The last one is the Polish language, which is an example of a language that has survived despite the absence of the Polish state and also became an essential element of connecting the Polish society.

Keywords: political, social, sociolinguistic, Indonesian, Polish, Jewish, language function

 ***

 

Language can be used in many ways; one of them is in specific purpose area such as social or cultural communication, government decisions, political debate, media which is linked to the ability to express the relevant content (Sutton 1991: 141). Learner or user of language is connected in time and space to cultural tradition which is considered as a significant process connected with the unique form of access to other traditions. This condition affects education, take for example: history which is in line with time, geography which is closely related to place.

When we relate language and colonialism, the strength of colonial empires were dependent on effective communication between the colonizers and the colonized. For example in Latin America, it can be seen very clearly that European powers adopted different strategies. No matter how much the language policy was imposed on the conquered population, it is difficult to deny the claims of the two. Firstly, after the conquest of the territory language became the language of the colonizer power.  Secondly, the language of colonized was degraded – both physically and mentally – to the role of the slave language, even primitive language.  In the period before the conquest (of course with the exception of the New World) missionaries were agents of language. Introducing the teaching of reading and writing, at the same time European languages were taught. It became a symbolic act. It was the transition from a traditional to a modern society. Language has started to be treated as a powerful political instrument (Gawrycki, Szeptycki 2011: 139–142).

Every cultural group has its own semiotic systems, experiences or values. Learning different artistic traditions or religions allows people to understand what and how they are. It involves gaining knowledge, but also appreciation of otherness- the cultural conceptualizations- which are foundations influencing other groups’ collective encounter with reality, whether it is other times, belief or values. Ideally, this has effect of re-imagination assumptions about what is “normal” and appropriate to enriching perspective that diversity makes intercultural awareness (Lo Bianco 2010).

This paper aims to show that language may be also used as a political and social meaning as the process of building, unification and maintaining the nation as a significant and essential element of national identity. Three examples of languages were used: Indonesian, Hebrew and Polish to show how different role language can play and how strong they are related to concept of national identity. Indonesia is an example of a state that has adopted neutral language in order to maintain independence and to build Indonesian identity, Israel is an example of a country that uses Hebrew – recreated language in order to strengthen identity, and finally Poland is an example of a nation that even without the statehood can sustain language as a part of the identity.

 

The importance and relation between language and national identity

National identity is an instrument in a political sense, but it is also regarded as an instrument of domestic policy which allows building and maintaining a consolidated society. It involves loyalty towards the nation or state. Every government needs the support of the public opinion, but to generate this sense of loyalty is not without problems, especially in multi-ethnic societies, precisely because of the threat of losing the social stability (Ortmann 2009: 26).

For the states that gained independence after World War II, the process of selecting the national language was very important. Large number of language users, including those in mass media supports the construction and combination of geographical distribution of imagined communities (Anderson 1991). Also, it supports nation building process (Simpson 2007b: 1; Simpson 2007a). In an attempt to build and maintain a national identity, language is considered to be the primary determinant of success besides the knowledge. In fact, the use of a common language throughout the territory unites its inhabitants (Simpson 2007b: 2).

As noted by Steve Fenton, ethnic groups are not just groups of people who share a culture and a common ancestor. The ideas of origin and culture are rather stimulated and used as a reference in order to strengthen a sense of community, a sense of a “groupness” and a common destiny (Fenton 2007: 20). Assuming that the groups are, in some sense, socially constructed, it is important to indicate the possible answers to a question of who creates the design? Steve Fenton suggests three possible answers: 1) the idea of ​​the group is not constructed by “us”, but it is constructed “for us by others”. It reflects the reality of colonial period, in which the colonial power established the names for the “indigenous people”, affecting their form. In the postcolonial world it is easy to find examples of groups whose names and shape are a direct consequence of colonial history; 2) the identity of the group may be a result of the group members work, of the efforts of elites within them and the leaders of the party; 3) groups can be formed by the action of the state and administrative regulations (Fenton 2007: 20–21).It reveals a very strong role of the state and government in managing the language and culture and affecting the shape of social relations. Language as a core element of culture becomes a major factor contributing to the sense of national identity. Language changes and evolves from the bottom up, and frequently connected by the actions of the politics – mainly through language policy.

Language policy and language planning should not be treated as one topic. Harold S. Schiffman defines language policy (after Bugarski) as a “policy of a society in the area of linguistic communication—that is, a set of positions, principles and decisions reflecting that community’s relationships to its verbal repertoire and communicative potential” and language planning “understood as a set of concrete measures taken within language policy to act on linguistic communication in a community, typically by directing the development of its languages” (Schiffman 1996: 3).

Linguistic culture is defined as a set of behaviors, assumptions, cultural forms, prejudices, folk belief system, attitudes, stereotypes, ways of thinking about language, and religion-historical circumstances related to a language. The basic notion postulated by Schiffman is that language policy is grounded in linguistic culture (Schiffman 1996: 5).

Mohammad Hasan Amara and Abd Al-Rahman Mar’i note that there is a close connection between language, identity and policy. As it was mentioned, language is a means of communication and also a system of signs and symbols. Language should be treated and perceived broadly as an open system which influences and is influenced by nonlinguistic factors. Language is perceived as an important element of socialization, individual and collective, provides knowledge about feeling, aspirations. Moreover it defines us, as we are and as we wish to be seen (Amara, Mar’i 2002: 2).

It seems clear that there is a distinction among language practices, language ideology and language policy. The use of the linguistic repertoire by community is defined as a language practices. Language ideology is understood as an expression of the perceptions concerning language and its use. Language policy is government instrument, the means by which polity attempt to influence or to shape the language itself. Language policy could be anchored in the official documents such as constitution, language law, government document or in an administrative regulation (Amara, Mar’i 2002: 2).

 

Indonesia – language and national unity

Every country in Southeast Asia since its independence has been coping with ethnic tension, social stability and national unity issues. These three elements have been blended and affecting each other. It is important for a country which just regained its independence to begin the process of building national unity which may determine the development of a nation.

In Indonesia, before the independence, it was estimated that there were over three hundred traditional and ethnic groups. Afterwards there was political tension, dispute among local ethnic groups creating chaos which became a threat to the national unity (Adhuri 2007: 11). The territorial integrity and national unity are based on postcolonial nationalist project implementation with the theme of ‘Unity in Diversity’.

Indonesia had been more than three hundred years under the domination of the Dutch; therefore many ethnic, cultural or political issues may refer to this history. Though Indonesia was colonized by the Netherlands as a whole, there was no statehood until the late forties of the twentieth century (Vickers 2005: 2–3). However, under the rule of the Dutch, Indonesians began to perceive themselves as a nation. Japanese attacked Indonesia in 1942 served as the impetus for the national movements that began to expand and strengthen, leading to the Indonesian Revolution (1945-1949) completed by the declaration of independence (Vickers 2005: 2–3).

Innovative ideas began to appear mostly in Java and Sumatra. Basically, two types of ideas arose concerning with the organization and the concept of identity. The first idea is focused on the issues of leadership, while the other one is based on social, religious, political and economic concerns. The leaders can be divided into two groups: elite Javanese aristocratic members of the upper class – priyayi, and a group of santri– derived from religious and reformist Muslim communities (Laskowska 2011: 49).

In 1928, second Youth Congress was organized by the student communities. The concept of Indonesian identity was not yet present, but it appeared in a stronger form as a result of the congress. The delegates took the oath, but more importantly they came from different ethnic, religious, cultural and affirmed the existence of one country. The idea of one language and one nation reflected a process of forming self-awareness.

However, the struggle for giving a social meaning to “Indonesia” as an archipelago country for the massive population to identify themselves as Indonesians turned out to be a very difficult process. Collective identification in Indonesia was a main challenge for Sukarno and Suharto – Indonesia’s first and second president. Both were focused largely on the consolidation of this identification (Simpson 2007b: 3).

The project to build “the Indonesian nation and state” was established by the Indonesian language as a neutral language, to unite all ethno-linguistic groups in Indonesia, the adoption of Pancasila ideology as the basis for the social and political relations and the rejection of Islam as state religion.

The problem of determining national language in Indonesia appeared with the beginning of the formation of nationalist movements in the first decade of the twentieth century. This issue has been a challenge for all postcolonial state, the decision about the national language has its political, social and cultural consequences. There were several possibilities: international language and the language of the colonizer or the local language, which could become the national language (Paauw 2009: 2). In the case of Indonesia, there was some choice of three languages: the Dutch as the language of the colonizer, the language of the largest and most influential ethnic group-Javanese and historical lingua franca of the region – Malay (Paauw 2009: 2–3).

It was decided to discard all previous considered language and to accept the Indonesian language as the national language, language based upon the Malay language (see Nugroho 1957).Dutch language was rejected since the adoption of a foreign language would be a symbolic gesture of maintaining a relationship. Javanese language was discarded due to the fear that the sense of favoring the largest ethnic group in Indonesia can become an obstacle to the unification of the nation.

Indonesia is an archipelago country which consists of around 13,000 islands. Indonesian geography in some sense reflects the diversity of the nation, plurality of ethnic groups, cultures, and languages. The people of Indonesia, at present totally more than 240 million (2012), speak a large number of languages. It is estimated there are over 400 languages in Indonesia. In 1972 The National Language Institute, the institutional predecessor of the present National Center for Language Development in Jakarta indicated number of 418 languages. It was estimated there were 569 languages in Irian Jaya and National Language Institute listed 128 languages in this province (Nabanan 1991: 116–117; see Errington 1986).

Bahasa Indonesia was declared the “state language” in August 1945 in Indonesian Constitution. As the national language, it serves as the only official language in Indonesia. Indonesian language is based on Malay language; however it has its own originality what was essential for independent state and from the beginning it has been treated as an instrument of connecting all ethnic groups in Indonesia (see Sneddon 2003). The National Center for Language Development of the Ministry of Education and Culture as the main institution for the development of language has been protecting Bahasa Indonesia from strong regionalisms and localisms (Nabanan 1991: 118). From the national central point, it is important due to linguistic diversity (see Laitin 2001).

