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Extensive Reading as a way to improve students’ English Ability in Shipbuilding Polytechnic

Lusia Eni Puspandari,

Surabaya Shipbuilding Institute of Polytechnic


Reading is one of skills that must be mastered by people in understanding English. A good reading competence will influence the people’s ability in English. From the reality that many students feel difficult in understanding some meaning in English, another way is found out in order to improve the students’ English proficiency by using and extensive reading. Extensive reading involves students in reading large quantities of books at the level appropriate for them; only one to two words per page should be unknown to a reader. The primary goal of Extensive reading is reading in order to gain information and to enjoy texts. Extensive reading (ER) has been seen as an indispensable means of developing learners’ reading ability and enriching their knowledge of the language and the world. Considering that the students of Shipbuilding Polytechnic has limited time in learning English, the Extensive Reading program is one solution for them in improving their English proficiency.


Keywords: Extensive reading, Reading competence, self-regulated reading, graded reader, reading motivation


Learning English cannot be separated from the process of reading, because by reading the learners’ ability in using the English is develop. Among the four skill (reading, listening, speaking, writing), reading is one of important skill to acquire for overall language proficiency. It also said that reading is a source of learning and a source of enjoyment (Nation, 2005). In foreign language situation, a good reading competence is a necessity for those studying English for academic and occupational purposes and many curricula therefore devote large amounts of time to reading lessons in order to achieve such competence. One process of reading which influence the learners’ language acquisition is reading what they want and what they like in frequent time which is called as extensive reading. Of course, there are a number of possible reasons for this, but this is partly due to the way reading is

Reading is an important skill to acquire for overall language proficiency. Sustained reading skill improvement and reading motivation are needed to become a fluent reader and to develop a positive reading identity. Students are better able to maintain ongoing reading development by becoming autonomous and self-regulated readers. This paper explains the benefits of developing self-regulated readers through an extensive reading program, where students read many interesting books at an appropriate level of difficulty. Students and teachers made use of an extensive reading module for an open-source audience response system. Using this system provides autonomous learning conditions that enable students to read books extensively by choosing books, monitoring, and reflecting on books read. Teachers can monitor students through summaries of the number of books read by each student, estimates of book difficulty, and popularity ratings of the books.

It can be seen that the result of applying Extensive reading (ER) in Shipbuilding Polytechnic can improve the students’ reading ability and enriching their knowledge of the language and the world. Moreover, such an approach also allows students to practise strategies they learn in skill-based instruction and to experience authentic reading they will encounter in their daily lives. It is supported by Lake and Holster (2013) presents how extensive reading leads to gains in reading speed, reading motivation, and a positive reading identity.

Literature Review

Extensive reading

Extensive reading involves students reading many stories or informative texts at an appropriate level of difficulty that the readers choose themselves. As Davis (1995) explains, “pupils are given the time, encouragement, and materials to read pleasurably, at their own level, as many books as they can, without the pressures of testing or marks” (p. 320). Studies have shown that extensive reading can lead to improvements in vocabulary, writing, motivation, reading identity, speaking, listening, spelling, grammar, and, of course, reading abilities (Bamford & Day, 2004; Cirocki, 2009; Day & Bamford, 1998; Day et al., 2011; Grabe & Stoller, 2011; Iwahori, 2008; Lake, 2014; Nation, 2009). Often extensive reading is contrasted with intensive reading where students are reading short, difficult passages from a text chosen by the teacher (Waring, 2011). Even in an academic reading program with typical reading textbooks, it is important to develop reading fluency. The “best way to develop reading fluency is through extensive reading” (Seymour & Walsh, 2006, p. 39). Therefore, it is important to incorporate an extensive reading component into the program.

In an extensive reading program, students choose books that are meaningful and interesting to them. The successful reading of many books develops positive competence beliefs about reading that leads to higher levels of reading motivation (Guthrie, Wigfield, & Perencevich, 2004; Schiefele et al., 2012). The large amount of input over time increases implicit knowledge of vocabulary and reading that also helps to develop other language skills contributing to overall improvement in language proficiency (Hunt & Beglar, 2005). In two different studies, Lake and Holster (2012) and Lake (2014) show how an extensive reading program led to student improvement in reading identity, reading motivation, and reading speed.


Fluency has to do with reading with automaticity and comprehension (Grabe, 2009; Grabe & Stoller, 2011). Automaticity in reading involves the rapid processing of text without conscious awareness. Comprehension comes from the rapid recognition of word parts, words, and greater lengths of text. There needs to be a certain degree of speed to allow complete units to be processed in working memory so that meaning can be extracted. For example, letters need to be recognized so that words and phrases can form and give meaning, and words and phrases need to be recognized so that sentences can form and provide meaning. Reading with fluency can lead to greater comprehension because it contributes to understanding of larger units of text and more cognitive resources can be employed for strategies or text interpretation (Grabe, 2009; Grabe & Stoller, 2011).

Graded readers

Extensive reading programs typically make use of graded readers. These are books that are graded or leveled based on text complexity. Editors and publishers usually work with some formula that controls for vocabulary range and type of grammar allowed. Lower level graded readers will have higher frequency vocabulary with a close range of words and grammar, while higher level readers will have less frequent words in a greater range and more complex grammar.


Self-regulated learning involves taking active control of learning and is often divided into phases of forethought, performance, and self-reflection (Zimmerman & Schunk, 2011). Activities in the forethought phase include actions such as forming goals, planning, and building motivation. In the performance phase, activities include actions such as monitoring learning and interest, and metacognitive monitoring of learning. Activities in the self-reflection phase include such actions as self-evaluation, causal attributions of success or failure, and reflecting on positive feelings of liking or enjoying the activity.

Self-regulated reading carries over these pre-activity, during activity, and post-activity phases into the domain of reading (Guthrie et al., 2004; Schunk & Zimmerman, 1997; Tonks & Taboada, 2011). Activities in the forethought phase include such actions as gauging reading ability, gauging text complexity, gauging self-efficacy, matching personal interests with texts, setting number of books per week goals, and setting time per week or scheduling goals. In the performance phase, activities include such actions as going to the library to check out books; monitoring books for difficulty—abandon if too high, continue if not; monitoring books for interest—abandon if too low, continue if not; and monitoring for understanding. Activities in the self-reflection phase include such actions as reflecting on the difficulty, understanding, fluency, enjoyment and impressions of the book.

Problems with Monitoring ER

Ideally, students in an extensive reading program read many interesting books that they choose themselves and develop intrinsic motivation and an identity as a reader (Lake, 2014). Tests, quizzes, book reports, and other types of monitoring methods by teachers that are focused on specific details, if used with extensive reading, can lead to intensive reading and extrinsic motivation. Strict monitoring of specific details and narrow performance goals leads to problems associated with extrinsic motivation such as avoidance strategies, anxiety, and demotivation (Assor & Kaplan, 2001; Ryan & Connell, 1989; Ryan & La Guardia, 1999; Stefanou, Perencevich, DiCinto, & Turner, 2004). Strict formal assessments may make the students focus more on the assessment than reading. Formal assessments can contribute to a shift from student autonomy, choices, self-regulation and intrinsic reading motivation to teacher-regulation and extrinsic motivation (Krashen, 2004, 2011).

If students shift their intrinsic motivation to extrinsic motivation, then extensive reading may be abandoned as soon as the external regulation is removed. If intrinsic motivation can be maintained it may lead to the development of a positive L2 reading self and an even more general positive L2 self (Lake, 2013, 2014). As pointed out in first language contexts, “the real purpose of reading instruction is the development of individuals who will engage in personal reading for pursuit of their interests, needs, recreation, practical and academic purposes, and for just pure pleasure” (Flippo, 2005, p. 21). To put it simply, in the context of second language reading, “our long-term goal is to have students who do not stop reading when the reading class is over” (Hudson, 2007, p. 29).



Participants consist of 90 students of Shipbuilding Polytechnic from different study program who have differences TOEIC scores. All students are in the first semester and they get English subject until 4 semester. The process of monitoring the progress of the participants were done during the class meeting and outside the class meeting.

All the participants have got the TOEIC Test before actively involve in academic year. The first group consists of 30 students with TOEIC score more than 500 (Intermediate). The second group consists of 30 students with TOEIC score around 400-495 (Pre Intermediate), and the third group was consists of 30 students with TOEIC score under 400 (Elementary) . Each group was given the same story book but the time to finish the book are various based on their level of proficiency.


Students were prepared to read certain books (graded readers) and they were asked to read 5 titles of books in different time, in campus or outside the campus. Each students who had finished reading one title of book must report it by signing book report. The book report consists of questions related to the book that they have read.

After finishing one title of book, the students get the second book and read it in certain time that can be done any time inside or outside the campus. Then they must report it to the teacher to get the signature and feedback about the book. The teacher can ask students to fill out a short record form indicating the name of the book they have just read, its level, how long it took to read, and a brief comment on the quality of the book.

It will continue until 5 book titles and the teacher give the feedback individually. The process of monitoring the students progress is controlled regularly

The process of monitoring students’ progress can be done directly using book report and also using on-line system in the web site. With the web site system, students can use phones or other mobile devices or regular computers to take quizzes or surveys; in this case, it was the graded reader survey. Teachers can then give feedback to individual students or classes about how many books they have read. For example, after the second week of classes a teacher could give individual feedback that a student has read “X number of books” and that “most students in class have read over 5 books” to provide students with a normative sense of where they are in relation to the group. Alternatively, a teacher could give more aspirational feedback such as “some students have read more than 5 books” to show what some students have found possible.



The discussion of the study show that the students’ reading achievement are different from some factors. The first is the difficulties in understanding new vocabulary often cause problem that influence the intension to read. The second is the lack of interest from students in reading English book that cause the unsatisfied result. The third is the low motivation of students in reading English book influence the students’ English proficiency.

Title of Book: The Umbrella (300 words)

Elementary Poor 1 hour
Pre Intermediate Average 50 minutes
Intermediate Good 30 minutes


Tittle of Book: The Adventure of Huckleberry Finn (600 words)

Elementary Poor 1,5 hours
Pre Intermediate Average 1 hours
Intermediat Good 50 minute

Title of Book: The Lost World (1100 words)

Elementary Poor 2 hours
Pre Intermediate Average 1,5 hours
Intermediate Good 1 hour


Title of Book: Gandhi(1400 words)

Elementary Poor 2,5 hours
Pre Intermediate Average 2 hours
Intermediate Good 1,5 hour

Title of Book: Jurrasic Park (1600 words)

Elementary Poor 3 hours
Pre Intermediate Average 2,5 hours
Intermediate Good 2 hours


The process of comprehending the book were various based on the level of English Proficiency. The easiest book could be finished by Intermediate level students not more than 30 minutes, while the Elementary level students must finish it around 1 hour. And the speed of each level are various depend on the number of vocabulary in each book.

Overall, the table show that the students motivation and intension in reading keep running well until they finish to the highest level of vocabulary. It can be concluded that the extensive reading program can increase students motivation and improve the students English proficiency.


As part of a work-in-progress, and from previous studies (Lake, 2014; Lake & Holster, 2012), we found that autonomous learning conditions can help students develop as self-regulated readers. Through the use of graded readers in an extensive reading program, students gained in reading speed, developed a more positive L2 reading self, and increased L2 reading motivation. Students’ L2 reading anxiety showed a negative relationship to a positive L2 reading self, L2 reading motivation, and reading speed. If students are to be able to read outside the classroom, they will need to be autonomous self-regulated readers, and this study shows that a foundation to develop as such can be built in an extensive reading program. This has the potential to help students in the future as they read for personal and academic interests, and far into the future as lifelong readers.


Assor, A., & Kaplan, H. (2001). Mapping the domain of autonomy support: Five important ways to enhance or undermine students’ experience of autonomy in learning. In A. Efklides, J. Kuhl, & R. M. Sorrentino (Eds.), Trends and prospects in motivation research (pp. 101-120). Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic.

Bamford, J., & Day, R. R. (Eds.). (2004). Extensive reading activities for teaching language. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Cirocki, A. (Ed.). (2009). Extensive reading in English language teaching. Munich, Germany: Lincom.

Davis, C. (1995). ER: An expensive extravagance? ELT Journal 49(4), 329-336. doi:10.1093/elt/49.4.329

Day, R. R., & Bamford, J. (1998). Extensive reading in the second language classroom. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Day, R. R., Bassett, J., Bowler, B., Parminter, S., Bullard, N., Furr, M, … Robb, T. (2011). Bringing extensive reading into the classroom. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Flippo, R. F. (2005). Personal reading: How to match children to books. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

Grabe, W. (2009). Reading in a second language: Moving from theory to practice. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Grabe, W., & Stoller, F. L. (2011). Teaching and researching reading. (2nd ed.). Harlow, UK: Pearson.

Guthrie, J. T., Wigfield, A., & Perencevich, K. C. (Eds.). (2004). Motivating reading comprehension: Concept-oriented reading instruction. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Hall, L. A. (2012). The role of reading identities and reading abilities in students’ discussions about texts and comprehension strategies. Journal of Literacy Research, 44(3), 239-272. doi:10.1177/1086296X12445370

Hudson, T. (2007). Teaching second language reading. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Iwahori, Y. (2008). Developing reading fluency: A study of extensive reading in EFL. Reading in a Foreign Language, 20, 70–91.

Hunt, A., & Beglar, D. (2005). A framework for developing EFL reading vocabulary. Reading in a Foreign Language, 17(1). 23-59.

Krashen, S. (2004). The power of reading (2nd ed.). Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

Krashen, S. (2011). Free voluntary reading. Santa Barbara, CA: Libraries Unlimited.

Lake, J. (2013). Positive L2 self: Linking positive psychology with L2 motivation. In M. Apple, D. Da Silva, & T. Fellner (Eds.), Language learning motivation in Japan (pp. 225-244). Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.

Lake, J. (2014). Curious readers and interesting reads: Developing a positive L2 reading self and motivation through extensive reading. Journal of Extensive Reading, 2, 13-27.

Lake, J., & Holster, T. A. (2012). Increasing reading fluency, motivation and comprehension through extensive reading. Bungei to Shisou: The Bulletin of Fukuoka Women’s University International College of Arts and Sciences, 76, 47-68.





Title of the book : _____________________________________________________

Task 1. The Facts

The Setting

  1. When does the story take place?
  2. Where does it take place?

The Characters

  1. Who are they?
  2. What are they like?

The Action

  1. What happened?


Task 2. Personal Response

Your impressions

  1. What did you like best (or least)?
  2. What would you change in the story?

Your feelings and experiences

  1. Have you ever experienced something similar to what happens in the story?
  2. Do you identify with any of the characters?
  3. Did you find any interesting cultural information?
  4. What did you learn from the reading?



Reading Record Form

Book Title Publisher Reading Level Start Date Finish Date Reading Time (hours) Level:

Too easy

Good level

Too difficult








Pembelajaran Inovatif Untuk Meningkatkan Pembelajaran Bahasa Inggris yang Efektif

Imam Mudofir

Program Studi Teknik Elektronika Jurusan Teknik Elektro

Politeknik Negeri Malang



Abstrak: As a teacher in instruction process always focuses on how to deliver materials to the students in order that the students can understand the materials well. The understanding of students is the important thing in instruction process It also relates to the the innovative strategy in instruction process which creates the effective instruction. It is called effective if it can facilitate the students to achieve the purpose of instruction process. Therefore, teacher needs arranging the strategy is suitable with the characteristic of the students so they can achieve the competence in instruction process. Besides, the usage of mulitimedia is important in innovative and effective instruction processs. Innovative instruction process and the usage of media is important to achieve The effective English instruction.

Keywords: Innovative Instruction and Effective English Instruction


Abstrak: Sebagai tenaga pendidik dalam melaksanakan proses belajar dan mengajar akan selalu terfokus pada bagaimana menyampaikan materi pada pebelajar dengan baik sehingga pebelajar akan paham bahan ajar. Kepahaman pebelajar merupakan hal yang penting dalam proses belajar mengajar karena hal tersebut merupakan hasil akhir dari proses belajar dan mengajar. Hasil akhir tersebut juga disertai dengan suatu yang tidak kalah pentingnya yaitu adanya suatu strategi dalam proses belajar dan mengajar yang inovatif yang menciptakan pembelajaran yang efektif. Pembelajaran disebut efektif bila dapat memfasilitasi peserta didik untuk mencapai tujuan pembelajaran yang ditentukan. Untuk itu pengajar perlu menyusun strategi yang sesuai dengan karakteristik peserta didik dan mampu membuatnya mencapai kompetensi yang di tentukan dalam tujuan pembelajaran. Dalam hal ini pemanfaatan media juga dibutuhkan dalam pembelajaran inovatif. Pembelajaran inovatif dengan menggunakan strategi pembelajaran serta pemanfaatan media sangat penting untuk menciptakan pembelajaran bahasa Inggris yang efektif.

Kata Kunci: Pembelajaran Inovatif dan Pembelajaran Inggris Efektif


 Masalah yang kita hadapi dalam dunia pendidikan pada saat sekarang masih banyak dan semakin komplek sehingga perlu adanya suatu sumbangan pemikiran yang cocok dan sebagai obat yang mujarab untuk mengatasi permasalahan tersebut. Sebagai tenaga pendidik, sebaiknya kita tidak boleh tinggal diam dalam menghadapi permasalahan tersebut. Oleh karena itu, kita dengan semampu kita mengatasi masalah itu baik dengan tulisan, diskusi, maupun praktek nyata sebagai tenaga pendidik dalam proses belajar mengajar. Sehingga hal tersebut bukan sekedar perbincangan belaka namun ada wujud nyata dalam proses belajar dan mengajar.

Sebagai tenaga pendidik dalam melaksanakan proses belajar dan mengajar akan selalu terfokus pada bagaimana menyampaikan materi pada pebelajar dengan baik sehingga pebelajar akan paham apa yang dimaksudkan oleh pembelajar. Kepahaman pebelajar merupakan hal yang penting dalam proses belajar mengajar karena hal tersebut merupakan hasil akhir dari proses belajar dan mengajar. Hasil akhir tersebut juga disertai dengan suatu yang tidak kalah pentingnya yaitu adanya suatu strategi dalam proses belajar dan mengajar. Dikarenakan bagaimana proses belajar dan mengajar tersebut berlangsung akan mempengaruhi situasi dan kondisi baik manajemen kelas, pebelajar, dan pembelajar. Sehingga semua yang terlibat dalam proses belajar akan terlibat di dalamnya dengan baik.

Dalam pencapain hasil dari proses belajar dibutuhkan adanya inovasi atau pembaharuan dalam setiap saat sehingga pembelajar akan terus memikirkan selalu strategi apa yang seharusnya pembelajar lakukan dalam kondisi dan situasi yang berbeda. Hal tersebut dikarenakan setiap situasi dan kondisi berbeda akan membutuhkan penanganan yang berbeda pula. Apabila diterapkan dengan strategi yang sama maka proses belajar dan mengajar tidak efektif dan tidak efisien. Disini pembelajar membutuhkan suatu pemikiran yang terus menerus untuk membuat inovasi yang baru dalam setiap proses belajar dan mengajarnya. Sehingga dapat dikatakan bahwa pembelajaran inovatif sangat diperlukan dalam proses belajar mengajar.


Definisi Pembelajaran Inovatif

Inovatif (innovative) yang berarti new ideas or techniques, merupakan kata sifat dari inovasi (innovation) yang berarti pembaharuan, juga berasal dari kata kerja innovate yang berarti make change atau introduce new thing (ideas or techniques) in order to make progress. Pembelajaran, merupakan terjemahan dari learning yang artinya belajar,atau pembelajaran. Jadi, pembelajaran inovatif adalah pembelajaran yang dikemas oleh pebelajar atas dorongan gagasan barunya yang merupakan produk dari learning how to learn untuk melakukan langkah-langkah belajar, sehingga memperoleh kemajuan hasil belajar.

Pembelajaran inovatif juga mengandung arti pembelajaran yang dikemas oleh guru atau instruktur lainnya yang merupakan wujud gagasan atau teknik yang dipandang baru agar mampu memfasilitasi siswa untuk memperoleh kemajuan dalam proses dan hasil belajar.

Berdasarkan definisi secara harfiah pembelajaran inovatif tersebut, tampak di dalamnya terkandung makna pembaharuan. Gagasan pembaharuan muncul sebagai akibat seseorang merasakan adanya anomali atau krisis pada paradigma yang dianutnya dalam memecahkan masalah belajar. Oleh sebab itu, dibutuhkan paradigma baru yang diyakini mampu memecahkan masalah tersebut. Namun, perubahan sering dianggap sebagai pengganggu kenyamanan diri,karena pada hakikatnya seseorang secara alamiah lebih mudah terjangkit virus rutinitas.

Padahal, di dalam pendidikan, banyak kalangan mengakui bahwa pekerjaan rutin cenderung tidak merangsang, membuat pendidikan ketinggalan zaman, dan akan mengancam eksistensi negara dalam perjuangan dan persaingan hidup. Rutinitas kinerja dapat bersumber dari beberapa faktor yang dianggap menghambat inovasi. Faktor-faktor yang dapat dikategorikan sebagai penghambat inovasi adalah keunggulan inovasi relatif sulit untuk dijelaskan dan dibuktikan, sering dianggap time dan cost consumming, pelaksanaan cenderung partial, complexity innovation sering menghantui orang untuk diam di jalan rutinitas, dan simplification paradigm dalam innovation dissemination berpotensi mengurangi keyakinan dan pemahaman bagi para praktisi terhadap inovasi.

Inovasi pembelajaran muncul dari perubahan paradigma pembelajaran. Perubahan paradigma pembelajaran berawal dari hasil refleksi terhadap eksistensi paradigma lama yang mengalami anomali menuju paradigma baru yang dihipotesiskan mampu memecahkan masalah. Terkait dengan perkuliahan di perguruan tinggi, paradigma pembelajaran yang dirasakan telah mengalami anomali, adalah (1) kecenderungan guru untuk berperan lebih sebagai transmiter, sumber pengetahuan, mahatahu, (2) kuliah terikat dengan jadwal yang ketat, (3) belajar diarahkan oleh kurikulum, (4)kecenderungan fakta, isi pelajaran, dan teori sebagai basis belajar, (5) lebih mentoleransi kebiasaan latihan menghafal, (6) cenderung kompetitif, (7) kelas menjadi fokus utama, (8) komputer lebih dipandang sebagai obyek, (9) penggunaan media statis lebih mendominasi, (10) komunikasi terbatas, (11) penilaian lebih bersifat normatif. Paradigma tersebut diduga kurang mampu memfasilitasi siswa untuk siap terjun di masyarakat.

Paradigma pembelajaran yang merupakan hasil gagasan baru adalah (1) peran guru lebih sebagai fasilitator, pembimbing, konsultan, dan kawan belajar, (2) jadwal fleksibel,terbuka sesuai kebutuhan, (3) belajar diarahkan oleh siswa sendiri, (4) berbasis masalah,proyek, dunia nyata, tindakan nyata, dan refleksi, (5) perancangan dan penyelidikan, (6)kreasi dan investigasi, (7) kolaborasi, (8) fokus masyarakat, (9) komputer sebagai alat,(10) presentasi media dinamis, (11) penilaian kinerja yang komprehensif. Paradigma pembelajaran tersebut diyakini mampu memfasilitasi siswa untuk mengembangkan kecakapan hidup dan siap terjun di masyarakat.

Dalam dunia pendidikan terdapat beberapa istilah tentang inovasi yang harus diketahui oleh para colon pendidik, yaitu diskoveri (discovery), invensi (invention), dan inovasi (innovation). Diskoveri adalah penemuan sesuatu yang sebenarnya benda atau hal yang ditemukan itu sudah ada, tetapi belum diketahui orang. Invensi adalah penemuan sesuatu yang benar-benar baru, artinya hasil karya manusia. Sedangkan inovasi adalah suatu ide, barang, kejadian, metode yang dirasakan atau diamati sebagai suatu hal yang baru bagi seseorang atau sekelompok orang atau masyarakat.

Pembelajaran inovatif, dewasa ini menjadi perbincangan hangat diberbagai kalangan, mulai dari guru, praktisi pendidikan, dan pemerintah baik pusat maupun pemerintah daerah.Inovatif (innovative) yang berarti new ideas or techniques, merupakan kata sifat dari inovasi (innovation) yang berarti pembaharuan. Dengan demikian, inovasi dapat dimaknai sebagai suatu ide, produk, informasi teknologi, kelembagaan, perilaku, nilai-nilai, atau praktek-praktek baru yang belum banyak diketahui, dan digunakan/diterapkan oleh sebagian besar warga masyarakat yang dapat mendorong terjadinya perubahan yang lebih baik.

Pembelajaran, merupakan terjemahan dari learning yang artinya belajar,atau pembelajaran. Jadi, inovasi pembelajaran adalah pembelajaran yang menggunakan ide atau teknik/metode yang baru untuk melakukan langkah-langkah belajar, sehingga memperoleh kemajuan hasil belajar yang diinginkan. Berdasarkan definisi secara harfiah pembelajaran inovatif, terkandung makna pembaharuan. Inovasi pembelajaran muncul dari perubahan paradigma pembelajaran. Perubahan paradigma pembelajaran berawal dari hasil refleksi terhadap eksistensi paradigma lama yang mengalami perubahan menuju paradigma baru yang diharapkan mampu memecahkan masalah.

Pada lembaga pendidikan, paradigma pembelajaran yang dirasakan telah mengalami perubahan antara lain: kecenderungan guru untuk berperan lebih sebagai transmiter, sumber pengetahuan,dan mahatahu, kuliah terikat dengan jadwal yang ketat, belajar diarahkan oleh kurikulum, kecenderungan fakta, isi pelajaran, dan teori sebagai basis belajar, lebih mentoleransi kebiasaan latihan menghafal, penggunaan media statis lebih mendominas, dan komunikasi terbatas.

Paradigma pembelajaran yang merupakan hasil gagasan baru adalah peran guru lebih sebagai fasilitator, pembimbing, konsultan, dan kawan belajar, jadwal fleksibel,terbuka sesuai kebutuhan, belajar diarahkan oleh siswa sendiri, berbasis masalah,proyek, dunia nyata, tindakan nyata, dan refleksi, perancangan dan penyelidikan, komputer sebagai alat, dan presentasi media dinamis.

Dalam proses pembelajaran, paradigma baru pembelajaran sebagai produk inovasi yang lebih menyediakan proses untuk mengembalikan hakikat siswa sebagai manusia yang memiliki segenap potensi untuk mengalami proses dalam mengembangkan kemanuasiaanya. Oleh sebab itu, apapun fasilitas yang dikreasi untuk memfasilitasi siswa dan siapapun fasilitator yang akan menemani siswa belajar, seharusnya bertolak dan berorientasi pada apa yang menjadi tujuan belajar siswa. Paradigma pembelajaran yang mampu mengusik hati siswa untuk membangkitkan mode mereka hendaknya menjadi fokus pertama dalam mengembangkan fasilitas belajar.


Pembelajaran Inovatif dalam Proses Belajar dan Mengajar.

Pembelajaran disebut efektif bila dapat memfasilitasi peserta didik untuk mencapai tujuan pembelajaran yang ditentukan. Untuk itu pengajar perlu menyusun strategi yang sesuai dengan karakteristik peserta didik dan mampu membuatnya mencapai kompetensi yang di tentukan dalam tujuan pembelajaran. Pengembangan strategi instruksional yang dapat dilakukan oleh pengajar untuk menciptakan situasi pembelajaran yang mendukung pencapaian kompetensi yang telah ditetapkan. Sehingga pembelajaran inovatif sangat efektif untuk proses belajar dan mengajar. Berikut langkah-langkah pengembangan strategi instruksional. Urutan kegiatan instruksional metode media waktu yaitu : pendahuluan deskripsi singkat, relevansi, Tujuan Instruksional Khusus (TIK), penyajian uraian, contoh, latihan, penutup tes formatif, umpan balik dan tindak lanjut.


Visi Pembelajaran Inovatif

Visi Pembelajaran dilihat dari makna kompetensi masa depan dan bebas berkreasi merupakan hal yang penting harus diyakini bersama oleh pengajar dan peserta didik adalah makna kompetensi yang terkandung dalam tujuan pembelajaran. Kompetensi dalam tujuan pembelajaran itu bukan saja perlu dipahami artinya tetapi juga diyakini manfaatnya oleh peserta didik bagi kehidupannya sekarang dan terutama masa datang. yang Dalam memahami dan menghayati makna tersebut peserta didik harus sampai pada taraf mendapatkan harapan baru, cita–cita baru, dalam hidupnya pada masa depan. Bagi pengajar itulah visi dalam sistem pembelajaran yang menjadi tanggung jawabnya, yaitu pembelajaran yang mampu menciptakan impian ke masa depan bagi peserta didiknya. Penjelasan dari pengajar tentang visi pembelajaran itu bukan sekedar verbalistik, tetapi harus mampu membawa peserta didik ke angan–angan yang indah dan penuh harapan. Disinilah diperlukan pengajar profesional yang inovatif, sabar, dan selalu berorientasi ke depan, ke arah masa depan yang lebih baik, lebih cerah, lebih bersemangat, lebih positif, bukan sebaliknya, menciptakan peserta didik yang pesimis, negatifis, skeptis, rendah diri, dan tidak mampu melihat masa depannya. Hal ini dilakuakan dengan pengajar bebas berkreasi, bebas mengekspresikan pikiran dan perasaannya menurut situasi saat pembelajaran terjadi. Pengajar tidak perlu diharuskan mematuhi buku pintar tentang satu–satunya bimbingan teknis yang mengikat dan membelenggu kreativitasnya. Biarkan pengajar mencari sendiri cara yang dipandang terbaik dalam menyampaikan visi pembelajaran tersebut dan menguasai berbagai cara yang dipilihnya setiap saat. Yang harus tetap hidup dalam dada peserta didik adalah dicapainya keyakinan tentang makna kompetensi yang akan dicapainya bagi kehidupannya yang lebih baik saat ini dan terutama masa depan.

Sumber belajar yang konsisten dengan visi yang perlu dikuasai pengajar adalah digunakannya pendekatan sistem dalam melaksanakan pembelajaran. Pengajar perlu mempunyai dan menerapkan wawasan bersistem, bahwa untuk mewujudkan visi pembelajaran itu diperlukan cara-cara tentang mendayagunakan semua sumber belajar yang sudah ada dan bila perlu yang harus diadakan olehnya agar interaksi peserta didik dengan sumber belajar tersebut dapat berlangsung dengan aktif, lancar, menarik, menyenangkan, menantang, dan akhirnya menghasilkan kompetensi yang telah ditentukan. Cara-cara itu dapat diciptakan secara bebas oleh pengajar dan dapat diubah-ubah sewaktu-waktu sesuai dengan daya cipta, keinginan, perasaan yang ada padanya. Disamping penguasaan materi yang di ajarkan, perbendaharaan tentang pengetahuan dan keterampilan menggunakan berbagai metode, dan media yang diperoleh dari berbagai pelatihan, diperkaya dengan pengalamannya dalam menggunakan berbagai urutan kegiatan penyajian, metode dan media pembelajaran, dan manajemen waktu dalam pembelajaran merupakan referensi bagi pengajar dalam menciptakan cara-cara tersebut agar sesuai dengan karakteristik peserta didik, yang dihadapinya dan visi pembelajaran yang ditentukan. Cara-cara itu disebut strategi pembelajaran. Melalui pengalaman secara kumulatif, setiap pengajar akan kaya strategi bahkan setiap saat dapat menciptakan strategi baru yang semuanya membuat peserta didik berinteraksi dengan sumber belajar secara efektif dan efisien dalam mewujudkan visi pembelajaran. Dengan kata lain pengajar dimungkinkan menemukan strategi yang paling efektif dan efisien serta disenangi untuk mewujudkan visi pembelajaran yang di cita-citakan. Inovasi dalam strategi pembelajaran dapat terjadi setiap saat oleh setiap pengajar. Modal awalnya adalah pengetahuan dan keterampilan menggunakan berbagai metode dan media yang diperolehnya dari berbagai pelatihan yang diselenggarakan oleh pemerintah atau yayasan pengelola pendidikan.

Keberhasilan mewujudkan Visi yaitu pengajar boleh bahkan bebas seluas-luasnya untuk berkreasi selama proses pembelajaran, tidak harus mengikuti satu strategi sepanjang waktu. Pengajar dapat mengubah strategi pembelajaran dari waktu ke waktu agar ia tidak jenuh, peserta didik tidak bosan tetapi senang, dan muncul gagasan-gagasan baru dalam strategi pembelajaran. Yang tidak boleh berubah-ubah adalah visi pembelajaran saja yaitu: kompetensi yang diharapkan dicapai setelah pembelajaran, karena kompetensi itu telah dirumuskan dan ditetapkan sejak awal. Visi inilah yang menjadi panduan dan fokus bagi pengajar dan peserta didik. Visi yang semula merupakan impian bagi peserta didik, berkat kemampuan pengajar dalam meyakinkannya diikuti dengan strategi pembelajaran yang berfokus kepada visi tersebut. Impian indah itu pada akhirnya harus berwujud kompetensi yang dikuasai peserta didik.

Pengukuran keberhasilan pembelajaran yang lain dilakukan oleh pengajar secara otonom. Pengukuran secara otonom dan mandiri sudah dapat memenuhi rasa ingin tahu tentang efektivitas pembelajaran dan sekaligus sebagai bentuk pertanggungjawaban pengajar secara internal baik kepada sekolah maupun kepada peserta didik. Namun untuk memenuhi kepentingan yang lebih besar yaitu tanggung jawab terhadap masyarakat luas dan Pemerintah, pengukuran keberhasilan perlu dilakukan oleh pihak luar, tidak cukup hanya oleh pengajar yang bersangkutan. Disinilah letak perlunya ada ujian akhir nasional (UAN ) yang diselenggarakan oleh Pemerintah. Pemerintah dalam hal ini adalah pihak luar ditinjau dari pihak pengajar, siswa dan sekolah.

Melalui penyelenggaraan UAN baik peserta didik maupun pengajar diukur keberhasilan mewujudkan visi pembelajarannya secara lebih independen. Bagi Pemerintah kepentingan penyelenggaraan UAN sekaligus sebagai cara untuk memotivasi peserta didik, pengajar, dan pimpinan sekolah untuk menyelenggarakan strategi pembelajaran yang paling sesuai dengan memperhitungkan karakteristik peserta didik dan ketersediaan sumberdaya pendukung. Hasil UAN ini dapat digunakan pula sebagai dasar oleh Pemerintah atau lembaga pendidikan yang diselenggarakan masyarakat untuk mengadakan sumber daya yang ideal di setiap sekolah, seperti sarana prasarana, kesejahteraan pendidik dan tenaga kependidikan, dan peningkatan kualitas tenaga pendidik dan kependidikan. Dengan demikian penyelenggara UAN mempunyai dampak positif walaupun melalui pemberian tekanan kepada semua pihak baik guru, peserta didik, sekolah, pemerintah dan masyarakat untuk berperan dan bertanggungjawab di bidang masing-masing dalam penyelenggaraan pendidikan. Semua pihak itu harus berupaya mengelola tekanan yang acapkali berwujud stress sebaik-baiknya agar visi pembelajaran tercapai.

  1. 1. Pebelajar yang mampu menggali dan mengembangkan potensi diri

Paradigma pembelajaran yang mampu mengusik hati siswa untuk membangkitkan mode mereka hendaknya menjadi fokus pertama dalam mengembangkan fasilitas belajar. Paradigma hati tersebut akan membangkitkan sikap positif terhadap belajar, sehingga siswa siap melakukan olah pikir, rasa, dan raga dalam menjalani invent belajar.

Pendidikan bertujuan mengembangkan atau mengubah tingkah laku peserta didik. Pribadi adalah suatu sistem yang bersifat unik, terintegrasi dan terorganisasi yang meliputi semua jenis tingkah laku individu. Pada hakikatnya pribadi tidak lain daripada tingkah laku itu sendiri. Kepribadian mempunyai ciri-ciri sebagai berikut : (1) Berkembang secara berkelanjutan sepanjang hidup manusia, (2) Pola organisasi kepribadian berbeda untuk setiap orang dan bersifat unik, (3) Bersifat dinamis, terus berubah melalui cara-cara tertentu.

Peserta didik memiliki berbagai potensi yang siap untuk berkembang. Tiap individu mampu berkembang menurut pola dan caranya sendiri. Mereka dapat melakukan berbagai aktivitas dan mengadakan interaksi dengan lingkungannya. Aktivitas belajar sesungguhnya bersumber dari dalam diri peserta didik. Guru berkewajiban menyediakan lingkungan yang serasi agar aktivitas itu menuju ke arah tujuan yang diinginkan. Dalam hal ini guru bertindak sebagai organisator belajar bagi siswa yang potensial itu sehingga tercapai tujuan pembelajaran secara optimal. Pembentukkan warga negara yang baik adalah warga negara yang dapat bekerja di masyarakat. Sekolah merupakan tempat untuk mencetak calon-calon warga negara yang siap untuk memecahkan masalah-masalah sehari-hari dalam lingkungannya baik di rumah maupun masyarakat. Oleh karena itu, tujuan pembelajaran terutama di sekolah atau di lembaga pendidikan umumnya membutuhkan inovasi agar dapat berkembang sesuai dengan dinamika kehidupan.


Pemanfaatan Media dalam Pembelajaran Inovatif

Pemanfaatan media sangat diperlukan dalam pembelajarn inovatif sehingga pembelajaran tidak monoton. Menurut penelitian franzoni (2009) menunjukkan bahwa dengan adanya pengembangan integrasi taksonmi yang dikombinasikan dengan gaya-gaya mengajar, strategi pengajaran berbeda dan media elektronik akan mampu membantu proses belajar mengajar. Dan selain itu taksonomi yang telah dipaparkan adalah merupakan alat yang sangat berguna untuk memperoleh pengetahuan. Sehingga kita akan tahu strategi pembelajaran yang tepat untuk suatu matapelajaran supaya menjadi pembelajaran inovatif.

Selain itu juga menurut Zheng (2006) keefektifan penggunaan multimedia harus memperhatikan perancangan dan penggunaan multimedia itu sendiri. 2. Penggunaan multimedia harus adanya interaksi yang berarti antara kemampuan spasial dan demogarfi siswa yang mencakup umur, pendidikan, etnis, dan hobi. 3. Apabila penggunaan multimedia tersebut cepat maka akan mempercepat pula pemahaman siswa pada suatu matakuliah atau mata pelajaran. Sehingga waktu yang diperlukan dalam proses pemahaman akan relatif cepat.


Prinsip Belajar Bahasa Inggris yang Efektif

Belajar bahasa Inggris tidak sulit, tetapi juga tidak semudah membalik telapak tangan. Yang penting adalah kemauan dan ketekunan. Prinsip pembelajaran bahasa Inggris yang inovatif akan menciptakan pembelajaran yang efektif. Pakar pembelajaran Bahasa Inggris, H. Douglas Brown mengemukan lima prinsip belajar bahasa Inggris yang efektif berikut ini. ”Way of life”: Jika kita belajar bahasa Inggris di negeri tempat bahasa tersebut digunakan sebagai Bahasa Ibu, umumnya kita akan lebih cepat menguasai bahasa tersebut karena kita setiap hari dikelilingi oleh bahasa Inggris, dari bangun tidur sampai kembali ke tempat tidur. Hal ini disebabkan karena bahasa Inggris telah menjadi bagian yang tidak terpisahkan dari kehidupan kita. Demikian pula yang harus kita lakukan di Indonesia, jika kita ingin belajar bahasa Inggris dengan efektif: kita harus menjadikan bahasa Inggris sebagai bagian dari kehidupan kita. Artinya, kita harus mencoba menggunakannya setiap hari di mana mungkin. Untuk itu, kita bisa membaca, mendengar, ataupun berbicara dengan menggunakan bahasa Inggris pada setiap kesempatan yang kita temui atau yang bisa kita ciptakan. Misalnya, kita bisa menyisihkan waktu tiap hari untuk baca satu artikel bahasa Inggris dalam satu hari. Kalau satu artikel belum mampu, satu paragraf atau satu kalimat per hari pun tidak jadi masalah. Kita jadikan kalimat tersebut kalimat kita hari itu, dan kita gunakan kalimat tersebut dalam segala kesempatan yang mungkin ada dalam hari itu. Atau, kita bisa juga meluangkan waktu untuk mendengarkan segala sesuatu dalam bahasa Inggris (lagu, berita, atau kaset-kaset berisi pembicaraan dalam bahasa Inggris) untuk membiasakan telinga kita terhadap bahasa asing tersebut. Yang bisa kita lakukan antara lain adalah mendengarkan kaset-kaset (baik lagu, pidato, presentasi, atau kaset pembelajaran dalam bahasa Inggris) di mobil sepanjang perjalanan dari rumah ke kantor atau sebaliknya.

Kita juga bisa mencoba untuk menulis dalam bahasa Inggris (menulis memo, surat pendek, ataupun menulis rencana kerja yang akan kita lakukan selama seminggu atau untuk hari berikutnya). Pada prinsipnya, kelilingi hidup kita dengan bahasa Inggris yang topik-topiknya kita senangi atau kita butuhkan. ”Total commitment”: Untuk menjadikan bahasa Inggris sebagai bagian yang tidak terpisahkan dari hidup kita, kita harus memiliki komitmen untuk melibatkan bahasa Inggris dalam hidup kita secara fisik, secara mental, dan secara emosional. Secara fisik, kita bisa mencoba mendengar, membaca, menulis, dan melatih pengucapan dalam bahasa Inggris, terus-menerus dan berulang-ulang. Secara mental atau intelektual, kita bisa mencoba berpikir dalam bahasa Inggris setiap kali kita menggunakan bahasa Inggris. Misalnya, dalam memahami bahasa Inggris, jangan kata per kata, tapi arti secara keseluruhan. Kita bisa mencoba mengenali beberapa ungkapan dalam bahasa Inggris yang memiliki arti yang kurang lebih sama, misalnya: How’re you?, How’s life?, How’s business? (jangan terpaku pada satu ungkapan saja). Dan, yang paling penting adalah keterlibatan kita secara emosional dengan bahasa Inggris, yaitu kita perlu memiliki motivasi yang tinggi untuk belajar bahasa Inggris, dan kita perlu mencari ”hal-hal positif” yang bisa kita nikmati, ataupun yang bisa memberikan kita keuntungan jika kita mampu menguasai bahasa Inggris.

Hal-hal ini akan memberikan energi yang luar biasa pada kita untuk tetap bersemangat belajar bahasa Inggris. Ketiga aspek (fisik, mental, dan emosional) ini harus kita libatkan secara total dalam proses belajar kita, jika kita ingin belajar bahasa Inggris dengan lebih efektif. ”Trying”: Belajar bahasa adalah seperti belajar naik sepeda atau belajar menyetir mobil. Kita tidak bisa hanya membaca dan memahami ”buku manual” saja, tetapi kita harus mencoba menggunakannya. Pada tahap pembelajaran (tahap percobaan), sangat wajar jika kita melakukan kesalahan. Yang penting adalah mengetahui kesalahan yang kita lakukan dan memperbaikinya di kesempatan yang berikutnya. Akan lebih baik lagi jika pada saat mencoba kita mempunyai guru yang bisa memberitahu kita kesalahan yang kita lakukan. Guru tidak harus guru formal di sekolah atau kursus bahasa Inggris. Guru bisa saja sebuah kaset yang bisa kita dengarkan dan kita bandingkan dengan ucapan kita, sebuah buku pelajaran yang bisa kita baca dan cek jawabannya, atau bisa juga kenalan, ataupun kerabat yang bisa membantu kita jika kita ada masalah atau ada hal-hal yang ingin kita tanyakan. Kita tidak usah malu bertanya, dan tidak usah takut melakukan kesalahan. Dari pertanyaan yang kita ajukan dan dari kesalahan yang kita lakukan, kita bisa belajar banyak. ”Beyond class activities”. Jika kita belajar bahasa Inggris secara formal (di kelas, di kursus), biasanya jam-jam belajarnya terbatas: empat jam seminggu, enam jam seminggu ataupun delapan jam seminggu. Yang pasti jam belajar di kelas ini tentunya sangat terbatas. Agar belajar bisa lebih efektif, kita harus menciptakan kesempatan untuk ”belajar” juga di luar jam-jam belajar di kelas: berdiskusi dengan teman, mengunjungi websites yang menawarkan pembelajaran bahasa Inggris gratis, ataupun berkomunikasi dalam bahasa Inggris dengan teman-teman atau native speakers (baik melalui surat, email, ataupun percakapan langsung). Kita bisa juga mencoba membaca koran, majalah, buku-buku teks, mendengarkan radio, lagu, ataupun menonton acara-acara dan film. Agar proses belajar bisa lebih menarik, pilihlah topik-topik yang sesuai dengan minat kita, kebutuhan kita, ataupun yang berhubungan dengan latar belakang pendidikan dan pekerjaan yang kita tekuni. ”Strategies”: Jika komitmen, keberanian mencoba, dan menjadikan bahasa Inggris sebagai bagian hidup telah kita terapkan, langkah selanjutnya adalah menerapkan strategi belajar yang tepat untuk menunjang proses belajar kita. Strategi ini bisa kita kembangkan dan kita sesuaikan dengan kepribadian dan gaya belajar kita masing-masing. Ada yang lebih mudah belajar dengan menggunakan ”cue-cards”, yaitu kartu-kartu kecil yang bertuliskan ungkapan atau kata-kata yang ingin kita kuasai disertai dengan contoh kalimat yang bisa menggunakan kata-kata tersebut. Kartu ini bisa kita bawa kemana pun kita pergi. Kapan pun ada kesempatan (pada saat menunggu taksi, menunggu makan siang disajikan, ataupun pada saat berada dalam kendaran yang sedang terjebak kemacetan), kita bisa mengambil kartu ini dan membacanya serta mencoba melakukan improvisasi dengan kata-kata baru dalam struktur kalimat yang sama. Ada pula orang yang lebih mudah belajar dengan langsung berkomunikasi lisan dengan orang lain atau native speakers. Dari komunikasi ini mereka bertanya, mendengar, dan memperbaiki ucapan dan meningkatkan kosa kata mereka dengan gaya belajar kita.


Gaya Belajar Bahasa Inggris

Setiap orang memiliki gaya belajar yang berbeda. Gaya belajar ini terbentuk dari lingkungan dan kebiasaan kita sehari-hari. Jika kita mengenal gaya belajar kita, maka kita bisa memilih strategi belajar yang efektif, yang disesuaikan dengan gaya belajar kita masing-masing. ”Auditory learners”: Jika kita termasuk orang yang lebih mudah belajar dengan mendengarkan, maka kita memiliki gaya belajar ”auditory.” Jika ini gaya belajar kita, maka kita bisa memperbanyak porsi belajar dengan mendengarkan, misalnya mendengarkan kaset-kaset pelajaran bahasa Inggris, lagu-lagu favorit kita, ataupun berita, pidato dalam bahasa Inggris. Kita juga bisa mendengarkan percakapan-percakapan dalam bahasa Inggris di film-film favorit yang kita tonton di bioskop, televisi, ataupun VCD. Dengarkan ucapan, ungkapan yang digunakan, perhatikan konteks ataupun situasi di mana kata-kata ataupun ungkapan tersebut digunakan. Lakukan hal ini berulang-ulang maka kita akan bertemu dengan ungkapan serupa yang dapat kita latih secara berkala, sehingga kita bisa makin mahir mengucapkan dan menggunakannya. ”Visual learners”: Jika kita termasuk orang yang lebih mudah belajar melalui input visual (gambar, tulisan), maka kita memiliki gaya belajar ”visual.” Banyak sekali strategi yang bisa kita lakukan. Kita bisa membaca artikel-artikel dalam bahasa Inggris yang kita anggap penting, dan menarik di surat kabar, majalah, ataupun internet, untuk kemudian kita coba ceritakan kembali dengan kata-kata yang kita susun sendiri, baik dalam bentuk tulisan ataupun dalam bentuk ucapan. Kita bisa juga membaca dan mempelajari contoh surat, proposal, brosur yang sering kita temui dalam melakukan pekerjaan kita. Untuk mencoba memahami suatu konsep abstrak, kita bisa menggambarkannya dalam bentuk visual: flow chart, tabel, ataupun bentuk-bentuk visual lainnya. ”Kinesthetic learners”: Jika kita lebih suka belajar dengan melakukan sesuatu atau bergerak, maka kita bisa belajar dengan menggunakan komputer (di mana kita harus menekan tombol di keyboard, atau mouse), sehingga kita tidak cepat bosan. Kita bisa juga bergabung dengan perkumpulan-perkumpulan bahasa Inggris (English Club) yang memiliki banyak kegiatan dan permainan yang melibatkan gerakan. Yang juga bisa kita lakukan adalah belajar dengan menulis (menggerakkan tangan untuk menulis), atau mencoba memahami sebuah kata atau ungkapan dengan membayangkan gerakan yang bisa diasosiasikan dengan arti kata-kata tersebut. Setiap orang bisa memiliki lebih dari satu gaya belajar (misalnya auditory dan visual, atau visual dan kinesthetic). Apa pun gaya belajar kita, jika kita sudah mengenalnya, bisa kita cari dan terapkan strategi belajar yang disesuaikan dengan gaya belajar tersebut agar hasilnya bisa lebih efektif.


Belajar Bahasa Inggris secara On-Line

Ada banyak cara yang bisa kita lakukan untuk belajar bahasa Inggris. Salah satunya adalah dengan belajar secara on-line. Menurut penelitian (Birch, 2007) menunjukkan bahwa adanya peningkatan komunikasi dan interaksi mahasiswa dari jarak jauh (on-line) yang melibatkan pemberlajaran sosial dan kolaboratif untuk mempraktekkan kosa kata dan meningkatkan fleksibilitas linguistik bahasa Inggris. Prosedur yang digunakan adalah subyek 70 dari 161 mahasiswa. Metode dengan survey elektronik pada akhir semester 1, 2005. 55% responden adalah bahasa Inggris sebagai bahasa pertama mereka. 80% wanita 20% laki-laki. 73% responden adalah pekerja paruh waktu. 40% on shore dan 60% off shore Siswa ditanya tentang manfaat dari media online berkenaan dengan pencapaian hasil pembelajaran, seperti pemahaman isi, pengembangan jaringan pembelajaran, dan mencari saran pada item penilaian. Kemudian siswa disuruh melaporkan penilaian diskusi on-line pada mata pelajaran. Sehingga mereka melaporkan manfaat dari hasil pembelajaran dan mengembangkan keahlian-keahlian lulusan. Selain itu siswa disuruh mengindikasikan sikap mereka terhadap item penilaian online pada sejumlah dimensi. Persepsi mereka diukur dalam lima skala yang dikembangkan.

Adapun hasil dari penelitian tersebut adalah partisipasi mahasiswa sebelumnya: 62% setiap empat hari, 29% per bulan, dan 88% mahasiswa yang melaporkan akses mereka. Non peserta yang diharapkan 38% dan penggunaan waktu yang terbatas 26%. 2) Mendapatkan umpan balik: 94%, mempelajari perspektif siswa: 93%, mempelajari pengalaman siswa lainnya: 93%, interaksi dengan instruktur: 93%, social atribut: 90%, penglaman dengan lainnya: 85%, komunitas pembelajaran: 84%, dan interaksi dengan mahasiswa lainnya: 86%. 3) Persepsi hasil sosial dan kognitif, umpan balik dari instruktur 92%, dengan mahasiswa lain 76%, sharing pandangan 85%, dengan yang lainnya 80%, kesempatan bertemu 42%, dan hubungan lebih dekat 29%. 3) Kemampuan persepsi untuk meningkatkan keahlian lulusan pada kelompok yang menggunakan bahasa yang berlawanan. 5) Sikap mahasiswa terhadap diskusi secara online aktif

Sehingga dapat disimpulkan bahwa media online ini sangat efektif dan bermanfaat bagi mahasiswa yang mempunyai kesibukan dan pekerjaan selain belajar. Sehingga akan memenuhi intensitas pertemuan pengajar dan mahasiswa lainnya. Oleh karena itu media ini sebaiknya didesain dan digunakan dalam lembaga pendidikan.


Peningkatan Pembelajaran Bahasa Inggris

Kemampuan berbahasa Inggris merupakan salah satu kemampuan yang sangat menentukan dalam memperoleh lapangan kerja akhir-akhir ini. Fenomena inilah yang mendasari munculnya berbagai macam kursus Bahasa Inggris di seluruh wilayah Indonesia. Terlepas dari bagaimana sesungguhnya mutu dari kursus-kursus Bahasa Inggris yang ada di Indonesia ini, tersirat suatu keadaan yang memprihatinkan yaitu kurang baiknya mutu hasil pengajaran Bahasa Inggris di sekolah-sekolah.

Secara logika, kita dapat mengajukan argumentasi bahwa tidak mungkin kursus-kursus Bahasa Inggris sedemikian menjamurnya di Indonesia jika hasil pengajaran Bahasa Inggris di sekolah ternyata memuaskan. Jika demikian halnya, maka kursus Bahasa Inggris yang ada hanyalah yang ditujukan untuk kepentingan-kepentingan khusus seperti untuk memperoleh sertifikat TOEFL, IELTS, TOEIC dan lain-lain serta bukan yang ditujukan untuk meningkatkan kemampuan berbahasa Inggris dalam kehidupan sehari-hari. Tapi kenyataannya, mayoritas kursus Bahasa Inggris yang ada adalah yang ditujukan untuk meningkatkan kemampuan berbahasa Inggris dalam kehidupan sehari-hari, bukan untuk tujuan-tujuan lain.

Keadaan ini tentunya menimbulkan masalah. Bagi para siswa yang datang dari keluarga menengah ke atas, masalah kesulitan berbahasa Inggris ini dapat diatasi dengan mudah. Mereka tinggal menunjuk kursus Bahasa Inggris mana saja yang mereka suka dan mulai belajar. Tetapi, bagaimana halnya dengan para siswa yang berasal dari kalangan bawah? Hal ini tentunya merupakan kesulitan tersendiri karena, kadang-kadang, jangankan untuk membayar uang kursus, untuk makanpun mereka masih harus mencari uang selepas sekolah. Lalu apa dampaknya? Tentu sangat jelas. Karena perusahaan-perusahaan papan atas yang ada di negara ini selalu mencantumkan persyaratan kemampuan berbahasa Inggris sebagai salah satu syarat untuk menjadi karyawan di perusahaan tersebut, maka hilanglah kesempatan para siswa yang berasal dari kalangan bawah ini untuk dapat masuk ke wilayah kerja yang dapat memberikan penghasilan yang lebih besar. Mereka akhirnya hanya dapat bekerja di perusahaan-perusahaan kecil yang tidak mensyaratkan kemampuan berbahasa Inggris dengan gaji yang sangat jauh tingkatannya dengan perusahaan asing. Dengan demikian, taraf kehidupan mereka tentunya tidak akan jauh berbeda dengan taraf kehidupan orang tua mereka sebelumnya.

Dengan memandang alasan-alasan tersebut di atas, apakah kita sebagai guru Bahasa Inggris tidak tergerak untuk berupaya meningkatkan kemampuan siswa berbahasa Inggris melalui pelajaran Bahasa Inggris di sekolah? Sebagai kalangan yang sering disebut-sebut sebagai Pahlawan tanpa Tanda Jasa, sangatlah tidak layak jika kita ingin dianggap sebagai pahlawan tetapi tidak berupaya untuk memajukan siswa-siswa kita. Di tengah-tengah munculnya fenomena segelintir guru-guru yang mengejar materi untuk kepentingan pribadi dengan memanfaatkan muridnya, marilah kita usik kembali jiwa pengabdian kita untuk berupaya meningkatkan hasil pengajaran Bahasa Inggris di sekolah agar siswa-siswa kita yang berasal dari kalangan bawah tidak semakin terpuruk dan tidak akan kalah dari siswa-siswa lain yang berasal dari kalangan berada.

Masalah-Masalah yang Timbul dalam Pengajaran Bahasa Inggris di Sekolah Jika kita renungkan lebih dalam, adalah hal yang sangat luar biasa bahwa siswa yang telah belajar Bahasa Inggris selama minimal 6 tahun (sejak SMP) setelah lulus SMA masih tidak dapat berbicara dalam Bahasa Inggris, bahkan untuk memperkenalkan diri sendiri sekalipun. Disebut luar biasa karena jika siswa tersebut mengikuti kursus general english di suatu lembaga kursus dalam waktu yang sama, maka dapat dipastikan siswa sudah sangat mampu berbincang-bincang dalam Bahasa Inggris, bahkan mungkin sudah dapat memahami Bahasa Inggris untuk tingkatan drama, puisi, dan lain-lain. Jadi, mengapa hal ini bisa terjadi?

Masalah-masalah yang menghambat pembelajaran bahasa Inggris adalah:

  1. Jarangnya guru berbicara dengan Bahasa Inggris di dalam kelas. Hal ini dirasakan menghambat oleh para siswa karena menurut mereka, mereka jadi tidak terbiasa mendengar orang lain berbahasa Inggris.
  2. Pelajaran terlalu ditekankan pada tata bahasa (dan bukan pada percakapan), tetapi siswa jarang diberi arahan mengenai bagaimana dan apa fungsi dari unsur-unsur tata bahasa yang mereka pelajari tersebut. Berdasarkan hasil kuestioner dan hasil tes pada para siswa, terlihat bahwa rata-rata siswa menguasai pola-pola tata bahasa Inggris (misalnya struktur untuk simple present tense, dan lain-lain) tetapi, siswa tidak mengetahui kapan struktur tersebut harus digunakan dan bagaimana pengaplikasiannya dalam kehidupan sehari-hari. Ini merupakan hal yang sangat luar biasa karena bahasa Inggris, sama halnya seperti bahasa Indonesia, akan lebih bermanfaat jika dapat digunakan dan diaplikasikan meskipun secara tata bahasa siswa tidak terlalu menguasainya. Bukan berarti bahwa pembelajaran tata bahasa ini tidak penting, tetapi perlu sekali teori-teori tersebut dikaitkan dengan kehidupan sehari-hari.
  3. Kosa kata yang diajarkan tidak terlalu berguna dalam percakapan sehari-hari. Banyak siswa yang mengeluhkan bahwa kata-kata yang diberikan oleh guru Bahasa Inggris di sekolah terlalu bersifat teknis, misalnya mengenai industrialisasi, reboisasi, dan lain-lain, sementara siswa tetap saja mengalami kesulitan untuk mengartikan kata-kata yang banyak digunakan pada film, majalah, dan situs-situs internet berbahasa Inggris. Bahkan kadang-kadang, siswa sangat hapal istilah-istilah bahasa Inggris untuk bidang politik (seperti misalnya reformation, globalization, dan lain-lain) tetapi tidak dapat menyebutkan benda-benda yang biasa mereka pakai sehari-hari dalam bahasa Inggris (misalnya celengan, selokan, dan lain-lain). Beberapa kalangan siswa bahkan mengatakan bahwa dengan kosa kata seperti yang dipelajari di sekolah tidak mungkin siswa dapat memulai percakapan dengan orang asing dengan menggunakan Bahasa Inggris. Mungkin ada benarnya juga, tidak mungkin tentunya kita tiba-tiba mengajak orang yang baru kita kenal untuk mendiskusikan industrialisasi, misalnya.
  4. Materi pelajaran Bahasa Inggris di SMP dan SMU tidak berkesinambungan Para siswa menyatakan bahwa sering terjadi pengulangan materi (seperti misalnya tenses) yang telah diajarkan di SMP di tingkatan SMU, tetapi tetap saja fungsi dan pengaplikasiannya dalam kehidupan sehari-hari kurang jelas.

Jadi, sebagai seorang guru Bahasa Inggris, apa yang dapat kita lakukan untuk mengatasi masalah-masalah tersebut? Banyak tentunya, karena diakui atau tidak, gurulah yang memegang kendali dalam pengajaran. Yang jelas, kita tidak boleh hanya menyalahkan pihak pemerintah (yang membuat kurikulum) saja tetapi akan lebih baik jika kita mengintrospeksi diri sendiri dan lebih menggali lagi potensi kita untuk mencari pendekatan yang lebih berhasil dalam mengajarkan Bahasa Inggris pada siswa di sekolah.

Kesimpulan dan Saran dari keterangan di atas dapat disimpulkan bahwa masih banyak kendala yang harus dihadapi dalam upaya meningkatkan mutu hasil pengajaran bahasa Inggris di sekolah. Untuk itu, penulis memiliki beberapa saran yang mungkin dapat bermanfaat bagi para sesama pengajar bahasa Inggris di Indonesia.

  1. Selalu pertahankan kemampuan kita bercakap-cakap dalam bahasa Inggris agar kelancaran berbahasa tetap terjaga. Hal ini perlu karena dapat memotivasi murid-murid kita untuk dapat berbicara dengan lancar. Mungkin sulit sekali jika kita tidak pernah bertemu dengan orang yang juga dapat berbahasa Inggris. Oleh karena itu, penulis memiliki usul agar para guru bahasa Inggris ini memiliki semacam klub (conversation club) untuk ajang bertemu dan bertukar pikiran antar sesama guru Bahasa Inggris di wilayah yang sama. Dengan demikian, keahlian kita dalam menggunakan bahasa Inggris akan selalu tetap terjaga.
  2. Selalu menekankan fungsi dan aplikasi dari semua unsur tata bahasa yang kita terangkan kepada siswa. Pastikan bahwa siswa benar-benar mengerti kapan mereka harus menggunakan struktur tersebut.
  3. Berikan tambahan kosa kata yang akan bermanfaat untuk percakapan sehari-hari pada siswa dan perkenalkan siswa dengan majalah-majalah remaja berbahasa Inggris agar mereka menjadi gemar membaca dan memperoleh banyak tambahan kosakata dari majalah tersebut. Dengan demikian, siswa akan percaya diri jika harus bergaul dengan remaja asing yang berbahasa Inggris.
  4. Meskipun kita tidak memiliki kekuasaan untuk mengubah kurikulum, setidaknya pastikan bahwa pengulangan materi yang kita berikan merupakan pendalaman mengenai apa yang sudah dipelajari siswa dan bukan hanya mengulang tetapi tidak membuat siswa semakin bisa menerapkannya.

Menurut (Laborda, 2007) seharusnya pengajaran bahasa Inggris juga memperhatikan penggunaan teknologi dalam proses belajar dan mengajar seperti penggumaam komputer. Komputer dan pengajaran bahasa saling seiring sejalan dalam proses belajar mengajar. Komputer sebagai alat dalam kelas bahasa kedua. Komputer dan teknologi merupakan sumber bagi pengajar-pengajar di seluruh dunia yang sebagai sarana untuk mengoperasikan internet yang didalamnya bisa dibuat blog, websites, wikis, metologi pengajaran bahasa, jurnal, dan lain sebagainya. Dari sisni dapat dibuktikan bahwa adanya efek positif dalam pengintegrasian komputer dalam pengajaran bahasa. Banyak dari pengajar tertantang untuk mempelajari komputer untuk dimanfaatkan dalam proses belajar dan mengajar. Kegunaan komputer tidak hanya sebagai mengetik untuk sebuah tulisan, mengirim pesan, membrowsing internet, akan tetapi komputer bisa digunakan sebagai alat mengajar sehingga bisa memotivasi dan menginstruksikan pengajar untuk mengintegrasikan komputer dan ICT pada kelas-kelas mereka.

Teknologi dalam suatu kelas pembelajaran sangat penting berhubungan dengan ICT dalam kurikulum bahasa, tetapi dalam kenyataannya banyak pengajar yg enggan menggunakan komputer. Penggunaan komputer dalam pengajaran akan meghasilkan teks dan gambar. Komputer juga dapat digunakan untuk perancangan, pengoperasian dan pemanfaatan website sehingga digunakan untuk membuat dan mencari informasi yang dibutuhkan. Internet based projek work mengacu pada task based learning dan cooperative language learning. Hal ini juga berhubungan dengan wikis, blog, dan poadcast, online reference tools,dan e-learning.



Pembelajaran inovatif mampu menggali dan mengembangkan potensi diri yang memperhatikan visi dan pemanfaatan media. Selain itu juga pmenurut Pitrik (2002) pemilihan strategi dalam proses belajar dan mengajar sangat diperlukan karena sehingga bisa efektif. Sehingga penggunaan media sebagai pilihan untuk melakukannya merupakan salah satu pilihan. Karena media bisa mengkonstruksi pengetahuan siswa secara on-line. Media sebagai alat supaya siswa dapat berkomunikasi secara fokus. Selain itu penggabungan media teknologi komunikasi dan informasi dengan pembelajaran sosial dan personal sangat dibutuhkan dalam kegiatan proses belajar dan mengajar. Pembelajaran inovatif dengan menggunakan strategi pembelajaran serta pemanfaatan media sangat penting untuk menciptakan pembelajaran bahasa Inggris yang efektif.



Saran-saran untuk pemanfaatan artikel ini:

  1. Saran-Saran untuk Pemanfaatan Pembelajaran

            Berdasarkan hasil artikel yang dipaparkan pada kesimpulan, berikut ini diajukan beberapa saran:

  1. Artikel ini dapat digunakan oleh dosen bahasa Inggris untuk mengadakan inovasi pembelajaran dan penelitian lainnya.
  2. Seluruh lembaga pendidikan dapat mengadakan inovasi dan perbaikan pembelajaran bahasa Inggris dengan menyediakan fasilitas pembelajaran
  3. Saran-saran untuk penelitian lanjutan
  4. Dosen dapat memilih metode pembelajaran yang inovasi, yang dapat meningkatkan hasil belajar baik dengan pengembangan bahan ajar ataupun penggunaan strategi pembelajaran. Dan disarankan pula untuk diadakan pengembangan bahan ajar dan penelitian lanjutan dengan cakupan materi yang lebih luas dan metode pembelajaran yang lebih banyak serta menggunakan variabel-variabel lainnya
  5. Perlu menguji keefektifan pembelajaran yang menggunakan inovasi pembelajaran.


Daftar Pustaka

Birch, Dawn & Volkov Michael. (2007). Assessment of online reflections: engaging English Second language (ESL) students. Australian Journal of educational Technology, 23 (3), 291-306.

Franzoni, A. L., & Assar, S. (2009). Student Learning Styles Adaptation Method Based on Teaching Strategies and Electronic Media. Educational Technology & Society, 12 (4), 15-29

Pitrik, Renate M. & Holzinger, A. (2002). Student-Centred Teaching Meets New Media: Concept and Case Study. Educational Technology & Society 5 (4). 2002. ISSN 1436-4522

Zheng R. & Zhou, B. (2006). Recency Effect on Problem Solving in Interactive Multimedia Learning. Educational Technology & Society, 12 (4), 107- 118

Text Linguistics and Skopos Theory and their Application in Translation Teaching

by Sugeng Hariyanto (State Polyetchnic of Malang)


Translation industry is developing very fast with the economic globalization and digital/internet technology development. Unfortunately, the teaching of translation in universities has not adopted techniques that can response this situation. This paper  aims to propose a translation teaching technique to train the students to produce target texts demanded in the translation business. The technique is proposed by considering two influential concepts in translation theory, i.e., Text Linguistics and Skopos Theory.

Text linguistics is a branch of linguistics that deals with texts as communication systems. Text linguistics takes into account the form of a text and its setting, i.e. the way in which it is situated in an interactional, communicative context. In relation to translation, it can be said that translation is not only the business of analyzing the source text sentence by sentence. Instead, the author and the intended audience and the purpose of communication should also be considered.

Skopos theory is closely related to text-types and also emphasizes the importance of translation purposes. With these ideas as the basis, this article gives example how to apply text linguistics and skopos theory in classroom context to teach functional text translation. The translation teaching materials are selected based on the text type and difficulty levels, students are trained to do text-analysis and be made aware of the purpose of the source text is not always the same with the purpose of the target text. Prior to giving a translation practice, therefore, the teacher writes the clearest translation brief possible

Keywords: text linguistics, skopos theory, classroom teaching, translation teaching



Translation has been done since long time ago. The activities have created a new profession, i.e. translator. According to Hariyanto (2006), there are two markets for translation business, i.e. publishers (national level) and translation agents (international level). Publishers publish translated books for several reasons. At least there are three motivations: academic, empowerment and business motivations. With academic motivation, the publishers translate books to meet academic demand. For example, Resist Book translates and publishes a book on Chomsky to meet the need for literature on Chomsky in Bahasa Indonesia. They also translate and publish books to empower the readers, for example, in the fields of democratization, human rights, entrepreneurship and other fields. Finally, as the most dominating motivation, publishers translate and publish books for economic reasons. Publication of translated books is more profitable rather than publishing local works. As a comparison, local writer’s royalty is 10% to 20%; and royalty for translated book is only 6% to 7%. Hence, publishers pay less when they publish translated books than when they publish books written by local writers. This is not to mention “copy left” publishers who publish book translated book without first buying the copyright. In terms of quality, usually local writer’s quality is low; while great writers are, unfortunately, co-opted by big publishers. In terms of marketing, some translated books are already backed up with international success. This is illustrated by the high demand of the translation version of Harry Potter, the best seller novel ever.

The translation business in the international market is boosted by the globalization needs. With globalization, many manufacturers want to sell their products in other countries. They need to talk to the people of other countries in their local languages. The text types vary now. They do not only cover novels and textbooks but also websites and software interfaces.


The Practice in Translation Teaching

The great challenges of translation business illustrated above, however, are not paralleled with the fact found in educational institutions producing potential translators. Chriss, as cited by Nababan (2007:2), states that up to these days the basic approach in translation teaching seems to remain unchanged from the time of the School of Scribes in Ancient Egypt. The teacher gives out a source text to the students and then without any briefing and notes asks them to translate the text in the class or at home. Upon completing, the target text is then discussed in great depth and detail by the whole class to find out what is lack in the translation. In other words, the translation class is searching for “good” translation. A question to ask is then “good for whom?” or “on what criteria or bases”? As a consequence, such practice can hardly produce potential translator who can take the challenge of the translation business in which a target text should firstly meet the purpose of translating the source text.

This paper, therefore, aims to propose a translation teaching technique which hopefully can train the students to produce target texts demanded in the translation business. The technique is proposed by considering two influential concepts in translation theory, i.e., Text LinguisticsandSkopos Theory. Thus, in its discussion this paper explicates some concepts of Text Linguistics,Skopos Theory andits Translation-oriented text analysis and then describes the translation teaching technique proposed.



Text Linguistics

            It is mentioned in the background of this paper that texts to be translated in translation business nowadays are various. For Indonesian publishers, translators translate textbooks, popular books, novels, children books, books on Information Technology (IT) and many others; as for many international and a few national translation agents, Indonesian translators work on texts like technical manuals, websites, software interfaces, advertisements, legal documents, annual reports, and many others.

In relation to text-type, Snell-Hornby (1988) classifies translation into three general categories: literary translation, general translation and special language translation. Literary translation is the translation of literary works and Bible, and general translation is translation of newspaper, information text and advertising. Finally, special language translation covers the translation of legal, economic, medicine and science/technology texts. For all of these translation types, text linguistics is necessary. This can be seen in the following chart.

texttype-relevent criteria

Chart 1: Text Types and Relevant Criteria for Translation


What is text linguistics anyway? In general, it can be said that text linguistics is a branch of linguistics that deals with texts as communication systems. Text linguistics takes into account the form of a text and its setting, i.e. the way in which it is situated in an interactional, communicative context. Thus, author of a text and its addressee are studied in their respective social and/or institutional roles in the specific communicative context.[1] [It is worth noted that Halliday (1978 and 1994) and his followers also talk about the similar concept of analysis under the discussion of genre.] In relation to translation, it can be said that translation is not only the business of analyzing the source text sentence by sentence. Instead, the author and the intended audience and the purpose of communication should also be considered.

In relation to this, Reiss (1977/1989) has been very influential in focusing attention on the function of text – both in the context of the original and in the context of the situation that demands a translation. As a matter of fact, her approach considers the text rather than the word or the sentence as the translation unit and hence the level at which equivalence is to be sought.

She classifies texts based on discourse function into: (a) informative, (b) expressive, and (c) operative. A text is classified as an informative text if the content is the main focus. This kind of texts plainly communicates facts, information, knowledge, opinions, etc. The logical or referential dimension of language is the main aspect involved. Texts are called expressive if the focus is on creative composition and aesthetics aspects. Both the author and the message are what are foregrounded. The examples are imaginative creative literature texts. Next, an operative text is a text whose focus is the appellative aspect. Here the text appeals to the readers to act in a certain way by persuading, dissuading, requesting, and cajoling them. Usually the form of language is dialogic.

Correspondingly Reiss (1977/1989) advocates specific translation methods for each of these text types. The target text of an informative text should be in plain prose with explication where required, because the aim is to transmit the referential content of the text. The target text of an expressive text should use the identifying method, the translator having to look at it from the ST author’s standpoint. The translation of an operative text has to employ the adaptive method, where the translator tries to create the same effect on the readers, as the ST. See chart 2 for a better understanding of specific translation methods for each of these text types [adapted by Munday (2001: 74) based on Reiss (1977/1989)].

text types-transla-methods

Chart 2: Functional Characteristics of Text Types and Links to Ttranslation                     Methods

Reiss (1977/1989) also talks of evaluatory criteria, which vary according to text types. Thus while the translation of any content-oriented text has to aim at semantic equivalence, and a popular science piece will have to preserve the ST style, there is greater need to retain a metaphor in an expressive text than in an informative target text. She thinks that one could measure the adequacy of a target text (TT) by intra-linguistic criteria—like semantic, grammatical and stylistic features—and extra-linguistic criteria—like situation, subject field, time, place, receiver, sender and implications like humor, irony, emotion etc.

text types

Chart 3. Types of Text.

Reiss (1977/1989) also proposes a text typology. Chart 3 illustrates the typology. The above typology is a useful typology of texts but it is clear that texts are often not easily categorized. One single text can have several characteristics. A biography could have informative as well as appellative content. A personal letter could well be informative, expressive and appellative as can be an advertisement. The important thing here is that her approach is built on earlier ideas of rhetoric and language analysis.

SkoposTheory and Translation-Oriented Text Analysis

Skopos Theory

It is clear from the above discussion on text linguistics that the approach to translation can be closely related to the type of text to translate. Translation theory that has a big concern on text-type is skopos theory or Skopos theorie introduced by Vermeer (1989/2000), the theory that applies the notion of Skopos (a Greek word for purpose) to translation. The translation process of a text is guided by its function i.e. the use of a receiver makes of a text or the meaning that the text has for the receiver. In other words, the prime principle determining any translation process is the purpose/skopos of the overall translational action.

Briefly, Reiss and Vermeer (in Nord, 1997: 29) mention the following Skopos rule:

Each text is produced for a given purpose and should serve this purpose. The Skopos rule thus reads as follows: translate/interpret/speak/write in a way that enables your text/translation to function in the situation in which it is used and with the people who want to use it and precisely in the way they want it to function.

Skopos theory is not only closely related to text-types, but also to the importance of translation purposes which is always oriented to the target readers, especially their response. The difference in focus here is that the ST is the point of departure and the skopos refers to knowing why an ST is to be translated and what the function of the TT will be. Skopos theory focuses on the purpose of the translation, which determines the methods and strategies of translating, which are employed to produce functionally adequate result (Munday, 2001: 79).

Skopos theory which emerged in Germany (Hatim, 2001: 73) is within functionalism. Skopos idea relies on key concepts in pragmatics that is intention and action. There are two important skopos rules:

Skopos rule 1: Intention is determined by its purpose.

Skopos rule 2: purpose varies according to the text receiver.

Translator decision is governed by textual and contextual factors. One of the contextual factors is audience design which accounts for the way a target text is intended to be received. This will affect the translation strategies selected by the translator.

Target text must be produced with the given purpose in mind and that translation will function well when shaped by a particular purpose. Three major kinds of purpose are already recognized: communicative, strategic, and general purposes (Hatim, 2001: 74)

Such purposes cannot be equally important. The success or failure of a translation is ultimately decided whether it can be interpreted successfully by the targeted recipient in a manner that is consistent whit what is expected of it (Hatim, 2001: 75)

In skopos theory, the success or failure of translation is often mentioned as success or protest. Success means definitely success in transferring the text function and protest means failure. A successful translation elicits no protest from the target recipient. No protest means the message received in the manner intended and/or expected. Thus, intention is related with function. Intention is judged by the writer of source text and the function is judged by the receiver (Hatim, 2001: 75). Success of a translation is measured in terms of harmony of content and intention. Content means content of message. Intention means intention of producer or translator (Hatim, 2001: 75). There are two kinds of textual coherence: (a) intra-textual coherence and (b) intertextual coherence. Here intra-textual coherence is more important. (Hatim, 2001: 76).

As a matter of fact, text only contains information offer. Thus, a text may mean many different things to many receivers (Hatim, 2001: 76-77). Therefore, the target readers must be taken into account. Who, then, determines the skopos or purpose of translation? The skopos is determined by the initiator or commissioner of the translation, the translation brief and the type of translation.

In a translation project, there are at least three roles: initiator, commissioner, and translator. The following is an example of a case in translation field.

One of the lectures in MalangStateUniversity has read a book on linguistics. He thought that the book must be translated into Bahasa Indonesia so that Indonesians can study linguistics from the remarkable book. He, then, sent a letter to a publisher to propose translating the book. The publisher agreed, and so the lecturer started translating.

Question: Who is the initiator? – The lecturer

                 Who is the commissioner? – The Publisher

               Who determines the translation purpose? – The lecturer


The commissioner gives a translation job to a translator. The “order” is called Translation Brief (Ind. Surat Perintah Kerja). The Translation brief shall contain the function of target text, target audience, where and when target text is to be read, what is the medium (spoken, written) and motive, i.e., why translation is needed. However, publishers rarely issue such a complete translation brief.

There are several principles claimed to be skopos rules by Reiss and Vermeer (1984, in Nord, 1997). The rules are as follows:

1. A translatum or target text (TT) is determined by its skopos.

2. A TT is an offer of information in a target culture and target language (TL)

3. A TT does not initiate an offer of information in a clearly reversible way.

4. A TT must be internally coherent.

5. A TT must be coherent with source text (ST).

6. The five rules above stand in hierarchical order, with the skopos rule predominating.


Translation-oriented text analysis

Related closely to skopos approach is text analysis prior to translating. Nord (1997: 59), one of the proponents of Skopos Theory, states that the elements of text analysis area; (a) the importance of the translation commission (translation brief), (b) the role of ST analysis, and (c) the functional hierarchy of translation problems. These points are briefly reviewed as follows.

The commission should give the following information: (a) the intended text function, (b) the addresses (sender and recipient), (c) the time and place of text reception, (d) the medium (speech and writing), and (e) the motive (why the ST was written and why it is being translated). This is also discussed above in which commission is termed by translation brief.

The ST analysis is also important. In analyzing the ST, according to Nord (1991), the most important thing is the pragmatic analysis of the communicative situation involved and the model to be used for ST and the translation brief.

Which factors are to be analyzed? They can be some of the following, i.e. subject matter; content including connotation and cohesion, presuppositions which mean the real-world factors of the communicative situation presumed to be known to the participants; composition including microstructure and macrostructure; non-verbal elements, for example illustrations and italic; lexis including dialect, registers and specific terminology; and sentence structure and suprasegmental features including stress, rhythm and stylistic punctuation.

Moreover, functions are important in translation. The things that should be noticed in relation to text functions among others are the intended function, the functional elements, and the translation types determining translation style, the problems of the text can then be tackled at lower linguistic levels as in the second point above.

Below is an advertisement a commissioner wants a translator to translate and under the text is the text analysis that may be done by the translator.

PR Advertorial – Copy Sheet

Headline Studies

Wulan reveals her ultimate beauty secretSub-headAs the new ambassador of Bella Skin Care, Wulan shares how Bella Skin Care helped her maintain flawless skin.

Body Copy

Q:   What is the secret behind your skin’s radiance?

WULAN:   I have always believed in the importance of going for regular, high-quality skincare treatments to achieve great skin.   Aside from using Bella Skin Care products daily, I go for weekly treatments to soothe my skin after hours of intense makeup sessions. Because of this, I am able to keep my skin in tip-top condition – perfectly supple and visibly revitalized.

Q: How do you keep your skin so luminous despite your hectic film schedule?

WULAN: I really love Bella Skin Care’s BioLymph High Symmetry System. It works wonders by detoxifying my skin and remodeling my facial contours, especially the problem areas around my eyes such as puffy eyes and eye bags – which results after long hours of filming.

Q: Among all the treatments, what is your favourite?

WULAN: One of my favourites is Bella Skin Care’s exclusive Depilux™ Hair Free System. This treatment painlessly impedes hair growth, leading to permanently silky, hair-free skin on any part of the body with zero down time. I’ll never have to worry about wearing revealing clothes during filming. With Bella Skin Care, I know I’m always at my best!

Promo Portion

Indulge in these fabulous beauty offers:

Wulan’s Skin Perfecting Package for perfectly balanced skin

Enjoy 30 Therapies at Rp3,000,000.00*


Wulan’s Ultra Whitening Package for fairer, clearer skin

Get 30 Therapies at Rp4,800,000.00*


Wulan’s Nutritive Package for hydrated glowing skin

Get 30 Therapies at Rp4,000,000.00*


*Terms and conditions apply.


The text, under Snell-Hornby categorization, is a general text. The author is the Bella Skin Care firm. The audience is Indonesian young women, middle-up economic class, probably educated women. The purpose of the translation is to sell the product to Indonesian women. Based on Reiss’ categorization it is an operative text. As an operative text, the appropriate method of translation is adaptive method in which all means are taken to achieve equivalent effect, i.e. making Indonesian women buy the products. The target text therefore should focus on this appellative focus to elicit the desired response. The language dimension is dialogic, as evident in the source target also.

The translation of the advertisement above might be like the following.

PR Advertorial – Copy Sheet

Headline Studies

Wulan mengungkapkan rahasianya untuk cantik sempurna



Sebagai duta Bella Skin Care yang baru, Wulan mengungkapkan bagaimana Bella Skin membantu agar kulitnya tetap cantik sempurna.


Body Copy

Tanya: Apa rahasia dari kulit Anda yang indah berseri?

Wulan:   Saya selalu yakin akan pentingnya perawatan kulit yang rutin dan bermutu tinggi untuk mendapatkan kulit yang cemerlang. Selain menggunakan produk Bella Skin Care setiap hari, saya juga datang untuk mendapatkan perawatan seminggu sekali untuk menenangkan kulit saya setelah berjam-jam memakai riasan yang berat. Hasilnya, saya bisa menjaga kulit agar selalu dalam kondisi prima – lentur sempurna dan terlihat muda lagi.

Tanya: Bagaimana cara Anda merawat kulit sehingga tetap begitu bercahaya meskipun jadwal Anda main film sangat ketat?

Wulan: Saya sangat suka dengan Sistem BioLymph High Symmetry dari Bella Skin Care. Sistem ini manfaatnya sangat menakjubkan yaitu dengan mengeluarkan racun dari kulit dan membentuk kembali kontur wajah saya, terutama sekali di daerah yang bermasalah di sekitar mata seperti mata bengkak dan berkantung yang terjadi akibat bekerja berjam-jam main film.

Tanya: Di antara semua perawatan yang ada, yang mana yang paling Anda sukai?

Wulan: Salah satu perawatan dari Bella Skin Care yang paling saya sukai adalah Sistem Pembersihan Bulu Rambut Depilux™. Perawatan ini mencegah tumbuhnya bulu rambut tanpa rasa sakit, hasilnya kulit yang tetap sehalus sutra yang bebas dari bulu rambut dan ini bisa langsung terlihat hasilnya di bagian kulit mana pun pada tubuh. Saya tidak akan khawatir lagi bila harus mengenakan baju yang agak terbuka bisa sedang main film. Dengan Bella Skin Care, Saya yakin saya selalu dalam kondisi puncak!


Promo Portion

Manjakan diri Anda dengan berbagai penawaran istimewa berikut ini:

Paket Kulit Sempurna Wulan untuk kulit sehat sempurna

Nikmati 30 Terapi dengan harga Rp 3.000.000*


Paket Pemutih Ultra Wulan untuk kulit lebih putih bersih

Dapatkan 30 Terapi dengan harga Rp 4.800.000*


Paket Nutrisi Wulan untuk kulit lembut bercahaya

Dapatkan 30 Terapi dengan harga Rp 4.000.000*


*Syarat dan ketentuan berlaku



Based on the discussion on Text Linguistics and Skopos Theory above, some points can be proposed for translation teaching as follows:

  1. The translation teaching material should be selected based on the genres (text type) and difficulty levels.
  2. Students should be trained to do text-analysis (based on text linguistics and skopos theory) to make sure that the characteristics of texts are well understood and the purpose of translation is well adopted.
  3. The students should be made aware of the purpose of the source text which might be different from the purpose of the target text. Therefore, the teacher should write translation brief as clearly as possible prior to giving translation practice.

The actual teaching technique can be like the following 9-step technique:

  1. The teacher makes a selection of the material to be translated based on the text type and translation audience.
  • Text type based on discourse function: expressive, informative, operative
  • Audience: children, adults, academicians, tourists, etc.
  1. The students are assigned to do text analysis to the source text based on skopos theory. The students, assisted by their teacher, should identify the source text, in terms of the type of text, the register, the style and the readership of the text selected, etc. Please note that the readership of the source text may be the same or different from the readership of the target text as stipulated in the translation brief. In either case, the analysis of such features above benefits the translators (students).
  2. The teacher should give a clear translation brief, including the purpose of the translation and the audience of the translation.
  3. The teacher guides a discussion on the similarities/differences between the source text characteristics (based on step 2) and the characteristic of the target text of the same text type (genre).
  4. Students do “deep” reading, by placing emphasis on items where translation problems may appear. This is called “reading with translation intention,” by Gerding-Salas (2000). When doing this, students should first underline unknown terms and then they should mentally confront potential translation difficulties in the text with suitable translation procedures, by keeping in mind the text as a whole.
  5. The students then translate the text using appropriate translation strategy but keeping in mind the purpose of the translation.
  6. The students hand in the final version.
  7. The teacher makes a final revision and returns the text to the students.
  8. The students finally make comments on the lesson learned in the translation learning process. And that is a kind of self-reflection.


Some new concepts in translation theory, i.e. Text Linguistics, Skopos Theory and Translation-oriented Text Analysis are not also fruitful to the translation strategies employed by the translators but also to its methods of teaching. The translation teaching materials are selected based on the text type and difficulty levels, students are trained to do text-analysis and be made aware of the purpose of the source text is not always the same with the purpose of the target text. Prior to giving translation practice, therefore, the teacher writes the clearest translation brief possible.



Gerding-Salas, Constanza. 2000. Teaching Translation: Problems and Solutions. Translation Journal. Vol. 4. July 2000. accessed from

Hariyanto, Sugeng. 2006. The Translation Business Prospect in National and International Levels. Paper presented in Seminar on Translation, STAIN Kediri.

Hatim, Basil. 2001. Teaching and Researching Translation. Harlow: Pearson Education Limited.

Munday, Jeremy. 2001.  Introducing Translation Studies – Theories and Applications. London and New York: Routledge.

Nababan, Donald J. 2007. A Product or Process-Based Approach to Translation Training? A Glance at Translation Practice Course. A paper presented in FIT5th Asian translators Forum, Bogor, 11-12 April.

Nord, Christiane. 1991. Text Analysis in Translation: Theory, Method, and Didactic Application of a Model for Translation-Oriented Text Analysis. Amsterdam/Atlanta GA: Rodopi.

Nord, Christiane. 1997. Translation as a Purposeful Activity: Functionalist Approaches Explained. Manchester: St Jerome.

Reiss, Katharina. (1977/1989) ‘Text Types, Translation Types and Translation Assessment’, translated by A. Chesterman, in A. Chesterman (ed.)(1989).

Snell-Hornby, Marry. 1988. Translation Studies: An Integrated Approach. Amsterdam: John Benjamins B.V.

Vermeer, H. J. (1989/2000) ‘Skopos and Commission in Translational Action’ in L. Veneti (ed.) (2000).

Wikipedia. No date. Text Linguistics.



Imam Mudofir

Program Studi Teknik Elektronika Jurusan Teknik Elektro, Politeknik Negeri Malang


ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to examine (1) the differences vocabulary English speaking learning outcome taught by Student Teams Achievement Division (STAD) and the conventional learning strategies, (2) student differences vocabulary in English speaking learning outcome that have different learning modalities (visual, auditory, kinesthetic) gain different result in English speaking skill vocabulary, and (3) the interaction effect between learning strategies and learning modalities (visual, auditory, kinesthetic) towards vocabulary English speaking learning outcome.This research was conducted in the second semester of academic year 2012-2013 of Electronics Engineering Department, State Polytechnic of Malang, which consists of 44 students of experimental class and 44 students of control class. This studyis designed by using quasi-experimental research designs (quasi -experiment) with the model design is Nonequivalent Pretest – Posttest Control Group Design. Based on data analysis, the results of the study (1) there are differences in learning outcome between groups of English speaking students taught by learning strategy STAD with a group of students who are taught by conventional learning strategies (F = 68.344, p = 0.000), (2) there are differences in English speaking learning outcome between the students who have different learning modalities (F = 13.022, p = 0.000), and there is no interaction effect between learning strategy STAD and conventional and learning modalities (visual, auditory and kinesthetic) on English speaking learning outcome (F = 0.783, p = 0.499).


Keywords: Students Team Learning Achievement Division (STAD), Conventional, Learning Modality, Learning outcome, vocabulary English Speaking Performance.


ABSTRAK: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji (1) perbedaan hasil belajar vocabulary dalam berbicara Bahasa Inggris antara mahasiswa yang diajar dengan strategi pembelajaran Student Teams Achievement Division (STAD) dan strategi pembelajaran konvensional, (2) perbedaan hasil belajar Bahasa Inggris mahasiswa yang mempunyai modalitas belajar berbeda (visual, auditory, dan kinestetik) memperoleh hasil belajar vocabulary dalam berbicara Bahasa Inggris berbeda, dan (3) pengaruh interaksi antara strategi pembelajaran dan modalitas belajar (visual, auditory, kinestetik) terhadap hasil belajar vocabulary dalam berbicara Bahasa Inggris. Penelitian ini dilakukan di Program Studi Teknik Elektronika, Politeknik Negeri Malang semester II tahun akademik 2012-2013, yang terdiri dari 44 mahasiswa kelas eksperimen dan 44 mahasiswa kelas kontrol. Penelitian ini menggunakan strategi penelitian yang dirancang dengan menggunakan desain penelitian eksperimental semu (quasi experiment) dengan model rancangan yang digunakan adalah Nonequavalent Pretest-Postest Control Group Design. Hasil penelitian sebagai berikut. (1) ada perbedaan hasil belajar berbicara Bahasa Inggris antara kelompok mahasiswa yang belajar dengan strategi pembelajaran STAD (PKs) dengan kelompok mahasiswa yang belajar dengan strategi pembelajaran konvensional (PKv) (F = 13.022, p = 0.000), (2) ada perbedaan hasil belajar berbicara bahasa Inggris antara kelompok mahasiswa yang memiliki modalitas belajar berbeda (MB) (F = 68.344, p = 0.000), dan (3) tidak ada pengaruh interaksi antara strategi pembelajaran STAD dan konvensional dan modalitas belajar (visual, auditory dan kinesthetik) terhadap hasil belajar berbicara Bahasa Inggris (F = 0.783, p = 0.499).


Kata kunci: Students Team Achievement Division (STAD), konvensional,   modalitas belajar, hasil belajar, dan vocabulary dalam berbicara Bahasa Inggris


Salah satu strategi pembelajaran kooperatif tipe Student Teams Achievement Division (STAD)dapat digunakan sebagai alternatif pembelajaran yang menarik bagi mahasiswa dan bisa menanamkan aspek-aspek soft skills pada mahasiswa (Setyasari, 2009). Hasil penelitian Kendek & Ardhana (2004) menyatakan bahwa pembelajaran kooperatif tipe Students Teams Achievement Division (STAD) lebih baik hasilnya dari strategi pembelajaran konvensional. