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From Syllabus Design to Curriculum Development

marianaulfa hoesny(Kutipan referensi/citation: Jurnal Linguistik terapan Vol 3/1, Mei 2013)


Mariana Ulfah Hoesny
State Polytechnic of Malang




Syllabus and curriculum are known as two aspects of instructional activities. Syllabus is can be defined as an outline and summary of topics that has to be covered in an education or training course. The syllabus sets the onward responsibilities of teacher to the students. Teachers can develop syllabus based on the curriculum. Curriculum itself is a broad notion covering the whole body of knowledge the students shall acquire in the school and general description of the teaching program. In short, curriculum is the general statement about the teaching program and syllabus is the about what actually happens in the classroom. Further, this article also presents kinds, components and functions of syllabus and how curriculum is developed. It also discusses about some problems encountered in the implementation of syllabus and curriculum.


Keywords: syllabus, curriculum, instructional activities


Education is crucial in developing a nation’s personality. As stated in the theme of National Education Day on May 2nd 2010, that education is aimed at building good character to build a civilized nation. Education plays an important role to improve knowledge, skill and moral. Therefore, a good education system is needed not only to build a nation character but also to develop a country physically and mentally.

Education consists of many elements that are complimentary. It is a system that works with the support of the elements around it. Curriculum and syllabus are two elements that support an education to be a good system and later result a good output.

In Indonesia education system, English is one prerequisite subject that is taught from elementary school until university. English is considered important to be mastered since it is one of international languages. The globalization era demands people to have good ability in English so they can compete in the job world and in other fields like science and technology. To reach this goal a good planning -in this case syllabus and curriculum- in English language teaching is needed.

In language teaching and learning two terms are known, they are syllabus design and curriculum development. Syllabus is a specification of the content of a course of instruction and lists what will be taught and tested. While syllabus design refers to the process of developing a syllabus (Richards, 2001:2).

Curriculum development is a more comprehensive process than the syllabus design. It includes the processes that are used to determine the needs of a group of learners, to develop aims or objectives for a program to address those needs to determine an appropriate syllabus, course structure, teaching methods and materials and to carry out an evaluation of the language program that results from these processes (Richards, 2001: 2).

Thus, syllabus and curriculum are two different terms that closely related in teaching and learning process. Curriculum is a broader concept that includes all activities in which students do in school. It includes what students learn, how they learn it, how teacher help them learn, what supporting materials are needed, styles and methods used in teaching and learning process. Syllabus is smaller than curriculum since it only covers the content of a course and the lists of what materials are going to be taught and how it will be tested.

This paper is going to discuss about syllabus design and curriculum development. These two terms are considered to be important in teaching and learning process. Their roles deal with how a teaching and learning activity is planned and can run well.



The term “syllabus” is usually used more customarily in the United Kingdom to refer to what is called a “curriculum” in the United States (Brown, 2001:16). However, what is meant with syllabus here is different with what has been mention by Brown. There are three strong beliefs associated with a course syllabus. First, the syllabus is the key tangible evidence of planning from instructor to the world. Second, the planning manifested through the syllabus can reduce, before a class even meets, about half the work for teaching a course. And the last, the syllabus serves as a communication device and contract to shift the responsibility for learning to the students.

In accordance with the main purpose of syllabus that is to break down the mass of knowledge to be learnt into manageable units, the role of syllabus varies from different points of the teaching material which inspires the production of texts and exercise and the basis on which proficiency will be evaluated. It is the determiner of entire course (Hutchinson and Water in Lolita,2001:14).

Another source explains syllabus as the representative of both an end and a beginning, a final product of the course planning and a valuable way to introduce the course to the students. The syllabus is one of the few formal, tangible links between teachers and the students since it will be referred to throughout the semester (Jennifer Sinor and Matt Kaplan in

Rodgers (in Savitri 2009:31) states that syllabus prescribes the content to be covered by a given course. It forms only a small part of the total of school program. Nunan (in Savitri 2009:30) states that syllabus defines the goals and objectives, the linguistic and experiential content, instructional materials can put flesh on the bones of these specifications.

From the definition of syllabus stated above it can be concluded that syllabus is not the same with curriculum. It is smaller part of curriculum that contain the description of what is going to be taught, what goals and objectives are going to be reached, what exercises have to be given and what proficiency is going to be gained. Instructional material is the instrument to fulfill the goals of the syllabus.

The principal purpose of a syllabus is to inform students in a formal and timely way of the nature and content of the course, policies and procedures that will apply, and equipments involved in participating in classes. In addition to being informative, however, a syllabus is also a promise of teachers or lectures that is both explicit in what it states will be part of the course, and implicit in what it infers -by not including- will not be part of the course. The syllabus needs to be consistent with the latest approved curriculum action, and everything done or required in the class at any time throughout the term should be in agreement with what the syllabus states or does not state.

Syllabus has 17 possible functions that will be stated in the following:

  1. Describing course content scope
  2. Communicating course focus
  3. Suggesting prerequisites
  4. Detailing logistics
  5. Identifying course goals
  6. Sequencing/scheduling instruction
  7. Identifying performance objectives
  8. Constituting a contract
  9. Identifying reference material
  10. Providing modifications base
  11. Motivating students
  12. Permitting self monitoring
  13. Facilitating optional learning activities
  14. Establishing evaluation system
  15. Advertising/promoting/recruiting clientele
  16. Serving as an articulation tool
  17. Meeting accreditation requirements (Daniel E.Vogler in )

In theory, a language teaching syllabus can be designed in many different ways, depending on the designers’ view of language and view of language learning and teaching. In the past few decades, the grammatical syllabus, the lexical syllabus, the skills syllabus, the functional-notional syllabus, the content syllabus and the task based syllabus have been proposed and attracted more or less attention. Below is a brief description of some influential types of syllabuses.

  1. Grammatical syllabus: the underlying assumption behind grammatical syllabus is that language is a system which consists of a set of grammatical rules; learning language means learning these rules and then applying them to practical language use. The syllabus input is selected and graded according to grammatical notions of simplicity and complexity. These syllabuses introduce one item at a time and require mastery of that item before moving on to the next.
  2. Lexical syllabus: lexical syllabus identifies a target vocabulary to be taught normally arranged according to levels such as the first 500, 1000, 1500, 2000 words. Lexical syllabuses were among the first types of syllabuses to be developed in language teaching (Richards, 2001:154)
  3. Skills syllabus: skills syllabus is organized around different underlying abilities that are involved in using a language for purposes such as reading, writing, listening or speaking. Approaching a language through skills is based on the belief that learning a complex activity such as “listening to a lecture” involves mastery of a number of individual skills or micro skills that together make up the activity.
  4. Functional-notional syllabus: in functional-notional syllabus, the input is selected and graded according to the communicative functions (such as requesting, complaining, suggesting, and agreeing) that language learners need to perform at the end of the language program. The functional-notional syllabus reflects a broader view of language provided by philosophers of language and sociolinguistics.
  5. Content syllabus: in content syllabus, the content of language learning might be defined in terms of situations, topics, themes or other academic or school subjects. The stimulus for content syllabus is the notion that, unlike science, history or mathematics, language is not a subject of its own right, but merely a vehicle for communicating about something else. This syllabus is also called the topical syllabus.
  6. Task based syllabus: Task based syllabus are more concerned with the classroom processes which stimulate learning than with the language knowledge or skills that students are supposed to master. This syllabus consists of a list of specification of the tasks and activities that the learners will engage in class in the target language (Nunan in Savitri, 2009: 33).

On the other hand, Hutchinson and Waters (in Lolita 2001:15) describe types of syllabus based on criteria of content as illustrated below:

a. Topic syllabus

b. Structural Syllabus/ situational syllabus

c. Functional syllabus/ notional syllabus

d. Skill syllabus

e. Situational syllabus

f. Functional/ task-based syllabus

g. Discourse/ skill syllabus

The types of syllabus described by Hutchinson and Waters above are different in terms with those proposed by David Nunan. Both terms used by Nunan and Hutchinson and Waters have similar definition. All the terms used refer to the same types of syllabus as have been explained. It is possible to create a syllabus by combining two types of syllabus as described above. Actually most syllabuses in language teaching are combinations of two or more of the syllabus types explained in the previous part. However, one type of syllabus usually dominates, while other types of content may be combined with it. By combining two or more types of syllabus, teachers and lectures can perform instructional activities in a more integrated way.

Syllabus design is a process of developing a syllabus (Richards, 2001:2). Syllabus design involves two or more types of syllabuses since there is no single type of syllabus that can be suitable for all teaching settings. Therefore, creating the combination of syllabuses is recommended. In line with this Tarey Reilly proposes ten steps of practical syllabus design ( as follows:

1. Determine, to the extent possible, what outcomes are desired for the students in the instructional program. That is, as exactly and realistically as possible, defines what the students should be able to do as a result of the instruction.

2. Rank the syllabus types presented here as to their likelihood of leading to the outcomes desired. Several rankings may be necessary if outcomes are complex.

3. Evaluate available resources in expertise (for teaching, needs analysis, materials choice and production, etc.), in materials, and in training for teachers.

4. Rank the syllabi relative to available resources. That is, determine what syllabus types would be the easiest to implement given available resources.

5. Compare the lists made under No 2 and 4. Making as few adjustments to the earlier list as possible, produce a new ranking based on the resources’ constraints.

6. Repeat the process, taking into account the constraints contributed by teacher and student factors described earlier.

7. Determine a final ranking, taking into account all the information produced by the earlier steps.

8. Designate one or two syllabus types as dominant and one or two as secondary.

9. Review the question of combination or integration of syllabus types and determine how combinations will be achieved and in what proportion.

10. Translate decisions into actual teaching units.

To decide about syllabus design, it has to be taken into consideration of all the possible factors that may influence the implementation of a particular syllabus. By examining each type of syllabus, choosing and integrating types of syllabus, a solution to the problem of whether a syllabus is appropriate or not can be found.



Curriculum stems from the Latin word for race course, referring to the course of deeds and experiences through which children grow to become mature adults. However in teaching and learning process the definition of curriculum has extended. Curriculum is the set of courses, course work, and content offered at a school or university ( A curriculum may also refer to a defined and prescribed course of studies, which students must fulfill in order to pass a certain level of education (

According to Richards (2001:39) a curriculum in a school context refers to the whole body of knowledge that children acquire in schools. While Rodgers (in Richards 2001:39) said that curriculum is all those activities in which children engage under the auspices of the school. This includes not only what pupils learn, but how they learn it, how teachers help them learn, using what supporting materials, styles and methods of assessment, and in what kind of facilities.

Stern (1983:434) proposed the definition of curriculum as follows.

The term ‘curriculum’ is commonly used in two related senses. It refers, first to the substance of a program of studies of an educational institution or system. Thus, we can speak of the school curriculum, the university curriculum, the curriculum of French schools, or the curriculum of Soviet curriculum. In a more restricted sense, it refers to the course of study or content in a particular subject, such as the mathematics curriculum or the history curriculum. It is therefore, used as a synonym of what in British universities and schools is sometimes referred to as the ‘syllabus’ for a given subject or course of studies. In recent years, however, the term curriculum has come to refer not only to the subject matter or content, but to the entire instructional process including materials, equipments, examinations and the training of teachers, in short all pedagogical measures related to schooling or to the substance of a course of studies.

Nunan suggests (1988:3) that a curriculum is concerned with making general statements about language learning, learning purpose and experience, and the relationship between teachers and learners, whereas a syllabus is more localized and is based on the accounts and records of what actually happens at the classroom level as teachers and students apply a curriculum to their situation.

It is clear that curriculum and syllabus are two different terms but they are closely related since both of them are part of an education system. Curriculum covers a broader aspect of an education system, while syllabus functions to interpret what is intended by a curriculum and apply it in the classroom. Curriculum includes materials, teaching methods, styles and methods of assessment, facilities, learning purposes and experience and the relationship between teachers and students.

As an important part of an education system, curriculum needs to be developed in order to make it match the needs and challenges faced by students. Developing a curriculum involves some stages. It is not an easy task since it deals with a lot of elements and activities that have to be covered. Curriculum development here refers to the range of planning and implementation processes involved in developing or renewing a curriculum. These processes focus on needs analysis, situational analysis, planning learning outcomes, course organization, selecting and preparing teaching materials, providing for effective teaching, and evaluation (Richards, 2001:41).

Curriculum development is considered important and has been established since 1980s. It was aimed at reviewing and developing national language teaching curriculum based on a curriculum development perspective. For example, Lim (1988 in Richards 2001:41) states that curriculum development includes needs analysis, goal setting, syllabus design, material design, language program design, teacher preparation, implementation of program in schools, monitoring, feedback and evaluation.

Tyler (in Richards, 2001:39) stated four fundamental questions that must be answered in developing any curriculum and plan of instruction as follows.

  1. What educational purposes should the school seek to attain?
  2. What educational experiences can be provided that is likely to attain these purposes?
  3. How can these educational experiences be effectively organized?
  4. How can we determine whether these purposes are being attained?

The four questions reduced to a simpler model described below.


model - mariana hoesny

Tyler model of curriculum development raised a number of objections. One of critics to Tyler model was proposed by Nicholls and Nicholls (in Richards 2001:39). Nicholls and Nicholls describe curriculum development in four stages as follows.

  1. The careful examination, drawing on all available sources of knowledge and informed judgments, of the objectives of teaching, whether in particular subject courses or over the curriculum as a whole.
  2. The development and trial use in schools of those methods and materials which are judged most likely to achieve the objectives which teachers agreed upon.
  3. The assessment of the extent to which the development work has in fact achieved its objectives. This part of the process may be expected to provoke new thought about the objectives themselves.
  4. The final element is therefore feedback of all the experience gained, to provide starting point for further study.

Actually, the two models proposed contain almost similar elements. Aims and objectives stated in Tyler model can be interpreted as the first stage in Nicholls and Nicholls. The careful examination in Nicholls and Nicholls stage is directed toward determining objectives as well. The assessment and feedback that are used in Nicholls and Nicholls model are resembled with evaluation proposed by Tyler. The different between these two models is the absence of organization in Nicholls and Nicholls model. To substitute the organization element, Nicholls and Nicholls proposed the development and trial of methods and materials used to achieve objectives.

  1. The Problems of English Curriculum and Syllabus Design in Electronic Engineering Study Program

The development of curriculum and syllabus is required since it is made to meet the demand of the needs and situation, the development of science and technology, the global trend and the requirements of stakeholders. State Polytechnic of Malang is a vocational education institution that also put English as one of courses that must be taken. State Polytechnic of Malang has seven departments that consist of Business Administration, Accounting, Civil Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Electro Engineering and Chemical Engineering. Each department has study programs with Diploma III and Diploma IV degree.

Electronic Engineering is a study program in Electro department. In Electronic Engineering English is taught in four semesters and it has one credit. It is given in the second until fifth semester and it is taught once a week with 90 minutes per meeting. The curriculum implemented is 5+1 curriculum that means 5 semesters are held in classroom, workshop and laboratories, while 1 semester is spent for doing the final project and on the job training.

The curriculum demands that Electronic Engineering students must be able to communicate in English both oral and written. Another demand is students must pass Polytechnic English Competence Test that is held every year for third grade students. Polytechnic English Competence Test equals with TOEIC-Test of English for International Communication -, the term is used to substitute the TOEIC since it is a patent name and it cannot be misused. However, the demands of curriculum are not fulfilled by the English syllabus created by lectures. Lectures tend to create grammatical syllabus that contain grammar material only. They do not focus on how students can use the grammar rules for practical use and communication; instead they force students to do ‘on paper’ exercises.

The facts stated above make it difficult for students to reach the goals as required by the curriculum. These later cause students to be fail in doing job interview or after they work in the companies. Most stakeholders, in this case the companies that accept the alumni of Electronic Engineering study programs, complain that they do not have good speaking and writing ability. The low ability is caused by the fact that the syllabus design does not support the teaching of the two abilities needed.

The 5+1 curriculum also influence the teaching of English in Electronic Engineering study program. Since the curriculum is implemented, the duration of English is reduced. Before the implementation of 5+1 curriculum, English is taught in five semesters. After the 5+1 curriculum is implemented English is only taught for four semesters. This certainly brings a lot of disadvantages mainly for students. Usually, English V-in this case English that is given in fifth semester- contains about how to perform job interview and how to write good application letters. The deletion of English V causes students to lose time to practice their English to prepare job interview and to enter the job world.

Actually, the problems stated above can be solved by revising the syllabus design used in the teaching of English. Instead of using grammatical syllabus, the combination of skill, Functional-notional, and task-based syllabus can be used. The three syllabuses focus more on the communication purposes needed by the students of Electronic Engineering. However, it is difficult to be performed due to a lot of factors, for example the lectures skills, another demand that has to be fulfilled by students that is to pass the Polytechnic English Competence Test and the old paradigm about studying English which tend to be meant with learning the grammar rules.



Syllabus and curriculum are two different terms that are complementary to each other. They are part of an education system which have to developed and revised to meet the demand of situation, need and the global trend. Syllabus design usually does not only focus on one type, since they can be combined in accordance with the need of language teaching and learning. In line with this, curriculum also needs to be developed. The development here doesn’t mean that it has to be changed every five year or so, but it has to be revised and renewed to make it suitable with the students’ needs and future challenges.


Brown, Douglas. 2001. Teaching by Principles. San Fransisco State University: Addison Wesley Longman Inc
Jack C, Richards. 2001. Curriculum Development in Language Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Lolita, Yuri.2007.The Computer-Based Teaching in Elementary Schools. State University of Surabaya: Comprehensive Paper
Nunan, D. 1988. Syllabus Design. Oxford:Oxford University Press
Savitri, Wiwiet Eva. 2009. Improving ESP Material in Mechanical Engineering Department of the State University of Surabaya. State University of Surabaya: Comprehensive Paper
Stern, H. 1983. Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press curriculum accessed April 23rd 2010 your syllabus accessed April 23rd 2010 a syllabus accessed April 23rd 2010 to Foreign Language Syllabus Design accessed May 3rd 2010 accessed April 23rd 2010

Online Resources and Learner’s Autonomy

oktaviaKutipan refernsi: Jurnal Linguistik terapan Vol 3/1, Mei 2013)

by Oktavia Widiastuti

UIN Maulana Malik Ibrahim, Malang



There is a perceived relationship between technology and learner autonomy in the language teaching community. Students become increasingly empowered when using technology as they develop self-discipline and confidence through increased responsibility for their own learning processes. For language learning, computers offer rich volumes of text, pictures, sound, and video, they are also interactive, available at any time and place for individual or collective learners. It also facilitates learner autonomy, which is understood as the learner’s learning capacity displayed both in the way the learner learns and in the way he or she transfers what has been learned to wider contexts. It involves the learner, teacher, materials, learning context, and what students want in an online environment.

Online learning offers many opportunities for students. Some research results showed that the students responded positively to this means of communication. The students’ way of learning interaction is enriched through the computerized media. Furthermore, it can enhance their learning as it strengthens their understanding toward the language they learn and their self study, meaning that it makes this type of language learners more motivated than the non-autonomous ones. At present, however, there is a great need for research that focuses on the relationship between particular forms of practice and the development of autonomy.


Keywords: learner autonomy, online resources, learning process, self-study


There is a perceived relationship between technology and learner autonomy in the language teaching community. Learner empowerment is a prominent feature of integrating the technology of online resources in a foreign language curriculum. Students are seen as becoming increasingly empowered when using such technology because they develop self-discipline and confidence through increased responsibility for their own learning processes (Warschauer, Turbee, and Roberts, 1994). Benson and Voller (1997) discussed these issues stating that “Computer software for language learning is an example of a technology which claims to promote autonomy simply by offering the possibility of self-study. Such claims are often dubious because of the limited range of options and roles offered to the learner”. Benson and Voller go on to argue that all educational technologies including the textbook and the computer can be perceived to be more or less supportive of autonomy.

Computers have often been viewed as the perfect independent learning tool rather than simply a part of the autonomy/independence bigger picture. Why is that, and can technology really offer learners something unobtainable by other means? It could be argued that online resources are the ultimate engine for language learning. They offer volumes of text, pictures, sound, and video. They are also interactive and increasingly offer ready made self-access materials available at any time and place for individual or collective learners.

Defining Learner Autonomy

Autonomy has been described as “a capacity – for detachment, critical reflection, decision-making, and independent action. The capacity for autonomy will be displayed both in the way the learner learns and in the way he or she transfers what has been learned to wider contexts” (Little, 1991, p. 4). When the instructor’s role is examined within a certain educational setting, it would indicate whether a particular teacher tends to control the behavior of students or support their autonomy (Deci et al., 1981). Some other terms such as ‘self-access,’ ‘independent learning,’ ‘open,’ ‘distance,’ and ‘flexible’ learning have often been used to describe similar activities in which the teacher has more or less input in what goes on in the classroom. (The bottom line in all these uses is that teachers are encouraged to turn some power over to the learners and simultaneously take such roles as bystander, facilitator, guide, or helper.) One should be cautious, however, not to assume that all individuals are equally receptive to the notions of autonomous/independent learning.

The Learner Autonomy Picture

There are four players in the learner autonomy picture: the learner, the teacher, the materials, and learning the context. Here is a look at each one of them in detail.

1. The Learner

Obviously, autonomous learners are perceived to possess unique characteristics that make them independent, self-efficient, and willing to take the risk and responsibility of relying more on themselves than on others. Dickinson (1993) identifies five characteristics of independent learners:

1. they understand what is being taught, i.e. they have sufficient understanding of language learning to understand the purpose of pedagogical choices;
2. they are able to formulate their own learning objectives;
3. they are able to select and make use of appropriate learning strategies;
4. they are able to monitor their use of these strategies;
5. they are able to self-assess, or monitor their own learning (Dickinson, 1993, pp. 330-31).

2. The Teacher

A variety of new roles have been proposed for teachers to play in autonomous or independent learning. These roles include bystander, facilitator, guide, helper, counselor, and mentor. For example, an activity in which the instructor’s role is to monitor the students’ activities in pairs or small groups discreetly could be introduced to encourage learner autonomy. In such case, intervention is unnecessary unless learners need assistance. However, some teachers find these changes to be challenging and do not necessarily accept these new ideas easily. This is also a mistake that is commonly made in materials design for independent learning.

3. The Materials

Designing suitable materials for the autonomous learner can be a challenge. Motteram (1997) wrote about the many years teachers spend developing materials for their classrooms and adapting their teaching styles to that environment. He wrote that when teachers switch to an independent learning environment, they might expect the immediate transferability of the previous skills to the new learner-centered environment. This never happens because the nature of independent learning materials is different. Consequently, teachers may feel threatened that they have lost the value of their hard earned skills. Motteram added that many learners will feel cheated if they find that the material they are presented with in a so-called independent learning environment is the same as that presented in a regular class.

4. Learning the Context

Individuals are unique and their uniqueness should be emphasized because of their sociocultural background and the significance of allowing social reality to be a part of classroom teaching and learning. Social reality is not stable and because learners influence it, teachers cannot teach everything about a language. Learners influence the social context and the language in turn, or at least its use. For this reason, learners become more important members of a classroom. Therefore, classroom learning should take learners’ backgrounds into account in order to provide a meaningful and stimulating learning environment. This view of social reality is consistent with the constructivist movement in cognitive psychology, which shows that individuals gradually build their own understanding of the world through experience and maturation (Bruner, 1986).

Benson (1997, p.1-2) notes that the term learner autonomy can have at least five different connotations:

a. for situations in which learners study entirely on their own

b. for a set of skills which can be learned and applied in self-directed learning

c. for an inborn capacity which is suppressed by institutional education

d. for the exercise of learners’ responsibility for their own learning

e. for the right of learners to determine the direction of their own learning (Benson, 1997, pp. 1-2).

We often hear the term self-direction in connection with learner autonomy. This term refers to the type of learning that occurs when the learner makes a decision regarding the setting and content of the learned subject matter. While this could happen unconsciously, other learners consider self-directed learning as a conscious form of learning, thereby equating it with autonomous learning (Hammond & Collins, 1991). In sum, autonomy is a social construct that includes the ability to function effectively as a cooperative member in a group. Learning takes place in a social context and it is this context that learners have to be aware of and assume a role in.

5. What students want in an online environment?

The idea of a learner-centered environment is still unfamiliar to many students who grew up in a teacher-centered classroom. Asking those students to suddenly shift to a new setting that is totally or partially electronic might lead to a shock and great resistance. In order to ensure a smooth transition to a new reality, students should be asked what they want in the new environment. If adapting to a technologically enhanced classroom is inevitable in this era, researchers, curriculum designers, administrators, and teachers should obtain the students’ feedback on what features of online resources appeal to them and are most helpful in their education. In addition, we know very little about how students actually use online resources. Students may not use the resources in the ways that the teachers had envisioned.

The Advantages of Using Online Resources as an Educational Tool in Language Programs

Much of the published research on this topic shows that the advantages of using online resources as an educational tool far outweigh the disadvantages. Several researchers have mentioned many advantages. For example, according to Berge and Collins (1995), many opportunities are offered through online learning for such endeavors as course management, information retrieval, peer review, project-based instruction, personal networking, mentoring/tutoring, interactive chat, professional growth, and experience in using modern technology. Berge and Collins added that by writing online for an authentic purpose, students are motivated to communicate with a broader audience than what they are used to- the classroom. In addition, the digital revolution of the late 20th and early 21st has shifted the focus in the classroom from the teacher to the learner. In the new environment students are helped through online learning to find the necessary resources to carry on their learning outside the classroom and thus become lifelong learners.

Interaction was also discussed by many researchers. For example, Vilmi (1995) said that cultural awareness among students in different parts of the world is enhanced by the opportunities for interaction offered by online resources. Moreover, in searching for and retrieving information online, students have greater interaction with the course materials, providing them with a sense of ownership (Shetzer, 1995), as well as enjoyment of the course content (Opp-Beckman, 1995). In discussing the interaction of text and context, Kramsch and Andersen (1999, p. 31) said that using multimedia technology in teaching languages presents a double challenge for learners to observe and select “culturally relevant features of the context” and put linguistic features in context to understand language in use. The kinds of reflectiveness and interactivity that are mediated through asynchronous conferencing have also been researched. Lamy and Goodfellow (1999) concluded in their study of French learners that such an environment has “created the possibility for learners to interact with each other and with teachers and native speakers–thus providing opportunities for practice and intrinsic feedback” (p. 43). Lamy and Goodfellow go on to argue that conscious reflection is still necessary even in such an interactive learning environment and that it should be combined with spontaneous interaction. In another study about computer mediated communication, Blake (2000), in a study on L2 Spanish interlanguage, found that “CMC can provide many of the alleged benefits ascribed to the Interaction Hypothesis” (p. 120), which states that the conditions for SLA are crucially enhanced by having L2 learners negotiate meaning (i.e., resolve their miscommunications) with other speakers, native or otherwise Long & Robinson, 1998), but with more possibilities for access out of the classroom. Blake added that “incidental negotiations commonly occurred in networked learner/learner discussions as well, especially with respect to their lexical confusions” (p.120). Blake’s study showed “the value of synchronous chat records as a window for investigating interlanguage” (p.120).

Computer-assisted classroom discussion using networked computers was the topic of Healy Beauvois’ (1992) dissertation. In her study, she explored the “interaction intermediate French students using a Local Area Network (LAN) for synchronous classroom discussion in French” (p. v). The findings suggested that student contributions in French fit “sound language learning pedagogy” where code switching and teacher intervention instances were low, whereas discourse was high in both quantity and quality, and students responded positively to this means of communication. Moreover, the effects of the communication context of synchronous interaction tools, such as Web chat between English non-native and English native speakers, on the process of acquiring a second language was studied by Negretti (1999). The main purpose of the author was to discover “patterns and conversational strategies used by participants in this on-line context” as well as “the machinery and the structure of social action in language”. The study also analyzed whether Web chat implied a “reduction of the range in interactional practices, actions performance, sense making, and meaning negotiation, thus affecting the SLA process”. The analysis focused on “the overall structure of interaction and sequence organization in connection with the on-line communication setting features”. It then passed to “turn-taking organization, with attention to recurrent structures and patterns as in openings and closings; turn design (or packaging of actions); expression of paralinguistic features in this on-line context; and some (interlanguage) pragmatic variables”.

Computer-mediated communication was also studied by Sengupta (2001) who stated that it can be “a powerful tool towards literacy development as its text-based nature supports sustained reflection on classroom exchanges”. Sengupta described how students completing a BA in Contemporary English Language used “the available technology to interact with peers and their comment on how this mode of delivery extended their traditional notions of learning”. Sengupta’s data showed that the students were personally accountable due to their elevated exposure online- an issue viewed as an exceptional but intimidating part of this approach. This study evaluated how powerful online exposure can be in showcasing the students’ experiences and comments. Collaborative Internet projects were studied by the EFL study of Braunstein et al. (2000). It was found that those projects provided “students with opportunities for completing authentic reading and writing tasks, for learning about other cultures, and for developing useful technical skills”. In a paper examining “the two tenets of communicative language teaching– authenticity of the input and authorship of the language user–in an electronic environment”, Kramsch et al. (2000) concluded, in their study of Spanish and English, that “a communicative approach based on the use of authentic texts and on the desire to make the learners author their own words has been changed by the physical properties of the electronic medium and the students’ engagement with it”.

Learner empowerment is another feature of integrating online resources in a foreign language curriculum. Students become empowered as they develop self discipline and confidence by being more responsible for their own learning processes (Warschauer, Turbee, and Roberts, 1994). In addition, students are judged by their production, not what their appearance or how they sound, thus making them more confident when communicating in the target language. Online learning can provide students with new, exciting, and challenging resources (Barron and Ivers, 1998). It creates opportunities for multicultural education, establishes authentic learning experiences, supports higher-order thinking skills, improves writing skills, and boosts motivation, achievement, and positive behavior. Reading and writing skills are promoted through electronic discussion lists, email key pals, and projects online by providing an authentic audience for students’ writing (Gaer, 1999). In addition to having the flexibility to be used with students at any grade level and any proficiency level, these projects also help students develop computer literacy and online skills as they use the computer for authentic purposes. Online resources also provide an excellent language learning environment especially for the autonomous learner. This environment was described in Egbert, Chao, and Hanson-Smith (1999) and it listed eight conditions including opportunities interaction with an authentic audience to perform authentic tasks, encouraging learners to be creative, providing enough time and feedback for learners, guiding learners to be fully attentive during the learning process, having an ideal level of stress and anxiety, and supporting learner autonomy.

The Disadvantages of Online Resources as an Educational Tool in Language Programs

As with any teaching tool, along with the benefits come some drawbacks as well. A challenge facing teachers is the time requirements in learning new ways to give feedback online, teaching software programs to students (Opp-Beckman, 1995), and facilitating and participating in online projects which are just getting started (Vilmi, 1995). Shetzer (1995) also warned that the interaction between the student and text (or computer) might overwhelm that among students themselves. Learning and teaching online require great tolerance of ambiguity and even of chaos (Warschauer, Turbee and Roberts, 1994). In addition, students with low proficiency in keyboarding, reading and writing might find it difficult to remain motivated, perceiving the virtual classroom as a hindrance to learning more than a benefit (Hiltz, 1990). Learning online was not designed to be, and is not, a complete language learning tool; it is merely one of many ways that we can learn and practice a foreign language. In particular, the material available on the Internet, with the exception of material produced for language learners, is not graded. Beginning students can easily be overwhelmed with the rich vocabulary and colloquial expressions that they find there. It is therefore an important task for instructors to guide students to material that not only is of interest to them, but also manageable at their current level of language proficiency. Using online resources is not one thing with narrow, uniform, and readily predictable outcomes. In practice, it is many things with many possible outcomes for different students. Furthermore, even a single category of using online resources, such as using them as an information archive, can produce tremendous variation in likely consequences. Schofield and Davidson (2002) looked at six kinds of outcomes of use of online resources that students experienced:

enhanced enjoyment and motivation, a better understanding of both computing and the Internet, a greater ability to produce work of quality, more access to career information and opportunities, exposure to a broader range of perspectives and experiences, and improved reading skills in both English and foreign languages (Schofield and Davidson 2002, p. 209).

As a result of the widespread effects of technology throughout the world, college-level educators are being challenged to rethink and revise their approaches and goals in teaching in order to effectively prepare students for what will be expected of them in the real world. Black et al. (1995) summarized the importance of using computers as educational tools because students like working on them and are motivated by the use of real data and the fact that this is a skill they will need in the future. Because the way in which we retrieve and interpret information is changing and evolving, so must the education which prepares students to successfully accomplish these tasks.

The Educational Applications of Online Resources in Language Programs: communication and Research

According to Barron and Ivers (1998), the educational applications of online resources can be divided into two very broad areas: communication and research. The communication category includes asynchronous communications such as e-mail and electronic publishing, and synchronous communications such as chat rooms, audio conferencing, and video conferencing.

The research category includes basic, advanced, and original research. Basic research involves finding, comparing, and reporting facts from one or more preselected sources. Advanced research includes a wider variety of sources such as several online sites in addition to print or CD-ROM sources. Another difference is that the sources are not preselected. Original research can be done using surveys and collaborative experiments.

After the information is compiled, it can be graphed, analyzed, and reported. Online resources can connect the teaching and learning of languages as described in Shetzer and Warschauer (2001) who state that learners should be taught the type of language that they would eventually use and that the learner’s motivation increases if there is informational content being taught. They added that in order for teaching to be effective, prior knowledge, existing knowledge, the total academic environment, and learners’ linguistic proficiencies should be taken into consideration and that that contextualized language use should be the focus of language teaching. Finally, they wrote that what benefits learners most is a focus on significant and relevant content.

Language students’ attitudes toward and perceptions of online resources

As to the attitudes of L2 learners toward the use of technology, Yang (2001), in a study about EFL students, reported that the experience was generally positive for learners. On the other hand, negative attitudes had to do with technical difficulties and information overload. Yang also reported that using online resources often stimulated incidental learning and that seeking information online triggered both anxiety and excitement in learners at the same time. In concluding the study, Yang stated that computer networks could empower students especially in well-designed language learning environments and that providing scaffolding to guide learners in using online applications and orient them to the task is essential for the success in implementing and integrating technology into the curriculum. Researchers also studied student perceptions. In an important article, Stepp-Greany (2002) presented survey data from beginning Spanish classes using a combination of technologies: Internet activities, CD-ROM, electronic pen pals, and threaded discussions. Goals of the study were to determine students’ perceptions of (a) the role and importance of the instructor in technology-enhanced language learning (TELL), (b) the accessibility and relevance of the lab and the individual technological components in student learning, and (c) the effects of the technology on the foreign language learning experiences. Students attributed an important role to instructors and perceived that cultural knowledge, listening and reading skills, and independent learning skills were enhanced but were divided in their perceptions about the learning or interest values of the individual components.

In addition, Kung and Chuo (2002) investigated the potential role of ESL/EFL Web sites as a means to supplement in-class instruction. They evaluated a program in which forty-nine students enrolled in a high-beginner EFL class were introduced to five Web sites and instructed to use them for a homework assignment and for selfstudy. The data revealed that despite some difficulties encountered, students had an overall positive attitude to using the teacher-selected Web sites in their learning of English. The students found that learning English through ESL/EFL Web sites was interesting and that the teaching strategies used by the teachers were effective and necessary.

The relationship between using online resources and enhancing the learning of language skills

Many researchers have studied the relationship between using online resources and enhancing the learning of language skills. This line of research has established a high correlation between using this technology in the language classroom and high achievement in language proficiency. In the reading comprehension area, for example, Lomicka (1998) wrote about “how computerized reading with full glossing may promote a deeper level of text comprehension” (p. 41) for students of French. Moreover, reading comprehension practice and production practice in Japanese were studied by Nagata (1998) who investigated input versus output practice in educational software for second language acquisition. In addition, De Ridder (2002) found that when reading a text with highlighted hyperlinks, her subjects, native Dutch speakers learning French, were significantly more willing to consult the gloss. However, this increased clicking does not slow down the reading process, does not affect text comprehension, and does not increase the vocabulary learned incidentally. The reading task does not seem to alter the clicking behaviour of the students but seems to influence the reader’s vocabulary learning: A content-oriented reading task decreases the reader’s attention for vocabulary (De Ridder, 2002, p. 123).

With regard to grammar, Collentine (2000), studying foreign-language learners of Spanish, demonstrated “how computer-assisted language learning (CALL) software containing user-behavior tracking technologies can provide important insights into the construction of grammatical knowledge” (p. 44). This satisfies the constructivist premises that are increasingly compelling teachers to employ exploratory and inductive tasks, stipulating that students should be “agents” who manufacture rather than receive knowledge. Sotillo (2000) investigated “discourse functions and syntactic complexity in ESL learner output obtained via two different modes of computer mediated communication: asynchronous and synchronous discussions” (p. 82). The results showed that asynchronous and synchronous CMC have different discourse features which may be exploited for different pedagogical purposes. In the hands of experienced teachers, both modes of CMC can be used as novel tools to enhance the language acquisition process by encouraging interaction among participants, collaborative text construction, and the formation of electronic communities of learners (Sotillo, 2000, p. 82).

Hoven (1999) proposed an “instructional design model appropriate for humanistic multimedia Computer-Enhanced Language Learning (CELL) in a self-access environment for second language learning through listening and viewing comprehension” (p. 88). Hoven’s model was “grounded in sociocultural theory, and set against a background of research into the complexities of listening and viewing, individual learner differences and learning styles, characteristics of self-directed and autonomous learning, and user-friendly instructional software design” (ibid.). Several researchers also highlighted the use of e-mail to promote foreign language learning in general and the writing skill in particular. When compared with oral production, L2 use generated through the electronic medium has several features according to González-Bueno (1998), who studied Spanish students. Those features are: “(a) greater amount of language; (b) more variety of topics and language functions; (c) higher level of language accuracy; (d) more student-initiated interactions; and (e) more personal and expressive language use” (p. 55). However, Biesenbach-Lucas and Weasenforth (2001) questioned the potential of electronic mail writing in improving academic writing abilities for ESL students because email engenders features of both the written and spoken forms of the language. In a comparative study, there were no obvious differences found between students’ electronic mail and word-processed writing. However, the electronic mail texts were significantly shorter than the word-processed texts, and text-initial contextualization was more prominent in the word-processed than in the electronic mail texts. (Biesenbach-Lucas & Weasenforth, 2001). Other researchers were interested in investigating how the online resources would help in teaching culture. Osuna and Meskill (1998), for instance, concluded that the online environment was a suitable tool to increase language and cultural knowledge of Spanish, as well as a means to increase motivation. Furstenberg et al. (2001) presented a “Web-based, cross-cultural, curricular initiative entitled Cultura designed to develop foreign language students’ understanding of foreign cultural attitudes, concepts, beliefs, and ways of interacting and looking at the world” (p. 55). The participants were French and American students, and the focus was on the “pedagogy of electronic media, with particular emphasis on the ways in which the Web can be used to reveal those invisible aspects of a foreign culture, thereby giving a voice to the elusive silent language and empowering students to construct their own approach to cross-cultural literacy” (ibid.). In another culture-related study, Müller-Hartmann (2000) compared three email projects between EFL high school classes in Germany, and English and Social Studies classes in the United States and Canada. The researcher concluded that:

A comparison between intercultural learning in the actual reading process and the negotiation of meaning in the network phases shows a close resemblance in the structure and use of tasks. Task properties, such as activity, setting, and teacher and learner roles, as well as the personal level (i.e., non-thematic exchange of information) in the asynchronous e-mail exchange, proved to be especially influential for intercultural learning in the design and management of task structure (Müller-Hartmann, 2000, p. 129).

In testing, Roever (2001) argued that “Web-based language tests were most appropriate in low-stakes testing situations; but with proper supervision, they can also be used in medium-stakes situations although they are not generally recommended for high-stakes situations” (p. 84). Perez Fernandez (2000) examined how the use of the World Wide Web (WWW) as a tool may change the contents as well as the teaching procedures and the material covered. In class he used the WWW as a source of authentic material for the study of English in the field of psychology. His students had “access to current online material, and they can work with such diverse web sites as departments of psychology web sites, on-line atlases of the brain, resource web sites, career orientation and professional information web sites, etc.” (p. 257). He reported that the students became proficient in English and acquainted with vocabulary related to their main discipline, i.e. psychology. Perez Fernandez reported that the result was more dynamic approach to teaching English, so that the students gain autonomy, with the instructor acting only as coordinator, supervisor and tutor.

In another study on English for construction, Perez Fernandez (2001), studied the potential of the WWW to expand the possibilities of language teaching, particularly in the field of specific content areas, like engineering, architecture or the construction industry. He found that the Web facilitated “easy, instantaneous access to sources of information, specialized texts and data that were either unavailable in the past or took a considerable amount of time to access” (p. 119). He suggested that “in addition to providing these specific texts that can be used as teaching and practice  material, and serving as an electronic board with information on classes, deadlines, contents, syllabus, etc., the WWW should also affect the way languages are taught, as well as the learning styles of the students” (ibid.). Perez Fernandez concluded that because online resources are being increasingly used as a teaching resource, “we should move from a phase of simply using the new media with the old content, on to developing not only new contents but also new teaching procedures and strategies based on these new media”.

This line of research still has a number of open questions about how to optimally utilize this modern technology and incorporate it into foreign language programs. LoCastro (2001), for example, recommended that this area especially needed more qualitative or multi-dimensional research learn more about learners’ perceptions of the incorporation of online resources. She further suggested that future studies focus on individual learners’ accounts without interference from the researcher. Moreover, Stepp-Greany (2002) concluded that more research is needed on student perceptions of multimedia instruction and the teacher’s role in such environments. It is also hoped that further research in this topic confirms the prediction that foreign language learners exposed to this learning tool would become lifelong learners of the foreign language beyond the classroom context (González- Bueno, 1998).

Fostering autonomy in language learning through using online resources

Technology-based approaches to autonomy development are similar in many areas to other resource-based approaches, but can be differentiated from them through their focus on the technologies used to access resources (Benson, 2001). As Motteram (1997) points out, new learning technologies have a long association with autonomy. Many technology-based projects have been reported incorporating student-produced video (Gardner, 1994), computer-enhanced interactive video (Gardner and Blasco-Garcia, 1996), electronic writing environments (Milton, 1997), concordancing (Aston, 1997), hypermedia systems (Mayes, 1994), e-mail language advising (Makin, 1994), and computer simulations (Mak, 1994). In these projects it is either the interaction with the technology itself or the potential of the technology to facilitate interactions that is seen to be supportive of autonomy. Since the establishment of learner autonomy research, a number of misconceptions have occurred. Benson (2001) summarized these misunderstandings in two points. First, learner autonomy is not the same as self-instruction as the latter often fails to provide successful results.

Second, learner autonomy does not mean that the teacher yields all his/her authority to the students. A major influence on learner autonomy is the work of Vygotsky. The central term in his theory is the zone of proximal development, defined as “the distance between the actual developmental level as determined by independent problem solving and the level of potential development as determined through problem solving under adult guidance or in collaboration with more capable peers” (Vygotsky, 1978, p. 85). Benson (2001) summed up the importance of Vygotsky’s theory in studying learner autonomy by stating the importance of social interaction and collaboration in the learning process, which means using alternative learning environments that are not teacher-centered and that encourage student collaboration and interaction. Thus, external social interaction and internal cognitive interaction become inseparable and mutually influential.

This way, the learning environment is broadened and now includes the learner’s responsibility for his or her own learning process as well as that of peers. Autonomy has been described as a capacity – for detachment, critical reflection, decision-making, and independent action (Little, 1991). The capacity for autonomy will be displayed both in the way the learner learns and in the way he or she transfers what has been learned to wider contexts (Little, 1991, p. 4). Egbert, Chao, and Hanson-Smith (1999) listed eight conditions that, when present in the language learning environment in some form and in some amount, seem to support optimal classroom language learning. Not surprisingly, supporting learner autonomy was one of those conditions.

In general, autonomous learners are more highly motivated than nonautonomous learners. In other words, autonomy leads to better, more effective work. The literature has provided evidence that learning autonomy increases motivation and consequently increases learning effectiveness. Knowles (1975), for instance, reported that “there is convincing evidence that people who take the initiative in learning (proactive learners) learn things and learn better than do people who sit at the feet of teachers, passively waiting to be taught (reactive learners). They enter into learning more purposefully and with great motivation,” (Knowles, 1975, p. 14). In addition, Wang and Peverly (1986) reviewed findings of strategy research (in subjects other than language learning) and concluded that independent or autonomous learners were those who had the capacity for being active and independent in the learning process; they were able to identify goals, formulate their own learning strategies, and monitor their own learning. The advantages of learner autonomy can be summarized in three points according to Dickinson (1995): learning is more focused, purposeful, and effective; there are no barriers between learning and living; and learners are able to transfer their autonomous behavior to other areas of their lives.


There is a great need for research that focuses on the relationship between particular forms of practice and the development of autonomy. The most pressing need is for empirical research that will support or undermine the theoretical assumptions on which forms of practice are based (Benson, 2001). There is also a gap in the literature in the areas of students’ self-perception as autonomous learners, the value of online resources as a learning aid for the autonomous learner, and the inherent features in online resources that empower the autonomous language learner.



Benson, P. (2001). Teaching and Researching Autonomy in Language Learning.

Benson, P. & Voller, P. (1997). Autonomy and Independence in Language LearningLondon: Longman.

Berge, Z., & Collins, M. (1995) Computer-mediated communication and the onlineclassroom in distance learning. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press.

Bruner, J. (1986). Play, thought and language.Prospects: Quarterly Review ofEducation, 16, 1, 77-83.

Deci, E. L., Schwartz, A. J., Sheinman, L., & Ryan, R. M. (1981). An instrument to assess adults’ orientations toward control versus autonomy with children:reflections on intrinsic motivation and perceived competence. Journal ofEducational Psychology, 73, 642-650.

Dickinson, L. (1993). Talking shop: aspects of autonomous learning.ELTJ, 47, 4,330-336.

Dickinson, L. (1995). Autonomy and motivation: a literature review. System, 23,165-174.

González-Bueno, M. (1998). The effects of electronic mail on Spanish L2 discourse.Language Learning & Technology, 1, 2, 55-70.

Hammond, M. & Collins, R. (1991).Self-directed learning: critical practice. NewJersey: Nichols.

Little, D. (1991).Learner Autonomy. 1: Definitions, Issues and Problems. Dublin:Authentik.

LoCastro, V. (2001). Individual differences in second language acquisition: attitudes, learner subjectivity, and L2 pragmatic norms. System, 29, 1, 69-89.

Motteram, G. (1997). Learner autonomy and the Web.In V. Darleguy et al. (eds)Educational Technology in Language Learning: Theoretical Considerationsand Practical Applications. Lyons: INSA (National Institute of AppliedScience), pp. 17-24.

Stepp-Greany, J. (2002). Student perceptions on language learning in a technologicalenvironment: implications for the new millennium. Language Learning &Technology, 6, 1, 165-180.


Warschauer, M., Turbee, L., & Roberts, B. (1994). Computer learning networks andstudent empowerment. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii, Second LanguageTeaching & Curriculum

Analisis Jenis dan Frekuensi Kesalahan Gramatikal Bahasa Inggris Tulis Mahasiswa


Politeknik Negeri Malang


Kesalahan gramatikal dalam berbahasa asing tidaklah dapat dihindari dan ini waiar terjadi.  Kesalahan ini disebabkan oleh beberapa faktor, yang antara lain berupa: pengaruh bahasa  asal, generalisasi yang berlebihan (overgenerali-zation), tidak megetahui aturan gramatikal, atau aturan gramatikal yang disalah-mengertikan. Penelitian ini menguji frekuensi dan jenis kesalahan tulis dari 20 karangan pendek yang dibuat oleh mahasiswa Jurusan Administrasi Niaga, Politeknik Negeri Malang. Dari  429  kalimat dalam karangan tersebut ditemukan 871 kesalahan dalam 25 jenis. Jenis kesalahan yang terbanyak adalah omission of article, omission of plural, S-V agreement, dan omission of preposition. Hasil investigasi terhadap penyebab kesalahan tersebut adalah adanya pengaruh bahasa asal (L1) terhadap bahasa sasaran (L2).


Kata kunci: kesalahan gramatikal, error analysis, contrastive analysis, grammatical errors


Mempelajari kesalahan gramatikal (grammatical errors) dalam suatu wacana setidaknya dimaksudkan untuk dua tujuan, yakni: (1) men-cari data tentang perolehan bahasa (language acquisition), dan (2) mencari informasi sebagai dasar untuk mengembangkan kurikulum dan menyusun materi pengajaran (Richards, ed., 1974).

Kesalahan gramatikal adalah penyimpa-ngan terhadap aturan baku dalam bahasa tulis maupun lesan yang terjadi secara sistematis (Giri, 2010). Dalam proses mempelajari suatu bahasa kesalahan gramatikal adalah sesuatu yang wajar dan sering kali tidak ter-hindari. Oleh karena itu kesalahan ini perlu dipelajari dan dicermati sehingga dapat dike-tahui jenis, frekuensinya dan penyebabnya sehingga kemudian dapat ditemukan cara-cara untuk mengatasi kesalahan tersebut.

 Ada beberapa jenis kesalahan grama-tikal yang dikelompokkan secara umum dalam analisis kesalahan. Jenis kesalahan tersebut adalah (1) penghapusan morfem gramatikal (omitting grammatical morphemes), (2) penandaan ganda (double marking), (3) pola keteraturan (regularizing), (4) penggunaan archiform (using aarchiform), (5) penggunaan dua bentuk atau lebih dalam perubahan random (using two or more forms in random alteration), dan (6) salah penempatan (mis-ordering). Jenis-jenis kesalahan ini kemudian dikembangkan lagi bersamaan dengan dikem-bangkannya teori-teori baru dalam analisis kesalahan gramatikal dalam berbahasa.


Contrastive Analysis vs. Error Analysis

Contrastive analysis (CA) muncul pada abad ke-18 ketika William Jones membandingkan bahasa-bahasa Yunani dengan bahasa-bahasa Sanskrit. Dengan CA ini ia menemukan bahwa kedua kelompok bahasa tersebut memiliki banyak persamaan yang sistematis. CA memfokuskan pengamatannya pada aspek hubungan-hubungan fonologi dan evolusinya, sehingga dihasilkan silsilah-silsilah bahasa.

Pendekatan CA ini didasarkan pada asumsi bahwa kita dapat meramalkan dan menguraikan struktur bahasa yang dipelajari (L2) yang akan menyebabkan kesulitan dalam pelajaran dengan membandingkannya dengan bahasa asal (L1). Dalam  perbandingan bahasa  kedua bahasa tersebut akan ditemukan aspek-aspek bahasa yang sama dan berbeda. Diasumsikan bahwa aspek bahasa yang sama akan mudah dipelajari sedangkan aspek yang berbeda akan sulit dipelajari.

Selain itu, CA juga dikaitkan dengan teori pengalihan bahasa atau language transfer. Dalam teori ini dikatakan bahwa pembelajar bahasa cenderung untuk mengalihkan pola atau struktur bahasa asal ke pola atau struktur bahasa yang dipelajarinya. Menurut beberapa pakar CA, pengalihan bahasa digolongkan dalam dua kelompok, yakni pengalihan bahasa yang meunjang pembelajaran, dan pengalihan bahasa yang menghambat pembelajaran.

Para ahli bahasa terpecah menjadi dua kelompok dalam memandang manfaat CA ini, yakni kelompok yang percaya bahwa CA dapat memberikan sumbangan yang berarti bai pengajaran bahasa, dan kelompok yang meragukan manfaat CA dalam membantu keberhasilan pengajaran bahasa. Namun, setidaknya CA berguna dalam: (1) menerangkan mengapa kesalahan terjadi, dan (2) menunjuk-kan strategi apa yang harus diambil untuk mengurangi kesalahan itu dalam pembelajaran bahasa.

Dalam melakukan investigasinya, CA mengamati Perbedaan (dan persamaan) pada aspek: (1) fonologi, baik fonem segmental maupun suprasegmental, gugus vokal maupun gugus konsonan; (2) morfologi atau pembentukan kata; (3) sintaksis, yakni pembentukan kalimat, baik struktur dalam (deep structure) dan struktur luar (surface structure); (4) leksis (lexical contrasts), yakni yang terkait dengan kosa kata; (5) budaya, yakni dalam perilaku non-linguistik; dan (6) ortografis (orthographical contrasts), yaitu dalam penulisan abjad, suku kata dan tulisan logografik.

Dalam teori CA ini dikatakan bahwa ‘belajar bahasa’ pada dasarnya merupakan suatu proses pembentukan kebiasaan-kebia-saan otomatis dan bahwa oleh karenanya kesalahan-kesalahan yang terjadi berasal dari kebiasaan dalam berbahasa asal (L1) yang mempengaruhi pembelajar dalam mempelajari bahasa sasaran (L2). Dikatakan juga bahwa analisis kontrastif atau perbandingan dari dua bahasa yang dipelajari akan menggambarkan aspek-aspek bahasa sasaran mana yang meng-hasilkan kesalahan.

Namun, beberapa pakar bahasa lain melihat bahwa sejumlah besar kesalahan yang dibuat pembelajar mungkin tidak dapat ditelusuri melalui bahasa asalnya. Oleh karena-nya, teori CA ini dianggap tidak dapat menjelaskan secara rinci sebab-sebab dari kesalahan gramatikal. Sebagai gantinya, muncullah teori baru yang disebut sebagai Error Analysis.

Error Analysis (EA) atau analisis kesalahan baru menjadi populer pada tahun 1965-an. Teori ini meneliti secara mendalam kesalahan-kesalahan yang ditemukan dalam pembelajaran bahasa dan mencari tahu sebab-sebab terjadi kesalahan yang dibuat. Tidak berbeda dengan CA, EA dipergunakan untuk mengidentifikasi unsur-unsur bahasa yang menimbulkan kesulitan belajar.

Sementara itu, EA dilaksanakan dengan menganalisis wacana pembelajar, baik lesan maupun tulis, dan mengidentifikasi kesalahan yang ada dan kemudian dikelompokkan dalam jenis kesalahan dan selanjutnya dihitung frekuensinya. Kesalahan yang mempunyai frekuensi tinggi dikategorikan sebagai unsur bahasa yang sukar dipejari atau dipahami; sebaliknya kesalahan yang mempunyai frekuensi rendah dianggap sebagai mudah.

Sebelum diuraikan lebih lanjut tentang metode dalam EA, perlu diketahui terlebih dahulu tentang kesalahan gramatikal (grammatical errors) dan kekeliruan gramatikal (grammatical mistakes).

Menurut teori audiolinguism, kesalahan gramatikal merupakan tanda bahwa cara penyajian materi bahasa kurang baik atau guru kurang mahir dalam mengajar. Sementara itu menurut pendekatan komunikasi, kesalahan-kesalahan gramatis justru merupakan tanda bahwa proses belajar mengajar berjalan dengan lancar dan bahwa kesalahan tersebut tidak perlu dihindari atau dielakkan.

Dalam berbahasa pembelajar sering membuat kesalahan. Kesalahan, atau lebih tepatnya penyimpangan dari strukutr yang benar, dibedakan dalam dua kategori, yakni KESALAHAN atau disebut errors, dan KEKELIRUAN atau disebut mistakes. Secara konsep, keduanya berbeda.

Kekeliruan (mistakes) adalah penyimpa-ngan yang tidak secara sengaja diucapkan atau dituliskan oleh seorang penutur, dan dengan mudah dapat diperbaiki oleh penutur itu sendiri. Semua orang, baik penutur asli maupun bukan penutur asli, dapat membuat kekeliruan. Tetapi apabila ia dapat dengan segera memperbaiki kekeliruan tersebut karena dia sadar bahwa ia membuat kekeliruan maka ini bukan disebabkan ia tidak menerapkan aturan-aturan tata bahasa yang benar. Kekeliruan biasanya disebabkan oleh hal-hal yang bersifat psikologis, seperti: kelelahan, kurang menyi-mak, mengantuk, memikirkan hal lain, dan lain sebagainya.

Sebaliknya, kesalahan (errors) ialah penyimpangan dari tata bahasa yang benar karena ia tidak memahami aturan tata bahasa tersebut. Oleh karenanya, penutur tersebut  biasanya tidak dapat segera memperbaiki kesalahan itu. Kesalahan biasanya terjadi secara sistematis dan sering terjadi berulang. Penutur akan menyadari kesalahannya jika diberitahu oleh penutur lain atau guru.

Secara lebih rinci, langkah-langkah yang dilakukan dalam analisis kesalahan (EA) ini adalah: (1) mengidentifikasi kesalahan, tidak hanya yang terkait dengan faktor linguistik tetapi juga dengan faktor non-linguistik; (2) menjabarkan kesalahan, yakni menggolongkan jenis kesalahan berupa addition, omission, alteration,  dan misordering; (3) menerangkan kesalahan, yaitu mencari sebab-sebab terjadinya kesalahan, yang umumnya berupa fossilization, overgeneralization, hyper-correction, miscon-ception, dan misformation; (4) mengevaluasi kesalahan, yakni menganalisis kesalahan secara kualitatif dan kuantitatif; dan (5) memperbaiki kesalahan.

Dalam menganalisis kesalahan, EA menggunakan empat taksonomi untuk mengelompokkan kesalahan. Taksonomi ini diperlukan untuk mencari sebab-sebab kesalahan sehingga mudah dalam menarik kesimpulan. Keempat taksonomi tersebut adalah:


  1. 1.       Taksonomi Kategori Linguistik (linguistic category taxonomy)

Dalam taksonomi ini pengelompokan kesalahan didasarkan pada aspek kebahasaan (linguistic items) yang  meliputi fonologi, sintaks, morfologi, semantik, leksikon, dan wacana (discourse).


  1. 2.       Taksonomi Strategi Permukaan (surface strategy taxonomy)

Dengan taksonomi ini kesalahan gramatikal digolongkan berdasarkan pada bagaimana struktur bahasa mengalami perubahan yang mengarah pada kesalahan. Kesalahan yang mungkin terjadi adalah (1) omission, yakni penghilangan unsur-unsur kalimat tertentu yang justru diperlukan, (2) addition, yaitu penambahan unsur-unsur kalimat yang justru tidak diperlukan, (3) misformation, yakni pembentukan unsur kalimat yang salah, dan (4) misorder, yaitu penempatan unsur kalimat yang salah.


  1. 3.       Taksonomi Perbandingan (comparison taxonomy)

Taksonomi ini mengklasifikasi kesalahan dengan membandingkan kesalahan yang sama yang dilakukan oleh anak-anak penutur asli  bahasa yang dipelajari. Kelompok kesalahannya dimasukkan dalam empat golongan, yakni development errors, interlingual errors, ambigious errors, dan other errors.


  1. 4.       Taksonomi Efek Komunikasi (communica-tion effect taxonomy)

Dalam taksonomi ini kesalahan didasarkan pada ‘kesalahan-kesalahan bukan dalam struktur dan kosa kata tetapi dalam ragam bahasa yang digunakan’ atau disebut sebagai unsur pragmatik. Unsur pragmatik ini mencakup setting,pelaku komunikasi, tujuan, suasana, topik, dan media.


Bahan-Bahan Analisis Kesalahan

Dalam melakukan analsis kesalahan gramatikal, peneliti dapat menggunakan sumber-sumber data analisisnya. Umumnya sumber itu dikumpulkan dari bahan-bahan wacana yang diproduksi oleh pembelajar, baik secara lesan maupun tertulis. Hasil-hasil penelitian menun-jukkan bahwa teknik pengambilan data dapat mempengaruhi hasil atau kesimpulan dari analisis, dalam hal ini adalah baik jenis kesalah-an yang ditemukan maupun urutan unsur-unsur bahasa yang menjadi titik perhatian analisisnya. Oleh karena itu, dalam memilih jenis data untuk dianalisis peneliti perlu mempertimbangkan kemungkinan hasil yang akan diperoleh.

Data untuk analisis kesalahan dapat diambil dari sumber-sumber berikut.


  1. a.      Wawancara

Biasanya wawancara dilaksanakan secara individual berdasarkan pertanyaan-perta-nyaan mengenai topik-topik tertentu. Hasil wawancara itu direkam dan kemudian dianalisis. Dengan cara wawancara  ini peran pewawancara sangat berpengaruh dalam ujaran-ujaran yang dihasilkan oleh pembelajar. Situasi yang diciptakan oleh pewawancara akan juga mempengaruhi pembelajar secara psikologis yang pada akhirnya hasilnya mungkin baik atau tidak. Teknik wawancara ini membutuhkan waktu yang panjang sehingga jarang digunakan.


  1. b.      Karangan Tertulis

Dengan cara ini peneliti memberikan beberapa pilihan topik kepada pembelajar untuk kemudian menulis sebuah karangan pendek, satu atau beberapa paragraf, sesuai dengan topik yang dipilihnya. Tingkat kesulitan topik yang diberikan (berdasarkan latar belakang pengetahuan atau back-graound knowledge pembelajar) akan mempengaruhi hasil wacana yang diproduksi, terkait juga dengan penguasaan kosa katanya.


  1. c.       Karangan lesan

Dengan cara ini peneliti memberikan topik-topik tertentu dan pembelajar kemudian mencatat hal-hal yang akan diucapkan. Data analisis berupa rekaman dari karangan lesan yang diproduksi oleh pembelajar.


  1. d.      Dialog Terbuka

Cara ini disebut sebagai open-ended dialog, dimana pembelajar diberi suatu percakapan antara dua peran, A dan B. Peran A sudah memiliki kalimat-kalimat lengkapnya, sedangkan peran B masih kosong yang harus dilengkapi oleh pembelajar sesuai dengan konteks yang diberikan. Data semacam ini disebut sebagai data denga  bahan pancingan atau elicitated data.


  1. e.       Terjemahan

Bahan data analisis dengan cara ini dipero-leh dari pembelajar atas hasil terjemahan. Pembelajar diberi suatu wacana dalam bahasa asal (L1) dan mereka kemudian diminta untuk menterjemahkannya ke dalam bahasa sasaran (L2). Teknik ini sering dipakai tetapi memerlukan kehati-hatian karena apabila ujaran-ujaran dari bahasa asal tidak jelas atau tidak disusun dengan baik dan baku maka hasil terjemahannya juga akan tidak baik. Dengan demikian, kesalahan yang terjadi bukan disebabkan oleh ketidakmampuan pembelajar dalam berbahasa sasaran tetapi lebih oleh faktor lain.


Subyek Penelitian

Penelitian ini menjabarkan dan menjelaskan kesalahan gramatikal yang terdapat pada karangan tulis pendek  oleh mahasiswa Program Diploma III, Jurusan Administrasi Niaga, Poli-teknik Negeri Malang. Di jurusan ini bahasa Inggris diajarkan sebagai salah satu mata kuliah pokok.

Mata kuliah ini diajarkan selama enam semester berturut-turut dan bersifat sebagai mata kuliah praktek dalam koridor English for Specific Purposes (ESP) dan English for Occupational Purposes (EOP). Dengan demikian, topik-topik yang diajarkan adalah topik yang terkait dengan jurusan, yang antara lain filing, handling guests, office management, financial management, office ettiquette, secretarial duties dan lain sebaginya.

Bahasa Inggris diajarkan dalam jumlah jam yang cukup banyak dibandingkan dengan mata kuliah lain, yakni 5 atau 6 jam per minggu selama 18 minggu. Pada semester 1 dan 2 bahasa Inggris diajarkan dengan fokus pada dasar-dasar bahasa Inggris termasuk grammar, ungkapan-ungkapan sederhana untuk berkomu-nikasi, dan dikemas dalam empat keterampilan berbahasa, yakni reading, listening, speaking dan writing.


Metodologi dan hasil penelitian

Penelitian ini dilakukan terhadap hasil karya tulis pendek oleh mahasiswa di Jurusan Administrasi Niaga Politeknik Negeri Malang.  Dengan menggunakan sampel secara acak, 20 karangan pendek diambil dari sejumlah 51 karangan. Karangan ini adalah hasil tugas dalam mengikuti mata kuliah ‘Business English’ yang diajarkan pada semester 5.

Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui jenis-jenis kesalahan gramatikal yang dilakukan oleh mahasiswa dalam karangan tulis mereka dan untuk mengetahui tingkat keseringan atau frekuensi kesalahan gramatikal untuk masing-masing jenisnya.

Hasil penelitian ini bermanfaat bagi para pengajar bahasa Inggris, khususnya di Jursan Administrasi Niaga, sebagai salah satu evaluasi terhadap kesulitan-kesulitan yang dihadapi oleh mahasiswa dalam berbahasa Inggris, yang ditunjukkan dengan terjadinya kesalahan-kesalahan gramatikal. Dengan demi-kian, pengajar dapat memberikan waktu khusus untuk mengajarkan dan memperbaiki kesa-lahan-kesalahan gramatikal tersebut bersama-sama dengan mahasiswa.

Dengan menggunakan taksonomi stra-tegi permukaan (surface strategy taxonomy), semua karangan dianalisis untuk mengidenti-fikasi kesalahan-kesalahan gramatikal yang terdapat di dalam setiap kalimat. Proses ini adalah bagian analisis yang membutuhkan  banyak waktu dan ketelitian karena setiap kalimat dari sejumlah 429 kalimat ditandai jenis-jenis kesalahannya. Tanda-tanda tertentu digunakan untuk menandai kesalahan, seperti garis bawah, lingkaran, tanda panah tunggal, tanda panah bolak-balik, tanda centang, tanda tanya, dan tanda coret.

Setelah semua kesalahan diidentifikasi, kesalahan tersebut kemudian dikelompokkan jenis kesalahannya. Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa terdapat 25 jenis kesalahan gramatikal seperti terangkum pada Tabel 1 berikut.



Tabel 1

Jenis, Contoh dan Frekuensi Kesalahan yang Dibuat oleh Mahasiswa


Jenis Kesalahan





A.      Omission (tulisan superscript adalah pembetulan oleh peneliti)
A1. Article Qualified opinion is given by the auditor.



A2. Head noun GNP is used to measure high and low income.



A3. Subject We hope we are not deceived by that.



A4. Main verb … and the workers are not bored.



A5. Direct object The company divides it into several parts.



A6. Preposition The tax bond is divided into two parts.



A7. Plural In fact, the function of all secretaryies is not only helping the director.



A8. Conjuction … many private banks take fund from people with all methods and that is a good idea.



B.      Addition (tanda kesalahan dan pembetulan oleh peneliti)
B1. Double marking of verb Macro economy is a science that is studyies carefully …



B2. Double marking of noun … makes the workplace an important part of each worker employee.



B3. Article The selection depends on a the job analysis.



B4. Preposition We can know the economic situation of a country with in the same variables.



C.      Misformation (tulisan miring oleh peneliti)
C1. Overgenerali-zation It catched sight of Section 3 PBB institutions …



C2. Alternating forms of verb It is used to indicate and to provision



C3. Alternating forms of preposition Status refers with a person’s rank or …



C4. Alternating forms of adverb … to indicate the economic variables with the way totality.



C5. Alternating forms of noun All departments must have planning.



D.      Misordering (tulisan miring oleh peneliti)



D1. Adverb Credit tax only can happen if …



D2. Noun They don’t take the credit long-term because …



E.       Other Errors (tulisan miring oleh peneliti)



E1. Tense The limited company is being a kind of a comapnies…



E2. Passive voice … that is invite to operate in districts.



E3. Adj-Noun The price favourable is wanted by the supplier.



E4. Possessive Auditors report consists of …



E5. Agreement Tabungan Kesra are motored by BII, Bank Danmon, and Bank Bali.



E6. To-Infinitive The selection must to take attention to a rule and government appointment.





Sumber: Data primer penelitian

Langkah berikutnya dalam analisis ini adalah mencari sebab terjadinya kesalahan yang dibuat oleh mahasiswa. Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa ada lima macam sebab terjadinya kesalahan, sebagai berikut:

1. Pengaruh bahasa asal (bahasa Indonesia) terhadap bahasa Inggris, yang mencakup:

1.a. Penghilangan kata sandang (article):

  • Secretary is assistant of leader. →   A secretary is an assistant of a leader.
  • In 1990 there was decrease of production. →   In 1990 there was a decrease of production.

1.b. Pengurutan frase benda yang tidak benar:

  • The operator bank includes …→   The bank operator includes …
  • Invoice Purchase is made for the buyer. →   Purchase Invoice is made for the buyer.)

1.c. Pemilihan kata depat yang tidak tepat:

  • The function of a secretary is different with the function of   …→   The function of a secretary is different from the function of…
  • We know people will be interested with high interests.→   We know people will be interested in high interests.

1.d. Pembentukan kata keterangan yang tidak tepat:

  • The leader must solve the problem with careful.→   The leader must solve the problem carefully.
  • “…to indicate the economic variables with the way totality.”→   …to indicate the economic variables in the total way.


2. Generalisasi aturan yang tidak benar (over-generalizatio), yang meliputi:

2.a. Pembentukan kata yang tidak benar (misformation):

  • The company never gived holidays. →   The company never gave holidays.
  • The guests may not be leaved doing nothing.→   The guests may not be left doing nothing.

2.b. Pembentukan kata benda yang tidak benar:

  • All departments must have plan-ning.→   All departments must have plans.
  • The guests must write thier identity in the guest booking.→   The guests must write thier identity in the guest book.


3. Aturan bahasa tertentu tidak dipahami, yang meliputi:

3.a. Pemakaian kata kerja yang salah:

  • After research the problem, so the writer…→   After researching the problem, the writer…
  • The secretary must keep smile.→   The secretary must keep smiling.

3.b. Pemilihan ‘tense’ yang tidak benar:

  • If the company was good, I will take the job.→   If the company were good, I would take the job.)
  • The waiting room provided good situation in order the guests can stay well.→   The waiting room provides good situation in order the guests can stay well.

3.c. Penggunaan kata depan yang tidak tepat:

  • The auditor has examined the financial report according in Auditing Standards.→   The auditor has examined the financial report according to Auditing Standards.
  • …to receive guests who will meet to the director.→   …to receive guests who will meet to the director.


4. Pembelajar tidak menerapkan tata bahasa secara lengkap, yang umumnya berupa penghilangan unsur bahasa tertentu:

4.a. Tidak adanya ‘head noun’ dalam frasa benda (omission of head-noun):

  • The secretary can keep the meeting for the next meeting.→   The secretary can keep the meeting minutes for the next meeting.
  • The company can use perpetual to balance the property.→   The company can use perpetual method to balance the property.

4.b. Tidak adanya kata kerja utama dalam kalimat (omission of main verb):

  • The workers absent from work.→   The workers were absent from work.
  • It also a kind of limited tax.→   It is also a kind of limited tax.

4.c. Tidak adanya subyek kalimat (omission of subject):

  • In the study developed categories of needs.→   In the study he developed categories of needs.
  • Also means an employee who manages correspondence.→   Also secretary means an employee who manages correspondence.

4.d. Tidak adanya kata depan (omission of preposition):

  • … to take care of the documents manager.→   … to take care of the documents of manager.
  • The duty the receiving department is to receive all goods.→   The duty the receiving department is to receive all goods

4.e. Tidak ada kesesuaian antara subyek dan kata kerja utamanya (S-V agreement):

  • She help the manager for his jobs.→   She helps the manager for his jobs.
  • It cause a person to take the tax…→   It causes a person to take the tax…

4.f. Tidak adanya kesesuaian antara kata sandang dan kata benda (Article-Noun agreement):

  • The secretary should be able to write a letters well.→   The secretary should be able to write a letter well.
  • The secretary then keeps that letters.→   The secretary then keeps those letters.


5. Pembelajar mempunyai pengertian yang salah tentang suatu konsep dalam bahasa sasaran (L2). Contoh kesalahan seperti ini adalah penulisan kata kerja berganda (double marking of verb):

  • So her leader must can take measures …→   So her leader must take measures …
  • Objective tax is be a tax which …→   Objective tax is a tax which …


Kesimpulan dan saran

Langkah berikutnya dalam analisis kesalahan dalam penelitian ini ada mengevaluasi kesalah-an. Yang dimaksud dengan mengevaluasi kesa-lahan adalah menganalisis data secara kualitatif dan kuantitatif. Dari data primer penelitian, semua kesalahan dikelompokkan jenisnya dan kemudian dihitung frekuensinya. Hasil evaluasi ini tercantum pada Tabel 1 di atas.

Tabel tersebut menunjukkan bahwa jumlah keseluruhan kesalahan yang dibuat adalah 871 dari 429 kalimat. Jenis kesalahan yang mempunyai frekuensi paling tinggi adalah ‘omission of article’ yakni sebesar 23,77%. Kesalahan seperti ini diyakini disebabkan oleh masih besarnya pengaruh bahasa asal (Bahasa Indonesia) terhadap kemampuan berbahasa Inggris karena kata sandang dalam bahasa Indonesia bukan merupakan unsur penentu dalam kalimat, sementara sebaliknya, kata sandang dalam bahasa Inggris sangatlah penting. Dengan demikian, unsur bahasa ini perlu mendapatkan perhatian khusus dalam proses belajar mengajar.

Jenis kesalahan kedua yang sering dila-kukan oleh mahasiswa adalah ‘omission of plural’ atau tidak menggunakan bentuk plural untuk frasa benda. Kesalahan ini dilakukan oleh mahasiswa sebanyak 9,53%. Kesalahan ini terjadi juga akibat pengaruh bahasa asal karena bahasa Indonesia tidak memiliki aturan yang sama terkait kesesuaian antara head-noun dan kata sandang atau article.

Jenis kesalahan ketiga dengan frekuensi besar adalah ‘S-V agreement’ dimana jumlah-nya adalah 81 atau sebesar 9,30%. Jenis kesalahan ini umumnya timbul karena maha-siswa tidak menerapkan atauran tata bahasa secara benar.

Kesalahan yang berkaitan dengan preposition perlu diajarkan secara lebih intensif dalam proses belajar mengajar mengingat hasil evaluasinya menunjukkan persentase yang cukup besar yakni 58 kesalahan.

Setelah evaluasi dalam metode peneli-tian ini, langkah berikutnya yang perlu dilaku-kan adalah memperbaiki kesalahan dengan cara melakukan rekonstruksi ujaran-ujaran yang digunakan. Memperbaiki kesalahan ini dilaku-kan dengan memperhatikan jenis kesalahan dan penyebab kesalahannya.

Selanjutnya, agar mahasiswa menyadari bahwa mereka membuat kesalahan gramatikal dalam kalimat yang mereka buat, memperbaiki kesalahan ini dilakukan bersama-sama dengan mahasiswa.

Karena pengaruh bahasa Indonesia menjadi penyebab paling besar terjadi kesalahan gramtikan ini, mahasiswa perlu diberi waktu cukup untuk lebih banyak mempelajari tata bahasa Inggris, khususnya pada aturan tata bahasa yang memiliki pola yang sangat berbeda dengan pola bahasa Indonesia. Pemberian materi ini akan lebih baik dilakukan dengan memberikan banyak latihan sehingga pola kalimat yang sering mereka buat secara salah dapat diingat lebih mudah dan dapat dipahami dan digunakan secara bawah sadar.

Penanganan kesalahan gramatikal harus dilakukan seara hati-hati dan diupayakan agar mahasiswa tidak merasa ‘salah’ yang akhirnya dapat menurunkan motivasi mereka untuk menggunakan bahasa Inggris. Perbaikan kesala-han gramatikal sebaiknya dilakukan dengan yang tepat.


Daftar Pustaka

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Font-Llitjos, Ariadna; Probst, Katharina; and Carbonell, J aime G., “Error Analysis of Two Types of Grammar for the Purpose of Automatic Rule Refinement” (2004). Computer Science Department. Paper 304.

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Using Mind Mapping and Five Reviewing Patterns to Improve Senior High School Students’ Vocabulary Mastery

by Dian Fadhilawati

Islamic University of Balitar, Blitar, East Java, Indonesia


This reported research was a collaborative action research to improve the vocabulary achievement of high school students using mind mapping and five reviewing patterns proposed by Buzan (2009). The subjects were 35 students of X-B class of MAN Kota Blitar, East Java, Indonesia, in 2011/2012 academic years. The data of the research included qualitative data (observation result and field note) and quantitative data (test result). This research was conducted in one cycle which included 2 meetings. The first meeting was done at Tuesday, 7 February 2012. It was for teaching vocabulary about newspaper and publishing using mind mapping and review 1. The second meeting was done at Wednesday, 8 February 2012. It was for teaching vocabulary about radio and television as well as for the review 2 at the beginning of the meeting. At the end of the meeting, the teacher gave take home tasks for review 2 of meeting 2. Further, the third review (1 week after the first learning) was given at Wednesday, 15 February 2012. It was intended for reviewing both the materials in meeting 1 and 2. The forth review was a take home reviewing tasks given 1 month after the first learning and the fifth review was a take home review assigned 3 months after the first learning. After all of the five reviews, a vocabulary test was administered. The finding showed that the implementation of mind mapping and 5 reviewing patterns could improve the students’ vocabulary achievement, from the mean score of 55.66 to 80.57. The students also gave positive responses toward the strategies applied as reflected from the result of the questionnaire given.


Key words: mind-mapping, reviewing, vocabulary achievement

Based on the researcher’ preliminary observation at the first of February 2012, it was found the following weaknesses. First, teachers lacked of media in teaching and learning process (the teacher only used an exercise book called “LKS Aspirasi”). He did not use the language laboratory, chart, mind mapping, game, song pictures, or other media/facilities. Second, the students were lazy and unmotivated. Third, the students were passive in the classroom. Fourth, in teaching vocabulary the teacher only wrote down the vocabulary list on the white board and asked the students to find the meaning of the word in Indonesian. Therefore, the researcher assumed that instruction absolutely must be changed by the teacher by using appropriate method in order the students take apart to the lesson and got better achievement at the end of teaching learning process.

In addition, based on the result of the vocabulary test which administered to the students before the action, it could be said that the students’ English ability of X-B class was low, especially in understanding the meaning of words in context. The students’ mean score for the vocabulary test was 55.66, that was below the minimum school standard criterion of English mastery that required them at least have mean score 70.00.

Actually, there are a lot of interactive media or strategies to encourage students to take apart in the lesson especially in vocabulary teaching and learning. Since vocabulary teaching and learning aimed at enabling learners to understand the concepts of unfamiliar words, to gain a greater number of words, and to use words successfully for communicative purpose, it is necessary for the teacher to select and apply appropriate strategies in teaching vocabulary for the students which could improve their motivation to take apart in the lesson.

Mind mapping and five reviewing patterns proposed by Buzan (2009) can be applied by the teacher in teaching vocabulary. There are some reasons why the teacher may use mind mapping in teaching vocabulary, for example: (1) mind mapping is very appropriate and flexible to be applied for different levels of age, theme, subject, and situation either for whole class, group or individual, (2) mind mapping is a very good tool for creative thinking and problem solving, (3) in foreign language teaching and learning, mind mapping can improve memory recall of facts, words or images, (4) mind mapping is creative note taking method, which eases us to remember much information, and (5) mind mapping is colorful, uses pictures or symbols which leads the students’ interest to the subject (Deporter, Readon, and Nourie, 1997: 175). From the statement above, it can be concluded that mind mapping is potentially a good way to teach vocabulary to the students in senior high school.

In line with the previous statements, Buzan (1993:1) adds that mind mapping is a powerful graphic technique which provides a universal key to unlock the potential of brain. It imitates the thinking process, recording information through symbol, pictures, emotional meaning and colors, exactly the same like our brain process it. It means that mind mapping is very useful media for creating attractive, and enjoyable learning that lead the successfulness of the students in learning English vocabulary

In addition Buzan (2009: 39) also states that by using a mind mapping we can see what we are going to do and what we have done. It means, mind mapping may be used by the teacher or the students for planning the lesson, summarizing the lesson or recall to the lesson that the students have learnt. Moreover, Buzan (2009) also argues that mind mapping and 5 reviewing patterns will lead the students to achieve good scores in their examination test.

Talking about the success of the students’ in gaining good vocabulary achievement, it is crucial for the teacher to think deeply about how to implant vocabulary in the students’ mind for long term memory. In this case, the teacher may apply reviewing to facilitate the students with better memory to what they have learnt. It could be done at school or at home by giving tasks as a mean for reviewing the lesson that the students have learnt.

Usually many students are confused in deciding when they should start to review their school lessons, and most of them tend to postpone the reviews. As a result, in the time of final test, they often panic and study for their test immediately at the night before the examination with less sleep. As a result, at the examination day they lost concentration, were sleepy and, therefore, they failed or got poor scores. Actually, the best way to review lessons is step by step, little by little, day by day, and gradually until it becomes a habit in life (Buzan, 2009:38).

Furthermore, a good reviewing model was proposed by Buzan (2009) which is called 5 reviewing patterns. Buzan (2009:125) states that if students review the lesson 5 times such as: (1) 1 hour after the first learning, (2) 1 day after the first learning, (3) I week after the first learning, (4) 1 month after the first learning, and (5) 3 months up to 6 months after the first learning), they would have permanent memory of the lesson.

Therefore, the researcher and her collaborator assumed that the use of mind mapping and 5 reviewing patterns proposed by Buzan (2009) could improve the students’ vocabulary achievement and facilitate the students’ memory of the words or phrases they have learnt.

The studies on the use of mind mapping in teaching English have been performed by some researchers such as: Indah (2010), Effendi (2004), and Helmasari (2008). In this case, Indah (2010) proved that mind mapping was an effective medium to teach vocabulary to the tenth grade students of SMU Negeri 15 Palembang. Besides that, Effendi (2004) also found that mind mapping was effective to increase the second year students’ reading comprehension at SLTPN 43 Palembang. Further, Helmasari (2008) reported that mind mapping was effective to teach paragraph writing to the eleventh year students of SMA Negeri 14 Palembang.



Research Objective

The objective of this research is to use mind mapping and five reviewing patterns to improve the tenth year students’ vocabulary achievement at MAN Kota Blitar.


Research Design

In this research, the researcher employed collaborative classroom action research through mind mapping and Buzan’s 5 reviewing patterns to improve the students’ vocabulary achievement of X-B class of MAN Kota Blitar. In this case, the researcher’s collaborator was involved from the beginning up to the end of the research process. The action of teaching vocabulary through mind mapping and Buzan’s 5 times reviewing patterns is done by the researcher, and her collaborator acted as an observer of the teaching learning process. This idea is based on Calhoun’s principle (in Kasbollah, 2002:43) that argued “in collaborative action research, the researcher makes collaboration with the school teacher investigated as the researcher’s collaborator to do the research activities.”


Research Setting

The Research was conducted in MAN Kota Blitar starting from February to May 2012. The school is located at Jl. Jati 78 Sukorejo Blitar. This school was chosen because of some reasons such as: there are problems which need solution dealing English teaching learning process mainly on vocabulary achievement of X-B class which considered need to improve, and of course the permission from headmaster of MAN Kota Blitar.


Research Subjects

The research subjects of this research were the students of Class X-B of MAN Kota Blitar, consisting of 35 students (11 boys and 14 girls). The class was chosen as the subject because: (1) the class of X-B got the lowest achievement among the others class at the first semester (2) the students’ low vocabulary achievement (with the mean score of 55.66).


Research Procedure

The procedure of this Classroom Action Research was a modified version of Kemmis and Taggart (1997:27) model which covered some steps, namely preliminary study, planning of action, action, observing the action, and reflecting on the observation. This research was held from February to May 2012. The researchers conducted this study for one cycle that planning the action, implementing the action followed by 5 times reviewing, observation and evaluation, and analysis and reflection. This was only one cycle because the purpose has been achieved with only one cycle. Further, the description of the research procedures was presented on the following figure.


Figure1: The Procedures of Classroom Action Research (CAR)


Research Instruments

1. Test

Vocabulary test was given after the implementation of the action. It was used to know the students’ development. The test consisted of 50 words about newspaper and publishing as well as radio and television in which it distributed as follows: (1) questions numbers 1-15 were in the form of multiple choice, (2) questions number 16-30 were in the form matching test, (3) question number 31-40 were in the form guided completion and (5) question number 49-50 were in form of rearranging the scrambled words into good sentences. To make the test administered valid and reliable, in this research the researcher and her collaborator conducted validity test to another class of the tenth grade students at MAN Kota Blitar (X-C) class. Furthermore, the researcher used content validity, the evidence based on content of the test’s and its relationship to the construct it was intended to measure. In this case, the researcher looked for evidence that the test represented a balanced and adequate sampling of vocabulary mastery. Moreover, the content validity of the test was based on the basic competence in the tenth grade of Senior High School’s curriculum.

Before the post test was given to the respondent. It was tried out first to other group of students who had the same level with the respondent to know the test items were too difficult or too easy, whether the time is enough or not and the respondents understood the instruction or not. It was tried out on 2nd May 2012 at the class X-C of MAN Kota Blitar consisting 35 students. The following is the vocabulary test that was given to the students either in preliminary test or after the action test.


2. Observations Checklist

            Observation checklist was used to get the data about the students’ activities during the teaching learning process. In this case the researcher provided 2 observations checklist; the first to observe the teacher’ preparation, presentation, teaching method, personal characteristic, and teacher-students interaction in the classroom. The second observation checklist was intended as media in observing the students’ activities in the classroom.


3. Questionnaire

            A questionnaire was used to collect the data about the students’ reaction toward mind mapping and Buzan’s 5 times reviewing patterns in learning vocabulary. The Questionnaire contained 10 items with Likert scale options: Absolutely Agree (AA), Agree (A), Not Sure (NS), Not Agree (NA), and Absolutely Not Agree (ANA). It was adopted from Kristiana (2011).


4. Field note

            To get the rich data, this research also used field notes to write down the activities of teacher and students in the classroom which are not covered in observation checklist. Further, field notes composed of the descriptions of what was being heard, seen, experienced and thought in the classroom. The recorded data dealt with the phenomenon such as: time allotment, classroom atmosphere, tasks organization, and teacher’s feedback.


Criteria of Success

            The criterion of success in this research was designed on the basis of the school criterion: the students are considered good or successful in their vocabulary achievement if they achieve at least 70 of the optimal score competence level of 100. It means that the students’ mean score of the post-test should equal to or is higher than 70. Moreover, beside the students’ score in vocabulary achievement, the result of questionnaire was used to support the explanation of the criteria of success.


Kinds of Data and Data Sources


There were two kinds of data in this research, namely quantitative data and qualitative data. Quantitative data in the research refer to the data acquired from the test and questionnaire. Moreover qualitative data refer to the result from observation, questionnaire and field notes.


Techniques of Data Collection

The data were collected by (a) conducting an observation, (b) making field note, (c) administering test, (d) distributing questionnaire.


Data Analysis

The data analysis was used by researcher in this research followed some procedure such as: classifying the data, presenting the data and the last was concluding the data.


1. Data Classification

In this research, the data were classified into two categories, the first was quantitative data and the second was qualitative data. The quantitative data referred to the data which was taken from the students score as well as the questionnaire. However, the qualitative data were taken from the observation and check list as well as field note.


2. Data Display

The classified data from observation result and field note were described qualitatively using categories of achievement such as: very poor, poor, fair, good, and very good. Moreover, the data taken from the test was presented in tables, and the data from the questionnaire was calculated in percentage.

Furthermore, the use of quantitative data analysis was classified as follow:

1. The rule to decide the accomplishment degree and the mean score

  • Rule to find an individual degree of mastery



(Adopted from Petunjuk Guru Bahasa Inggris for the Senior high school).

  • Rule to find mean score


M       =      Mean score

SX      =      the total scores of the students’ vocabulary test

N        =      the numbers of students

(Adapted from Beast, 1981). 

2. The rule of calculating the percentage of students’ questionnaires responses





Concluding the Data

Data conclusion was done after the researcher evaluated and interpreted the data. It is important to conclude the data to know whether another cycle was necessary. In this research, researcher stopped the action at cycle 1 because the students had achieved mean score 88.57. That result was higher than the minimum mastery criterion stated in that school (70.00). Moreover, that result was supported by the results of observations which indicated the improvement of the teaching learning process from teacher and students’ part and the result of questionnaire dealing the implementation of teaching learning vocabulary using mind mapping.



Reflection is the most important part in Classroom Action Research, it is needed to evaluate whether another cycle to solve the problems is necessary or not. The number of cycles cannot be predicted in advance. A classroom action research may take only one cycle if after the first cycle, all the targeted criteria of success have been achieved. The researchers, in fact, have to do their best to plan their classroom action research as few cycles as possible.

If all of the problems in teaching vocabulary are solved, there is no need to conduct the second cycle. In reflection, the researchers consult the result of data analysis and compare it with the criteria of success. If the result of our first action fulfills the criteria of success, the action is stopped. If it does not fulfill the criteria of success, the researchers should continue to the second cycle by revising the lesson plan (Latief, 2010:87).

Furthermore, Mistar (2010:31) states that “reflection in a classroom action research is an effort to evaluate whether the teaching learning process succeeds or fails based on the criteria of succeed that have been decided before”.

The reflection in this research was done by the researcher and her collaborator after accomplishing each of the research steps in order to know whether we could stop the research or should continue to another cycle. In this case, they decide to stop this research in the first cycle, because the criterion of succeed of the research has been achieved by the students. The student’s mean score was 80.56; it was higher than the criterion of success of the research (70.00).


The Result of Teaching Learning Process Analysis

The analysis of the teaching-learning process was done based on the result of field notes and the observation checklist. Some findings show improvement from both the student and teachers’ parts. On the part of the students’ attitude towards the task, it was found that the students were actively involved and participated actively in the lesson. Further, the teacher’ ability in conducting teaching and learning process was observed and categorized as excellent and above average. Mostly, the indicators in observation checklist were rated 4 (excellent) and 3 (above average) by the collaborator researcher. In this case, the teacher was evaluated in the five points namely: (1) preparation, (2) presentation, (3) execution/method, (4) personal characteristics, teacher-students inter­action. Dealing with preparation, the teacher was well prepared and the lesson execution was good.

Further related to presentation, the teacher explained the materials well, smoothly, in sequence, and logically. Moreover the teacher also paced the lesson well, gave the lesson direction to the students clearly, for example in asking them to do the tasks, to play mind map, to do homework etc. Besides that, the teacher always tried to make the students talk or write for example by asking question, asking them to write the sentences, etc. Further, she also realized if there were some students who were having trouble in understanding the lesson. In this case, she asked the students the points they didn’t understand and she explained it again carefully. Further, in presenting the materials the teacher was very encouraging, full of enthusiasm, and showed the interest in the lesson,

Furthermore, dealing with execution or method, the teacher used various activities in during the class, reinforced the material, walked around the class, made eyes contact with the students, and knew the student’s name well. She also distributed the questions appropriately and used media in teaching. Contextual learning was used with clear example and illustration of the materials through mind mapping.

On the teacher’s personal characteristics, the teacher was patient in answering the students’ questions. She had audible voice for all students in the class. She also had a good appearance, initiative and was resourceful. She had appropriate and acceptable use of English while she is teaching the students.

The last point is related to teacher – student interaction in the classroom. Dealing with that point, the teacher tried to set the class into a student-centered class. She encouraged students’ participation in classroom by asking them to do activities or to raise or answer questions. Further, she was able to control and direct the class well; she sometime relaxed the students and made students work in group or individual. In conclusion teacher and the students had excellent interaction for enjoyable learning in the classroom.

An analysis of the result of the test given at the end of cycle 1 showed that an improvement of learning result was achieved. In this case, the mean score of the student’s in the vocabulary test after the action increased significantly after the implementation of mind mapping and 5 reviewing patterns proposed by Buzan (2009). The mean score of the students was 80.57. The students’ mean score was higher than the students’ mean score in vocabulary test before the action (55.66) and the minimum criterion mastery stated in the school (70.00).


The Students’ Questionnaire Result

The data on students’ opinion towards learning vocabulary using mind mapping and Buzan’s 5 reviewing patterns was obtained through a questionnaire with 10 statements given to 35 students of the tenth year of students in X-B class of MAN Kota Blitar. The questionnaire contained four variables to measure: (1) learning motivation, (2) learning result, (3) tasks accomplishment and (4) social relationship. The result showed that on the first variable “learning motivation”, the students are motivated to learn vocabulary using mind mapping and Buzan’s five reviewing patterns strategy. It can be seen from the result of the four statements given related to it. For the first statement (item no. 1) “I am very eager to learn vocabulary using mind mapping and Buzan’s 5 reviewing patterns”, 30 (85.7%) students chose “absolutely agree” and 5 (14.3%) students “agree”.

Moreover, 29 (82.9%) students state “absolutely agree” and the rest 6 (17.1%) students state “agree” for the statement (item no. 2): “Learning vocabulary using mind mapping and Buzan’s 5 reviewing patterns is an interesting and enjoyable activity”. On the other hand, in the third statement for this variable, statement no. 6, “It is difficult for me to learn vocabulary by mind mapping and Buzan’s five reviewing patterns”, 2 (5.7%) students state “not sure”. Moreover, 4 (11.4%) students state “not agree”, and the rest 29 (82.9%) students state “absolutely not agree”. Meanwhile, for the next statement (item no 7), “Learning vocabulary using mind mapping and Buzan’s 5 reviewing patterns strategy is a worthless and time consuming activity”, 6 (17.1%) students state “not agree” while the rest 29 (82.9%) students state “absolutely not agree”.

The data on the second variable “learning result” also showed satisfactory response. There are 4 indicators representing this variable. The first indicator is statement (item no. 3) “In my opinion learning vocabulary using mind mapping and Buzan’s reviewing patterns can increase my vocabulary”. 29 (82.9%) students chose “absolutely agree”, 6(17.1%) students chose “agree”. Second is statement no. 4, “Mind mapping and Buzan’s 5 reviewing patterns help me learn and memorize new words”.  30 (85.7%) students’ state “absolutely agree” and 5 (14.3%) state “agree”. The next is statement no. 5, “Learning vocabulary using mind mapping and Buzan’s five reviewing patterns enabled me to learn words and their meaning in comprehensible way”. 28 (80%) students state “absolutely agree” while the rest 7 (20%) students state “not sure”. And the last indicator is statement (item no 10), “Learning vocabulary through mind mapping makes me brave to express idea or asking and answering the question”. For this 29 (82.9%) students state “absolutely agree” and 6 (17.1%) students state “agree.”

The third variable “task achievement” also showed good response. As it can be seen in statement no. 8, “Using mind mapping and Buzan’s 5 reviewing patterns makes me motivated to do the class tasks or take-home tasks“, 30 (85.7%) students state “absolutely agree” and 5 (14.3%) students sate “agree”

The last variable “social relationship” also showed acceptable response. It can be seen from the result of statement no. 9, “Learning vocabulary using mind mapping and Buzan’s 5 reviewing patterns promotes the togetherness among students”. 29 (82.9%) students choose “absolutely agree”, and 3 (8.6%) students state “agree”, while 3 (8.6%) students state “not sure”.



Based on the result of the analysis both the teacher teaching-learning process and students’ learning result in cycle I, it was shown that the students made an improvement in learning vocabulary. This improvement could be seen from indicator of success achieved as follows. The obtained mean score was 80.57 was higher than the standard minimum mean score (70.00). Therefore, it was decided that the next cycle was not necessary. In addition, that result was supported by the result of teaching learning process which was derived from observation checklists and field note in which the teaching learning process in that class was very good/ excellent and it was also supported by the students’ positive responses toward the use of mind mapping and five reviewing patterns in learning vocabulary as presented previously. The following figure is the description of students’ improvement in learning vocabulary by using mind mapping and 5 reviewing patterns












Figure 2: Students’ Improvements


The result of the research that was presented above was in line with Indah ‘s experimental research result on the use of mind mapping to teach vocabulary, in which she reported that the vocabulary achievement of the students of IKIP PGRI Palembang increased after being taught using mind mapping. She recorded that the calculation result of the matched t-test formula was 2.396. It indicated that the calculated t obtained was greater than the critical value (1.725). The finding of her study showed that mind mapping is effective in teaching vocabulary to the tenth year of SMUN 15 Palembang.

Moreover, the researchers’ result was also in line with Yusuf’s experimental research result entitled “The Effectiveness of Mind Mapping Technique In Increasing the Second Year Students’ Reading Comprehension at SLTPN 43 Palembang” The result of the calculation of the t-test formula was 4.19. It indicated that the t value was higher than the critical value (02.021). The findings of his research showed that mind mapping is significantly effective in teaching reading comprehension to the subject of SLTP Negeri 43 Palembang.

In addition, the researchers’ result was in line with experimental research result by Hermalasari entitled “Teaching Writing Paragraphs by Using Mind Mapping to The Eleventh Year Students of SMA Negeri 14 Palembang in which she reported that the students’ average score in pre-test was 59.68 and the average score of post-test was 67.85. It indicated that calculated t value was higher than the t value on the table (1.684). It means that mind mapping is effective to teach writing paragraphs at the eleventh grade in that school. And now, with this current research mind mapping is also proved effective to teach vocabulary


The Strength and the Weaknesses of Mind Mapping and 5 Reviewing Patterns

There is no perfect thing. Besides having some strengths mind mapping and 5 reviewing patterns also have some weaknesses. The strengths include (1) leading the students to have better memory, (2) easy to apply in the classroom as media to present the material, media to do the task, media to review the lesson, and media to assess the students’ achievement, (3) interesting, and attractive media to teach all themes or sub-theme.

Further, mind mapping and 5 Buzan’s reviewing patterns were a pairs of strategies which support each other. As Buzan (2009:39) argue the best way to review the lesson is using mind mapping. With mind mapping to review the lesson, students will have better memory of the materials they have learnt. Better memory will make them easier in doing the test. It was proved by the students’ vocabulary mean score after applied with those strategies in this research.

However, mind mapping and five reviewing patterns also have weaknesses such as: (a) Mind mapping and 5 reviewing patterns need consistency as well as continuity of implementation either in the for of classroom implementation by teachers or at home reviews by students following the procedures given. Especially for the strategy of reviewing the lesson, it must be done seriously based on Buzan’s 5 reviewing patterns. Buzan’s 5 reviewing required teachers and students to review the lesson until 5 times based on these following rules: (a) one hour after the first learning, (b) one day after the first learning, (c) one week after the first learning, (d) one month after the first learning and, (e) three up to six months after the first learning. Those reviewing procedures may be difficult to do for students at the first time. Besides, with five time review, the teacher must provide and prepare more tasks, and of course it needs additional cost to prepare them as well as need additional time to do. In addition, it is not easy to change the habitual linear note writing in preparing teachers’ teaching materials or presentation. While with mind map, teachers need to be creative in making mind maps and present them in the class. If they don not have creativity and a good understanding about the material, the teachers would have problems in translating the materials into mind maps. Mind map reflects the materials to teach in the class. Therefore, before teachers make mind maps, they must understand the materials well so that they can generate the good key words. Otherwise, the mind map would be confusing for the students. Further, some teachers may not have a good ability to use multimedia or technology in teaching and learning such as in operating computer, laptop or internet applications. Or it can be said that mind map is still difficult to make for some teachers who did not have computer mastery or creativity to draw it.

In mind maps, everything is supposed to be provided on a single page. This is a tough challenge for teachers who have comprehensive and complex topic to deal with in the classroom. A mind map which is made carelessly or which is too ambitious to cover all aspect would look so crowded and this might cause students difficult to understand.



Conclusion and Suggestions

Mind mapping and 5 reviewing patterns proposed by Buzan (2009) can improve the tenth year students’ vocabulary achievement. Therefore, the English teachers are recommended to apply this model as one of alternatives teaching technique to teach vocabulary in the classroom. Besides that, the English teachers are also suggested to inform or discuss this model of vocabulary teaching through teachers’ forum such as workshop and seminar.

It is suggested that parents with elementary, junior or senior high school sons or daughters practice Buzan’s 5 reviewing patterns as strategy to review their lesson in order to improve their learning achievement. Furthermore, the students are also recommended to make mind map of their lessons at home after school and do the review 5 times based on the certain procedures as Buzan proposed. So, the students must be active both in the classroom and outside of the classroom for reviewing their lessons, for example, by summarizing, mapping, re-reading the material by themselves or by reviewing them in peer learning, and group learning at home.

In addition, this research is an action research in which the result cannot be generalized. It is advisable or recommended that future researchers would conduct the research with different design for example experimental research to know the effectiveness of Buzan’s 5 reviewing patterns on certain skills or subjects. Such research would be useful to strengthen or reject this research result.







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Enhancing Students’ Listening Skill Through Podcasts

by Oktavia Widiastuti

State Polytechnic of Malang (Polinema)


Applying podcast as an appropriate multimedia can be very potential and practical as a tool to enhance listeningskill.Students and teachers can download podscast easily and freely as source of their listening materials. Listening materials presented through Podcast is possible to increase students’ listening skill as Podcast provides students with authentic and contextual material. Podcast offers an ideal tool for the creative expression of knowledge preferred by today’s students, and provides an exciting way for students and teachers to explore and discover listening content or material.

Podcasts are particularly suited for extensive listening, for the purpose of motivating students’ interest in listening to English and providing them with exposure to native speakers’ speech (Rost, 1991). Stanley (2006) points out that podcasts offer students a wide range of possibilities for extra listening both inside and outside of the classrooms. The outside classroom listening activity effectively bridges the gap between the formal English which dominates most English language classrooms and the informal English used in real-life communication events.Podcast as a new technology has huge potential in enhancing students’ listening skill.The ease of downloading podcasts to MP3 players and iPods means that students can now engage in plenty of listening practice in any condition.


Key words: Listening skills, podcast, Information technology in ELT


Listening in language learning has undergone several important stages, from being assumed “acquired through exposure but not really taught” (Richard, 2002) to be viewed as “a primary vehicle for language learning” (Rost, 2001). During the decades, developments in education, linguistics and sociology have led to the powerful theories of the nature of language comprehension and the active interest in the role of listening comprehension in second language acquisition.

In daily communication, listening plays an important role. Research has demonstrated that adults spend 40-50% of communication time listening, 25-30% speaking, 11-16% reading, and about 9% writing (Vandergrift, 1999). Listening, the most widely used language skill, is often used in conjunction with the other skills of speaking, reading and writing. It is not only a skill area in language performance, but also a critical means of acquiring a second and foreign language.

In the late 1960s and early 1970s, applied linguistics recognized that listening was the primary channel by which the learner gained access to L2 data, and that it therefore served as the trigger for acquisition (Rost, 2001). Krashen (1982) claimed that “comprehensible input” was a necessary condition for language learning. In his input hypothesis, Krashen said further development from the learner’s current stage of language knowledge could only be achieved by the learner’s comprehending language that contained linguistic items (lexis, syntax, morphology) at a level slightly above the learner’s current knowledge (Rost, 2001). According to this theory, the more language we expose students to, the more they will acquire, and the better they get in listening activities

In general, provided the listening materialappropriate to their level is a very significant point. However, the reality of the teaching of listening in Indonesian’s classrooms is that students have only one hour to learn listening in the language laboratory every week, which is far from satisfactory. Hence, extensive listening must go along with intensive listening. Extensive listening, where a teacher encourages students to choose for themselves what they listen to and to do so for pleasure or for general language improvement can also have a dramatic effect on a student’s language proficiency (Harmer, 2001).

Applying appropriate multimedia in Extensive Listening activity can be one of the solutions to improve students’ listening skill and their motivation (Juniardi, 2008). By using multimedia students not only hear the sound but also can capture the pictures, moreover by using multimedia students can download native voices as source of their listening materials. One of the programs that can be applied is podcast program. By using Podcast, the students can listen to music, news, TV program etc. Podcast has two files audio (MP3) and video (MP4). These files can be down loaded free of charge from One of the Podcast examples which can be free down loaded is, CNN Larry King Live Podcast (Paul, 2007).

Another example, which is also interesting to be used as the listening material, is taken from . There are many videos which can be downloaded by subscribing to the website using iTunes (Stanley, 2006).

These two examples are few of many others materials that can be freely downloaded from the internet by subscribing to the website using iTunes. The capacity of each file is varied (about 3 to 100 Mb) according to duration of the podcast. For instance, it takes at least one and a half hour to download a 15 minutes Larry King Live Podcast (McCarty, 2005).

Based on the explanation above, listening materials presented through Podcast is possible to increase student listening comprehension as Podcast provide students with authentic and contextual material and it can improve students’ knowledge because students are able to share their Podcast. Podcasting offers an ideal tool for the creative expression of knowledge preferred by today’s students, and provides an exciting way for students and educators to explore and discover listening content or material (McCarty, 2005). Podcasts are audio or video files that are automatically delivered over a network, and then played back on any Mac, PC, or iPod. When students create a Podcast for class, they not only learn the content in a creative way, they learn 21st-century communication skills at the same time.



Language learning depends on listening since it provides the aural input that serves as the basis for language acquisition and enables learners to interact in spoken communication. Listening is the first language mode that children acquire. It provides the foundation for all aspects of language and cognitive development, and it plays a life-long role in the processes of communication. A study by Wilt (1950), found that people listen 45 % of the time they spend communicating.

Since listening is, according to Wang Shouyuan (2003), the most important component in the five aspects of overall English competence he suggests as listening, speaking, reading, writing and translation, it deserves particular attention. Teachers must actively explore the nature and process of listening comprehension and study the theory and methodology of listening comprehension in order to improve listening teaching outcomes and make students recognize that listening comprehension is the crucial aspect of English learning.

From the point of view of constructivist linguistics, foreign language teaching should focus on language form and structure, thus, listening teaching is undertaken in each of the four aspects of language form. When students are taught to understand a passage of text, teachers first let them discriminate between the pronunciation of vowels and consonants, then understand vocabulary, sentences and discourses. The goals of this listening teaching model from the “bottom-up” is to help students understand the meaning of vocabulary by discriminating sounds, to understand sentence meaning, and to monitor and control the meaning of discourses by understanding sentence meaning (Feyten, 1991).

Since the 1970s, with the development of functional language theory, there has been an emphasis on the research of language function in society. Functional linguistic experts recognize language as a communicative tool, but not an isolated structure system. Consequently the teaching of listening is not simply intended to make students hear a sound, a word or a sentence, rather, the goal is to cultivate students’ abilities to understand speakers’ intentions accurately and communicate with each other effectively (Lihua, 2002).

Different from the traditional theory that listening is a passive activity, now we have realized that listening is a complicated process that involves many factors. Rost (2002) suggests that “listening is a process involving a continuum of active processes which are under the control of the listener.” It is different from hearing which is “the primary physiological system that allows for reception and conversion of sound waves that surround the listener” (Rost, 2002).

A thorough definition of listening, thus, should include at least four factors: receptive, constructive, collaborative, or transformative (Rost, 2002). Receptive means receiving what the speaker actually says while constructive suggests constructing and representing meaning. Collaborative, on the other hand, shows negotiating meaning with the speaker and responding while transformative requires creating meaning through involvement, imagination and empathy.

            In summary, effective listening involves the listener taking an active role in constructing meaning with the speaker. Speaker must be aware of the deixis, speaker intention, implicit meaning and strategy use. In addition, effective listening will involve attention to cooperative social interaction, as that is where conversational meaning is monitored and negotiated (Rost, 2002).

The notion of involvement, engagement, and negotiation is related to pragmatic approach to listening. The pragmatic point of view of listening is an intention to complete a communication process. In order to occur this pragmatic completion, there must be engagement, in which a listener switches from becoming a mere ‘presence’ to an interpreter (Verschueren, 1999 in Rost, 2002).


Listening and Technologies

A prominent artefact of older beliefs concerning the role of listening in language learning is the language laboratory. The rationale for language laboratories is tied to the belief that individual listening practice with audiotape can help build a learner’s overall ability in the target language through self instructed comprehension practice. Technology continues to be perceived as an enhancement to the process of language acquisition. The large-scale infusion of computers in language instruction programs in the past decade attests to this belief. The rationale behind what is now growing support for Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) is not unlike earlier enthusiasm for audiotape-based technologies. That is, individualized access to target language material under learner control provides needed exposure to and practice in the target language (Meskill, 1993).

Enthusiasm for CALL in general and multimedia in particular, however, differs from that of the audiotape laboratory as regards the breadth of expectations concerning technology’s role and potential. Fast and powerful computational capacity in conjunction with the orchestrated video, text and graphics of today’s multimedia learning systems would predict more sophisticated paradigms for interaction with the target language and, consequently, more effective learning (Jung, 1990).

Arguments supporting multimedia for education of this kind have rung loud and clear over the past decade. Praises for the medium are, however, based largely on intuition: learning a language via individualized instruction with the computer especially when audio and video are involved is an extremely appealing proposition, one that has sold to many an administrator in search of instructional panaceas (Jonassen, 1993). Thus far, however, the extent of multimedia’s impact on the language acquisition process remains an open issue. Is there evidence to suggest that listening skills development can be enhanced through this medium? The following section treats this question by examining potential correspondence between multi modal processing opportunities for language learners and how these can interact to complement listening skills acquisition (Garza, 1991).

Puspitasari (2010) in Cahyono (2010) in her article “Using Podcast as a Source of Material for Teaching English” informed what a podcast is. By the guidance of the teacher, the students can experience learning authentically through podcasts. The strategy described in this article is how to use podcast as a source material. Having listened to podcast, students are assigned to do several tasks in worksheets. Then, they can finish their final project by submitting the worksheets and a written recount text.

Other sources of the use of technology in English language learning and teaching are Murtado (2010) in Cahyono (2010), he used mailing lists in the English classroom where students can read other people’s questions and comments, and they can also give their comments. Samsuli (2010) in Cahyono (2010) proposed teaching English in a virtual classroom. As a teaching environment, virtual classroom provides a set of tools and features to facilitate teachers for delivering course materials and structuring learning experiences. The virtual learning gives teachers an experience in the new teaching atmosphere and environment and makes them change the way to teach. It will improve their face to face interaction with more effective questioning techniques.



Podcasts are audio (sometimes video) programs on the Web which are usually updated at regular intervals. New episodes can be listened to on the computer, or downloaded to an MP3 player or iPod for later listening. Although audio programs have existed on the Web for a few years already, what makes podcasting unique is its capacity for subscription through an RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed, listeners can subscribe to their favorite Podcasts. Their computer will then receive alerts when new episodes have been posted. Podcatcher software programs, such as iTunes, will even download the latest episodes automatically once the program is opened. In other words, instead of having to visit individual Websites regularly for updated episodes, listeners can now have the latest episodes of their favoriteprograms delivered to their computer (Stanley, 2006)


Types of Podcast

Podcasts available on the Web fall broadly into two types: “radio Podcasts” and “independent Podcasts.” Radio Podcasts are existing radio programs turned into Podcasts, such as those produced by BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation) and RTHK (Radio Television Hong Kong). “Independent Podcasts” are Web-based Podcasts produced by individuals and organizations (Lee, 2007).

It is the second type of Podcast which has huge potential for ELT because these can be perfect to suit the needs of different learners. They can be created by learners themselves with utmost ease.


ELT Podcasts

The first Podcasts appeared in early 2005. ELT educators soon joined the movement, and since the second half of 2005, there has been an upsurge in the number of ELT Podcasts on the Web. Teachers have three ways to look for suitable ELT Podcasts for their students. They can start with general Podcast directories. A Podcast directory is a searchable database which is linked to the Podcast sites. Teachers can type in a search term like “English,” “ELT,” “ESL,” and “TESOL,” and they will be given a list of ELT Podcasts. An example of a general Podcast directory is (Lee, 2007).

To narrow down their search, teachers may go directly to directories of educational Podcasts. One well-known educational Podcast directory is the Education Podcast Network: A recent new directory is, which claims to be the first U.K directory of educational Podcasts (Lee, 2007).

There is now such an abundance of ELT Podcasts on the Web that Podcast directories specializing in ELT are also available. These are directories which cover ELT podcasts only. One example is maintained by the Internet TESL Journal (McCarty, 2005).


Contents of ELT Podcast

ELT podcasts cover a wide range of subject matter. A brief survey of ELT podcasts reveals the following content types:

  • Comprehensive (e.g.,

These are Podcasts that cover a wide range of content types, such as traditional listening comprehension activities, interviews, and vocabulary. A well-known comprehensive Podcast is the one quoted above, created by “Teacher John,” who teaches ESL in Japan.

  • Whole lessons (e.g.,

These are whole lessons based on a Podcast. The Podcast quoted above, for example, makes use of a news story in each episode. The text of the news story is provided, and is accompanied by the audio file. There is then a lesson plan with accompanying worksheet materials. In effect, these are ready-made lessons based on Podcasts which teachers can use in the classroom directly.

  • Vocabulary, idioms, etc. (e.g.,

This is a popular type of Podcast, probably because it is easy to produce. In this kind of Podcast, the host chooses some vocabulary items and explains their usage. The example presents a few idioms in each episode.

These Podcasts contain conversations between native speakers to help less proficient learners, each episode is accompanied by the script, for learners to refer to while listening to the conversation.

These are Podcasts containing jokes because they usually play on language, they encourage careful listening by the learner.

  • Songs (e.g.,

These Podcasts contain songs for ESL learners. The songs are either traditional children’s songs, or authentic popular songs for teenagers. They are also often accompanied by the text of the lyrics.

  • Phonetics, pronunciation (e.g.,

Podcasts are obviously highly suited for teaching phonetics and pronunciation. These Podcasts are lessons which focus on specific phonemes and pronunciation problems in English.

  • Stories (e.g,

These are usually reading aloud story. They may or may not be followed by listening comprehension questions.

  • Listening comprehension (e.g.,

These Podcasts provide conventional listening comprehension practice.

In conclusion, computerized media and a multimedia environment can be helpful for English language learning and teaching and it has been asserted that internet sources and internet-based teaching are an excellent medium and strategies for generating social construction of knowledge. Information and communication technology can be used by adopting variant methods that could encourage students in developing independent learning strategies. In this study, the use of webblog and internet mail (e-mail) as learning medium and the use of podcast as a listening source material hopefully can make the students improve their listening skill and motivation.


Podcasts and Listening Activities

Teaching listening by using Podcast is possible to increase student listening comprehension as Podcast provide students with authentic and contextual material and it can improve students’ knowledge because they share their Podcast (Earp, 1998). Podcasting offers an ideal tool for the creative expression of knowledge preferred by today’s students, and provides an exciting way for students and teachers to explore and discover listening content or material. Podcasts are audio or video files that are automatically delivered over a network, and then played back on any Mac, PC, or iPod. When students create a Podcast for class, they not only learn the content in a creative way, they learn 21st-century communications skills at the same time (McCarty, 2005).  Podcasting allows teachers to take their students beyond traditional assignments by allowing them to include voice recordings, photos, movies, and sound effects to share their knowledge. For example, students can draft and perform scripts as a writing assignment, create a visual progress report for an ongoing project, or submit a recorded version of a science presentation (Ge, 2005).

Podcasting is also a great way for teachers to deliver listening content to their students. They can distribute homework assignments, record book narration for beginning readers to read along with, or create foreign language lessons that students can review at their own pace (Lee, 2007).

ELT Podcasts can be used for intensive and extensive listening activities. However, ELT Podcasts are particularly suited for extensive listening, for the purpose of motivating student interest in listening to English, and providing them with exposure to native speakers’ speech (Rost, 1991). Stanley (2006) points out that Podcasts offer students a wide range of possibilities for extra listening both inside and outside of the classroom:

 “Supplementing the (often) scripted and stilted textbook listening with the real life authentic conversations we can find on many Podcasts is an attractive option for language teachers chosen carefully, extracts can bring a range of different voices and varieties of English into the classroom.”

More advanced learners can be encouraged to listen to authentic podcast. This activity effectively bridges the gap between the formal English which dominates most second language classrooms and the informal English used in most real-life communication events.

The key to help students improve their listening skills is to convince them that they can finish the job. This is more of an attitude adjustment than anything else, and it is easier for some students to accept than others. Another important point is that teachers should convince their students to listen to English as often as possible. As to the listening material, the more material they get touch with, the more progress they will make (Nunan and Miller, 1995).

In conclusion, as we all know, for the students of English as a foreign language, there are usually intervals between the perceptions of sounds by their ears and understanding the words, phrases and sentences. This kind of intervals often makes students have more troubles in listening comprehension. So it is essential for them to have more chances to contact with different kinds of listening materials and let their ears be familiar with different sounds of English words. In classroom activities, teachers can also give students some advice about improving listening competency, one of the useful suggestions, that is, extensive listening. The best source for extensive listening is podcast material from the internet.



Having observed all the results of the studies mentioned above, it can be concluded that internet podcast is a great multimedia to improve students’ listening skill. Podcast allows students to download or subscribe to audio programs in the form of MP3 files which is very easy to apply and they can select appropriate podcast materials which they need and like. The material is then easily be transferred to a portable MP3 player. Moreover, Intensive and Extensive Listening Activity using podcast is able to overcome students’ low ability in listening comprehension and is able to fulfill their need to have extra time to improve their listening skill with appropriate and interesting listening materials.



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Comprehension and Possible Measures for Improvement. Australia: University of Tasmania.

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Stimulating Positive English Speaking Class Environment

Oleh: Ani  Purjayanti

Bogor Agricultural University (IPB)



Despite the fact that the skills to communicate in English are crucial in the globalization era, the majority of students in Bogor Agricultural University encounter problems to speak this language appropriately and fluently. When asked to elaborate the inhibiting factors, students generally point out both linguistic and non-linguistic factors. Accordingly, not only do students need to be equipped with adequate knowledge of grammar, a sufficient range of vocabulary, and pronunciation knowledge but their confidence and willingness to take the risk also need to be provoked as well. In fact, the latter points, namely, building confidence and risk-taking willingness generally require hard efforts on the part of the teachers. Practice, is indeed viewed as the best way in such an English teaching-learning process, although, inevitably, there are often questions concerning the HOW this process is able to provide prominent and meaningful inputs to the students. This paper is written as an attempt to elicit students’ opinions on speaking classroom environment which can stimulate and foster students to speak appropriately and fluently. 100 students of Bogor Agricultural University (of Diploma level) who had taken reading class prior to the Speaking I, were randomly selected to be the subjects of the study. Besides completing questionnaires focusing on classroom arrangement and environment, participants were interviewed for further clarification. Results show that teachers play the most prominent role in creating classroom environment, including creating comforting but challenging classroom environment and providing appropriate teaching materials.


Key words: classroom environment, friendly speaking environment

Although teaching speaking skill does not completely differ from teaching other language skills, it apparently requires greater endeavors as students are driven to produce sentences in an active way. Meanwhile, being in a new speaking class – where one has to express ideas and opinions – is not always a pleasant experience for students. Quite often, a series of queries appears in a student’s mind: whether they will have an interesting class, a good teacher, nice friends, and so forth. Others might think whether they will be able to accomplish all of their classroom activities, and go through all of the tasks in the learning process for the whole semester. Still, some others wonder whether they are far behind their friends in terms of ability or the same. Such worries may, unfortunately, result in the decline of students’ guts and confidence so that their performance is far below optimum.

It is in such a case, learning environment becomes paramount. If the environment is dreary and discouraging, things will lead to a strenuous and boring situation though the lessons offered are tremendous. If the environment is tempting and motivating, on the other hand, learning may take place more easily as having safe and comfortable feelings, learners will eagerly open themselves to be involved and actively engage in the learning activities. By doing so, they are expected to be able to absorb and master the materials and skills given. But, the questions arisen here is “Who is responsible to create such a stimulating learning environment?”

This paper is written to elicit students’ opinion on “Who” or/and “What” can stimulate learners to speak in the speaking classroom.


Learning Environment

The term “Learning Environment” has apparently drawn a relatively wide attention from teachers of languages who then react in different ways as their follow-up actions. A some papers  discuss that many language teachers immediately direct their concentration on the physical setting of the classroom – where and how specific things must be placed and arranged as such an organization is believed to benefit young learners in their brain development  (Church, 2010). He goes on by mentioning other factors that may affect the classroom environment; namely, material choices as well as provided activities.  Byanderzee (2010), furthermore forward the idea that a positive classroom environment can be created by taking learners’ preferences and view points in the design of classroom materials, and this can be covered in specific classroom curriculum design. One specific goal for this is to ensure that students’ individual needs will be fulfilled. A larger coverage of the conception of learning environment is not only the “physical” environment but also the emotional feelings of learners created by particular people in a classroom: the teacher, classmates, etc that play a prominent role in stimulating positive learning environment. The feeling of being secure and excited when entering the classroom and conducting all the activities, is one of the examples of desired classroom environment.


Methods and Procedures

100 students of Diploma Program in IPB (from 6 different classes from two semesters) were asked to fill in a questionnaire “Stimulating Classroom Environment for English Speaking Learners”. They are free to give more than one answers when describing the preferred teacher, teaching materials, classmates, etc. In order to explore true responses from participants, Indonesian is used, but answers were given in English.

Responses were then tabulated and analyzed to obtain a clear depiction of students’ preferences. Words of similar meaning are classified into one to make the grouping easier. Some of these findings some were put into graphs.

In-depth interviews were conducted in order to get clarification of participants’ responses on the questionnaire.


Findings and Discussion
It was found that according to the students, the salient factors that have great roles in stimulating positive classroom environment so as to make them willing and encouraged to speak in English are in the following order:


Figure 1: The most influential factor in creating positive learning environment


Results indicated that the majority of the participants (68%) pointed out “the teacher” as the most crucial factor in making them speak, compared to other factors such as materials (10%), classmates (10%), learning situations (7%)  and learning activities (5%). Teacher factor is evidently far above the other choices, meaning that teachers  are viewed to have a vital role in providing valuable learning environment.

Regarding detailed teachers’ characteristics, teaching materials, classmates’ characteristics, and so forth that students preferred in-depth interviews were conducted. Responses mentioned by participants in each category are discussed individually.


1. Teacher (as the Most Influential Factor)

What are the aspects of an influential teacher brought up by the students in the questionnaire and interview?

Regarding teachers’ characteristics that students preferred, students raised teachers’ being friendly, supportive and giving respect as the highest in frequency. Responses students raised in the questionnaire are as described in the following:

  1. 1.      Being friendly

The most outstanding teachers’ characteristic raised by the majority of the students (89 %) – which also means what students concern the most about their teacher – is “friendliness”. Although it is described in a variety of words; including, being friendly, always smiles, always shows friendly face, the body language shows friendliness, and the like, students point out that this characteristic has a great impact on their feelings towards the classroom environment. This can make them feel at ease and comfortable and also reduce their nervousness so that they can enjoy the lesson and find it easier to express their opinions.

  1. 2.      Being supportive

Similar to the first characteristic, this second one was also written by 77% students as one of the teacher’s ideal characteristics. They have more courage if the teacher always provides support for his/her students, particularly when they make mistakes or do not know what to say. Thus, expressions such as “That’s good, so what about …“ in order to remind them of what they have to focus on, or “Right, but how do you pronounce …” when trying to correct their pronunciation can make them keep going.

Another expression that students use in the response is that they like to have a teacher who always gives motivation so that they feel the need to learn more and more. This can be conducted when giving them assignment or at the end of the lesson, for instance, depending on the classroom situation. Saying “Practice again and again so that in the next meeting you can speak much better than this time…” can give a significantly positive impact on the students.

  1. 3.      Giving respects

Although it is not mentioned as often as the above two characteristics, more than half of the respondents (57%) mention that they need to be given respects by their teacher. A teacher who respects students, listens to what they say, provides the same opportunities for all students to speak or ask questions, and does not criticize nor give bad judgment in front of others is sincerely appreciated. A teacher should also be able to accept students’ weaknesses wisely.

  1. 4.      Being  eager in correcting students’ mistakes

Both eagerness and willingness of a teacher to address students’ mistakes in a positive way is another concern (51%) since students believe that they still make lots of mistakes when speaking. A teacher, accordingly, is expected to show and correct these mistakes, as by doing so, students will be aware of their mistakes in the hope that they can avoid making the same mistakes at other times.

  1. 5.      Being kind-hearted

In addition, many students (46%) would like to have a teacher who has genuine understanding upon his/her students’ level of English proficiency, including understanding their difficulties and anxiety while learning English. In their words, they like a teacher who “can understand students’ situations” and do not become furious easily. A teacher has to have a great patience in her/himself.”


  1. 6.      Being creative and innovative

To a smaller extent (11%), students stated that a creative and innovative teacher can create good environment in the classroom since he/she can make classroom alive with the materials and activities provided for the students.

  1. 7.      Other characteristics

There are, still, other teachers’ characteristics preferred by students  though only in a very small number (7%). These include being able to explain clearly and become a role model, having sense of humor, being professional, and  close to the students. Moreover, teachers should also be serious in a friendly manner.

From the findings, it revealed that only a very few number of the participants point out teacher’s intelligence, knowledge, and smartness as profound aspects in creating friendly speaking environment. These cognitive characteristics were not as highly favoured as affective characteristics as discussed above. It is definite, therefore, that to provide friendly speaking environment, teachers’ personalities have to be given more attention. This is a great input for language teachers to introspect and check whether the above points are built in themselves.

The above-mentioned findings are, in fact, in line with previous studies (eg., Purjayanti, 2008). Similar hints to teach speaking class are also stated by Kelly (2010) who points out that both “teacher’s behaviors” and “teacher’s characteristics”, particularly “teacher’s personalities” have a great impact on how a learning environment is created. Whether or not a teacher is even-tempered, sarcastic, serious, patient, or optimist, is viewed to be the most important factor in creating a stimulating classroom environment as it appears that every student mentions this in their response.

What needs to be done then? Personalities, indeed, have to come first. Giving genuine smile and showing a happy face can be the first thing a teacher has to perform. Language teachers do not only assist students but also learn from others; sharing both knowledge and experience with students at the same time may help language teachers maintain the positive environment.

Included in the personalities that a language teacher needs to posses is the choices of words he/she uses in the classroom. Words of appreciation, inspiration as well as keenness are always good to use. A list of word choices and expressions used by language teachers in the classroom is proposed by Andrew (2009:1); he mentions that saying “raise a hand if in need of assistance” creates a more positive environment than saying “do not call out answers”.

Regarding teacher’s attempt to correct students’ mistakes which is very common to occur in a speaking class, again, words play a great role. Suess (2010); therefore, suggests that a teacher should conduct this activity wisely:

Always start with positive statement; praise them for trying. Praise is a powerful positive motivation tool” (Mc-Daniels in Suess, 2010:2)

Above all, a more crucial tip for teacher’s personalities is provided by Suess who states that the heart of creating stimulating classroom environment is teachers’ “enthusiasm” as well as “excitement” towards the lesson being taught. Teachers should always try to be enthusiastic and eager with the valuable job being conducted. It is this excitement   that will finally spread throughout the whole classroom and spark students’ enthusiasm to learn.

It is, definitely, a big fortune if all the characteristics and behaviors that students preferred become the parts of language teachers’ daily life in order to make students feel the comfort, respect, and even love from teachers. The most important questions that need to be addressed now is probably, “Are language teachers able to keep up the same performance from time to time?”, or “Can they always control their emotion in all kinds of situations?” Whatever the answer it takes, it is always good to take Kelly’s affirmation into account:

your behavior is the one factor that you can completely control” (Kelly, 2010:1)



The second vital component that can stimulate learning environment, as the participants respond on the questionnaire includes are both teaching materials and classmates. These are discussed with teaching materials discussed first and followed with classmates.

It was found that the stimulating materials include real-life topics, interesting topics, simple (trivial-matter) topic), and others. Real life topic includes topics about daily life, current issues and situations, any other current issues appear in the society. Students perceived such topics to be un-threatening topics to discuss since they are mostly have the knowledge on them; thus, it is relatively challenging. Interesting topics include the ones providing new or more knowledge or information are also found interesting. On the other hand, the ones that students are not familiar with are more difficult to express. Third, simple topics are the ones related to the real-life topics. Topics on politics or laws, for instance, are fairly hard to discuss. Finally, other topics include  the ones which are challenging, of their own choice, and fun.



Placed in the same rank as teaching materials, classmates were pointed out by 10% of the participants to be one of the factors influencing the learning environment. What kinds of classmates are they exactly expecting to make them encouraged to speak? The following characteristics of classmates are expected.

Being great motivators

85 % students affirmed that they are encouraged to speak when their classmates are the ones who can give them motivation. This kind of classmates are those willing to help and do not expect too much in return. These classmates also appreciate whatever their other friends performed and gave necessary suggestions.

Being active and responsive

58% students; furthermore, pointed out that these classmates are relatively active when conducting conversations with them, active asking questions and giving opinions during class presentation. Such classmates can radiate energy to them so that they finally become active.

Willing to give correction

Similar to the hope addressed to teachers, some students (27%) feel happy to be corrected by their friends. They found that most of the time, they forget grammar or certain pronunciation due to nervousness or concentration breakdown. Having correction from their friends will make them fresh again and able to carry out their speaking.

Possessing better skills

This finding was found relatively surprising. 16% of the participants stated that they can apparently have more courage when facing classmates with better ability. They revealed that these kinds of friends will indirectly radiate their great spirit to the others who realize that they have to learn more and more.


What includes under this category are, among others, having sincere classmates – the ones who give their complete attention when others are carrying out their tasks – , can also provide the spirit for them to speak. They also like classmates who never laugh at their friends’ mistakes

It is worth noting that classmates can, indeed, have a relatively big influence in the learning environment, particularly in a speaking class. It is necessary, therefore, for all language teachers to give their attention to this matter. Mc-Daniels words, quoted by Suess (2010:2) can be used as a great reminder:

Make sure students respect one another by teaching them help rather than laugh at each other .They should be reminded how they would like to be treated, and should treat others that way.”


Learning/Classroom Situation

Although this is not discerned as a really influential factor in creating the learning environment, few students stated some preferences on the classroom situations. Apparently, they like the following (in order of preference):

  1. to have a life classroom where everyone can express their opinions without fear
  2. to be in a fun and relax but serious situation (as opposed to an intense classroom)
  3. to be in a warm, conducive, and communicative classroom
  4. to be given an opportunity to speak or ask questions
  5. to be placed in pairs or groups
  6. to be placed in a small class  ( not too many students in it)

It was found that students, indeed, like to take part by expressing ideas in their speaking classroom, whether they are as a presenter or audience. This is believed to be able to provide as pleasant classroom environment so as not to make students feel discouraged and disrespected.

It was also worth noting that – as mentioned by a number of students – placing students in pairs or small groups is one way to make students feel comfortable and relax (as opposed to be individual). The first reason might be because they know each other, and secondly they have more turn and opportunity to express their ideas. Having this, therefore, it is expected that students can have better involvement, and hopefully better learning results.


Learning Activities

Students revealed that activities they like to perform in a speaking class are:

  1. the ones involving asking and answering questions
  2. presentation
  3. group discussion
  4. graded level of difficulty (to start from the easiest then move to the next grades)

The above findings, in fact, confirmed students’ high desire to get more time to perform speaking in the classroom. Thus, the enthusiasm is there with the students. The question arisen will be “are students given a opportunity to carry out the real speaking? Or, instead, is their high spirit “killed” simply because  the language teachers  do not provide an environment that can keep students’ high desire?



Generating a stimulating learning environment means creating safe, comfortable, secure, and friendly situations where students feel welcome, accepted and respected. Nervousness, anxiety or even stress due to the fear to produce utterances may be reduced or even hampered by such a friendly environment. In this kind of environment, learners are put in the centre of the classroom activities where they can explore and share knowledge, information, and experience in their own way. It is expected that in this way, learners can build their confidence and grow their willingness to express their ideas in their speaking class so as to make them speak better.

Now, as previously discussed, it is the duty of the teacher as the “most influential” person – whom the students rely on – to make every effort in order to provide the above findings for students to learn more eagerly. As McDanniels (2012:1) stated:

All students, even those who have learning difficulties and extraordinary personal challenges can do well when they are physically comfortable, mentally motivated and emotionally supported”.



Andrew, Tammy. 2009. Positive Learning Environment.

Office of Instructional Development (OID) UCLA. Improving classroom Interaction.

Anonymous. 2005. How to Create Enriching Environments that Enhance Student Learning. v

Byanderzee. 2010. Creating a Positive Classroom Environment.

Church, Ellen Booth. 2010.  Off to a Great Start: Creating an Effective Classroom.

Donato, Nanci. A  Discussion of a Positive Learning Environment and Classroom Management.

Imel, Susan. 2011. Inclusive Adult Learning Environments.

Kelly, Melissa. 2010. Creating a Positive Learning Environment: Dealing with Forces That Effect the Learning Environment.

Lebednik, Christine. How to Have Stimulating Classroom Discussions.

McDaniels, Michelle McFarland. 2011. Children Respond to a Positive Learning Environment.

Purjayanti, Ani. 2008. Good Language Teacher: Whose perceptions? Paper presented in 55th TEFLIN International Conference. Jakarta: UIN

Suess, Emily. 2010. A Positive learning Environment.


Moh. Thamrin

Politeknik Negeri Malang


Pertanyaan dalam interaksi kelas  memegang peranan penting. Dengan pertanyaan interaksi kelas dapat berjalan dengan baik karena pertanyaan dapat mengeksplorasi cara berpikir logis. Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan tujuan mendeskripsikan (1) fungsi pertanyaan  dosen-mahasiswa dalam interaksi kelas bengkel Politeknik Negeri Malang dan (2) fungsi pertanyaan mahasiswa-dosen dalam interaksi kelas bengkel Politeknik Negeri Malang. Penelitian ini menggunakan ancangan pragmatik. Data tuturan yang berbentuk pertanyaan dianalisis dengan menggunakan model analisis interaksi Miles dan Hubermen (1984) dengan langkah (1) reduksi data, (2) penyajian data, dan (3) verifikasi data. Bentuk pertanyaan yang dipakai dalam interaksi dosen-mahasiswa di kelas bengkel Politeknik Negeri Malang adalah pertanyaan yang berfungsi menyuruh, meminta, dan melarang. Bentuk pertanyaan yang dipakai dalam interaksi mahasiswa-dosen di kelas bengkel Politeknik Negeri Malang adalah pertanyaan yang berfungsi meminta. Bentuk pertanyaan yang digunakan dalam interaksi kelas bengkel antara dosen-mahasiswa memiliki variasi lebih banyak daripada interaksi mahasiswa-dosen.  Hal ini disebabkan oleh perbedaan hubungan interaksional antara dosen-mahasiswa.

Kata-kata kunci: Pertanyaan, fungsi pertanyaan, interaksi kelas.

Interaksi kelas merupakan aktivitas berbahasa. Aktivitas berbahasa pada hakikatnya melaksanakan berbagai tindak bahasa sesuai dengan aturan penggunaan unsur-unsur bahasa.  Tindak bahasa sebagai unit terkecil dalam peristiwa berbahasa dapat menunjukkan makna sosial. Seorang penutur bahasa Indonesia (BI) misalnya bermaksud menyuruh petutur untuk memutar pengatur gas mesin pengelas, dapat menggunakan bentuk verbal berupa kalimat (1)”Putarlah pengatur gas ini!”, atau (2) ”Pengatur gas ini perlu disetel lagi.” atau (3) ”Bagaimana kalau pengatur gas ini diputar?” Pemilihan terhadap satu formulasi kalimat tersebut mengandung efek yang berbeda baik bagi penutur maupun bagi petutur. Efek itu antara lain menyangkut kadar maksud dan jenis hubungan yang mewarnai antara penutur dan petutur, cara berpikir, serta tindak laku keduanya. Hal ini menandakan bahwa suatu bahasa tidak hanya berfungsi untuk mengungkapkan unsur kognitif saja, tetapi juga untuk mengungkapkan unsur sikap yang ada dalam setiap bahasa. Unsur sikap yang dimaksud yaitu unsur yang memperlihatkan maksud, pikiran, kegiatan, dan sebab tuturan itu dilakukan penutur. Dalam kondisi tertentu, unsur sikap tidak dinyatakan secara eksplisit oleh penutur, namun  dapat dimengerti oleh petutur.

Tindak bahasa yang banyak mendapatkan perhatian para ahli filsafat dan ahli bahasa adalah tindak ilokusi. Salah satu jenis tindak ilokusi yang berperan penting dalam interaksi kelas adalah tindak direktif, yakni tindak bahasa yang dilakukan penutur dengan tujuan menghasilkan suatu efek berupa tindakan yang dilakukan oleh petutur. Salah satu bentuk yang dipakai adalah bentuk pertanyaan. Dalam interaksi kelas, pertanyaan digunakan dosen pada tahap pembukaan, tahap inti, dan tahap akhir pembelajaran  dengan berbagai fungsi.

Penggunaan pertanyaan dalam interaksi kelas bengkel bertujuan (1) menciptakan suasana kelas agar mahasiswa memiliki kondisi siap untuk memulai praktik, (2) mengembangkan interaksi kelas secara optimal, (3) menciptakan suasana lebih hidup dan dinamis, (4) menciptakan ’kontekstual’ yang tinggi karena mahasiswa dapat terlibat secara aktif dalam kegiatan pembelajaran, dan (5) memperoleh balikan, seberapa banyak mahasiswa memperoleh keterampilan dalam proses pembelajaran. Bagi mahasiswa,  pertanyaan berfungsi sebagai pelatihan mengadakan negosiasi makna, menggunakan bahasa dengan konteks yang beragam, teknik mengatasi kesulitan, dan teknik pengembangan intelektual, emosional, serta moral.

Mengingat pentingnya peranan pertanyaan dalam interaksi kelas bengkel tersebut, pembinaan bagi dosen dan mahasiswa sebagai pengguna bahasa Indonesia perlu ditingkatkan. Pembinaan itu dapat dilakukan secara efektif apabila didukung oleh data empiris yang sahih. Untuk mendapatkan data tersebut perlu dilakukan penelitian fungsi pertanyaan dalam interaksi kelas bengkel Politeknik Negeri Malang.



Di dalam berbahasa, kebutuhan penutur bukanlah semata-mata untuk menyampaikan proposisi dan informasi saja. Dengan bahasa, penutur dapat melakukan tindakan. Salah satu tindakan yang penting adalah tindak ilokusi.  Tindak ilokusi memiliki beberapa fungsi, salah satunya adalah fungsi direktif, yakni ilokusi yang bertujuan menghasilkan suatu efek yang dilakukan oleh petutur (Searle, 1985). Dalam menyatakan tindak direktif, penutur dapat menggunakan strategi yang berbentuk pertanyaan.

Sebagai salah satu unsur pembentuk kegiatan interaksi, pertanyaan memiliki bentuk dan fungsi yang sangat beragam. Bahasan berikut akan difokuskan pada bentuk dan fungsi pertanyaan dalam bahasa Indonesia. Alisyahbana (1969:51) membedakan kalimat tanya menjadi 3 macam, yaitu kalimat tanya yang dibentuk dengan menggunakan (1) intonasi tanya, (2) kata tanya, dan (3) akhiran tanya –kah. Satu bentuk pertanyaan yang lain, yakni kalimat tanya yang sama dengan perintah, sebagai alat interaksi, dan pertanyaan yang menyerupai seruan. Slamet Muljana (1969)  membedakan kalimat tanya menjadi 2, yaitu  kalimat tanya sebagian dan kalimat tanya keseluruhan. Pembagian ini didasarkan pada pusat perhatiannya. Pertanyaan keseluruhan menghendaki jawaban ya atau tidak, sedangkan pertanyaan sebagian menghendaki jawaban yang ada tambahan penjelasan.

Dengan menggunakan sudut pandang sintaksis, semantis, dan model yang mengikutinya, pertanyaan dalam bahasa Indonesia dapat dibedakan menjadi 2 macam, yakni pertanyaan ya-tidak dan pertanyaan selain ya-tidak. Pertanyaan ya-tidak merupakan pertanyaan yang jawabnya ya, tidak, atau bukan. Sedang pertanyaan selain ya-tidak yaitu pertanyaan yang membutuhkan jawaban yang berupa penjelasan (Bloom, 1956).

DeGarmo (1972) mengemukakan bahwa pertanyaan berfungsi sebagai perangsang berpikir dan pendorong lahirnya suatu tindakan. Dalam kegiatan interaksi , pertanyaan berfungsi sebagai alat untuk menciptakan dan mengembangkan interaksi. Allen (1978) mengemukakan adanya empat fungsi pertanyaan, yakni meminta informasi, meminta izin, meminta keberterimaan, atau meminta konfirmasi.

Dengan menggunakan dasar situasi dan teknik, Coulthhard (1981) membedakan fungsi pertanyaan menjadi 3 macam, yaitu (1) pertanyaan sebagai permintaan penjelasan, (2) pertanyaan sebagai permintaan agar lawan bicara melakukan sesuatu, dan (3) pertanyaan yang difungsikan agar lawan bicara tidak melakukan sesuatu.



Sebagai suatu istilah, interaksi dapat diartikan sebagai kontak antar dua individu atau lebih dengan menggunakan media yang bersifat verbal dan nonverbal (Samson, 1976: 228). Dalam kegiatan interaksi, pelaku interaksi saling memberikan alternatif untuk berperan serta. Peserta interaksi mendengarkan apa yang disampaikan oleh peserta interaksi yang lain dan menunggu sampai selesai, barulah ia mulai berbicara. Kegiatan interaksi secara sistematis berhubungan dengan situasi fisik tempat terjadinya interaksi dan perhatian peserta interaksi difokuskan pada situasi fisik tersebut. Dengan kata lain, interaksi merupakan pertukaran unit-unit dasar wacana dengan melibatkan kegiatan pengiriman pesan, penerimaan pesan, dan konteks.  Dalam kegiatan interaksi ini proses terjadinya negosiasi makna tidak dapat dihindarkan.

Allen (1987:25) mengartikan interaksi sebagai konsep umum yang mengacu pada pertukaran yang kompleks dari tingkah laku yang terarah yang didistribusikan ke dalam suatu rentangan waktu oleh dua orang atau lebih. Interaksi juga merupakan proses verbal dan nonverbal yang bersifat timbal balik yang diorganisir dalam suatu pola tindakan yang bermakna antara satu individu dengan individu yang lain.

Dalam interaksi yang terdiri atas dua partisipan, dapat dijumpai adanya empat macam balikan, yakni (1) balikan yang berisi monitoring diri; pembicara bermaksud mengemukakan dan menilai apa dan bagaimana ia mengemukakan maksud; (2) balikan yang berisi macam-macam respon yang digunakan untuk menopang arus interaksi; (3) balikan yang berisi balikan-balikan dari pembicara terhadap respon yang mendahuluinya; (4) balikan yang berisi hasil yang bersifat umum sebagai kesimpulan interaksi yang dapat berupa: rangkuman, persetujuan, sikap, kontrak, dan modifikasi tingkah laku antarpeserta interaksi.

River (1987) menjelaskan bahwa interaksi sebagai kegiatan melibatkan pengiriman pesan, penerimaan pesan, dan konteks. Interaksi tidak hanya melibatkan aspek pengekspresian ide semata, tetapi juga melibatkan aspek pemahaman ide. Dalam menafsirkan makna, pelaku interaksi mendasarkan diri pada konteks, baik yang bersifat fisik mau pun nonfisik, serta semua unsur non-verbal yang terkait dengan kegiatan interaksi.

Dari uraian yang dipaparkan di atas dapat ditarik pengertian sebagai berikut. Interaksi berarti kontak dua individu atau lebih menggunakan media verbal, non-verbal, atau gabungan keduanya. Dalam berinteraksi, pelaku melakukan kegiatan pengiriman dan pemahaman pesan secara timbal balik yang terwujud dalam bentuk giliran bicara. Dalam mengirimkan dan menafsirkan pesan, pelaku interaksi mendasarkan diri pada konteks atau situasi interaksi.

Kegiatan interaksi dapat dipandang sebagai salah satu bentuk kegiatan komunikasi. Seperti halnya komunikasi, Hymes (1974) membagi interaksi terdiri atas komponen-komponen, yaitu (1) genre (macam interaksi), misalnya: lawak, percakapan informal, dan diskusi; (2) topik atau fokus interaksi; (3) tujuan atau fungsi interaksi; (4) latar interaksi, meliputi lokasi, musim, dan aspek fisik lainnya;  (5) partisipan, yang melibatkan unsur usia, jenis kelamin, etnis, status sosial, serta hubungan antar partisipan; (6) bentuk pesan; (7) isi pesan; (8) urutan tindak dalam berinteraksi; (9) pola atau struktur interaksi; dan (10) norma interpretasi yang meliputi pengetahuan umum, preposisi budaya yang relevan, dan acuan khusus.

Saville-Troike (1986:22) mengemukakan bahwa kemampuan berkomunikasi melibatkan aspek pengetahuan kebahasaan, kepada siapa berbicara, dan bagaimana mengatakan sesuatu dengan tepat. Selain itu kemampuan berkomunikasi berkaitan dengan pengetahuan tentang mengapa seseorang berbicara atau tidak berbicara dalam latar tertentu, bagaimana sifat pembicaraan dua individu yang memiliki status sosial berbeda, kapan mulai berbicara dan kapan harus berhenti berbicara, bagaimana cara menyatakan sesuatu, meminta sesuatu, dan menanyakan sesuatu.

River (1987:57) mengemukakan adanya 3 aspek dalam kegiatan berinteraksi. Pertama, kemampuan kosa kata yang mencakup pengertian seseorang menguasai kosa kata yang dibutuhkan dalam suatu kegiatan interaksi dan menggunakannya secara tepat. Kedua, kemampuan tatabahasa yang merupakan rumusan struktur dari suatu bahasa yang benar. Ketiga,  kemampuan komunikatif, baik yang bersifat reseptis  (menyimak) maupun yang bersifat produktif (berbicara).

Allen (1978:42) mengemukakan tujuh macam interaksi verbal yang lebih mengarah pada aspek media verbal yang digunakan,  yaitu pernyataan, pertanyaan, persetujuan, seruan, tertawa, fragmentasi, dan tuturan secara simultan. Komponen-komponen tersebut memiliki fungsi yang berbeda-beda. Pernyataan dan pertanyaan bersifat saling melengkapi dalam proses pemindahan informasi. Persetujuan merupakan komponen yang harus dimasukkan dalam proses interaksi verbal untuk menopang jalannya interaksi. Rangkaian tawa, seruan, interupsi, dan fragmentasi seringkali dipandang negatif dalam proses pemindahan atau pengiriman informasi, dan seringkali dipakai sebagai dasar untuk menilai tingkat gangguan dalam interaksi.

Edmonson (1981:32) mengemukakan adanya tiga komponen dalam interaksi verbal, yaitu media yang digunakan, giliran bicara, dan urutan yang relevan. Interaksi sering menggunakan media baik verbal dan non-verbal secara simultan. Unsur non-verbal seperti gerak mata, ekspresi wajah, serta gerak fisik lain sering menyertai kegiatan berbicara.  Peran sebagai pembicara dan pendengar terjadi secara bergantian.

Dari paparan di atas dapat ditarik kesimpulan sebagai berikut. Kegiatan interaksi merupakan bagian dari komunikasi, oleh karenanya komponen interaksi sama dengan komponen komunikasi. Komponen komunikasi yang dimaksud adalah genre, topik, tujuan, latar, partisipan, media yang digunakan, isi pesan, urutan tindak, pola, dan norma interpretasi. Dalam interaksi verbal pelaku menggunakan bahasa, aturan interaksi, dan pengetahuan budaya yang relevan. Komponen bahasa yang dimaksud meliputi pertanyaan, pernyataan, seruan, persetujuan, dan fragmentasi. Dengan demikian, interaksi dapat ditinjau dari segi tujuan, fungsi, partisipan, situasi, media, mau pun topik interaksi. Selain itu juga bisa dilihat dari segi hubungan antarunsur pembentuk kegiatan interaksi, misalnya dari segi fungsi-partisipan-bentuk. Dari segi situasinya, interaksi dapat dibedakan menjadi interaksi intim, interaksi formal, interaksi keluarga, interaksi masyarakat, interaksi kelas, interaksi sekolah, dan interaksi sekolah dengan masyarakat.



Penelitian ini termasuk  penelitian kualitatif  yang menggunakan ancangan analisis wacana pragmatik, yaitu dalam analisis data  penelitian, peneliti mendasarkan pada konteks atau faktor penentu dalam interaksi, yaitu pemeran serta (dosen-mahasiswa, dan mahasiswa-dosen), tujuan, dan situasi yang melingkupinya

Yang menjadi sumber data dalam penelitian ini adalah tuturan dalam interaksi antara dosen-mahasiswa dan mahasiswa-dosen dalam kelas bengkel yang mengandung tindak direktif berupa bentuk dan fungsi pertanyaan. Proses pengumpulan data ini dilakukan melalui pengamatan disertai dengan perekaman dan pencatatan data lapangan. Proses pengamatan yang disertai dengan perekaman dan pencatatan data interaksi kelas bengkel dilakukan dalam kegiatan belajar-mengajar. Untuk memperoleh data utama telah ditempuh cara atau teknik pengumpulan data sebagai berikut. Ketika proses perekaman berlangsung, peneliti melakukan observasi mengenai konteks tuturan dan selanjutnya dicatat di format konteks.  Hal ini perlu dilakukan agar memperoleh data yang sesuai, terutama berkaitan dengan kapan dan bagaimana tuturan itu digunakan.

Data penelitian ini berupa tuturan yang mengekspresikan (1) bentuk pertanyaan dan (2) fungsi pertanyaan.  Analisis data penelitian ini dilakukan pada saat berlangsungnya pengumpulan dan selesai pengumpulan data. Analisis data penelitian ini menggunakan model analisis interaksi (Miles dan Huberman, 1984) dengan langkah-langkah (1) reduksi data, (2) penyajian data, dan (3) simpulan atau verifikasi. 

Verifikasi hasil akan memberikan deskripsi mengenai hasil penelitian berupa fungsi pertanyaan dalam interaksi kelas bengkel yang meliputi fungsi pertanyaan yang digunakan oleh dosen-mahasiswa dalam  interaksi kelas bengkel dan fungsi pertanyaan yang digunakan oleh mahasiswa-dosen dalam  interaksi kelas bengkel.



Fungsi Pertanyaan dalam Interaksi Kelas di Bengkel Politeknik Negeri Malang  antara Dosen-Mahasiswa

Fungsi pertanyaan  yang digunakan dalam inetraksi kelas bengkel antara dosen-mahasiswa terdapat 3 jenis fungsi, yaitu (1) menyuruh, (2) meminta, (3) dan (3) melarang. Penjelasan lebih lanjut mengenai kelima fungsi tersebut dapat dilihat di bawah.



Secara struktural dan konteks, kalimat dianggap sebagai menyuruh jika penutur menyuruh lawan bicaranya berbuat sesuatu (Alwi, dkk. 2003: 353).  Kalimat dalam tuturan yang digunakan mudah dimengerti karena langsung pada tujuan tuturan itu digunakan.  Tuturan yang dipakai juga menyiratkan tentang langkah-langkah yang harus dilakukan oleh mahasiswa dalam praktik di bengkel. Memahami fungsi tuturannya harus melibatkan pula konteks ketika tuturan itu disampaikan.

Sama dengan fungsi menyuruh atau memerintah yang diwujudkan dalam bentuk deklaratif, fungsi menyuruh atau memerintah dalam pertanyaan ini hanya dapat dipahami oleh petutur apabila memerhatikan konteks ketika tuturan itu diucapkan. Bentuk pertanyaan  yang berfungsi menyuruh dapat dilihat pada tuturan berikut.


(1)     Diameternya berapa?


Tuturan dosen kepada mahasiswa ketika dosen menyuruh mahasiswa  membuat lubang pada benda kerja dari bahan baja perkakas (tool steel) dengan diameter mata bor 15 mm berdasarkan gambar kerja yang telah ditunjukkan dosen kepada mahasiswa.


(2)     Hasti, mana kacamatamu?


Dituturkan oleh seorang dosen yang sedang jengkel dengan mahasiswa yang bernama Hasti yang tidak segera mengenakan kacamata praktiknya padahal mahasiswa yang lain sudah siap. Hasti dengan sadar segera mengenakan kacamata praktiknya.


(3)     Kamu belum dapat bagian kok diam saja?


Tuturan dosen kepada salah seorang mahasiswa yang bernama Imam karena belum mendapatkan benda kerja dan menyuruh Imam  mengambil benda kerja yang telah disiapkan oleh teknisi. Mahasiswa


Tuturan-tuturan dalam bentuk pertanyaan di atas dapat diketahui memiliki fungsi menyuruh oleh petutur setelah memperhatikan konteksnya. Ini semua berarti berkaitan dengan maksud atau daya ujaran. Tuturan Diameternya berapa? Hasti, mana kacamatamu? Kamu belum dapat bagian kok diam saja?  dipahami sebagai menyuruh oleh mahasiswa karena mahasiswa mengetahui (1) konteks yang mengacu kepada siapa bertutur, di mana, bilamana, untuk apa, dan bagaimana; serta (2) koteks, yang mengacu ke ujaran-ujaran sebelumnya yang mendahului dan atau yang mengikutinya (Blum-Kulka, dalam Gunarwan, 2007: 186).

Tuturan-tuturan lain yang yang berfungsi menyuruh atau memerintah yang diwujudkan dalam pertanyaan di antaranya dapat dilihat pada contoh tuturan berikut.


(4)     Sudah dihitung untuk pengasarannya?


Tuturan dosen kepada mahasiswa ketika proses pembubutan. Ia menyuruh mahasiswa menentukan pemakanan untuk pengasaran dengan ukuran antara 0,25 – 0,4  mm.


(5)     Sudah dikunci?


Tuturan seorang dosen kepada mahasiswa agar segera mengunci dengan skrup pengunci skala nonius dalam praktik mesin skrap.


(6)     Sarung tangannya mana?


Tuturan dosen kepada salah seorang mahasiswa ketika ia menyuruh mahasiswa untuk mengenakan sarung tangan.


(7)     Berapa derajat?


Tuturan dosen kepada mahasiswa ketika menyuruh mahasiswa menyetting eretan melintang putar pada posisi 5 derajat


Berdasarkan analisis di atas bahwa fungsi  menyuruh atau memerintah dapat diwujudkan dalam bentuk pertanyaan. Tuturan dalam bentuk pertanyaan dapat dipahami sebagai menyuruh atau memerintah bergantung:  (1) konteks yang mengacu kepada siapa bertutur, di mana, bilamana, untuk apa, dan bagaimana; serta (2) koteks, yang mengacu ke ujaran-ujaran sebelumnya yang mendahului dan atau yang mengikutinya.

Searle (1975) menegaskan bahwa satu fungsi dapat diungkapkan dalam berbagai bentuk ujaran. Fungsi menyuruh dalam bentuk pertanyaan merupakan tindak bahasa tak langsung dan jarak tempuh (derajat ilokusi) ujaran itu untuk dipahami lebih panjang dibandingkan dengan fungsi menyuruh yang diungkapkan dalam bentuk ujaran dalam bentuk kalimat perintah.

Fungsi menyuruh dalam interaksi dosen-mahasiswa merupakan fungsi yang paling dominan. Hal tersebut dapat dijelaskan bahwa kegiatan belajar-mengajar lebih banyak dilakukan dengan teknik penugasan atau instruksi. Dengan teknik seperti itu mahasiswa dapat terlibat secara aktif, dapat memperoleh pengalaman belajar yang bermakna.



Secara struktural dan konteks, kalimat dianggap sebagai meminta jika penutur tampaknya tidak memerintah, tetapi menyuruh mencoba atau mempersilakan lawan bicara sudi berbuat sesuatu (Alwi, dkk. 2003: 353).  Kalimat dalam tuturan yang digunakan mudah dimengerti karena langsung pada tujuan tuturan itu digunakan.  Tuturan yang dipakai juga menyiratkan tentang langkah-langkah yang harus dilakukan oleh mahasiswa dalam praktik di bengkel. Memahami fungsi tuturannya harus melibatkan pula konteks ketika tuturan itu disampaikan.

Di dalam interaksi kelas bengkel, fungsi meminta  dalam bentuk pertanyaan ini hanya dapat diketahui fungsi menyuruhnya apabila memperhatikan konteks ketika tuturan itu diucapkan. Pertanyaan yang berfungsi meminta dapat dilihat pada tuturan berikut.


(8)     Ada kesulitan?


Tuturan dosen kepada mahasiswa pada saat akan mengakhiri kegiatan praktik. Mahasiswa diminta untuk mengutarakan hal-hal yang menjadi kendala waktu praktik.


(9)     Ada pertanyaan?


Tuturan dosen kepada mahasiswa ketika akan mengakhiri kegiatan praktik agar mahasiswa menanyakan hal-hal yang belum dipahaminya.


(10)  Sudah dicek?


Tuturan dosen kepada mahasiswa ketika akan meninggalkan ruang praktik agar mahasiswa mememeriksa ulang tentang kebersihan dan mematikan peralatannya.


(11)  Itu, tolong ada pisau pengukurnya?


Tuturan dosen kepada mahasiswa ketika ia meminta mahasiswa mengambil pisau pengukur untuk melihat kerataannya.


(12)  Kenapa kok ngoyo?


Tuturan dosen yang meminta salah seorang mahasiswa agar menggerakan kikir dengan santai.


(13)  Bisa bagikan benda kerjanya?


Tuturan dosen kepada mahasiswa ketika ia meminta tolong kepada ketua kelas untuk membagikan benda kerja kepada mahasiswa yang lain.


Tuturan-tuturan dalam bentuk pertanyaan di atas dapat diketahui memiliki fungsi meminta setelah memerhatikan konteks situasinya ketika tuturan itu diucapkan. Ini semua berarti berkaitan dengan maksud atau daya ujaran. Tuturan Ada kesulitan? Ada pertanyaan? Sudah dicek?Itu, tolong ada pisau pengukurnya? Kenapa kok ngoyo?Bisa bagikan benda kerjanya? dipahami sebagai meminta oleh mahasiswa karena mahasiswa mengetahui (1) konteks yang mengacu kepada siapa bertutur, di mana, bilamana, untuk apa, dan bagaimana; serta (2) koteks, yang mengacu ke ujaran-ujaran sebelumnya yang mendahului dan atau yang mengikutinya (Blum-Kulka, dalam Gunarwan, 2007: 186).

Fungsi meminta dalam bentuk pertanyaan merupakan tindak bahasa tak langsung dan jarak tempuh (derajat ilokusi) ujaran itu untuk dipahami oleh mahasiswa (petutur) lebih panjang dibandingkan dengan fungsi menyuruh yang diungkapkan dalam bentuk ujaran imperatif.

Berdasarkan analisis di atas tuturan yang digunakan dalam interaksi dosen-mahasiswa di Bengkel Politeknik Negeri Malang yang berfungsi untuk  meminta dapat diwujudkan dalam bentuk pertanyaan. Tuturan dalam bentuk pertanyaan dapat dipahami sebagai meminta bergantung:  (1) konteks yang mengacu kepada siapa bertutur, di mana, bilamana, untuk apa, dan bagaimana; serta (2) koteks, yang mengacu ke ujaran-ujaran sebelumnya yang mendahului dan atau yang mengikutinya (Blum-Kulka, dalam Gunarwan, 2007: 186).

Searle (1975) menegaskan bahwa satu fungsi dapat diungkapkan dalam berbagai bentuk ujaran. Fungsi meminta dalam bentuk pertanyaan merupakan tindak bahasa tak langsung dan jarak tempuh (derajat ilokusi) ujaran itu untuk dipahami lebih panjang dibandingkan dengan fungsi meminta yang diungkapkan dalam bentuk ujaran imperatif.

Fungsi meminta dalam interaksi dosen-mahasiswa merupakan fungsi yang menduduki urutan kedua. Hal tersebut dapat dijelaskan bahwa kegiatan belajar-mengajar lebih banyak dilakukan dengan teknik penugasan atau instruksi. Dengan menggunakan fungsi meminta, suasana kelas menjadi kondusif. Mahasiswa merasa lebih nyaman karena dihargai.



Secara struktural dan konteks, kalimat dianggap sebagai melarang  jika penutur menyuruh lawan bicaranya jangan melakukan sesuatu (Alwi, dkk. 2003: 352).  Kalimat dalam tuturan yang digunakan mudah dimengerti karena langsung pada tujuan tuturan itu digunakan. Memahami fungsi tuturannya harus melibatkan pula konteks ketika tuturan itu disampaikan.


(14) Mengapa diakal-akali?


Tuturan dosen kepada mahasiswa agar bekerja sesuai dengan prosedur  agar hasilnya sesuai dengan target.


(15) Mengapa tidak menggunakan sepatu kulit?!


Tuturan dosen kepada mahasiswa ketika ia melarang mahasiswa memakai sepatu olah raga.


Tuturan dalam bentuk pertanyaan  dapat dipahami sebagai melarang karena  (1) konteks yang mengacu kepada siapa bertutur, di mana, bilamana, untuk apa, dan bagaimana; serta (2) koteks, yang mengacu ke ujaran-ujaran sebelumnya yang mendahului dan atau yang mengikutinya (Blum-Kulka, dalam Gunarwan, 2007: 186).

Fungsi melarang dalam interaksi dosen-mahasiswa merupakan fungsi yang menduduki urutan ketiga. Hal tersebut dapat dijelaskan bahwa kegiatan belajar-mengajar lebih banyak dilakukan dengan teknik penugasan atau instruksi. Kegiatan belajar-mengajar memerlukan disiplin yang sangat tinggi. Kedisiplinan itu berkaitan dengan langkah kerja yang harus dilakukan mahasiswa, kedisiplinan memperlakukan mesin praktik, dan disiplin menaati tata tertib. Untuk mempertahankan konsentrasi mahasiswa ketika melakukan kerja praktik dan mempertahankan keselamatan kerja, salah satu strategi yang ditempuh dosen adalah menggunakan bentuk direktif yang berfungsi melarang.


Fungsi Pertanyaan dalam Interaksi Kelas Bengkel Politeknik Negeri Malang antara Mahasiswa-Dosen

Pertanyaan  yang digunakan dalam interaksi kelas bengkel Politeknik Negeri Malang antara mahasiswa-dosen terdapat satu jenis fungsi yaitu meminta.



Secara struktural dan konteks, kalimat dianggap sebagai meminta jika penutur tampaknya tidak memerintah, tetapi menyuruh mencoba atau mempersilakan lawan bicara sudi berbuat sesuatu (Alwi, dkk. 2003: 353).  Memahami fungsi tuturannya akan lebih mudah jika melibatkan pula konteks ketika tuturan itu disampaikan.

Di dalam interaksi kelas bengkel, pertanyaan berfungsi meminta  dapat dilihat dalam tuturan di bawah.


(16) Berapa derajat Pak?


Tuturan seorang mahasiswa kepada dosennya ketika mahasiswa menyetting eretan melintang pada posisi 0 derajat. Mahasiswa tidak tahu ukurannya.


(17) Pisau fraisnya yang mana , Pak?


Tuturan seorang mahasiswa kepada dosennya ketika mahasiswa  meminta informasi karena kesulitan menentukan diameter ukuran pisau frais yang tepat.


(18) Pakai apa, Pak?


Tuturan seorang mahasiswa kepada dosen yang tidak mengetahui alat yang dapat dipakai untuk menghilangkan bagian-bagian yang masih tajam.


Tuturan-tuturan dalam bentuk pertanyaan di atas dapat diketahui memiliki fungsi meminta setelah memperhatikan konteks situasinya ketika tuturan itu diucapkan. Ini semua berarti berkaitan dengan maksud atau daya ujaran. Tuturan Berapa derajat Pak?  Pisau fraisnya mana Pak? Pakai apa Pak? dipahami sebagai meminta oleh dosen karena mengetahui (1) konteks yang mengacu kepada siapa bertutur, di mana, bilamana, untuk apa, dan bagaimana; serta (2) koteks, yang mengacu ke ujaran-ujaran sebelumnya yang mendahului dan atau yang mengikutinya (Blum-Kulka, dalam Gunarwan, 2007: 186).

Searle (1975) menegaskan bahwa satu fungsi dapat diungkapkan dalam berbagai bentuk ujaran. Meminta, misalnya dapat diungkapkan dalam bentuk ujaran yang salah satunya berupa interogatif. Fungsi meminta dalam bentuk interogatif merupakan tindak bahasa tak langsung dan jarak tempuh (derajat ilokusi) ujaran itu untuk dipahami oleh dosen (petutur) lebih panjang dibandingkan dengan fungsi menyuruh yang diungkapkan dalam bentuk ujaran imperatif.

Berdasarkan analis di atas dapat disimpulkan bahwa tindak direktif yang digunakan dalam interaksi mahasiswa-dosen menggunakan satu fungsi, yaitu meminta. Terbatasnya fungsi tersebut dipengaruhi oleh pemeran serta, tujuan, dan situasi dalam interaksi.

Sesuai dengan perannya dosen memiliki kesempatan lebih banyak untuk menggunakan fungsi pertanyaan dibandingkan dengan mahasiswa. Dosen sebagai pengelola kelas memungkinkan untuk menggunakan berbagai fungsi pertanyaan. Bentuk kegiatan belajar-mengajar praktik bengkel yang banyak melibatkan langkah kerja dan memperhatikan keselamatan dan kesehatan kerja, dosen memberikan instruksi-instruksi agar mahasiswa melakukan sesuatu.

Peran mahasiswa yang sangat berbeda dengan dosen memberi kemungkinan tidak banyak untuk menggunakan fungsi pertanyaan dalam berinteraksi dengan dosen. Dari segi situasi, tidak banyak motivasi yang menggunakan berbagai fungsi dalam berinteraksi dengan dosen. Motivasi untuk menggunakan fungsi pertanyaan dalam interaksi dengan dosen lebih banyak sebagai strategi meminta bantuan untuk mengatasi hal-hal di luar kemampuannya atau meminta penguatan terhadap materi yang dipelajarinya.



1)         Secara struktural dan konteks, kalimat dianggap sebagai menyuruh jika penutur menyuruh lawan bicaranya berbuat sesuatu. Pertanyaan dalam interaksi dosen-mahasiswa yang berfungsi untuk  menyuruh atau memerintah dipahami sebagai menyuruh atau memerintah bergantung:  (1) konteks yang mengacu kepada siapa bertutur, di mana, bilamana, untuk apa, dan bagaimana; serta (2) koteks, yang mengacu ke ujaran-ujaran sebelumnya yang mendahului dan atau yang mengikutinya.

2)         Fungsi menyuruh dalam interaksi dosen-mahasiswa merupakan fungsi yang paling dominan. Hal tersebut dapat dijelaskan bahwa kegiatan belajar-mengajar lebih banyak dilakukan dengan teknik penugasan atau instruksi. Dengan teknik seperti itu mahasiswa dapat terlibat secara aktif, dapat memperoleh pengalaman belajar yang bermakna.

3)         Secara struktural dan konteks, kalimat dianggap sebagai meminta jika penutur tampaknya tidak memerintah, tetapi menyuruh mencoba atau mempersilakan lawan bicara sudi berbuat sesuatu. Fungsi meminta dalam interaksi dosen-mahasiswa merupakan fungsi yang menduduki urutan kedua. Hal tersebut dapat dijelaskan bahwa kegiatan belajar-mengajar lebih banyak dilakukan dengan teknik penugasan atau instruksi. Dengan menggunakan fungsi meminta, suasana kelas menjadi kondusif. Mahasiswa merasa lebih nyaman karena dihargai.

4)         Secara struktural dan konteks, kalimat dianggap sebagai melarang  jika penutur menyuruh lawan bicaranya jangan melakukan sesuatu Fungsi melarang dalam interaksi dosen-mahasiswa merupakan fungsi yang menduduki urutan ketiga. Hal tersebut dapat dijelaskan bahwa kegiatan belajar-mengajar lebih banyak dilakukan dengan teknik penugasan atau instruksi. Kegiatan belajar-mengajar memerlukan disiplin yang sangat tinggi. Kedisiplinan itu berkaitan dengan langkah kerja yang harus dilakukan mahasiswa, kedisiplinan memperlakukan mesin praktik, dan disiplin menaati tata tertib. Untuk mempertahankan konsentrasi mahasiswa ketika melakukan kerja praktik dan mempertahankan keselamatan kerja, salah satu strategi yang ditempuh dosen adalah menggunakan bentuk pertanyaan yang berfungsi melarang.

5)         Sesuai dengan perannya dosen memiliki kesempatan lebih banyak untuk menggunakan fungsi pertanyaan dibandingkan dengan mahasiswa. Dosen sebagai pengelola kelas memungkinkan untuk menggunakan berbagai fungsi pertanyaan. Bentuk kegiatan belajar-mengajar praktik bengkel yang banyak melibatkan langkah kerja dan memperhatikan keselamatan dan kesehatan kerja, dosen memberikan instruksi-instruksi agar mahasiswa melakukan sesuatu.

6)         Peran mahasiswa yang sangat berbeda dengan dosen memberi kemungkinan tidak banyak untuk menggunakan fungsi pertanyaan dalam berinteraksi dengan dosen. Dari segi situasi, tidak banyak motivasi yang menggunakan berbagai fungsi dalam berinteraksi dengan dosen. Motivasi untuk menggunakan fungsi pertanyaan dalam interaksi dengan dosen lebih banyak sebagai strategi meminta bantuan untuk mengatasi hal-hal di luar kemampuannya atau meminta penguatan terhadap materi yang dipelajarinya.




Alwi, Hasan. Dkk. 2003. Tata Bahasa baku bahasa Indonesia. Jakarta: Balai Pustaka.

Alisyahbana, Sutan Tahrir. 1968. Taba Bahasa. Jakarta: Balai Pustaka.

Ervin-Tripp. 1968. An Introduction to Discourse Analisis. England: Longman.

Edmondson.1981. “An Analysis of Interaction of Language, Topic and Listener”. Dalam Jashua Fishman (ed.) Reading in the Sociology of Language.The Hague: Mouton.

Gunarwan, Asim. 2007. Pragmatik: Teori dan Kajian Nusantara. Jakarta: Penerbit Universitas Atma Jaya

Miles, Mattew B dan A Micheael Huberman. 1984. Qualitative Data Analysis. California: SAGE Publication.

Saville-Troike, Muriel. 1986. The Ethnography of Comunication: An Introduction. New York: Basil Blackwell Ltd.

Searle, JR. 1969 (1983) Speech Act: An Essay in the Philosophy of Language Cambridge: Cambridge U.P.


Tutuk Widowati

State Polytechnin of Malang



The EFL teaching in Indonesia has been considered as a failure as proven by the fact that senior high school graduates cannot use it in the society. Studies conducted to improve students speaking skill seem to miss the importance of language inputs. Therefore, in this article the writer tries to give ideas on how to design and English teaching materials for workplace/workshop English class for Civil Engineering students following Hutchinson and Waters (1987:108). With such a model, a lesson (material) consists of four elements: input, content focus, language focus, task. Inside this model, there is a vocabulary building part. And to be comprehensive, the tasks consist of language task, writing task, and speaking task. 


Key words: failure, input, learning principles, workplace

The teaching of English in Indonesia has been considered as a failure (Lestari, 1999). This is due to the fact that senior high school graduates are unable to use the language in daily communication. Sadtono (1997) says that one cause of the failure is the social situation which is not particularly conducive to learning English as it is not spoken in the society.

Many more have written about the difficulties associated with student silence in EFL classes in Indonesia. Surely almost all teachers have dealt with this problem, and many have conducted researches of creating approaches, teaching and learning activities, and professional development in response to the problem. All are intended to foster communicative and interaction from their students. There have been some successes; however, many students still do not speak in language classrooms.

Since the primary purpose of language learning is communication, using language to communicate should be the central in all classroom instruction. Often the case, speaking lessons in EFL teaching are offered to provide communicative opportunities in the students’ environment. Unfortunately, the large class size in high schools and the emphasis on examinations force the students to learn English in order to be able to pass the examinations, not to be able to use English in daily communication.

As long as EFL teaching aims at passing national examination, it is then treated as a knowledge subject which is explained, analyzed, and practiced in the same way as other subjects. Therefore, students’ communicative abilities—speaking and writing—are ignored. As a result, when high school graduates continue their studies to colleges, they are not so competent in speaking that they are unwilling to communicate in the target language.

Meanwhile Nashruddin (2011) says to be able to communicate orally is not an easy task mainly for EFL learners. Further he notices that a great number of successful studies conducted to improve students skill in speaking seem to miss the importance of language input that the students need. In his article he addresses inputs received from the teacher, texts, and classmates as basis of speaking activity.

In this present article the writer tries to highlight environmental/natural input to break up the stuck with English in the workplace/workshop for communication and interaction. The discussion includes the principles of language learning in determining strategies of how to signify English in the workplace/workshop.

In her article Widowati (2011) proposes a communicative language teaching (CLT) approach to succeed her teaching on condition that it is given to an ESP class of approximately tolerable 24 students with prior knowledge in three classroom lessons (3 x 45’) per week. It is proved that the approach has brought about betterment in communicative performance. Besides, she has already completed her proposal with some materials intended to encourage the ‘sleeping’ communicative performance by exposing English in the workplace such as drawings of building, plugging a wall, foundations, etc.

In the material implementation the communicative performance has been exploited from the very beginning when responding the section ‘Before You Read’; discussing the content of input reading comprehension ‘Development’, in which the students are required to focus on the content and ‘Language Practice’, in which the students are required to focus on the language use. In the next section of productive skill ‘Writing Practice’ students are required to combine both the content and language focus to do the task of writing. In this phase they are freed to give additional input of the language focus and his own knowledge and abilities in expressing his understanding of the content they want to write. Having completed their writing task, the students have to go to the project of the most ‘difficult’ productive skill of ‘Speaking Practice’.



Communicative Language Teaching (CLT)


Communicative approach has developed since the early 1980s. It highlighted the fundamentally communicative properties of language, and classrooms were increasingly characterized by authenticity, real-world simulation, and meaningful tasks. Today Brown (2001:43) offers six characteristics of CLT which are outlined below:

  1. Classroom goals are focused on all of the components of communicative competence (grammatical, discourse, functional, sociolinguistic, and strategic).
  2. Language techniques are designed to engage learners in the pragmatic, authentic, functional use of language for meaningful purposes.
  3. At times fluency may have to take on more importance than accuracy in order to keep learners meaningfully engaged in language use.
  4. Students in a communicative class ultimately have to use the language, productively and receptively, in unrehearsed contexts outside the classroom.
  5. Students are given opportunities to focus on their own learning process through an understanding of their own styles of learning and through the development of appropriate strategies for autonomous learning.
  6. The role of the teacher is that of facilitator and guide, not an all-knowing bestower of knowledge.

Further, Brown (2001:45) presents 22 CLT features listed by Finocchiaro and Brumfit (1983). To compare, it can be seen that the six characteristics he offered are in line with the following features:

  1. Meaning is paramount.
  2. Contextualization is a basic premise.
  3. Language learning is learning to communicate.
  4. Reading and writing can start from the first day, if desired.
  5. Translation may be used where students need or benefit from it.
  6. Teachers help learners in any way that motivates them to work with the language.

Let us sum up some other “profiles” of CLT proposed by Hariyanto (1997) below:

  1. The objective is to enable the learners to use the language to communicate in social context; that is appropriate to setting, topic, and participant.
  2. Learners will only master the structure points which appear in the communicative contexts presented.
  3. The exercises should give learners the opportunity to solve problems or accomplish tasks either in group or individually (Huda in Hariyanto: 114).
  4. The learner’s role is to response to stimuli based on his understanding and personal information.
  5. The teacher’s role is providing stimuli or simply involving the learners in solving communication problems in the target language, but not very dominant.

To illustrate the practical classroom implementation of those ideas, the following principles of language learning outlined by Hutchinson and Waters (1987:128-130) should be considered.


  1. Second language learning is a developmental process. Learners use their existing knowledge to make the new information comprehensible.
  2. Language learning is an active process. It is not enough for learners just to have the necessary knowledge to make things meaningful; they must also use that knowledge. Language processing activity is the organization of information into a meaningful network of knowledge.
  3. Language learning is a decision-making process. The process of developing and using a network of knowledge relies upon a train of learner decisions: What knowledge is new? How does it relate to the existing knowledge? What is the underlying pattern? Is there a rule of appropriacy here? Which bits of information are relevant? Which are unimportant?
  4. Language learning is not just a matter of linguistic knowledge. The second language learner is someone who is conceptually and cognitively mature, but is linguistically an infant.
  5. Language learning is not the learner’s first experience with language. Every second language learner is already communicatively competent in one language. They do not know the specific forms, words or possibly some of the concepts of the target language, but they know what communication is and how it is used.
  6. Learning is an emotional experience. Our concern should be to develop the positive emotions by, for example:

– putting less emphasis on the product and more on the process of getting an answer;

– making ‘interest’, ‘fun’, ‘variety’ primary considerations in materials and methodology, rather than added extras.

  1. Language learning is to a large extent incidental. You can learn a language      incidentally, while you are actually thinking about something else. The important              point is that the problems should oblige the learners to use language and thereby to fix the language into the matrix of knowledge in their minds.
  2. Language learning is not systematic. Laying out information in a systematic way    will not guarantee learning.

In addition, some principles of EFL learning (Brown, 2001) that must be emphasized on communicative performance are:

  1. Automaticity: to gain automaticity, do not overanalyze, do not think too much about forms and rules. Help learners achieve fluency.
  2. Meaningful learning: meaningful learning leads toward better long-term retention. Avoid too much grammar, too much drilling, too much testing.
  3. Intrinsic motivation: classroom techniques must be self-rewarding; they must be fun, interesting, useful, or challenging.
  4. Language ego: learners may feel helpless, defensive, and shy. Treat them with tender loving care. Show supportive attitudes, do not criticize.
  5. Self-confidence: learners are likely to be really successful. Help them gain self-confidence by believing that they are capable. Sequence techniques and concepts from easier to more difficult.
  6. Risk-taking: successful learners must be willing to be “gamblers”. Let them try out language. Do not penalize guessing.

Communicative competence: it is the goal of a language classroom. “Correct answer” is not everything. Give room for fluency and help learners be independent.





English in the Workplace


To encourage the students to speak, they are asked to express their ideas in writing which acts as a stimulus for oral work. Brown (2001) breaks down real writing into three categories. One suitable category for ESP is vocational/ technical writing in which genuine directions for some operation or assembly might be given. This is called ‘English in the workplace’.

Writing exercise will generally be used simply to reinforce the learning of specific grammatical points or lexical items as stated by Harris (1969:68). An objective of teaching students writing is to enable them to consolidate their knowledge of the language, so the most effective writing exercise in practice will be realistic or authentic (Grant, 1991).

However, it must be considered that one of the most notable features of current approaches to teaching writing is the emphasis on fluency rather than accuracy. One approach is to use prompts, such as visuals and real objects to stimulate ideas (White, 1995:3). Workplace/workshop practice offers authentic model for the students. Besides, it makes writing activities more meaningful and therefore increases students’ motivation to write.


Material Design Model

Knowing the outlined principles, a material model is designed to provide the integration of learning aspects. According to Hutchinson and Waters (1987:108) the model consists of four elements: input, content focus, language focus, task.

    a) Input: This may be a text, dialogue, video-recording, diagram or any piece of communication data which provides a number of things:

– stimulus material for activities;

– new language items;

– correct models of language use;

– a topic for communication;

– opportunities for learners to use their information processing skills;

– opportunities for learners to use their existing knowledge both of the language and the subject matter.

b)  Content focus: Language is a means of conveying information and feelings   about something. Non-linguistic content should be exploited to generate meaningful communication in the classroom.

c)  Language focus: Aimed at enabling learners to use language, learners have the chance to take the language to pieces, study how it works and practice putting it back together again.

d)  Task: The ultimate purpose of language learning is language use. Material should be designed to lead towards a communicative task in which learners use the content and language knowledge they have built up through the unit.

To expand a material model the four elements are extended by Hutchinson and Waters (1987:118) like the following figure:



The four elements can be practiced in the following sample material (see Appendix) with reference to some of reviews by Hutchinson and Waters (1987):


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Unit 3



A.  Before You Read:

– What must you construct before erecting a building?

– What is foundation?

– What is the function of foundation?

– What types of foundation do you know? What are they?

– What is each type for?


B. Text



         When a structure is to be erected  …


  1. The starter of ‘Before You Read’ plays some important roles:

–        creating a context of knowledge for the comprehension of the input.

–        activating the learners’ minds and getting them thinking.

–        arousing the learners’ interest in the topic.

–        revealing what learners already know in terms of language and content.

–        providing a meaningful context in which to introduce new vocabulary or grammatical items.


Interaction which has occurred in the opening session can be employed to direct learners to the input through some questions in this part to create a context of knowledge. Littlewood in Gebhard (2000:50) calls it ‘precommunicative activities’ aimed at isolating specific elements of knowledge or skill that comprise communicative ability, giving learners opportunities to practice them.

Some things about the subject that learners got in the preceding semesters or on-going semester are asked to draw their attention on a certain topic. To answer the questions they have to recall their knowledge or workplace/ workshop experience about the matter and they can use the answers to comprehend the content of the input text. The communicative learning activity starts when they connect the English subject with the context of workplace/ workshop experience called English in the workplace/workshop.

In other words, starter brings about a learning factor of orientation to topic within which learners’ existing knowledge is employed.

  1. Language is approached through an area of content, here the topic of input English in the workplace ‘Foundations’ represents a common form of technical discourse. The informative/expository input ‘Comprehension Development’ contains a reading text (or dialogue) which exposes an ESP of civil engineering matter as well as some lexical items in the form of technical terms/words.

Accordingly, a good input should be of the learners’ level and interest as a learning factor.



C. Vocabulary Building       C.1. Open your dictionary and look up the meaning of  each word on the left   (1–6) by  matching it with word/phrase on the right. 

C.2.a. Draw a raft foundation; a continuous footing; and a separate footing; then give an

example when to use it.

b. Draw some pictures describing how to construct cast in-situ; a pile;  and a pier; then give an example when to use it.


  1. 3.       Part C is a comprehension check. This content focus ‘Vocabulary Building’ practices taking out information from the input ‘Foundations’ and begins the process of relating this content and language to a wider context.

The lexical items are expected to be able to build vocabulary acquisition through the exercises of ‘Vocabulary Building’ taken from the input and designed to raise learners’ awareness of the use of lexis. In this section learners are expected to direct thinking toward their workplace/workshop experiences. When they experience the idea of a new vocabulary, they will correctly use it in context to be meaningful.


D. Comprehension D.1. Answer the following questions briefly. 

D.2. State whether the statement is TRUE or FALSE according to the text.



  1. Learners should always be encouraged to find answers for themselves wherever possible. As soon as the basic information contained in the input has been identified, it is possible to incorporate opportunities for them to use their own knowledge and abilities at any stage. They are required to go beyond the information in the input ‘Foundations’ to relate the subject matter to their own knowledge and reasoning powers using the language they have been learning.

‘Comprehension’ is an exercise to improve the learners’ ability to understand the language. From the presentation of the text ‘Foundations’, the learners are expected to be interested in it and able to derive understanding of the content. When it occurs, it means that the learners are able to connect English with their contextual circumstances.

Part C and D represent the learning factors of skills development and retrieving information.




     Study these sentences:

– A structure is to be erected.

– A foundation is needed.

1. State the pattern of the sentences above.

2. What do you call such sentences?



  1. ‘Language Practice’ is language focus which gives practice in some of the language elements needed for the task. These may be concerned with aspects of sentence structure, function or text construction. The points are drawn from the input, but they are selected according to their usefulness for the task.

‘Language Practice’ is to exemplify the language use. First, learners are asked to study some sentences from the text, then to mention the pattern of the sentences. This section deals with linking the instructional material with learners’ prior knowledge and experience in English subject. Hence sentence pattern is not given directly instead of brain storming.

In doing this part learners build the learning factors of consolidation and analysis.


 III. WRITING PRACTICE In pairs, write about an experience in which you practiced making

something in the workshop. What was the practice? What did you do?

Don’t forget to use Passive Voices wherever possible.



  1. Further input related to the rest of the unit in terms of subject matter or language can be introduced at any point in order to provide a wider range of contexts for exercises and tasks. This ‘Writing Practice’ helps learners to see how their limited resources can be used for dealing with a wide range of matters.

‘Writing Practice’ is designed to help learners develop informative/expository writing to share knowledge and give information, directions, or ideas (O’Malley, 1996:137) after going through an exposure to the technical matter, lexical items, and language use. It encourages learning community in the process of drafting and revising. Learners can work with their peers to generate ideas and revise the draft. The advantage of the writing practice is the material elicitation in which learners are encouraged to use the language.

One has to master the written form of the language and to learn certain structures which are important for effective communication in writing (Byrne, 1991). Accordingly, the students’ tasks are meant constructing sentences in the subject matter, grammaticalising and extending the lexical items which require learning through use and learners involvement as the learning factors.


 IV. SPEAKING PRACTICE In pairs, change your workshop report into a dialogue and present it.



  1. A gradual movement from guided to more open-ended work is developed for the learners. This ‘Speaking Practice’ gives them self-confidence for completing the task, as they have to create their own solution to a communication problem. In doing so they use both the language and the content knowledge developed through the unit. In other words, they are being asked to solve a problem using English, rather than to do exercises about English. This task also provides a clear objective for them by establishing benchmark of achievement—communication project.

‘Speaking Practice’ is an oral language assessment aims to capture a learner’s ability to communicate for both basic communicative and academic purposes (O’Malley, 1991). Sometimes it can be the representation of the informative/ expository writing practice in describing, explaining, giving information, or giving instruction which are based on workplace/workshop experience.

Dialogue, pair work, and group work are established to vary the speaking practice. They include the social functions of report, procedure, explanation, exposition, and discussion (Tomasowa, 2009:21) in which learners are able to report a condition referring to natural or social phenomenon; describe the order or instruction; explain a process or how something operates; deliver an opinion or an argument; draw a conclusion by recommending an evidence.

The learning factors involved in this last part are relevance to own interest and face validity.

       In addition to the communicative input it is worth considering a teaching technique implied by Baradja as quoted in Hariyanto (1997:117) to end this discussion:”Communicative activities are a must.   …   Of course, to plunge directly into communication is not realistic, but we should always remember that communication is our destination. We can start with manipulation, but we have to move quickly to the area where language is practiced relatively.   …   “




Brown, H.D.2001. Teaching by Principles: An Interactive Approach to Language  Pedagogy. San Fransisco State University. Second Edition.

Byrne, D. 1991. Techniques for Classroom Interaction. New York: Longman Publishing.

Finocchiaro & Brumfit. 1983. In Brown, H.D., Teaching by Principles: An Interactive Approach to Language Pedagogy. San Fransisco State University. Second Edition.

Gebhard, J.G. 2000. Teaching English as a Foreign or Second Language: A Teacher Self-development and Methodology Guide. The University of Michigan Press.

Grant, N. 1991. Making the Most of Your Textbook. New York: Longman Publishing.

Harris, D.P. 1969. Testing English as a Second Language. U.S.A. McGraw-Hill, Inc.

Hariyanto, Sugeng. 1997. Achieving a Good Communicative Performance with Better Grammatical Mastery Using “Bridging Technique”. In E. Sadtono (Ed.), The Development of TEFL in Indonesia (pp. 110-127). Malang. Penerbit IKIP Malang.

Hutchinson, T. and Waters, A. 1987. English for Specific Purposes. Great Britain. Cambridge University Press.

Lestari, L.A. 1999. English Classroom Culture Reformation: How Can It be Done? TEFLIN Journal, Vol. X Number 1 August 1999.

Nashruddin, W. 2011. Using a Strategic Interaction Approach to Promote Speaking Skill. In Cahyani, H. & Cahyono, B.Y. (Eds.), Best Practices in the Teaching of English (pp. 19-34). Malang: State University of Malang Press. First Edition.

O’Malley, J.M. and Pierce, L.V. 1996. Authentic Assessment for English Learners. Longman.

Sadtono, E. 1997. ELT Development in Indonesia: a Smorgasbord. In Sadtono, E. (Ed.), The Development of TEFL in Indonesia (pp. 1-19). The English Department of IKIP Malang in collaboration with Bina Budaya Foundation. Penerbit IKIP Malang.

Tomasowa, F.H. 2009. Pembelajaran Bahasa Inggris di Program Studi Non-Bahasa Inggris Perguruan Tinggi: Suatu Pendekatan Fungsional Sistemik. Presented in Senatorial Convention Brawijaya University Malang, June.

White, R.V. 1995. New Ways in Teaching Writing. U.S.A. Pantagraph Printing, Bloomington, Illinois.

Widowati, T. 2011. CTL: an Approach to Encourage “Sleeping” Communicative Performance. In Cahyani, H. & Cahyono, B.Y. (Eds.), Best Practices in the Teaching of English (pp. 35-50). Malang: State University of Malang Press. First Edition.


Appendix: Example of the Material




  1. A.      Before  You  Read :
  • What must you construct before erecting a building?
  • What is a foundation?
  • What is the function of foundation?
  • What types of foundation do you know? What are they?
  • What is each type for?


  1. B.      Text



When a structure is to be erected, a foundation is needed to carry the weight of the structure to the stratum of soil on which it rests, called the foundation bed. Depending on the locality, one of several types of foundation beds may be used. Although any kind of foundation will settle, rock is usually preferred because it will support bearing pressures up to 15 tons per square foot. Gravel will support loads of 4 tons per square foot. Sand will support an equal weight if the lateral pressure can be held back. Clay, if it can be kept dry, will support 2 tons per square foot.

The foundation itself, which is usually made of reinforced concrete, may be a single unit or a separate unit. A mat, or raft, which is a single slab over the entire foundation bed, is often used. A bearing wall around the outer limits of the structure is supported by a continuous footing. Separate footings may be used to support columns.

When the surface soil stratum is too weak to support the structure, piles and piers may be used to transfer the weight to stronger substrata. Concrete piles are either pre-cast or cast-in-situ. The pre-cast type is formed of steel bars set in concrete, which is then driven into the soil. To construct the cast-in-situ type, a hole is first drilled into the soil at the desired location and then filled with concrete. It may or may not be reinforced. This type is often preferred because it takes less time and requires no molding.


  1. C.      Vocabulary Building

C.1. Open your dictionary. Look up the meaning of each word on the left (1-6) by matching it in word/phrase on the right:

  1. bearing  – supporting
  2. m a t      – a box into which water cannot flow, used during under water construction
  3. footing   – form by pouring into a molding
  4. molding – a widening of a foundation or base to spread the weight over a large area
  5. cast – caisson
  6. cast in situ – a structure to hold concrete  to hold until it has hardened

–  a slab or a beam which resists upward soil pressure

C.2.1.  Draw a raft foundation; a continuous footing; and a separate footing; then give an example when to use it.

C.2.2.  Draw some pictures describing how to construct cast in-situ; a pile; and a pier; then give an example when to use it. 


D. Comprehension

D.1. Check

1.    What is the function of foundation?

2.    What is the best of foundation bed? Why?

3.    What weight will sand support?

4.    What is a reinforced concrete?

5.    What if the foundation bed is not strong enough to support a structure?


D.2. Check whether the statement is TRUE or FALSE according to the text.

  1. Foundation supports the load of a construction.
  2. Foundation bed is the soil stratum where a construction rests.
  3. Several types of foundation beds may be used for a construction.
  4. Locality is important to choose the type of foundation bed.
  5. Sand and gravel do not support loads of the same weight.
  6. Dry clay supports the least load.
  7. Footings lie after the bed.
  8. Piles and piers are solutions to weak soil.
  9. Stronger substrata are usually deeper than the weak strata.
  10. Pre-cast type needs a mechanical hammer to drive it.



      Study these sentences:

  • · A structure is to be erected.
  • · A foundation is needed.
  • · Several types of foundation beds may be used.
  • · The lateral pressure can be held back.
  1. State the pattern of the sentences above.
  2. What do you call such sentences?
  3. Find out some passive voices from the text then change them into interrogative and negative statements.


  • The lateral pressure can be held back.
  • · Can the lateral pressure be held back?
  • · The lateral pressure cannot be held back.



In pairs, write about an experience in which you practiced making/doing something in the workshop. What was the practice? What did you do? Don’t forget to use Passive Voice wherever possible.



In pairs, change your workshop report into a dialogue and present it.


Sugeng Susilo Adi

University of Brawijaya



This article is talking about the problems of implementing Communicative language teaching (CLT) in Indonesia. The main problem of applying the teaching approach is the gap between the theory and its classroom practices. Other problems such as classroom size in term of student number and student learning styles are also highlighted in this article. Accordingly, this article suggests an audio lingual communicative language teaching strategies that might be applicable for the majority of Indonesian junior and senior high schools. These strategies were derived form an empirical research that the writer conducted in Islamic Junior High Schools in Indonesia.

Keywords: communicative language teaching, learning styles, audio lingual, teaching strategies



When the trend of English language teaching in Indonesia is more focusing on the praxis of Communicative language teaching (CLT), some problems are still found in the implementation at the classroom level. Communicative language teaching that theoretically requires the language use as communication tools, in Indonesia sometimes it could not be implemented successfully. Several constraints are becoming obstacles of the CLT implementation such as the number of students in one classroom, the students learning styles, and non-native speaker teachers.

It is quite often stated that the weaknesses of CLT implementation in some East Asian countries, including Indonesia is that the approach in some cases is not appropriate with cultural local context. Baker (2008:1) states that an essential element in fostering successful intercultural communication is developing cultural awareness as part of ELT pedagogy. To illustrate this, a case study of Thailand is presented examining English use, English teaching policy and practice, and local cultural attitudes towards ELT. This then leads to suggestions on how locally relevant intercultural communicative practices can form part of ELT classroom pedagogy in Thailand with the aim of developing learners’ cultural awareness. It is argued that similar analyses may be applied to other Asian contexts, which may share features with the Thai context. This can lead to the development of teaching practices, which through engaging learners in intercultural reflection will result in English language users who are better able to manage intercultural communication through English.

Three interesting issues are highlighted in this article dealing with the CLT implementation in Indonesian context, particularly how the approach could fit to the Indonesian context which culturally is a part of East Asian context. There issues include the essence of CLT, Indonesian context as an East Asian one, and audio lingual communcative: an emprical base.


Communicative language teaching: the essence

The essence of Communicative language teaching (CLT) is teaching language for communication. Richards (2006: 5-23) says that Communicative language teaching is generally regarded as an approach to language teaching which reflects a certain model or research paradigm, or a theory. This language teaching approach is based on the theory that the primary function of language use is communication. Its primary goal is for learners to develop communicative competence ability. Furthermore, he adds that as far as theories of learning and effective strategies in teaching are concerned, CLT does not adhere to one particular theory or method. It draws its theories about learning and teaching from a wide range of areas such as cognitive science, educational psychology, and second language acquisition (SLA). CLT methodologies embrace an eclectic approach to teaching, which means they borrow teaching practices from a wide array of methods that have been found effective and that are in accordance with principles of learning as suggested by research findings in research in SLA and cognitive psychology. Its open-ended or principle-based approach allows for a great deal of flexibility, which makes it adaptable to many individual programmatic and learner needs and goals.

              Savignon (2012: 212) says that communicative language teaching requires several principles in its classroom practices, they are: (1). Language teaching is based on a view of language as communication. That is, language is seen as a social tool which speakers and writers use to make meaning; we communicate about something to someone for some purpose, either orally or in writing. (2). Diversity is recognized and accepted as part of language development and use in second language learners and users as it is with first language users. (3). A learner’s competence is considered in relative, not absolute, terms of correctness. (4). More than one variety of a language is recognized as a model for learning and teaching. (5). Culture is seen to play an instrumental role in shaping speakers’ communicative competence, both in their first and subsequent languages. (6). No single methodology or fixed set of techniques is prescribed. (7). Language use is recognized as serving the ideational, the interpersonal, and the textual functions, as defined by Halliday, and is related to the development of learners’ competence in each. (8). It is essential that learners be engaged in doing things with language, that is, that they use language for a variety of purposes, in all phases of learning. Learner expectations and attitudes have increasingly come to be recognized for their role in advancing or impeding curricular change. Numerous sociolinguistic issues await attention.

In addition, Asassfeh, (2012) explain that one important distinctive feature of CLT is its emphasis on meaning-oriented instruction (MOI), a term that emerged in response to language teaching methods that emphasized the mastery of language forms. Educators’ increasing awareness that learners acquire a foreign language best when their attention is focused on the meaning communicated rather than on the linguistic form led to a lack of interest in such methods as grammar translation and audiolingualism.  Today, meaning-oriented communicative language teaching methodology has the overarching principles of focus on real communication, providing learners with opportunities to try out what they know, tolerance of learners’ errors as a healthy sign of progress in developing the communicative competence, integrating the different skills. In other words, its goal is to make use of real-life situations that necessitate communication (Asassfeh: 525-535).


Indonesian context as an East Asian one

The problems of ELT practice in Indonesia, English continues to be the most popular foreign language in Indonesia schools. Since 1994, ELT has been introduced from grade four of elementary level in public schools. With a reorientation objective in 1994 (which is regarded to be important in ELT in Indonesia in the last few years), the focus has been on listening and speaking skills in elementary schools and on speaking and reading skills in secondary schools. Also the language policy for education in Indonesia has made English language learning compulsory. Although the policy has attributed teaching English from early grades in elementary schools, it has not been fully implemented largely because of lack of primary teachers both in numbers and skills level. Nevertheless, there has been an attempt in the last ten years to strengthen and improve the ELT through curriculum revision and development as well as decentralization reform (Imperiani, online, p.6). English Language Teaching (ELT) in Indonesian context is obviously explained in Impreriani’s abovementioned that the curriculum have been experienced may experimaentation. Besides that, some characteristics can be highlighted to illuminate the ELT in the Indonesian context such as the big class size with arround 40 students and South East Asian students‘ language learning styles.

Especially interesting is about the big size classroom as a problem, Bruhwiler and  Blatchford (2011) say that  in many studies of class size effects, teacher characteristics are missing, even though many argue it is not class size that is important but teacher quality. In the present study teachers’ effectiveness on the learning progress was assessed while teaching a unit with predefined learning objectives. To measure adaptive teaching competency a multi-method approach was employed. Smaller classes led to higher academic learning progresses, better knowledge of students, and better classroom processes. Adaptive teacher competency remained relevant in smaller classes, that is, class size and teacher quality were independently important. There are several limitations of research on class size effects which have informed this paper. One limitation of most class size research is that effects are examined in relation to academic outcomes and, more recently, in relation to classroom processes, but rarely are the effects of class size and classroom processes systematically examined in the same study. Studies also tend to examine effects at a ‘‘macro’’ level, for example, in terms of progress over a whole school year, rather than examine effects of class size in terms of specific curriculum units (Bruhwiler and  Blatchford, 2011: 95-108).

About the Indonesian learning style, it might be concluded that Indonesian students learning styles are similar with other East Asian learning styles. Zhenhui (2001) in Matching Teaching Styles with Learning Styles in East Asian Contexts states that in East Asia, most students see knowledge as something to be transmitted by the teacher rather than discovered by the learners. At the second place, the teacher-centered classroom teaching in East Asia also leads to a closure-oriented style for most East Asian students. These closure-oriented students dislike ambiguity, uncertainty or fuzziness.  Another most popular East Asian learning styles originated from the traditional book-centered and grammar-translation method are analytic and field-independent. The final East Asian preferred learning style is concrete-sequential. Students with such a learning style are likely to follow the teacher’s guidelines to the letter, to be focused on the present, and demand full information. They prefer language learning materials and techniques that involve combinations of sound, movement, sight, and touch and that can be applied in a concrete, sequential, linear manner. Oxford & Burry-Stock (1995) discovered that Chinese and Japanese are concrete-sequential learners, who use a variety of strategies such as memorization, planning, analysis, sequenced repetition, detailed outlines and lists, structured review and a search for perfection.

The implementation of CLT in Indonesia is well representing other East Asian countries in terms of its gap between theory and practices. Liao & Zhao (2001) states that Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) approach has become the prevailing language teaching methodology across the world. Language teachers’ application of CLT in foreign language teaching has yet to be explored in past research. The CLT practice is still constrained by the lack of strategies that can be used to make CLT happen in class. For example, some beginning teachers believe that CLT not only can be used to teach the spoken but also the written language. They have created some ideas about using CLT to teach reading and writing activities. Yet, in reality the CLT practice only happens when they speak Chinese for creating the target language environment.

To bridge the theory-practice gap on CLT, Liao (2001) proposed some interesting principle strategies that are relevant to apply in the Indonesian context. The strategies constitute: Teaching should start with listening and speaking, drills on language form should not be excessive, English should be used in class, use of translation should be limited, audio-visual aids like realia, pictures, over-head transparencies, audio-tapes, videos, and computers should be fully utilized, the teacher’s role should be a facilitator and helper to guide students to develop effective learning habits, teachers should be aware of the individual differences among students in the learning process, and appropriate encouragement should be given to students to reinforce their initiatives.


Audio Lingual Communcative: an Emprical Base

One of alternatives the writer suggests ia a midified communicative language teaching which is called Audio Lingual Communcative (ALC) approach. This approach is derived from the empirical research and developemnet (R&D) conducted by the writer in 2010. In this developmental project, the writer creates a product consisting of textual learning materials assisted by audio recordings. This development also results in a learning design contained in a teaching manual, which is an integral part of this developmental product. In the learning design contained in the manual, the developer applies a learning strategy which the developer calls the Audio Lingual Communicative (ALC) learning strategy, reflected by the available learning activities.

The ALC learning strategy is an eclectic learning strategy which combines different language learning methods, in particular the Audio Lingual Method with Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) in order to adapt to real situations in the classroom. The real situation in the classroom found by target student observation has shown that classes are composed of at least 40 pupils, the school does not have a language laboratory, teaching materials used were still written exercise-based, and the teacher is still the central figure in learning. One of the reasons that the ALC learning strategy was chosen is because that strategy had been proven successful in China and Vietnam. Both countries have English language learning contexts which are similar to the context of the target students in this development. In 1990, CLT which had been modified with local contexts had been applied in Vietnam and China. In Vietnam, students enjoyed speaking in a large classroom setting, so real communication was directed to answer questions from the teacher in the form of an oral symphony (Rao, 2006; Pham, 2005).

As a learning strategy that combines the Audio Lingual Method with the Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) method, ALC adopts several principles from both teaching methods in the classroom learning praxis. In the Audio Lingual Method, usually a simple laboratory tool which tends to be “audio passive” is used, which stresses listening practice and speaking by way of hearing foreign language expressions using said tool. Using this method stresses the oral skills of speaking and listening.

In the learning practices toward the experimental class used in this development, the ALC strategy applied relies on several principles, among them: 1) giving students the chance to participate in communication by using the language in various activities; 2) keeping the given communicative activities comprehensible and relevant to the students’ interests, 3) putting the communicative activities on a gradation, starting from the simplest and moving to the more complex; and 4) integrating the four language abilities of listening, reading, speaking, and writing into the audio-assisted learning. The consequences of those principles are manifested in the learning activities as the following, among others: 1) listening to the audio, imitating it, and demonstrating the conversation together, creating a spoken orchestra in the classroom; 2) demonstrating the conversation in pairs and groups, seated and in front of the class; 3) reading texts, metered verse, poetry, dialogue, and words aloud, together and individually; 4) working in groups, in pairs, and individually on written text practice; and 5) other challenging student-oriented activities.

Field observations have shown that the ALC strategy adopted in the learning design of this developmental product was able to facilitate target students, which are the middle school students in the Ma’arif  NU Sidoarjo educational environment, to be actively involved in English language learning. Several of the learning activities above were done well by the students.

The teaching materials were organized by the elaboration model (Reigeluth, 1983) which covers selection, sequencing, synthesizing, and summarizing. Content selection was done by collecting relevant materials for English language learning, taken from various sources, including the Internet, domestic- and internationally-published English language books, dictionaries, children’s encyclopedia, and other relevant sources. Sequencing was established by ordering units and sub-units according to the degree of difficulty of the language functions, creating a functional syllabus. Synthesizing was done by keeping the units and sub-units connected with each other. Finally, summarizing was done by showing a vocabulary list at the end of each unit, where students are not only able to find out the meanings of words but are also able to construct sentences with them and read them aloud.

Field observations done on the experimental class used in this development show that students can be actively involved in learning through meaningful language activities such as demonstrating dialogue, finding the meanings of words in a dictionary, reading aloud, singing, and reading poetry or metered verse. Meaningful activities can facilitate the achievement of the general goal of learning which is for students to be able to understand the meaning in very simple transactional and interpersonal conversations, to interact with their surrounding environment.

Based on reviews by experts, teachers, and field tests on the developmental product consisting of audio-assisted teaching materials, the result obtained is that the developmental product is proven feasible and can facilitate the achievement of learning goals. Field test results with the experimental class in this development have shown that students’ judgment regarding the textual teaching materials shows a percentage of 86.75%, while the audio recordings show 87.19%. Results of the post-test of the experimental class using this developmental product shows a significant difference compared to the control class which used a different learning package.  This developmental product, which has been developed and revised based on experiments, has its own unique characteristics compared to other learning devices. Audio Lingual Communicative (ALC) learning strategy which combines the Audio Lingual method with Communicative Language Teaching (CLT), which is applied in the learning design from this development, can be concluded as the proper strategy for the English language learning context in the middle schools of the LP Ma’arif NU Sidoarjo environment. The selection of the ALC learning strategy was based on the eclecticism philosophy which combines several foreign language principles and learning methods, adjusted to student context.


There are several constraints which are becoming obstacles of the CLT implementation in Indonesia. The implementation problem of CLT in Indonesia is that the approach in is always not appropriate with Indonesia socio cultural context. An empirical base which is called audio lingual communicative could be an alternative in modifying the CLT to be fitting to the Indonesian context. The strategies suggest an eclectic learning strategy which combines different language learning methods, in particular the Audio Lingual Method with Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) in order to adapt to real situations in the classroom. As a learning strategy that combines the Audio Lingual Method with the Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) method, ALC adopts several principles from both teaching methods in the classroom learning praxis. In the Audio Lingual Method, usually a simple laboratory tool which tends to be “audio passive” is used, which stresses listening practice and speaking by way of hearing foreign language expressions using said tool (Adi, 2010, 2011).



Adi, Sugeng S. 2010. Pengembangan bahan ajar tekstual berbantuan rekaman audio bagi siswa kelas VII SMP/MTs di lingkungan Lembaga Pendidikan Ma’arif NU Sidoarjo. Unpublished Dissertation. Postgraduate Program, State University of Malang

Adi, Sugeng S. 2011. Communicative language teaching: is it appropriate for Indonesian context? International Journal of Educational Technology and Distance Learning. Vol. 8, Number 11, December 2011. Online. (, retrieved January 2, 2012)

Asassfeh, Sahail M. 2012. Communicative Language Teaching in an EFL Context: Learners’ Attitudes and Perceived Implementation (pp. 525-535). Journal of Language Teaching and Research, Vol. 3, No. 3, May 2012

Baker, Will. 2008.A Critical Examination of ELT in Thailand : The Role of Cultural Awareness. RELC Journal.Vol. 39, No. 1, 2008. Online. ( retrieved October 2, 2011)

Bruhwiler, C. and Blatchford, P. 2011 Effects of class size and adaptive teaching competency on classroom processes and academic outcome (pp. 95-108).Learning and Instruction, Vol. 21, 2011

Imperiani, Erni, D.A. English Language Teaching in Indonesia and its relation to the role of English as an International Language. Online. ( retrieved, August 5, 2011)

Liao, J. and Zhao, D. 2006. Grounded Theory Approach to Beginning Teachers’ Perspectives of Communicative Language Teaching Practice (pp. 76-90).Electronic Journal of Foreign Language Teaching, Vol. 9, Number 1,  2012

Liao, Xiao Qing. 2000. How Communicative Language Teaching Became Acceptable in Secondary Schools in China. The Internet TESL Journal, Vol. VI, No. 10, October 2000. Online.( retrieved August 1, 2010)

Pham, Hoa. H. (2005) “Imported” Communicative Language Teaching: Implications for Local Teachers (pp. 2-13). English Teaching Forum, Vol 43. Number 4 2005

Richards, Jack C. 2006. Communicative Language Teaching Today.Cambridge University Press: Cambridge

Savignon, Sandra J. 2002. Interpreting CommunicativeLanguage Teaching: Contexts and concerns in teacher education. Yale University Press: London

Savignon, Sandra J. 2007. Beyond communicative language teaching: What’s ahead? (pp.207-220). Journal of Pragmatics,Vol. 39, 2007

Zhenhui, Rao. 2001. Matching Teaching Styles with Learning Styles in East AsianContexts.The Internet TESL Journal, Vol. VII, No. 7, July 2001. Online. ( retrieved July 2, 2011



Dr. Sugeng Susilo Adi, M.Hum., M.Ed. got his Bachelor from the English Department,  Faculty of Letters, Sebelas Maret University, Surakarta in 1992. His first Master degree is in American Studies which he earned from Postgraduate Program, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta in 1997. His second master degree is Master of Education (M.Ed.) in TEFL which he got from The School of Education, University of South Australia, Adelaide (2002). In 2010 he got his Doctor in Instructional Technology from State University of Malang (UM). One of the summer courses he participated was Study of the US Institutes for Secondary Educators in the University of Chicago at Illinois (UIC), USA in 2008. He is currently teaching at the Department of English Education, Faculty of Cultural Studies, University of Brawijaya (UB), Malang, Indonesia.


 Lia Agustina

State Polytechnic ofMalang



Students of the Accountancy Department of the State Polytechnic of Malang had limited knowledge of English, and it was determined much by inadequate strategy applied. Students who are studying at the second year at this department were exposed to English texts provided by the teachers, therefore, they were not prepared to read authentic texts, longer passages or let alone reading them independently. Furthermore, students also found hindrances in expressing themselves orally. They were frequently reluctant to express their ideas, even when they were asked by the teacher. These students also admitted that their main problem was their limited vocabulary skill. In this department, reading, speaking, and structure were taught separately, not integrated while vocabulary had never been given priority, as it was taught during the teaching of other skills. This article is a report of a research to see how the students-made newsmagazine through project-based learning can be implemented effectively to develop their English reading and speaking skills.

This action research was implemented for one semester of 14 meetings. The students were assigned to have extensive reading through which they would experience authentic reading exposure and collect new words. Then, the new words should be learned and memorized by putting them in sentential contexts on their summaries and synthesis of the articles the students had chosen, read and produced the oral report of retelling activities. The students were assigned to summarize 3 authentic articles based on their interest and level of difficulty. This strategy was proved effective in improving students’ English reading and speaking skills. For further researchers, however, it is suggested that they conduct similar studies on integrated courses that emphasize on improving students English’ proficiency. They are also suggested to implement the project for two semesters.

Key-words:   extensive reading course, reading skill, speaking skill, individualized vocabulary learning, project-based learning, students-made magazine.


Perhaps the most important ability that non-English-speaking students need is reading.Reading is a crucial tool that aids the learning process. However, in some schools adequate strategies for teaching reading sometimes are not applied. Teachers who prefer traditional approach often stand in front of the class, enjoying their lectures but getting no feedback from the learners, as there is no interaction between the text and the learners or among the learners themselves. The teaching of reading may be viewed as a kind of dramatic monologue. This way, the teacher is the only speaker and the students are being passive recipients rather than active, who have got practically nothing to do other than listen to what the teacher says, whether they understand or not. The teaching strategy happens in grammar/translation classrooms. In these classrooms learners typically spent years of learning English and yet many of them were still unable to use the language effectively. They often knew a good deal about the language but were unable to use this knowledge to communicate appropriately and effectively outside the classroom. Students had a basic foundation of language knowledge but they did not know how to put that knowledge to active use.

A teacher, however, can create an ideal classroom situation by introducing a strategy in which the emphasis is on the student. As Collie and Slater (1987: 8 ) suggest, “Put fresh momentum into teaching of literature, by stimulating students’ desire to read and encourage their responses.” The use of the strategy would lead to greater sensitivity to the language learning process on the part of students and would  make students to be more independent, to be critical thinkers, and to be lifelong learners (i.e., students learn to take responsibility for their own learning that will be the basis for working cooperatively and effectively with others).

The use of adequate strategy also supports of the materials given by the teacher. As stated by Richards and Renandya (2002:122) “…. strategies can facilitate the internalization, storage, retrieval or use of the new language.” Strategies are tools for the self-directed involvement necessary for developing communication ability. Furthermore, they stated that language programs and the teachers who work in programs should therefore set out to provide learners with efficient learning strategies, to assist learners in identifying their own preferred ways of learning, to develop skills needed to negotiate the curriculum, to encourage learners to set their own objectives, to encourage learners to adopt realistic goals and time frames, and to develop learners’ skills in self-evaluation.

To accomplish the importance of applying adequate strategy, Nunan (1999) stated that learning strategies are the mental and communicative procedures learners use in order to learn and to use language. Richards and Rodgers (1986) cited in Nunan (1999) stated that teachers should teach students the language, not about the language. So adequate strategies are needed as the use of the strategies will arise students’ motivation in learning language. Motivation is another important aspect to be considered to achieve the goal of the course and to improve the students’ knowledge. As said by Dulay (1982), motivation in second language acquisition may be thought of as the incentive, the need, or the desire that the learner feels to learn the second language.Gardner, et al. (1972) cited inUr(1996) stated that various studies have found that motivation is very strongly related to achievement in language learning.

A lot of strategies could be implemented in the classroom.  Project-based learning is one of the models which are different from traditional teaching since the focus is put on the learners. Learners have the opportunity to work more autonomously and build their knowledge as they personally construct meaningful facts that are representations of their learning. Project-based learning provides learners the opportunity in depth investigations of worthy knowledge.

One of the more prominent benefits of the research is how projects are used to encourage active inquiry and empower students to take part in their own learning. A project allows students and teachers alike to focus and to study a central idea in depth. Content is more meaningful to students because it is real world learning and students can look at their work in a way that is interesting to them. Students can collaborate together to explore ideas. The process of working on a project will help students display independence and construct their own knowledge through questions that they have or developed with the class.

The students of the Accountancy Department- State Polytechnic of Malang are not motivated in learning English. Some students feel that they have limited knowledge and lack confidence in practicing English. They feel they cannot appropriately comprehend the materials that are delivered by their teachers.

A project allows students and teachers alike to focus and to study a central idea in depth. Content is more meaningful to students because it is real world learning and students can look at their work in a way that is interesting to them. Students can collaborate together to explore ideas. The process of working on a project will help students display independence and construct their own knowledge through questions that they have or developed with the class.

The students of the Accountancy Department- State Polytechnic of Malang are not motivated in learning English. Some students feel that they have limited knowledge and lack confidence in practicing English. They feel they cannot appropriately comprehend the materials that are delivered by their teachers.

A project allows students and teachers alike to focus and to study a central idea in depth. Content is more meaningful to students because it is real world learning and students can look at their work in a way that is interesting to them. Students can collaborate together to explore ideas. The process of working on a project will help students display independence and construct their own knowledge through questions that they have or developed with the class.

The students of the Accountancy Department- State Polytechnic of Malang are not motivated in learning English. Some students feel that they have limited knowledge and lack confidence in practicing English. They feel they cannot appropriately comprehend the materials that are delivered by their teachers. There are a lot of causes of the case above but one of the possible causes is the strategy applied is not adequate enough, since some of the teachers still maintain the traditional approach. Ironically, Polytechnics is designed to emphasize the practice rather than the theory. To face the global era, the paradigm that has been applied for years needs to be changed. Project-based learning as a modern approach should be a solution to solve the Polytechnic’s problem to exist and compete with other universities. The characteristics of the project-based learning are needed by Polytechnic students, because the projects allow students to empower their own learning. The project gives an opportunity to develop skills such as to work in a team, to solve problems, to do research, to manage times, to synthesize, to use technology tools, to be independent workers, to be critical thinkers and to be lifelong-learners; those skills  are quite appropriate with the Polytechnic-students working field later on. These difficulties were due to some factors, one of which was the inadequate teaching strategy applied in the classroom

A preliminary study was carried out to identify the students’ problems. It was done by doing an observation and informal interview during the learning process of the reading class. The second preliminary study was done by giving a pre-test to the students to see the students’ problem. From the data that have been taken it was found out that the students’ reading comprehension and speaking skills were still poor. It was proved by the result of the students’ pre-test which shows that all the subjects got below the score of 6 with the points 60 (for 23 students) and 80 (for 2 students). While the criteria of success of the reading and speaking’ score should be 7 with the total points 125. Seeing the result of the fact above the students’ ability has to be improved by employing an adequate strategy, and there a lot of strategies that could be implemented. Project-based learning is one of the models which are different from traditional since the focus is put on the learners.



According to Bruner (1973) the basic ideas of project-based learning are based on various socio-constructivist schools of thought and other modern instructional theories. Socio-constructivism means an understanding of learning that stresses the importance of constructing knowledge based on previous knowledge and interaction with the social environment. Thomas, Mergendoller, and Michaelson (1999) said that socio-constructivism as a set of pedagogies uses strategies like project-based learning.

The Edu Tech Wiki online article (Project-based learning, 2007, 1-5) defines project-based learning as a model for classroom activity that shifts away from the classroom practices of teacher-centered lessons and emphasizes learning activities that are student-centered, and integrated with real world issues and practice. The projects usually require several steps and some duration-more than a couple of days and up to a semester. The projects also require cooperative group learning. The projects may focus on development of a product or performance and require students to conduct research, to solve problems, and to synthesize information. Although projects as a methodology are not a new concept, the model is an effective application to support many tasks facing teachers today by applying authentic assessment, infusing higher-order thinking skills, guiding life choices, and providing experiences that tap individual student interest.

Similar to the above definition, Collins, Brown and Newman (1989) define project-based learning as a project which allows learners to identify and formulate their own problems. The goals they set as well as the unexpected discoveries they will make during interaction with the environment serve as guides. To accomplish the definition of project-based learning, Blumenfield (1994:1) describes project-based learning as “activities…conducted…as a way for students to learn subject matter concepts in depth as well as promote other life skill objectives”. Chard (1995:2) explains that “the model for project-based learning is to shift away from the classroom practices of short, isolated, teacher-centered lessons and instead emphasizes learning activities that are long-term, interdisciplinary, student-centered, and hands-on”.

Project-based learning should be based on the curriculum, as it is said by    Thomas et al. (1999). Project-based learning is a teaching and learning model; it is a curriculum development and instructional approach that emphasizes student-centered instruction by assigning projects.

To get a clearer picture of the above definition, project-based learning is: engaging learning experiences that involve students in complex, real-world projects through which they develop and apply skills and knowledge. The learning require students to draw from many information sources and disciplines in order to solve problems. The outcomes can be identified up-front, but in which the outcomes of the student’s learning process are neither predetermined nor fully predictable. The outcomes are also experiences through which students would learn to manage and to allocate resources such as time and materials.

In this approach, students create knowledge and understanding through learning activities that built intellectual inquiry and a high degree of engagement with meaningful tasks. Within the context of this approach, projects take the role traditionally afforded to assessments such as tests and quizzes.


The importance To Incorporate Project-Based Learning Into Classroom Instruction

Project-based learning is a teaching strategy that emphasizes on the students. This model could be implemented on the learning strategy by assigning projects. It gives opportunities to students to work more independently and realistically to generate products. The activities enable students to synthesize knowledge and to individually solve problems in a curricular context (Project-based learning, 2007, 1-4). The project creates problems that function as a curriculum organizer and a instructional strategy that presents a problem that is relevant and related to the context where students are the stakeholders. Students develop strategies to enable themselves and to direct their own learning. When students experience a problem in context, they are more likely to make connection and thus see the value in what they are learning. Newberry and Hughes (2006) rigorously explain that project-based learning will:

  • Help students develop skills for living in a knowledge-based world and society. Solving highly complex problems requires that students to have skills on reading, writing and also foundation skills (teamwork, problem solving, research, time management, information synthesizing, and using technology tools).
  • Add relevance to the learning. By bringing real-life context and technology to the curriculum through project problems, teachers encourage students to become independent workers, critical thinkers, and lifelong learner. Students learn to take responsibility for their own learning. They will form the basis for working cooperatively and effectively with others in their adult life.
  • Challenge students to high rigor. When working toward a solution to a problem, students often find themselves acquiring higher levels of academic skills and knowledge than if they were taught such skills in isolation.
  • Promote lifelong learning. Exposure to activities, projects and problems teaches students to take control of learning, their first step as lifelong learners. Project-based learning promotes metacognition and self-knowledge. Student generate strategies for solving problems by gathering, analyzing, and testing their data, sharing their findings with determining solutions. Thus, students develop the abilities to work with peers, work in teams, and develop group skills.

Table 2.1 below shows a curriculum model that uses the three modalities. Students are engaged in three level thinking: the cognitive, the novice metacognition, and the expert metacognition. The curriculum is developed and designed to engage students in activities, projects, problems to incorporate all aspects that enable students to investigate and to explore the stated lesson. The best way for students to understand their learning is to experience the process in addressing the problem and in designing solution. For example, the direct experience of “walking in students’ shoes” is to solve problems and to design projects that help teachers to reflect on the learning activities and to prepare teachers for their own teaching.



Palmer (1991 cited in Day & Bamford, 2000:5) defines extensive reading as “rapidly reading book after book”. In this reading activity readers’ attention should be focused on comprehending of the text. Extensive reading is different from intensive reading which means “take a text, study it line by line, referring at every moment to dictionary and grammar rules, translating and retaining every expression that it contains.”

Similar to Palmer’s definition, West  (1993 cited in Day & Bamford, 2000:6) defines “supplementary reading”, or extensive reading as a reading activity that aims at the development to the point of enjoyment of the ability to read the foreign language and that involves the methodology of taking care of individual differences and encouraging the reading habit.

As stated in Longman Dictionary of Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics, 1974, extensive reading is intended to develop good reading habits, to build up knowledge of vocabulary and structure, and to encourage a liking for reading. This definition implies that extensive reading also affects the increased general second language competence.

For the present study, encouraging students to read extensively and maximizing the extensive reading course would hopefully result in an increased general second language competence. To be more specific, this extensive reading course will aim to gain students’ comprehending, summarizing, synthesizing and finally students’ improvement in both reading and speaking skills.


The Role of Extensive Reading

Some experts propose strong reasons for defining the effectiveness of extensive reading. Nation (2000:150), for example, points out three reasons why learners can develop best through extensive reading. First, reading is essentially an individual activity, and therefore, learners of different proficiency levels could be learning at their own level without being locked into an inflexible class program. Second, having an extensive reading activity, students are allowed to follow their interests in choosing what to read, and, thus increase their motivation for learning. Third, extensive reading provides the opportunity for learning to occur outside the classroom.

Bell(1998) mentions ten roles of extensive reading, some of which are put in this section due to their relevance to this study. First, it can provide “comprehensible input”. An extensive reading activity will lead to language acquisition provided that certain conditions are met. These conditions include adequate exposure to the language, interesting material, and a relaxed learning environment. Second, extensive reading can enhance learners’ general language competence. Some studies that the source is taken from Online English teaching Forum (2007) have proven that through extensive reading students’ word cognition and reading skill as well as their oral and written skills are improved. Third, extensive reading can increase the students’ exposure to the language. An exposure to the language is seen important since learners can acquire new forms from the input, and this requirement is more essential for foreign language learners who usually lack natural exposure from their environment. Finally, extensive reading can as well motivate learners to read. The reading materials of an extensive reading program that address students’ needs, tastes, and interests will energize and motivate students to read the articles, and thus will advance the reading habit.

Because of the prominent roles of extensive reading, the present study tries to develop students’ reading and speaking skills through project-based learning using newsmagazine which is assigned as extensive reading materials.

2.3  Oral Reports

Oral reports as the follow-up activity of an extensive reading course is considered appropriate in the case that extensive reading is aimed to improve students’ production of spoken language. In this activity students were assigned to have an oral report on the articles they had read. The oral report was done in small groups.

To be a better speaker, a learner should practice speaking as much as possible. A rich input does not function effectively when it is not followed by a lot of speaking practice opportunities. Thus, in the present study, the follow up of the extensive reading course was an oral report that was expected to provide students with opportunities of speaking practice. Furthermore, as stated by Schmidt (1998), maximizing high interest input in any form is potential as a resource for communication in the classroom. When students spend their time for communicating, they need something to communicate about. Students’ own thoughts, feelings, and experiences are common sources whereas reading can expose students to new experiences and points of view that can be shared and discussed. Extensive reading, thus, not only contributes directly to acquisition but also aids skill development by providing content for meaningful interaction in the classroom.

Retelling as one form of the oral reports was employed in the present study. This technique was considered appropriate due to some reasons. First, retelling could solve the problem of “having nothing to talk about”. Students who hesitate to communicate would find retelling helpful since they did not need to make up their own stories; this activity could even enrich their schemata. Second, retelling could improve students’ speaking fluency. A study conducted by Revert and Nation (1991:84) reveals that retelling the same stories three times to different listeners with decreasing time for each retelling could make substantial gains in speed of speaking and reduce the number of hesitations in the retelling. Finally, this technique allowed learners to perform at a level higher than their normal level of fluency.

In the present study, the oral reports as the follow-up activity of the extensive reading were performed for four times. As the students were asked to find three articles, every article should be summarized in the form of written and oral reports. The synthesizing of the three articles was presented in the performance of small seminar. Every group that contains six members presented each of their synthesis of their made magazines. There would be a moderator who helped run the seminar.



Below is a short description of the research design.

The Problem and Objective of the Study

In line with the background of the study, the formulated research problem is

“How can the students-made newsmagazines through project-based learning be implemented effectively to improve English Foreign Language students’ reading and speaking skills?”

In accordance with the problem of the study, this study will be directed to develop a model of implementing students-made newsmagazines through project-based learning in improving EFL students’ reading and speaking skills effectively.


The Significance of the Study

This study is expected to give contributions as the following:

  1. The model will be used to improve EFL students’ reading and speaking skills and later to enhance further learning of English in general.
  2. Theoretically, the result of the study can enrich teachers’ knowledge of alternatives/variations in the teaching of extensive reading and speaking skills.
  3. Other classroom researchers could consider the implementation of this procedure in the years to come, and experimental studies are recommended to find out whether or not project-based learning could be more successful than conventional learning course.

English reading and speaking are taught separately at Accountancy Department-State Polytechnic of Malang. In the reading subject, the teacher creates questions to see the students’ comprehension and asks students to find some new vocabularies in the dictionary from the texts given. For in depth step, the teacher asks the students to memorize the new vocabularies and the teacher tests the students’ memorization, but sometimes the teacher asks the students to find the synonym/antonym and use the new vocabularies in the sentences.  While for the speaking subject, the students are given topics, such as the topic of likes, dislikes, preferences, and asked to practice the topic given with a partner or in a group of three.

Accountancy Department-State Polytechnic of Malang does not apply thematic or integrated method. The topics among the structure, reading, speaking and writing subjects do not relate to each other. Every subject works independently.

In the new model, the teacher-researcher proposes to ask students to be critical thinkers, to work independently, to work in teams, to share ideas, to appreciate some one’s ideas, to manage times, to do research, as well as to find problems and solutions. The result of the project given is reported in the form of written and oral report. From one project the students learn four skills in at time: reading, writing, listening and speaking as well as apply the skills at the same time.


This study is an action research, which focuses on a certain class. As defined by Carr and Kemmis (in Mc.Niff, 1993:2) action research is a form of self reflective inquiry undertaken by educational participants (teacher, student, or principals) in order to improve the rationality and justice of (a) their own educational practices, (b) their understanding of these practices, and (c) the situations in which these practices are carried out. The linking of the terms ‘action and research’ highlights the essential features of the approach: trying out ideas in practice as a means of improvement and as a means of increasing knowledge about the curriculum, teaching and learning.

Figure 3.1 Steps of the action research

Lewin (in Kemmis and Taggart 1992:8) described action research as proceeding in a spiral of steps, each of which is composed of planning, action and the evaluation of the result of the action. Kemmis and Taggart (1992:11) define planning as constructed action and by definition must be prospective to action-it must be forward looking. It must be recognized that all social action is to some degree unpredictable and therefore somewhat risky. The general plan must be flexible enough to adapt to unforeseen effects and previously unrecognized constraints. While action is deliberate and controlled-it is a careful and thoughtful variation of practice, and is critically informed. Furthermore, they mention that observation has the function of documenting the effects of critically informed action and reflection recalls action as it has been recorded in observation, but it is also active. The last step in a circle is reflection. Reflection seeks to make sense of processes, problems, issues and constraints made manifest in strategic action. Action research is a dynamic process in which these four moments are to be understood as moments in the action research spiral of planning, action, observing and reflecting.

Taking into consi  deration of the students’ poor  reading and speaking’ skill that the teacher-researcher’s face in the classroom, the present study tried to apply project-based learning to develop students’ reading and speaking skills. Thus, the classroom action research in this study was implemented for the purpose of improving the rationality and justice of the practice of project-based learning through students-made newsmagazine that can improve students’ reading and speaking skills, the understanding of this practice and the classroom situation in which this practice was carried out. This study was initiated with the general idea of how students’ reading and speaking skills could be improved. Then the reconnaissance (facts and findings analysis) was conducted. Following the reconnaissance was the designing of the general plan. The general plan then implemented and monitored.

Finally, the reflection was conducted in order to identify all facts including the success and the failure in the implementation as well as the effects of the teaching strategy.

Individual teacher-research approach was implemented in this action research. In this approach the teacher-researcher herself took the role as the classroom teacher.



This study was initiated with the general idea of how students’ reading and speaking skills could be improved. Then the reconnaissance (facts and findings analysis) was conducted. Following the reconnaissance was the designing of the general plan. The general plan was then implemented and monitored. Finally, another part of reconnaissance was conducted in order to identify all facts including the success and the failure in the implementation as well as the effects of the teaching strategy applied. The writer uses the action research procedure adapted from Elliot, 1992. The plan was implemented for one semester of 14 meetings with two meetings for doing the pre-test and four meetings for having the post test.


Figure 3.2 The Classroom Action Research Procedure.


The initial implementation of the plan was on the fourth meeting since the first and the second meetings were for the project information and the pre-test to see the students’ ability and the source problems. The third meeting was for informing the project-implementation. The result of the pre-test showed that the students ‘ability was in the level of very unsatisfactory either on reading skill or on oral report. The students got problems on comprehending texts and on delivering spoken language. One of the source problems of the students was on their limited vocabulary. To overcome this problem, the teacher-researcher initiated to apply word memorization based on the words-articles they had chosen and expected those words would be implemented on their summaries and oral report. The word memorization was initiated on the consideration that by having more vocabularies the students would find it easier to comprehend the articles and easier in producing spoken language. This idea worked well as the teacher-researcher also built the students ‘personal responsibilities for their own learning or developing students ‘long-term motivation to accomplish the tasks for the students’ own needs. This was in accordance withUr’s idea (1996) that teacher’s authoritative demand alone would not lead to higher motivation and better achievement. Teacher’s authoritative demands should be accompanied with students ‘involvement in the decisions.

The task of collecting at least 25 words for every meeting was successfully accomplished by the students. When they were absent, not attending the class on the session of the quiz, they would try to keep the target in the following meetings. This meant that the teacher-researcher was successful in motivating students to accomplish all of the given tasks. Furthermore, this good result could be the result of how the teacher-researcher gave reinforcement toward students’ work and of how she gave reward and punishment to her students. She rewarded her students’ good works by granting excellent scores and gave punishment in the form of warning and poorer scores. Getting good scores would increase the students’ motivation to accomplish the next tasks. In other words, the reinforcement became the new stimulus for the students to do better in the future. Brown (1980) suggested that “students who could not retrieve the meaning of certain words were allowed to see the context without seeing the meaning of those words.” It was used to keep the students’ motivation otherwise the students would get bored in opening the dictionary for every time the students faced new words.

The new words put in sentential contexts were also fruitful for the students to retrieve their memory. The students directly implemented what they had learned to the real practice, either in the written or spoken form.

Regarding the plan implementation in meeting four, all students found problems in reading authentic texts taken from English magazines or in the texts from the internet. Most of them could not summarize the news articles appropriately. In filling out the students- activities’ sheet they just quoted sentences from the authentic text. Thus, it could be concluded that these students were not capable enough to read authentic texts. Their language proficiency, in this sense, their reading ability was adequate for reading simplified materials only, and it was not for authentic texts. This finding motivated the teacher-researcher to ask the students to adopt the language of the authentic materials with the simplest language they could find in the English magazines or texts from the internet. This solution was in accordance with what was stated by Day and Bamford (2000) who said that when language learners found problems with difficult language in the reading text, simple language is considered the solution.

In the teacher-researcher’s mind authentic materials were considered important and needed to be continued on finishing the project because these authentic materials helped the students to improve their reading skills as well as to introduce them to content that was interest to the students. This finding is the same line with Wikipedia online article (Project-based learning, 2007, 1-4) that said that content is more meaningful to students because it is real world learning.

Applying the steps on developing students ‘reading skill in comprehending texts (including applying the technique of summarizing) was very fruitful to the students to keep their project. The students were really helped with that guidance. That guidance provides students with opportunities to practice a variety of reading subs skills as well as strategies for dealing with new topics, long passages, difficult passages, and unfamiliar vocabulary. Thus, the students could develop flexible reading skills and strategies that will vary according to the purpose of the reading task and the nature of the reading passage. The activities on the development of reading skills could also serve as a stimulus for the oral report they had to do.

Students’ interest in certain topic played important role in motoring them to keep on their project. All students completed the students- activities’ sheets happily. The sheets included short summary, students’ personal response toward the article to be read and the strategies used to develop reading skill. To the teacher-researcher’s detailed observation on the subjects’ summary in the project planning form (students- activities ‘sheets), it turn out that some students were good enough in writing the summary but some did not write the summary appropriately. The good point was that all students tried to write their own short summaries. This good point could be the result of students’ high enthusiasm in doing the tasks as well as the teacher-researcher’s success in motivating her students to work at their own attempt. Furthermore, this success was also the result of students-teacher close relationship that was believed able to increase students’ intrinsic motivation to learn (Brown, 2001).

Writing summary using new words memorization for extensive reading seemed to be a good practice as stated byBell(1998), summary writing in extensive reading was a valuable practice because it allowed learners to control both the main factual or fictional content of a story, and of the grammar and vocabulary used to express it. Moreover, this summary helped them elevating their speaking fluency since students already equipped themselves with correct content of the story as well the control of grammar and vocabulary to be used in the retelling activities.

The oral report activities as the following activity from the extensive reading were proven very effective in anticipating common problems encountered by students to produce oral language. First this technique could anticipate “the having nothing to talk about problem.” All students of the present study participated in the oral report activity since they always had report to be told either to the teacher, to the partner or to the audience. Second, all students did not hesitate to do the oral report since they did not need to make up their own stories. Third, by practicing at least 4 times to do the oral report, students had the chance to improve their speaking fluency. In short, to do the oral report as the follow –up activity of extensive reading was effective in improving students’ speaking’ skill. All of these findings were in the same line with Schmidt’ finding (1998) that discovered the success of extensive reading followed with conversation activities.

Students’ self confidence was believed influential to their speaking performance, and this was observed by the teacher-researcher. Some students who actually possessed good speaking skill could not perform adequately due to their poor self-confidence. To solve this problem, the teacher-researcher ensured all students that they actually could perform better when they possessed higher self-confidence. She further stated that to be able to improve their speaking skill, students should be brave enough to practice and should not be afraid of making mistakes. Mistakes were informed as common things that could be tolerated and even the students could learn from the mistakes made. In short, increasing students’ self-confidence was believed to be very essential in building their intrinsic motivation to learn (Brown, 2001).

Furthermore, based on what the teacher-researcher observed, giving a project to the students was the right strategy to be implemented. This is a learning strategy that gives opportunities to the students to work more independently and realistically to generate a product. These activities enabled students to synthesize knowledge and to solve problems individually. The students developed strategies to enable themselves and to direct their own learning. This finding is supported by Newberry and Hughes (2006) that said “when the students experienced a problem during the process of their learning, they were more likely to make connection and thus see the value in what they were learning.”

As stated, one of the criteria of the present study was that students’ reading and oral report scores should at least get 125 points with the score 7, the maximum criteria was 200 points and for the score 10. Then, when reflected to this criterion of the success of the present study, the results of the reading test revealed that twelve students met the target of the criteria while the rest of the students (thirteen students) met above the criteria. The students’ increased scores from the pre-test to the post-test indicate that this strategy was helpful to improve students’ reading and speaking skills. Thus, what these students really needed was a longer implementation of the plan.The Wikipedia online article (Project-based learning, 2007, 1-4) informs that there has been a lot of research conducted by researchers about project-based learning. One of the more prominent benefits is how projects are used to encourage active inquiry and empower students to take a part in their own learning. A project allows students and teachers alike to focus and to study a central idea in depth. Content is more meaningful to students because it is real world learning and students can look at their work in a way that is interesting to them. Students can collaborate together to explore ideas. Student ownership is the true drive of project work. The process of working on a project will help students display independence and construct their own knowledge through questions that they have or developed with the class.

The suggestion to prolong the implementation of the procedure to two semesters was considered important. Students started with very poor vocabulary and low exposure to reading and speaking experiences; thus they need more time to improve their skills. The procedure developed in the present study was considered effective to elevate both students’ reading and speaking skills, and this project needed to be implemented longer than one semester. Two-semester implementation was considered long enough to reach the predetermined criteria.

The subjects’ reflection as pictured in the questionnaire revealed that most of them believed the implemented plan was quite satisfactory to them. They were quite motivated in conducting the extensive reading, collecting new words, memorizing the collected words, summarizing, synthesizing and participating in the oral report activities. This confirms the filling of the first criterion of the present study.

The average total point of the students pre-test was 63, with the score below 6, while the total point of the criteria of success should be 125 with the score 7. In article 1 the students’ ability increase, the total point was 85 with the score still below 6. In article 2 the students’ total point was 91 with the score below 6. In article 3, the achievement of the total point was 106 with the score above 6. On the post-test the average of the total point was 141 with the score above 7.




Based on the discussion presented in the previous chapter, project-based learning in the form of students-made newsmagazine was done successfully; the model could improve the students’ reading and speaking ability, it might be caused by a) the students’ involvement on their own learning. Since the students function as the actor of the project who had responsible on generating products in this case producing students-made newsmagazine. b) the result of the products were very attractive, it might be caused by the students’ responsibility and the students’ great enthusiasm. c). the students great enthusiasm might be caused by the atmosphere conducted since the teacher-researcher function as a facilitator not a teacher who had  a big power in the class. d)  the product trained the students became independent students, critical thinkers and promote students to become life-long learner



There are some points worth considering the implementation of the plan of the present study or to conduct a similar study. The suggestions are presented below:

  1. Other classroom researchers could use this procedure of improving students’ reading and speaking skills through project-based learning in the form of student-made newsmagazine or using other variations with similar issues such as producing a wall magazine. A wall magazine would also be a worth doing.
  2. The result of the present study show that students ‘reading and speaking study was improved but not to a significant point. Thus, it is recommended, for the following study, to implement the plan in more than one semester.
  3. As it was evident in the present study that speaking and extensive reading could be taught in one integrated course, other classroom researchers could also set up an integrated course like this.
  4. The Accountancy Department of the State Polytechnic of Malang could consider the implementation of this procedure in the years to come, and experimental studies are recommended to find out whether or not project-based learning could be more successful than the conventional learning course.



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