Indonesian languages may be divided into three classes: 1) Bahasa Indonesia, 2) local or regional languages (also called “vernaculars”), 3) foreign languages. The 1971 census showed the proportion of the number of speakers: 40.8% of Indonesian, 59% of vernaculars, and 0.2% of foreign languages. The figure for the vernacular language showed the percentage of speakers who did not speak Bahasa Indonesia at all (Nabanan 1991: 117).

Indonesian government believed that the adoption and development of a national language is an essential feature of nationhood. Former Prime Minister of Malaysia, Tunku Abdul Rahman that “it is only right that as a developing nation we should want to have a language of our own …. If the national language is not introduced, our country will be devoid of a unified character and personality – as I could put it, a nation without a soul and without life.” Language is treated as a powerful instrument, individuals may express their thoughts, beliefs and personality, but what is more important groups may identify their collective consciousness (Hoy-Kee 1971:73).

 

Israel– language and national construction

Hebrew language was spoken in ancient Israel, from the era of the Babylonian exile; however, it began to come out of general use, and became a dead language. Hebrew was used only in prayers during the ceremony and in religious texts. In everyday life, the Jews used other languages: originally Aramaic, later Yiddish (Ashkenazi, mainly in the Diasporas) and Ladino (the Sephardic language) or Arabic. At the end of the nineteenth century, due to the efforts of Eliezer ben Yehuda – reviver of the Hebrew language – modern version of the Hebrew language started to be created. Since the establishment of Israel in 1948 Hebrew is official language of this state (Rabin 1973; Sáenz-Badillos 1993).

The history of the Hebrew language can be divided into several periods: 1) Hebrew, the spoken language, was used in the twelfth century BCE; 2) an ancient Hebrew (biblical) was defined as the literary language in which the Hebrew Bible was written. It was the period from 1200 to 200 BCE (although as a written language, it remained to be used for more than two centuries; 3) Rabbinic Hebrew (Rabbinic) was dated since the fourth century BCE (or at least since 200 BCE) until the middle of the second century CE. This type of Hebrew probably was not directly derived from the Hebrew Bible, but rather from the previous dialects. It was the spoken language of Jews living in Palestine, along with Aramaic. In the first century, around 70 CE Rabbinic Hebrew became the language of literature; 4) the medieval Hebrew was dated approximately from 500 to 1880 as a primarily a liturgical language. It was also used to write poetry, scientific and philosophical works; 5) Modern Hebrew from 1881 onwards as the year in which Eliezer Ben Yehuda arrived in Palestine and began his great work. It was also the period of revival of the national culture and political thought among the Jews. The need for language restaurant appeared primarily among the scattered Jewish masses around the globe. Strong ethnic accents in Europe in the nineteenth century were also influenced by the Semitic community who needed such a strong bond as language (Kutscher 1982; also Hoffman 2004).

Hebrew language is used by more than 5 million people. It is roughly estimated from the Israeli Arabs and Israelis living in exile, the number of members of the Hebrew language may be around 8 million. Israeli supreme institution which is dedicated to the Hebrew language is the Hebrew Academy – continuation of Hebrew Language Council founded by Eliezer ben Yehuda to restore the Hebrew language to the general public. The academy was established in 1953 on the basis of the Israeli government decision. Hebrew is the main language of the Jewish population in Israel, but it is also the native language of a non-Jewish Israeli citizens, mostly native speakers of Arabic (Myhill 2004: 73).

Although Hebrew language never completely disappeared, it may be related with language re-creation. John Myhillin Language in Jewish Society: towards a New Understanding writes “it is necessary to state clearly at the outset: that the revival of Hebrew is, as far as we know, an event unique in human history. There has never before a case of what I am referring to as a ‘revival’, a natural language which was previously spoken by native speakers, then ceased to have native speakers, and then came again to have an entire community of speakers–in fact an entire nation of native speakers. This is simply an undeniable empirical fact. There have, of course, been languages which were seriously endangered but which appear to be making a comeback  (such as Catalan) but this is quite a different matter, because they always retained a significant stock of native speakers” (Myhill 2004: 74).

Hebrew language may also survive as it was used as a written language and used as a means of communication. The role of Hebrew language may be understood as an expression of Judaic heritage, instrument ensuring survival of the Jewish people, both in Diasporas and in Israel. It was kept in mind that in order to be a nation, Jewish people needed to have their language, as their lingua franca. For revivalists, Hebrew language could be a uniting force among Jews around the world (Moragh 2000).

Gilead Morahg writes “if we accept the premise that there is a Jewishness that transcends all Judaism and binds them together, and if we try to identify the components that constitute this Jewishness, it is difficult to avoid the conclusion that Hebrew is a crucial unifying element and that abandoning Hebrew education in America may very well mean abandoning one of the primary defenses against the fragmentation and dissolution of the Jewish people.” In this sense, Hebrew is an essential force unifying the Jewish people (Moragh 2000).

Zionist ideology has aimed to create a new identity. The central role of it was assigned to Hebrew language. There were some slogans such as “The Hebrew person speaks Hebrew” and “He will work the Hebrew ground” which reflected how devoted Israel was in spreading the Hebrew language among citizens, immigrants and Arabs as one (Amara, Mar’i 2002: 55).

“Fostering the teaching of the Hebrew language and culture in all the ranks of the society” was indicated by the Israel as a fifth goal. It showed that government treated the teaching of the Hebrew language as a national mission. All language developments were focused on turning Hebrew into the dominant language of the country (Amara, Mar’i 2002: 55). The most important goal of the state is to achieve a high linguistic competence in spoken and written Hebrew. It is assumed that Israel government aims to change Israel into a monolingual, not multilingual state, despite the fact Israeli society is diverse and some groups prefer and are interested in preserving their mother tongues (Amara, Mar’i 2002: 58–60).

Hebrew language is generally conceptualized as the Jewish language, and it continues to be used as a ritual language and as a symbol of Jewish identity in the Diasporas, creating and maintaining national identity (Myhill 2004: 58).

 

Poland – language and stateless nation

Polish language belongs to the West Slavonic group of Indo-European languages. Because of its structure, Polish language is classified as inflectional and synthetic language. As a separate language, Polish began to spread in tenth century, and played a crucial role during formation and development of the Polish state. The earliest preserved records of individual words in the Polish language from the twelfth century. Until the fourteenth century, Polish language existed only in the regional and folk spoken varieties. Supra-regional variety of language developed in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, as evidenced by the Renaissance literature written in Polish. Initially, development of the Polish language was influenced by the neighboring languages ​​- German and Czech, as well as Latin. In later centuries Polish was marked by a significant influence of the French language. Number of Polish speakers can be estimated to more than 45 million people, of whom 38 million live in Poland. Polish language is used by groups of Poles and Polish origin people living abroad, to name a few, in the U.S., Canada, Australia, Germany, Great Britain, France, and also in Belarus, Kazakhstan, Lithuania and Ukraine. Locally, the most common spoken dialects used are Kashubian, Silesian, and Mazovian (Grzywacz 2012: 9).

One of the biggest stories of the sustainability of the Polish language which is also prominent for Polish national identity was Partitions of Poland, resulting in the elimination of sovereign Poland for 123 years. In 1772 the First Partition of Poland took place, the second was signed in 1793 and third in 1795. Polish territories were divided into Russia Empire, Habsburg Austria and Kingdom of Prussia. Although the people are categorized into various blends such as the Germanization and Russification of Polish territory, it remained to keep Polish language and culture. Language becomes an essential element of national identity and strengthened it due to the lack of statehood. Polish language was the most important factor and the expression of national consciousness, Russification and Germanisation met with fierce resistance.

Germanisation and Russification are the process of assimilation German or Russian language and culture by individuals and social groups which are mixed with other cultures. Both may occur as a result of a coercion administration or education and can be voluntary work but it does not involve any direct pressure. It is often understood as a process of denationalization, through inducement or coercion of Indigenous people to assimilate a specific area of the German or Russian language and culture, as well as the process of the language, culture and people spread through assimilation and adaptation of foreign words.

Germanisation had started long before the Partitions of the Polish state. It was dated to1740 when Prussian king Frederick the Great decided to occupy area of Upper Silesia. Upon entering the Prussian troops to this area, there were a number of Polish people. In 1744 in Silesia, Prussia introduced a ban on Polish language used in the judiciary. Ten years later, it was forbidden to employ teachers in schools who did not master German language. In 1763 there was a general obligation not to use the Polish language in all primary schools; a year later, all the teachers who did not understand the German language were banned to teach in schools. In 1766 Frederick the Great issued an edict ordering all teachers to master German language or else they could lose their jobs. Germanisation did not stop after the Partition of the Poland, the Prussian authorities were aware of the widespread presence of the Polish culture and language in the conquered territories conducted the new restrictions and repressions against Polish people. From 1810 it was prohibited to use the Polish language during the masses celebrated in Protestant churches. In 1826 there was an order to use German language during confessions and sermons (Drabina 2002).

In Pomerania, in 1834 the German language was introduced as the language for lecturing. In Poznań, Germanisation process ended in 1887, after a complete prohibition of using Polish language – even in primary schools. During this time, the German language was introduced to the government and the judiciary. In 1900 Polish language was forbidden to use during religion classes which triggered a wave of strikes – including in Września in 1901 which became the most glaring manifestation of resistance to this educational policy.

Germanization process was slightly different under the Austrian annexation. In 1805 the Cracow Academy was Germanized, however it was Polanized already in 1809, and nine years later it awarded the autonomy re-named it as the Jagiellonian University. The situation began to change in the sixties of the nineteenth century. Germanisation process stopped and Polish language went back to schools and administration.

Russification process started later. Education was under the supervision of former University of Vilnius using Polish language as a language of instruction. In Warsaw, The Society of Friends of Learning and the king of Saxony Frederick Augustus preserve the integrity of the Polish language. Good conditions also existed in the early years of the Congress in Poland. The basic education and vocational training were expended and in 1816 the University of Warsaw was established (Frączykowski 2001; Korobowicz, Witkowski 2009).

The reinforcement effort of Russification coincided with the collapse of the November Uprising in 1831. The Society of Friends of Learning was resolved. A year later, Russian language became an official language and the University of Warsaw was closed. The crisis of the Crimean War improved the situation for a moment. The defeat of the January uprising sparked another wave of Russification. It was ordered in 1866 to learn and use Russian languages and in 1868 Russian became the language of administration and the judiciary. A year later public schools were transformed into Russian schools. Authorities made some concessions in 1905 allowing Polish language to be present at the private schools (Frączykowski 2001).

In nineteenth-century in Tsarist Russia language policy was based on Russian only. However, from this policy some variation occurred, especially in the partitioned Poland occupied by Russia. From the anecdotal evidence, like autobiographies of Polish speakers, like Maria Skłodowska-Curie told that teacher at school covertly taught in Polish, however, during the evaluations, the best students (those speaking Russian best) were parading before the school inspector. This is what Schiffman calls “Potemkin” policies. Potemkin village was a construction of false-front, with smiling and waving actors to Tsarina Catherine the Great (Schiffman 1996: 6).

Polish language not only constitutes a part of Polish culture, but also endures the endangered Polish national identity and the lack of supports became part of struggle and opposition to such a situation. Polish language was treated as a basic instrument in the fight for national liberation.

 

Conclusions   

Language in education can be divided into two major categories: medium of instruction and language taught as a subject. These functions of language can be classified into four categories: cognitive, instrumental, integrative and cultural. The first one is related to learners’ intellectual development. The instrumental function refers to knowledge or how to use language for material purposes. The integrative function makes an individual become a member of the group using language as a symbol of identity. Finally, cultural function is related to the possibility in gaining a deep understanding and appreciation of the culture to which language it belongs (Nababan 1991: 121). At this point, cultural function seems to be the most important part. Learning a language is a process where all language skills are acquired which link to many areas, including country’s economy, history, political system, and social issues.

For these reasons, language can be regarded as an essential part of culture and media. From the point of view of language, state-centric can perform its functions, but the key point is to unite and unify the society and to retain their sense of identity.

This work aimed to show and to determine what aspects are based on three different languages​​: Indonesian language as a neutral language, which was adopted in Indonesia primarily to unite the society in newly nation; the Hebrew language, which has been restored to be an initial reference point for the Jewish people, and became an official language of Israel, and become a key element of national identity; and at last the Polish language, which is an example of a language that has survived despite the absence of the Polish state and also became an essential element of connecting the Polish society.

 

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INDONESIA AND POLAND: LANGUAGE (FOREIGN) POLICY AS A SOFT POWER

Anna Grzywacz

Warsaw University

 

Abstract

Language policy is a major factor assisting a country foreign policy. Polish language policy seems to be less effective than Indonesian. However, both states have equally considerable potentials, but in the case of Poland, it seems that significance of culture policy is not appreciated. Cultural policy, which primarily is important element of creating country’s image in the world, strengthens the international position and seems to have ability to impact on imposed by the West’s cultural domination. This article presents discussion on the Polish and Indonesian language policy. Starting with the general concept of soft power and language policy, the writer presents general comparison of Indonesian and Poland’s language policy. This article concludes that Indonesian language policy is somewhat better than that of Poland.

Keywords: soft power, language policy, Indonesian language, Polish language

Globalization, the term extremely popular, is alluring and sometimes abused, for most had its beginning in The Age of Discovery. “Discovered” were new trails, other regions and continents. So, “discovered” were people and their cultures. “Discovered” not became known, understood, but “discovered” (Dussel 1995, 2000).

This word is an element of domination discovering over discovered. Today, cultural sensitivity, and its proper understanding should lead to the process of Re-Discovery of the others, with the understanding of colonial history of “baggage”. Understanding is the relevant communication tool and its strength is determined by language.

Research area of this work is language foreign policy, a wider cultural policy of Poland and Indonesia, the importance and impact of this policy on the perception of the state in the world, and its significance to the building soft power resources. In this article, it is hypothesized that language foreign policy –defined as the promotion of language abroad- significantly increase the soft power resources and is effectively to lead, support regional and global political aspirations of the state. It is also an instrument of creating and changing the state’s image, and primarily is a means of better, more appropriate and “truer” understanding of other cultures. This article is written based on the Polish and Indonesian language policies. It is hard to compete for attention with hard power, which is why cultural policy is so important. Cultural elements regarded as attractive, have been acquiring growing number of adherents.

This paper is an attempt to show that the language policy – which is central of culture – is a major factor assisting the Polish and Indonesian foreign policies. The intensity of supporting the foreign policy depends on the policy’s effectiveness. Polish language policy seems to be less effective than Indonesian. However, both states have equally considerable potentials, but in the case of Poland, it seems that the significance of culture policy is not very much appreciated. Cultural policy, a primarily important element of creating country’s image in the world, strengthens the international position and seems to have ability to impact on the influences by the Western cultural domination.

First, this paper will discuss the basic concept of soft power and language policy before embarking on the discussion on the Indonesian and Poland’s language policy.

Soft Power and Power of Language

The author of the concept of soft power is Joseph S. Nye, an American scholar of international relations and political science. He used this term for the first time in 1980.  The phrase coined the literature of the international relations studies in 1990, when his book Bound to Lead: The Changing Nature of American Power was published. Joseph S. Nye developed the concept in Soft Power: The Means to Success in World Politics in 2004. This term is then widely used in international politics and affairs. Soft power is “the ability to get what you want through attraction rather than coercion or payments” (Nye 2004).

The state power can be divided into two categories: hard power, composed of military and economic resources and soft power, composed of three resources: culture, political values and ideas, and foreign policy (Nye 2004).  Hard power and soft power are related to each other. However, strictly differentiating of the two is very difficult. Culture, values and institutions which are found tempting for states in international system are elements which enable the use of soft power (Nye 2004: 8). Using soft power can be seen through the spread of radio, television, newspapers, academic and cultural exchanges, training in foreign languages. Those are forms of public diplomacy, which strengthen the state and their influence over the masses (Nye 2008; Atkison 2010).

Increasing prevalence of a state’s culture, values and institutions gives the possibility that citizens of other states may become fascinated by the attributes of the dominating state, and the following, trying to mimic it. Enticed by the culture, power of a state can increase and other states try to imitate the desirable features.

 Hard power considers military and economy strength and size. The power of a state is based on the concept which makes it easily operated and quantified. The influence of education, as well as promotion of education and language abroad of media and the spread of culture are other manifestations of power. They are not included in this conceptualization of hard power. Soft power is an important type of power in an increasingly globalized world, where the international community may discourage the use of military or less often economy force (McClory 2010).

Soft power unlike hard power is not a commodity; however both can be used for specific objectives but in different methods. Soft power is a relative and intangible concept. Components of hard power like military are relatively easy to quantify. Soft power, by “its nature”, is difficult to measure, count or analyze. This relational nature of soft power makes also cross-national comparison difficulties. Perception of one country may be significantly different from that of others (McClory 2010).

Power is influential factor in international politics. Soft power avoids traditional foreign policy, implements and allocates instead the attractiveness of institutions, culture, politics and foreign policy to shape the preferences of others (Nye 2011a).

After Cold War, global affairs have a nature changing and international environment seems to be more complex, and it fosters more to soft power mechanism. What we call soft power right now is not new. But information revolution and global media have increased into well-informed global public with emerging ability to influence politics (see Nye 2011b).

Promoting culture values has been received universally, with which other nations can identify and naturally they seem attractive, important and appreciated. Volume and extent of cultural output are crucial for soft power strengths; however, mass production is not what mass influence is. Therefore, it is worthwhile to consider culture quality and international achievement of country’s cultural outcomes, if culture quality can be measured somehow. However, culture needs to be promoted in the world, and language seems to be a “comfortable tool” in extending influence in the world.

Soft power’s global profile and its explanatory value have been increasing for two decades now. This made it a central feature of wider discourses on international politics. Leslie Gelb has argued that “soft power now seems to mean everything” (Gelb 2009: 69). Criticism is based on overexposure of concept and using soft power by policy makers without the sufficient understanding of concept are two challenges to soft power’s integrity (MacClory 2011).

Power, in international relations, has traditionally been considered as a predominantly realist concept. From realist perspective, only material and substantial resources, like military, population, and territory are worth to be considered in international politics. During twentieth century, international relations studies evolved and competed to challenge the realist perspective and its interpretation of power in international politics. The study of international relations can be perceived as a constant struggle between realism, liberalism and critical theories (see Morgenthau 1948; Waltz 1979; Keohane, Nye 1977; Wendt 1992, also Viotti, Kaupii 1999).

Soft power has a long history and its growing appeal lies in its utility in the present-day context. International politics is in the process of transformation, and this process has been bringing difficulties for policy makers and diplomats. There are four primary factors: diffusion of power, information and communications technology changes, networks and the decline of traditional propaganda. Diffusion of power can be seen in two ways. First, power seems to drift between states, moving from West to East (see Mahbubani 2008). Second, non-state actors play a more significant role, moving power from states altogether. Communication and information revolution can be connected to global affairs. Increasingly informed and active global public are outcomes of delivering information throughout the world and extended access to information. Information can make any individual more powerful than ever in history. International network is the factor linked to previous era. International networks can comprise set of actors like states, society, groups, organizations, also individuals. As a result of cooperation, the forms can be movements of working for solutions for global or specific problems. The last factor, the decline of propaganda, is because many politicians are hard to accept. It is hardly possible to deliver a message to domestic audience while international community gets another. Inconsistencies between state’s policy and messaging are more conspicuous. Information crosses borders, and information, being a power, inquires proper usage (MacClory 2010, 2011).

Language Policy in International Relations

Harold F. Schiffman notes that language policy and language planning should not be treated as one topic. He refers (after Bugarski) the term language policy “to the policy of a society in the area of linguistic communication—that is, the set of positions, principles and decisions reflecting that community’s relationships to its verbal repertoire and communicative potential”, and language planning is “understood as a set of concrete measures taken within language policy to act on linguistic communication in a community, typically by directing the development of its languages” (Schiffman 1996: 3). For Schiffman the basis tenet is that language policy is grounded in linguistic culture. Linguistic culture is defined as a set of behaviors, assumptions, cultural forms, prejudices, folk belief system, attitudes, stereotypes, ways of thinking about language, and religio-historical circumstances related to a language (Schiffman 1996: 5).

Language can be used for many and for specific purposes such as government decisions, political debate, media and is related to the ability to express the relevant content in the language. Major investment would be needed to provide a language used so far for other cultural purposes. In standardization process, the breadth of the tolerated area of variation is of essential significance. This is what Peter Sutton calls “language engineering” (Sutton 1991: 141).

Language policy’s outcomes can be divided into two categories: effective or ineffective. A state can support minority languages or indigenous languages, also involves in a foreign language planning that has an economic or strategic significance. Those outcomes can be failure or success. Outcomes are related to planning process, which should considerate factors like forces of economic, technological, social and political changes (La Bianco 2010: 38).

Learner or user of language is connected in time and space to cultural tradition. It is                  a significant process in which link with the past to provide a unique form of access to other tradition. Process is the effect of using tools, that language requires, that has been invented not by learner and re-circulated for long periods of time by others. These observations have educational consequences. In studying history, what is acquired is knowledge about other time. In studying geography, what we encounter are other places. Learning does not only involve gaining knowledge, but also appreciation of otherness – the cultural conceptualizations –  which are the foundations influencing other groups’ collectively to encounter with reality, whether it is other times, belief or values. Every cultural group has its own semiotic systems, experiences or values. Learning different artistic traditions or religions allows encountering what and how they really are. Ideally, this has effect of re-imagination assumptions about what is “normal” and appropriate to enriching perspective that diversity makes intercultural awareness. Accepting different languages can lead into intercultural competence.

Significant extension of intercultural competence can form a disposition of world-mindedness what La Bianco defines as a “state of thinking and an attitude that extends knowledge of difference and acceptance of its nature to groups and traditions beyond those the individual has directly studied and known”. In all those processes—intercultural awareness, fostering intercultural competence and shaping world-mindedness—the vital role is assigned to language policy (La Bianco, 2010: 44).

Foreign and second-language teaching by definition provide enchantment of the studied group, its culture, religious belief, traditions or aspirations. Foreign language culture teaching implies “compressing” the knowledge and generalizing information. World-mindedness seeks to invest this method in a wider scope, so learners can gain and study Others. Studies of comparative art, philosophy, religion, law, and history introduce Otherness. However, unlike these fields of study, language has an exceptional perspective in learning and understanding difference and Otherness. It is without significance connection between language and behavior. Language is not a simple knowledge or cognition of past or places, it requires more than that which are activating and performing the new knowledge, considering on a different cultural system (La Bianco 2010: 44-45).

Language policy-making can be divided into four main domains or spheres of activity: sovereignty, jurisdiction, influence and behavior. Characteristic modes of participation in the process are: public texts (such as laws, regulations and planning), public discourses (statements, discussion and public attitudes) and performative actions (behavior, what the powerful individuals, institutions and actors do) and deliberative process (facilitated degree of discussion on policy problems, strategic planning and implementation) (La Bianco 2010: 48).

The purposes of language planning activity are: (a) actions that formalize or elevate the status of language, (b) actions that modify the corpus of a language, (c) actions that promote the learning of language and the acquisition of literacy, (d) actions that extend the domains and usage of language, (e) actions that elevate the prestige and esteem of language, (f) actions that modify the discourse and attitudes towards the language. From these actions, promoting the learning of language means planning relatively free of public texts, laws and sovereignty provisions of government. However, it is highly dependent on effective administrative action, technical skills of teachers and theirs educators and administrators (La Bianco, 2010).

Foreign language teaching also belongs in this category of actions; however, it typically depends on education ministries. There are several types of foreign language teaching policies, divided on the basis of social hierarchies, positions and interests. Prestigious languages have been privileged by social elites, especially those have been seen and admired by theirs cultural or intellectual history and traditions. Some languages are “used” because they are strategically important for trade, diplomacy or international relations. This is involved in economic or human capital development planning (La Bianco 2010: 54).

Language policy is primarily a social construct, consisting of various elements; juridical and administrative elements may be extant in some jurisdictions. Policy has explicit nature. Language policy as a cultural construct reposes primarily on other conceptual elements, like belief system, myths and as a whole complex it refers to linguistic culture. Linguistic culture is ensemble of ideas, beliefs, religious structures, values and “cultural baggage”- that a speaker brings from his background. Also, a linguistic culture concerns with the transmission and codification of a language. This involves the role for language in replication, construction and transmission of culture itself (Schiffman 1996: 276-280).

Language is a construct; however, its deconstructions or changes can be implied by, for example, political scholars. Every language policy is culture-specific. To understand why and how policies evolve or how people are influenced by them, see the discussion in the study of linguistic culture (Schiffman 1996: 280).

In nineteenth-century in Tsarist Russia language policy was based on Russian only. However, actually some variations occurred from this policy, especially in partitioned Poland from the occupation of Russia. From anecdotal evidence, like autobiographies of Polish speakers, here Maria Skłodowska-Curie, it is known that teacher in the school covertly taught in Polish. However, during the inspections the best students, those who are speaking Russian, who are considered the best, were parading before the school inspector. This is what Schiffman calls “Potemkin” policies. Potemkin village was a construction of false-front, with actors smiling and waving to Tsarina Catherine the Great (Schiffman 1996: 6).

Language in education can be divided into two major categories: medium of instruction and language taught as a subject. These functions of language can be classified into four categories: cognitive, instrumental, integrative and cultural. The cognitive functions are related to learners’ intellectual development, the instrumental function refers to knowledge how to use language for material gains. The integrative function makes oneself a member of the group using language as a symbol of identity. The last is cultural function, which is related to possibility of gaining a deep understanding and appreciation of the culture to which language belongs (Nababan 1991: 121, see Lin, Martin 2005).

At this point, this function seems to be the most important. Learning a language is a process when not only language skills are acquired. Accompanying learning process knowledge extends to many areas, including country’s economy, history, political system, and social issues. It could be also a “clash of civilizations”, which improves, corrects and shapes knowledge about the Other “world”. Edward W. Said in his Orientalism proved that gained knowledge is what we imagine about the Others, without understanding how this knowledge was shaped by history, politics or discourses. Orientalism world is stereotypically perceived, this is a main reason to learn about the others cultures, to understand them.

About knowledge and power relationships, Said wrote in his monumental work “Orientalism”, which was first published in 1978. According to him, there is no “pure” scientific knowledge, because inevitably it is linked to power. Interdependence between knowledge and power – referring to Michel Foucault – has shown that Western science was used to legitimization of European / Western imperialism. Mentioning Orientalism is a frame in an epistemological frame in which it presents as “a geographical and cultural, political, demographic, sociological and historical complex”, which traditionally is controlled by “real Europeans”.  The juxtaposition of East and West divides the quality as follows: The West is a logical, normal, empirical, cultural, rational, and realistic. While East is backward, degenerate, uncultured, retarded, rigid, illogical, despotic, and it does not participate creatively in the world’s development. Orientalist, according to Said, describes East as entirely in the needs of the West, preferring the enlightenment model of knowledge than non-European reality. As a result, there is a one-sided, biased and subjective science, which, however, aspires to formulate “objective truth” (Gawrycki 2010).

Edward W. Said defines Orientalism as “a way of coming to terms with the Orient that is based on the Orient’s special place in European Western experience. The Orient has helped to define Europe (or the West) as its contrasting image, idea, personality, experience. Yet none of this, Orient is merely imaginative. The Orient is an integral part of European material civilization and culture. Orientalism expresses and represents that part culturally and even ideologically as a mode of discourse with supporting institutions, vocabulary, scholarship, imagery, doctrines, even colonial bureaucracies and colonial styles” (Said1978: 35).

Language is a power, which has a soft power building measurement. It also has not only a linguistic knowledge and but also a support to the state’s foreign policy.

Indonesia’s Foreign Language Policy

Indonesia is generally regarded as a “pivotal” state. Many Indonesian leaders, after Indonesia’s independence in 1945, perceived country’s size, history, resources, economic and cultural potential as component of state which is predestined to a leadership role in Southeast Asia. Indonesia’s history showed that the country was not always prepared for such a role in region and reflection like this seemed to be just a postponed conception. Scholars nowadays admit that Indonesia has been more and more growing. The regional and global profile of Indonesia seems to be not questionable as many as before. Indonesia has been playing a very important role in building political and security community in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). Apart from this regional cooperation, Indonesia strengthens bilateral partnerships with the most and very important countries such as United States of America, Australia, Russia, emerging countries such as India or China. Indonesia is an important participant of United Nations Security Council and G-20. Moreover, Indonesia is engaged on many international issues, including climate change, energy security, and food security or combating terrorism. More importantly, Indonesia’s consolidation of democracy improved domestic resilience for many countries and international community. Indonesia has experienced an impressive economic growth, annually between 4 to 6 per cent, which places Indonesia in  very good position (Laksmana 2011: 157-158).

Indonesia’s influence in Asia has increased remarkably over the past decade. The increase in economic power is the most significant one, especially in Southeast Asia. In 2008 OECD (Organization of Economic Co-operation and Development) report the points that Indonesia was included as the member of BRICS (an acronym for leading emerging economies- Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) countries, re-named it to BRIICS. Beyond the economic growth, the strengthening of Indonesia’s soft power has been essential in expanding the regional influence. Indonesian values and culture have potentials to compete in Southeast Asian region, and widely in Asian region. In terms of entertainment, Indonesian TV and radio broadcasting  stations have attracted people all over the Asia region, especially in Asian countries. Being active in regional multilateral organization in ASEAN and  others, Indonesia attracts the interest of international students and promote the study of Indonesian language.

Indonesia’s foreign policy, taking historical and political experiences, could be regarded as  “independent and active”. Government expresses this doctrine in the country’s soft power in shaping the regional environment and participating in international organizations. In addition, the government believes and adheres to the principles of non-intervention and multilateralism. Eventhough democratization improved Indonesia’s soft power, it has made more difficult for the government to proceed a coherent and stable foreign policy. By the increasing roles of the parliament and stronger public opinion influence, the foreign policy becomes more complicated. Foreign policy is influenced by thinking of the defense and military establishment, however, material capabilities, such as economic, military, demography, are not enough to fully account for the rise of global power. To understand Indonesia’s regional and global profile, it is crucial is considered non-material factors (Laksmana 2011: 177-178, see also Dibb 2001).

Indonesia, ranked after United States of America and India, is world’s third largest democracy. The location at the geographic nexus between Southeast Asia and Australia fills strategic potential. Moreover, Indonesia is an important partner in global commerce and harbors with rich cultural heritage. Indonesia has the largest Muslim population in the world. Indonesian constitution guarantees religious tolerance. Unfortunately, Indonesia is not widely known, understood and studied by both scholar and students. At this point, it is important that United States of America and Indonesia decided to “complete the project” of broadening relations not only to share ideas and innovations, but also to build understanding. U.S. after 9/11 became driving force of building image of Muslims as terrorists. Indonesia has a potential to re-build this negative “picture”.

It is almost impossible to find the country in the world with the same populations of one ethnic origins, language, culture and religious belief. The significant difference can be seen on every continent, especially in new emerging nations of Southeast Asia like Indonesia.  National awareness is often described as a common sentiment. From all the elements of culture, language is one of the most effective means for shaping and creating community (Hoy-Kee, 1971: 73; Laitin, 2001).

Every new independent country in Southeast Asia has attempted successfully in adopting a national language. Southeast Asian states have believed that the adoption and development of a national language is crucial for making sense of national identity. Without this identity process, the building powerful state is hampered and could be incomplete effectively (Hoy-Kee 1971: 73). The new independent postcolonial nation seeks to “independent construction” which reflects its own desires and aspirations. It also expresses the willingness of removing “the blemish of colonial history”.

Some attention has been paid to the aspects of Indonesian development; however, it is not enough to view. One of the more accessible aspects called “the nationality problem writ small: language development. Indonesian language (Bahasa Indonesia) by Geertz is a significantly robust language of the developing world; however, some elements are unexplored. Language and its dialects are symbols of ethnic identity and community affiliation. Language is a primary means in shaping social relations process and basis of effective communication. For those reasons, forms and ways of using language can be described as articulated elements of a broader social phenomenon (Erington, 1986: 330).

When new or changed patterns of ethnic and national allegiance appear, it can build up the emergence of new things. Take for example communication need in new institutional setting emerges, the perception of social status and role changes, knowledge about the complex patterns of verbal interaction appears useful, the whole things are as a basis of explanatory process. Patterns of language use:  in different contexts, situations, depending on the subject or speech partner, can become a socially important basis reflecting the changes in the language between ethnically and socioeconomically different communities. The Indonesian language development is a multifaceted process, which effectively shapes the language of the nation in the world too. In addition, it constructs the so-called a symbol of indigenous Indonesian identity. Those patterns of change are the guidelines to the broader patterns of social change, in which linguistic changes have been introduced and disseminated (Erington, 1986: 330, see also Sneddon, 2003).

Benedict Anderson argued that Indonesian is “an enterprise for the mastery of a gigantic cultural crisis, and a partly subconscious project for the assumption of ‘modernity’ within the modalities of an autonomous and autochthonous social-political tradition” (Erington 1986: 331). Anderson studied Javanese linguistic influence on Indonesian culture, with its center in Jakarta. Jakarta was founded by the Dutch as Batavia in 1619 and has always been ethnically complex. Among the Jakarta’s spoken languages are dialects of Malay, language of southern Sumatra, the Riau Archipelago, the coast of Kalimantan and on the Malay peninsula. Malay was used as a lingua franca by traders or travelers for many centuries and from its dialects Indonesian language derived. Bahasa Indonesia has been influenced by languages of indigenous ethnic groups, foreigners, traders and others, as it has always been receptive of impact of languages from inside and outside Southeast Asia such as Arabic, Portuguese, and Chinese. Likewise, Malay was adopted by the Dutch as a language of colonial administration, over time being standardized among elite of the Dutch East Indies (Errington 1986: 334-335, also Anderson 1990; Nugroho 1957).

Joseph Erington notices in Colonial Linguistics (2001) that Malay as a lingua franca in the Dutch East Indies can be considered by its status shaped as object of colonial linguistics. Malay became an object of descriptive and codifying attention “because of its growing salience for regime that progressively penetrated territories and communities. Linguistic work offers evidence of underlying tensions between colonial needs for effective communicative praxis across lines of sociolinguistic difference on one hand, and colonial ideologies of languages as marks of identity on the other” (Erington 2001: 29).

Indonesia’s national language policy has been called a “miraculous success”, “a great success” and “perhaps even the most spectacular linguistic phenomenon of our age” (Paauw 2009: 1, also Dardjowidjojo 1998).

Indonesian Ministry of Education and Culture (Kementerian Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan)  in cooperation with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Kementerian Luar  Negeri)  have been organizing a scholarship program for foreign students which is called “Darmasiswa”. This scholarship is provided for citizens of countries which has diplomatic and close relations with Indonesia.

Darmasiswa students can study some disciplines such as: Indonesian language, arts, craft and music. The program was created to promote and increase the interest in the Indonesian language and culture. It provides stronger cultural links among participating countries.

This program involves 45 different universities in Indonesia. Darmasiswa program has been started since 1974 as a part of ASEAN initiative. For the first two years, this program was limited to ASEAN area, and it was extended to include students from expanding countries such as Australia, Canada, France, Hungary, Japan, Mexico, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Sweden and United States of America.

Table 1. Numbers of Participants and Countries in Darmasiswa Program

Year

Number of participants

Number of countries

2011

779

70

2010

750

83

2009

200

50

2008

500

58

2007

450

60

Source: Ministry of Education and Culture of Indonesia

This program involves 45 different universities in Indonesia. Darmasiswa program started in 1974 as a part of ASEAN initiative. For the first two years, this program was limited to ASEAN area, and it was extended to include students from countries such as Australia, Canada, France, Hungary, Japan, Mexico, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Sweden and United States of America.

In 90’s this program was extended again to include all countries having diplomatic relationship with Indonesia. Today, more than 75 countries are participating in Darmasiswa Program. Year by year more students participate in this program. In 2011 it prepared scholarship for 750 students (Ministry of Education and Culture of Indonesia). As it is shown in the Table 1, 2010 was the year of significant increase. Scholarships was received by 550 more students than in 2009 in 33 more countries (Ministry of Education and Culture of Indonesia)

Poland’s Language Foreign Policy

Polish language seen from the cultural perspective seems unattractive to average European. Slavic languages generally, Polish in particular, are poorly known and regarded as useless in Western Europe. Traditionally and stereotypically they are associated with cultural backward and poor countries. This perception builds stereotypes, for example, about their supposedly exceptional complexity or difficult “rustling” pronunciation. Consequently, it creates a feeling of cultural alienation of Polish language and other Slavic languages (Pawłowski, 2006:8)

Ministry of Science and Higher Education works with foreign Polish language teaching academic centers to do cooperation in education and culture for promotion, dissemination and development of language teaching.

Every year, the ministry consults with Polish diplomatic mission to improve the relation with new academic centers. The cooperation has been implemented via diplomatic missions. Cooperation and assistance for foreign universities is based on submitted requirements. Teachers are directed by Ministry of Science and Higher Education.  Ministry of Science and Higher Education organizes annually training course for candidates for teachers of Polish as a foreign language in a foreign academic centers. For several years, this course has been organized in cooperation with the University of Maria Curie-Skłodowska in Lublin. It should be emphasized that this system is a complementary system to the direct exchange programs of academics, conducted by Polish universities and their foreign partners. In the academic year 2011/12 they were sent to 31 countries (97 academic centers) 104 teachers.

Table 2. Number of countries and Academic Centers with specialist in Polish language and culture in academic year 2011/2012 (first 12 countries).

Country

Number of teachers

Russia

18

Ukraine

13

France

9

Italy

7

Bulgaria

4

Great Britain

4

Belgium

3

Czech Republic

3

Hungary

3

Moldavia

3

Romania

3

Slovakia

3

Source: Writer’s own elaboration based on data from Minister of Science and Higher Education

 

Table 3. Number of certified examination candidates (2004-2010) by 10 first countries of origin.

2004-2009

2010

Country

Total

Country

Total

Germany

275

U.S.

77

Ukraine

265

Russia

63

U.S.

255

Germany

61

Poland

215

Ukraine

59

Russia

114

France

39

Belarus

102

Poland

35

France

71

Japan

33

Japan

60

Slovenia

17

Spain

58

Belarus

18

Slovakia

52

South Korea

15

Total

1861

Total

500

Source: Minister of Science and Higher Education, data processed by the writer

Polish language belongs to the West Slavonic group of Indo-European languages. Because of its structure, Polish language is classified as an inflectional and synthetic language. As a separate language, Polish began to shape in tenth century, and played its crucial role during formation and development of the Polish state. In the earliest time, Polish language preserved records of individual words from the twelfth century. Until the fourteenth century, Polish language existed only in the regional and folk spoken varieties while supra-regional varieties of language developed in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries as evidenced by Renaissance literature were also written in Polish. Initially, the development of the Polish language was influenced by the neighboring languages – German and Czech, as well as Latin. In later centuries Polish was marked by a significant influence of the French language. The number of Polish speakers can be estimated to more than 45 million people, while 38 million of which live in Poland. Polish language is used by the groups of Poles and the native Polish who live abroad such as in the U.S., Canada, Australia, Germany, Great Britain, France, and also in Belarus, Kazakhstan, Lithuania and Ukraine. Locally, the most commonly spoken dialects used are Kashubian, Silesian, and Mazovian.

Polish is not a popular language; however, the number of people learning Polish as a foreign language has been increasing. The number of learners can be estimated nearly 10 000 worldwide, approximately one third of languages courses take place in Poland.

According to the data, the most candidates are from three countries: Germany, Ukraine and United States. Generally, the candidates are citizens from Poland’s neighboring countries: Germany, Ukraine, Belarus, Russia, Slovakia and the Czech Republic, then Western Europe countries. However, among 48 of the candidates, there are candidates from distant countries like U.S., China, Japan or South Korea. The candidates from U.S. are mostly Polish origin citizens, unlike to Asian candidates. Seen from the first two years of certified examination, the candidates were mostly non-polish origin, approximately 70 % of the candidates. It indicates that the interest towards Polish language by citizens is not related to Poland citizenship. The selection has been treated valuably as a rare competence in labor market. Currently, the estimation of Polish origin candidates is estimated to 45% of all (www.rjp.pan.pl).

The promotion of Polish culture abroad, including Polish language seems to be not sufficient. Some of the weaknesses of Polish policy are: lack of mechanism and idea for adjusting the strategy of promoting culture to changes, lack of coherent culture promoting policy, lack of appropriate organizational and financial instruments, insufficient use of modern forms of communication, and insufficient facilities in doing the promotion. Moreover, if we see Poland in general, there are some imperfect conditions such as: lack of studies on cultural promotion abroad in various countries and regions, insufficient business sector interest in culture communication, low budget for doing the cultural promotion. On the other hands, there are some advantages which should be highlighted such as the diversity of Polish culture, the rich cultural heritage, the unique culture heritage, the increasing competence of personnel in organizations and institutions of culture and foreign promotion. Policy-makers should remember about threats for Polish culture promotion, which are: civilization decline – Poland as a passive recipient, rather than an active supplier of high IQ content for ideas and cultural goods in global circulation, small or even lack of knowledge for improving  promotion, low appreciation of its impact on state-brand of building process, direct investments, international trade and tourism, unwillingness,  a priori, to consider culture as a part of economic, low budget for promotion of Polish culture (Mocek 2010).

The ideological context in which foreign promotion of Polish language could be carried out is favorable. It is defined by a modern concept of human rights which is declared in the acts of the United Nations, Council of Europe and other international institutions. Another source of promoting multilingualism is ecolinguistics. According to this humanistic approach, the protection of natural objects and their environment is extended to objects of culture. Every language, even the smallest, is regarded as a common, universal heritage that should be protected along with their demographic, cultural and geographical environment.  The ideology in European Union’s environmental policy is the recognition of all official languages, meaning in practice: incurring very high costs of translations, allocating certain amounts from a common budget for international exchange programs (including students, teachers and students of foreign languages) and promotion of regional languages (Pawłowski 2006).

The ideological element of Polish language policy should become the communicative vision of Europe – a continent of diversity – which indirectly determines the language profile of Europeans capable of conscious and  active participation in the life in not only its region, but throughout the European Union. It seems that EU citizens should finally accept the fact that EU does not only include two, but the three pillars of languages: Latin, Germanic and Slavic. The language of communication generally consists of global language (English), Germanic language (German is the obvious candidate), Romance language (several natural candidates) and a large Slavic language (natural candidate is Polish). It is believed that the cultural and linguistic diversity of Europe, which in the past was the source of innumerable persecutions. Conflicts become the common prosperity of all Europeans (Pawłowski 2006: 7-8).

 

Conclusions

Both Poland and Indonesia have a colonial history, however, in different dimensions, from a piece of history that was taken from them. The Poland colonization in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries produced a paradoxical post-colonial Polish mentality. It may be surprising, forasmuch Poland is certainly not a typical post-colonial state.  The majority of political scientists probably would agree with the statement that Poland cannot even be discussed in post-colonial terms. However, seen from cultural and literacy perspectives it is not so clear. Some scholars in cultural studies attempt to analyze Polish identity and politics in post-colonial terms and are focused on three themes: the Polish past presence in the Eastern Europe, the subordination to the Soviet empire, new forms of depending to Western countries (Gawrycki 2009:7-8; 2011:225-233).

Both Poland and Indonesia have their regional, in case if Indonesia also global, aspirations, and both have the potential to play more significant role in politics. Both have attractive cultural heritage with global significance. What makes these countries different is the way how they understood role of culture in the world. Presented article aimed to analyze the impact of language promotion abroad, as a part of cultural policy. Effective language policy is an inherent component of soft power resources, supporting the state’s foreign policy, country’s image in building instrument and the means of better intercultural understanding.

Polish language foreign policy, and broader cultural policy and its promotion abroad is not as effective as in the case of Indonesia. Poland’s promotion of language concentrates on Polish origin people, while Indonesian policy is also strongly focused on non-Indonesians origin people. Poland lacks of coherent cultural policy, and seems that underestimates significance of culture. Indonesia, as a multiethnic, thus the multicultural state seems to understand more sensitively the importance of culture in international relations, therefore importance of promoting the language in international relations.

I myself have been learning Indonesian language in the embassy of Indonesia in Warsaw. Poland has a population of over 38 million people, which makes Poland the 34th most populous country in the world.  As it was mentioned, Polish language is not popular in the world. Neither is Indonesian, though Indonesian population over 237 million people makes Indonesia the 4th most populous country. However, it is not about population, but how many people has been learning language in the world. Indonesia seems to “tell its story better”.

 

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BAHASA ROJAK DI MALAYSIA : ANTARA IDENTITAS DAN REALITAS (KAJIAN SOSIOLINGUISTIK)

Nani Darmayanti*

Universitas Padjadjaran

  

ABSTRAK

Penelitian ini membahas Bahasa Rojak di Malaysia yang ditinjau berdasarkan kedudukannya di antara pembangun identitas dan realitas yang ada di masyarakat. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah metode deskriptif dengan teknik sadap rekam. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa jenis bahasa yang terdapat dalam bahasa rojak ialah (1) bahasa Melayu, (2) bahasa Cina, (3) bahasa Tamil dan (4) bahasa Inggris. Faktor yang melatarbelakangi seorang penutur mencampur-campur  bahasanya ialah (1) keakraban penutur dengan lawan tutur yang memiliki kesamaan identitas, (2) keinginan penutur mempertahankan dan menunjukkan identitasnya kepada lawan tuturnya dan (3)  penutur ingin meningkatkan dan menunjukkan kuasanya di hadapan kelompok umum. Adapun dampak yang dapat ditimbulkan atas penggunaan bahasa rojak dalam masyarakat ini dibagi menjadi dua bagian yaitu dampak positif dan dampak negatif. Kata Kunci : Bahasa Rojak, Identitas, Realitas, Malaysia, Sosiolinguistik..

Kata kunci: Bahasa Rojak, identitas, realitas, penutur, lawan tutur, sosiolinguistik

***

Bahasa ialah prasyarat penting bagi kesuksesan kebanyakan aktivitas kehidupan manusia, baik secara individu, kelompok atau institusi (Idris Aman 2007: 103). Dalam perkembangannya, bahasa senantiasa mengalami perubahan seiring dengan kehidupan masyarakat yang senantiasa berubah dinamis pula. Salah satu faktor yang turut memengaruhi perubahan bahasa dalam masyarakat ialah percampuran budaya. Dalam hampir seluruh bahasa di dunia, fenomena percampuran budaya memberikan dampak juga pada munculnya percampuran  bahasa di lingkungan masyarakat, termasuk di Malaysia.

Saran Kaur Gill (1997 : 47) menyatakan bahwa sebagai negara yang terdiri daripada berbagai etnik, khasnya Melayu, India dan Cina, Malaysia menghadapi banyak tantangan persoalan bahasa yang berlatar belakang penduduk bermacam-macam suku bangsa dan bahasa. Tantangan ini berasal dari dasar yang berbeda untuk mengekalkan dan memelihara identitas linguistik negara, etnik, dan antarabangsa.  Salah satu wujud tantangan persoalan bahasa yang dihadapi Malaysia yang berpenduduk berbilang bangsa ini ialah munculnya suatu fenomena bahasa yang disebut Bahasa Rojak.

Bahasa Rojak ialah fenomena bahasa yang mencampur baur antara bahasa Melayu dengan bahasa asing lainnya. Istilah ini lahir karena mengaitkan sesuatu yang dicampur-campur itu seperti rojak yang merupakan makanan yang terdiri daripada beberapa bahan yang dicampur (Awang Sariyan 2006 : 546 ).

Bahasa Rojak yang terdapat di Malaysia terdiri atas percampuran antara bahasa Melayu, Bahasa Inggris, Bahasa India dan Bahasa Cina.

Sebagian pihak berpendapat bahwa keberadaan bahasa rojak ini dapat merusak Bahasa Melayu sebagai bahasa nasional. Sebagian pihak lainnya berpendapat bahwa bahasa rojak bukanlah hal yang harus ditakuti karena keberadaan bahasa rojak ini sesungguhnya merupakan wujud daripada identitas pengguna bahasa itu sendiri. Selain itu, perlu diperhatikan pula bahwa dalam dunia bahasa sendiri diakui adanya bahasa ragam resmi dan bahasa ragam tak resmi. Dalam ragam resmi, pengguna bahasa harus menggunakan bahasa nasionalnya sebagai identitas kebangsaan. Namun, dalam ragam tak resmi, pengguna bahasa tidak diharuskan menggunakan bahasa nasional karena dalam ragam tidak resmi, identitas etniklah yang umumnya lebih ditekankan. Jadi, bagaimanakah sesungguhnya kedudukan Bahasa Rojak ini di Malaysia? Hal inilah yang menarik peneliti untuk melakukan penyelidikan lebih lanjut.

 

Bahasa sebagai Identitas

Identitas etnik seseorang dibentuk berdasarkan berbagai faktor. Faktor yang membentuk  etnik seseorang tersebut di antaranya ialah amalan, tradisi, bahasa, agama dan sosiobudaya. Lihat faktor-faktor pembentuk identitas seseorang dalam gambar berikut.

Gambar 1. Faktor-faktor pembentuk identitas seseorang

 

Faktor-faktor inilah yang menjadi ciri dan dimiliki oleh setiap orang dalam kehidupan bermasyarakat. Namun, dari semua ciri yang ada, ciri paling penting yang membedakan seseorang ialah bahasa (Saran Kaur Gill 1997: 42).

Bahasa ialah ciri yang menentukan identitas seseorang pada peringkat negara dan internasional, perlulah dirujuk pada Fishman yang menekankan ada pernyataan yang mengatakan bahwa identitas mempunyai kaitan dekat dengan bahasa karena bahasa lisan ialah salah satu terpenting kumpulan etnik (Fishman 1999: 143). Penyataan di atas dikuatkan oleh Spolsky (1998: 57) yang mengulangi pernyataan ini apabila menyatakan penanda identitas penting bagi seseorang ialah bahasa kelompok yang dia ikuti. Kedua-dua pakar linguistik ini menekankan bahwa bahasa ialah bagian penting identitas seseorang.

Dengan demikian dapat kita ketahui bahwa bahasa ialah alat yang dapat menunjukkan ciri-ciri identitas seseorang dan suatu kaum. Setiap kaum/etnik tertentu akan senantiasa menggunakan bahasa kaumnya untuk menunjukkan identitas dan menunjukkan eksistensi kaumnya tersebut. Jika suatu kaum dilarang menggunakan bahasanya sendiri, maka kaum tersebut dapat kehilangan identitas dan eksistensinya.

 

Bahasa dan Realitas

Realitas kebahasaan secara umum dibagi menjadi dua bagian. (1) bahasa ragam resmi dan (2) bahasa ragam tidak resmi. Bahasa ragam resmi dalam masyarakat Malaysia mengharuskan pengguna bahasa di Malaysia menggunakan Bahasa Melayu karena Bahasa Melayu ialah bahasa negara. Bahasa Melayu sebagai bahasa ragam resmi ini mesti digunakan dalam berbagai forum resmi kenegaraan, bahasa resmi pendidikan, dan forum resmi lain yang menunjukkan bahasa Melayu sebagai identitas negara.

Yang dimaksud bahasa Melayu sebagai bahasa negara ialah bahasa kebangsaan Malaysia dan bahasa resmi negara. Ini termaktub dalam Perkara 152 dalam Perlembagaan Negara/Malaysia, Akta Bahasa Kebangsaan 1967, dan Undang-undang Pendidikan Kebangsaan semenjak Akta Pelajaran 1957 hingga ke Akta Pendidikan 1996 (Teo Kok Seong, 2006 : 698).

Sementara itu bahasa ragam tak resmi, di dalamnya mengakomodasi bahasa-bahasa lainnya selain bahasa kebangsaan sebagai sarana komunikasi di kalangan masyarakan umum. Bahasa ragam tak resmi ini umumnya terdiri dari bahasa-bahasa bawahan, seperti bahasa etnik yang mewakili setiap etnik yang ada dalam suatu lingkungan itu sendiri. Bahasa ragam tak resmi ini umumnya digunakan oleh masyarakat dalam proses komunikasi seperti dalam percakapan, senda gurau, jual beli di pasar dan sebagainya.

 

Bahasa Rojak di Malaysia

Bahasa Rojak ialah fenomena bahasa yang mencampur baur antara bahasa Melayu dengan bahasa asing lainnya. Istilah ini lahir karena mengaitkan sesuatu yang dicampur-campur itu seperti rojak yang merupakan makanan yang terdiri daripada beberapa bahan yang dicampur (Awang Sariyan 2006 : 546).

Gambar 2.   Bahasa yang terdapat dalam bahasa Rojak di Malaysia

Di Malaysia, bahasa rojak terdiri dari percampuran bahasa Melayu, bahasa Cina, bahasa Inggris dan bahasa Tamil.

Fenomena bahasa rojak antara kedua-dua atau lebih bahasa ialah fenomena yang berlaku dalam hampir seluruh masyarakat di dunia yang mengalami percampuran budaya. Percampuran antara kedua-dua bahasa itu umumya berlaku dalam konteks tidak resmi, seperti dalam perbualan,  gurau senda, jual beli di pasar dan sebagainya. Terjadinya perkara ini dalam ranah tidak resmi sesungguhnya dapat diterima sebagai suatu realitas sosiolinguistik.

Hal ini karena dalam komunikasi tidak resmi, berlaku keluwesan  atau kelenturan bahasa yang amat ketara, disebabkan wujudnya berbagai variabel sosial dan psikologi. Latar suasana, keperluan, topik dan sasaran komunikasi, misalnya sangat berpengaruh terhadap lakuan bahasa dalam konteks tidak resmi.

 

Alih Kode

Salah satu penanda dalam bahasa rojak ialah alih kode. Cristal (1978) menerangkan bahwa alih kode berlaku apabila seseorang yang dwibahasa menggunakan dua bahasa atau lebih semasa berkomunikasi. Grosjean (1989) pula memberi penjelasan alih kode sebagai situasi di mana penutur dwibahasa menggunakan satu bahasa sahaja atau menukar dari satu bahasa ke bahasa lain semasa pertuturan atau perbualan mereka. Terdapat berbagai bentuk penggunaan bahasa rojak, contohnya, yang menggunakan alih kode leksikal (kata), frasa, dan juga kalimat dari kedua-dua bahasa.

 

Kaedah Penyelidikan

Secara lebih spesifik, penyelidikan ini bertujuan untuk (1) mendeskripsikan jenis dan bentuk bahasa yang terdapat dalam bahasa rojak di Malaysia, (2) mendeskripsikan faktor-faktor yang menyebabkan penggunaan bahasa rojak oleh masyarakat di Malaysia, dan (3) mendeskripsikan dampak-dampak yang dapat ditimbulkan dengan terjadinya bahasa rojak di Malaysia.

Demi menempatkan penyelidikan yang akan dilakukan ini berada pada jalur yang sistematis, maka pengkaji menetapkan beberapa kaedah yang menjadi pedoman utama dalam penyelidikan. Kaedah penyelidikan tersebut ialah sebagai berikut: (1) Metode penyelidikan yang digunakan dalam kajian ini adalah metode kualitatif. (2) Kerangka penyelidikan yang digunakan ialah sosiolinguistik, yaitu ilmu yang berkaitan dengan pengamatan bahasa dalam realitas sosial. (3) Korpus yang digunakan dalam penyelidikan ini ialah korpus bahasa percakapan yang dikutip langsung dari hasil pengamatan langsung di masyarakat, khususnya di kampus Universitas Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), Bangi, Malaysia.

Kajian ini diharapkan memberi manfaat bagi pemerkayaan kajian bahasa dalam realitas sosial dan juga diharapkan bermanfaat bagi pemahaman bahasa sebagai identitas dalam realitas di negara Malaysia yang memiliki percampuran budaya yang tinggi.

 

ANALISIS DATA

Bahasa Rojak di Malaysia: Antara Identitas dan Realitas

Di bawah ini dihuraikan (1) jenis-jenis bahasa yang memberi pengaruh terjadinya bahasa rojak. (2) bentuk-bentuk bahasa yang terdapat dalam bahasa rojak. (3) Faktor-faktor yang melatarbelakangi digunakannya bahasa rojak oleh penutur dan (4) Dampak-dampak yang ditimbulkan oleh penggunaan bahasa rojak oleh masyarakat di Malaysia. Huraian tersebut dilakukan terhadap data bahasa yang telah dikumpulkan berdasarkan pengamatan terhadap mahasiswa di kampus Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia.

 

 Bahasa Tamil dalam Bahasa Melayu (Bentuk: Kata)

(1) Fairuz            : ”Bagi roti cannai dua.”

Mamak         : ”Makan? Bungkus?”

Fairuz            : ”Tah Pau.”

Mamak         : ”Roti cannai onnu. Tah pau.”

Pelayan        : ”ya!”

 

Data (1) di atas memperlihatkan bahwa telah terjadi alih kode bahasa Tamil ke dalam percakapan bahasa Melayu dalam ragam tak resmi. Alih kode yang membentuk bahasa rojak ini berbentuk kata dan frasa, yaitu kata onnu ’dua’ serta tah pau ’bungkus’. Alih kode ini berlaku antara seorang pembeli Melayu dengan seorang Mamak India. Berlakunya bahasa rojak ini dilatarbelakangi pembeli yang berbahasa Melayu mau mengakrabkan diri dengan penjual yang berbahasa India. Selain itu, Mamak ketika memberi perintah kepada pelayannya yang juga berasal daripada India, ia menggunakan bahasa India dilatarbelakangi untuk mempercepat pemahaman atas perintah yang disampaikan. Selain itu, hal tersebut juga dilatarbelakangi keakraban di antara mamak dan pelayannya yang sama-sama beretnik India

 

Bahasa Inggris dalam Bahasa Melayu (Bentuk: Kata dan Frasa)

(2) Nor Diana    : Kak Nani, best tak kasut

                              (sepatu) baru saye ni?

 Nani              : Wah, best sangat lah Didie. You beli kat mane?

 Nor Diana    : Beli kat Mid Valey. Harga benda ni pun less akak.

 Nani              : Very Good lah tuh Die.

 

Data (2) memperlihatkan bahwa telah terjadi alih kode bahasa Inggris ke dalam percakapan bahasa Melayu dalam ragam tak resmi. Alih kode yang membentuk bahasa rojak ini berbentuk kata iatu kata dan frasa best ’bagus’, you ’kamu’,  less ’murah’ dan very good ’sangat bagus’. Alih kode ini berlaku di antara dua orang kawan yang sama-sama berbahasa Melayu. Berlakunya bahasa rojak ini dilatarbelakangi karena penutur dan lawan tutur mahu mengakrabkan diri dan menunjukkan eksistensi/kemampuannya berbahasa asing (Inggris). Perkara ini kerap terjadi dalam masyarakat yang berstatus pendidikan tinggi. Hal ini bertujuan untuk menunjukkan bahwa dengan menggunakan bahasa Inggris penutur/lawan tutur memiliki status yang tinggi/dinilai lebih berpendidikan. Penggunaan bahasa rojak dalam ragam tak resmi seperti kasus di atas sesungguhnya dapat diterima sebagai realitas sosiolinguistik karena jika dalam ragam tak resmi diharuskan menggunakan bahasa resmi, maka komunikasi yang terjadi ialah komunikasi yang kaku dan tidak ramah.

 

Bahasa Inggris dalam Bahasa Melayu (Bentuk: Kata)

(3)    Pengerusi       : ”Para hadirin diminta swich off telefon bimbit.”

         Ketua            : ”Ok. now, saudara dipersilakan membentangkan cadangan penyelidikan saudara.”

         Peserta        : ” Terima kasih.”

 

Data (3) di atas memperlihatkan bahwa telah terjadi alih kode bahasa Inggris ke dalam percakapan bahasa Melayu dalam ragam resmi. Alih kode yang membentuk bahasa rojak ini berbentuk kata dan frasa, iatu kata switch off ’memadamkan’, Ok ’baik’ dan now ’sekarang’. Alih kode ini berlaku antara seorang pengurus, ketua program, dan peserta sidang proposal dalam sebuah acara resmi. Berlakunya bahasa rojak ini dilatarbelakangi peserta tutur dalam majelis tersebut terdiri dari orang-orang yang memiliki derajat pendidikan tinggi sehingga mereka ingin menunjukkan status mereka. Akan tetapi, dengan digunakannya bahasa Inggris seperti di atas dalam ragam resmi, justru dapat membawa dampak menghambat pemasyarakatan bahasa Melayu sebagai bahasa kebangsaan dan menjejaskan bahasa Melayu sebagai bahasa persatuan dan kesatuan daripada negara Malaysia. Dalam ragam resmi sepatutnya penutur dan lawan tutur menggunakan bahasa Melayu sebagai identitas kebangsaan.

 

Bahasa Cina dan Bahasa Inggris dalam Bahasa Melayu (Bentuk : Kata)

(4)    Swaresh  : ”Cepat-cepat jangan bagi kereta itu masuk!’

       Ho            : ”He…he…kiasu betullah you ini mah.”

 

Data (4) di atas menunjukkan bahwa telah terjadi alih kode dari bahasa Cina dan bahasa Inggris ke dalam percakapan bahasa Melayu dalam ragam tak resmi. Alih kode ini berbentuk kata, yaitu kiasu dan you. Alih kode ini berlaku antara dua orang kawan yang berasal daripada etnik Cina dan etnik India. Berlakunya bahasa rojak ini dilatarbelakangi keakraban antara kedua kawan tersebut. Penutur yang beretnik India berusaha mengungkapkan maksud yang ingin disampaikannya dengan menggunakan bahasa Melayu (bukan bahasa Tamil) karena selain ketidakmampuannya berbahasa Cina, juga untuk menghormati kawannya yang hanya mampu berbahasa Melayu dan bahasa Cina.

 

Bahasa Melayu dalam Bahasa Inggris (Bentuk: Kata)

 (5)    Dekan           : ”Bagaimana dengan penyelidikan lanjutan ini?”

       Dr. Ahmad   : ”I fikir we cant do that?”

       Dekan           : ”Why?”

       Dr. Ahmad   : ”Because, This is impossible project”.

 

Data (5) di atas memperlihatkan bahwa telah terjadi alih kode bahasa Melayu ke dalam percakapan bahasa Inggris. Alih kode yang membentuk bahasa rojak ini berbentuk, yaitu kata fikir. Alih kode ini berlaku antara dua orang Melayu yang menggunakan bahasa Inggris dalam percakapan sebuah acara resmi (rapat fakultas). Tujuan digunakannya bahasa Inggris dan mencampurkannya dengan bahasa Melayu dalam percakapan tersebut dilatarbelakangi keinginan penutur dan lawan tutur untuk menunjukkan identitasnya sebagai kalangan yang berpendidikan. Namun, dengan digunakannya bahasa Inggris seperti di atas dalam ragam resmi, justru telah membawa dampak buruk bagi perkembangan bahasa Melayu sebagai bahasa kebangsaan karena dalam ragam resmi sepatutnya penutur dan lawan tutur menggunakan bahasa Melayu sebagai identitas kebangsaan.

 

Bahasa Cina dalam Bahasa Melayu (Bentuk: Kalimat)

(6)    Xixia          : ”Berape harga benda ini mah?’

      Penjual      : ”30 Ringgit je”

      Lee            : ”Zhe xie xie de zhi liang bu hao, bu yao zai zhe mai.”

        Penjual        : ”Macam mane? Nak Tak?”

       Xixia               : ”Tak. Maaf.”

        Penjual        : ”Eh, awak cakap ape tadi? Kenape jadi tak nak?”

 

Data (6) menunjukkan bahwa telah terjadi alih kode dari bahasa Cina ke dalam percakapan bahasa Melayu dalam ragam tak resmi. Alih kode yang membentuk bahasa rojak ini berbentuk kalimat, yaitu kalimat Zhe xie xie de zhi liang bu hao, bu yao zai zhe mai.’Kualiti kasut ini tak bagus. Jangan kamu beli barang ini di sini’. Alih kode ini berlaku di antara dua orang kawan yang sama-sama beretnik Cina dan seorang penjual kasut beretnik Melayu. Berlakunya bahasa rojak ini dilatarbelakangi karena penutur yang memiliki kesamaan etnik (Cina) dengan lawan tutur yang bermaksud mengungkapkan sesuatu yang bersifat sulit di hadapan lawan tutur lainnya yang beretnik Melayu. Dengan demikian penutur mengalihkan kode dari percakapan berbahasa Melayu menjadi bahasa Cina. Penggunaan bahasa rojak seperti kasus di atas dapat pula menimbulkan kecurigaan atau kesalahpahaman dari lawan tutur yang tidak memahami kalimat yang diungkapkan penutur (Lee) tersebut. Hal ini dapat menimbulkan gangguan dalam proses komunikasi yang berlangsung. Oleh itu, seorang penutur jika berhadapan dengan lawan tutur, sebaiknya menghindari penggunaan bahasa yang tidak dipahami lawan tutur karena dapat menghambat keramahan proses komunikasi yang berlangsung. Dalam hal inilah bahasa Melayu sebagai bahasa negara dan bahasa persatuan sebaiknya digunakan.

 

SIMPULAN

Berdasarkan hasil analisis yang telah dilakukan pada bab II, diperolehi beberapa kesimpulan. Kesimpulan yang dirumuskan di dalam bab III ini dibagi menjadi tiga bahagian sesuai dengan tujuan penyelidikan yang telah dihuraikan pada bahagian 1.2.

Pertama, jenis bahasa yang terdapat dalam bahasa rojak ialah (1) bahasa Melayu, (2) bahasa Cina, (3) bahasa Tamil dan (4) bahasa Inggris. Keempat bahasa ini saling bercampur menjadi bahasa yang digunakan dalam percakapan sehari-hari oleh masyarakat umum di Malaysia. Percampuran bahasa inilah yang disebut sebagai bahasa rojak. Sementara itu, Bentuk-bentuk percampuran bahasa dalam bahasa rojak terdiri daripada bentuk (1) kata, (2) frasa dan (3) kalimat.

Kedua, berbagai faktor melatarbelakangi seorang penutur mencampur-campur bahasa yang digunakannya. Faktor tersebut antaranya ialah (1) Keakraban penutur dengan lawan tutur yang memiliki kesamaan identitas, (2) Keinginan penutur mempertahankan dan menunjukkan identitasnya kepada lawan tuturnya dan (3)  Penutur ingin meningkatkan dan menunjukkan kuasanya di hadapan kelompok umum. (dalam kasus penutur yang mencampurkan bahasa kebangsaan dengan bahasa Inggris).

Ketiga, dampak yang dapat ditimbulkan atas penggunaan bahasa rojak dalam masyarakat ini dibagi menjadi dua bahagian yaitu dampak positif dan dampak negatif. Dampak positif daripada bahasa rojak ini antaranya ialah (1) keakraban antara penutur dan lawan tutur, (2) kemudahan pemahaman dari pesan yang disampaikan, dan (3) terwujudnya identitas dari masing-masing penutur. Sementara itu, dampak negatif dari bahasa rojak ini di antaranya ialah (1) Membawa dampak buruk bagi perkembangan bahasa Melayu sebagai bahasa kebangsaan, (2) Menghambat pemasyarakatan bahasa Melayu sebagai bahasa kebangsaan, (3) Melemahkan bahasa Melayu sebagai bahasa persatuan dan kesatuan negara Malaysia dan (4) Dapat menimbulkan kecurigaan lawan tutur.

Penggunaan bahasa etnik dalam ragam tidak resmi ini tidak dapat dipersalahkan karena dalam ragam tak resmi yang lebih ditekankan adalah bahasa yang dapat menunjukkan dan mempertahankan identitas penuturnya baik secara pribadi maupun secara kelompok etniknya.

 

SARAN

Keberadaan bahasa rojak bukanlah sesuatu yang harus dikhawatirkan. Penggunaan bahasa rojak justru menunjukkan bahwa di Malaysia ialah negara yang memiliki nilai budaya yang kaya yang berasal dari gabungan ragam etnik yang ada di Malaysia. Penggunaan bahasa rojak dalam ragam tidak resmi dapat diterima sebagai suatu fenomena kebahasaan yang dinamis. Akan tetapi, dalam forum resmi yang memerlukan penunjukan identitas kebangsaan, maka masyarakat di Malaysia semestinya menghilangkan penggunaan bahasa rojak ini dan mesti  beralih   menggunakan   bahasa    Melayu sebagai bahasa kebangsaan. Kesadaran antara menggunakan bahasa Melayu dalam ragam resmi, dan menggunakan bahasa etnik dalam ragam tak resmi perlu dilakukan secara sungguh-sungguh oleh seluruh masyarakat Malaysia. Dengan demikian, bahasa Melayu sebagai identitas kebangsaan semakin terbentuk dengan baik dan kokoh, dan bahasa etnik pun sebagai identitas perseorangan dapat tetap lestari di Malaysia yang terdiri daripada berbagai etnik ini.

 

 

DAFTAR PUSTAKA

Awang Sariyan. 1996. Bahasa Kacukan: Antara Realitas Sosiolinguistik dengan Idealisme Perancangan Bahasa. Jurnal Bahasa. 6 (4)  Kuala Lumpur : Dewan

Bahasa dan Putaka.

Fidsman, J.A. ed. 1999. Handbook of Language and Ethnic Identity. New York. Oxford University Press.

Idris Aman. 2007. Bahasa dan Linguistik : Penyelidikan dan Pendidikan. Bangi: Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia.

Nor Hashimah Jalaluddin, Imran Ho Abdullah, Idris Aman. 2007. Linguistik Teori dan Aplikasi. Bangi: Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia.

Saran Kaur Gill. 1997. Kekompleksan ’Prihatin Bahasa’ dalam Masyarakat Multietnik Malaysia. Bangi: Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia.

Spolsky, B. 1998. Sociolingustics. Oxford: Oxford University Press

 

Nani Darmayanti adalah staf pengajar di Jurusan Sastra Indonesia, Fakultas Ilmu Budaya, Universitas Padjadjaran dan Alumni Universitas Kebangsaan Malaysia dalam bidang analisis wacana kritis. Beliau dapat dihubungi melalui alamat email nanidarma@gmail.com.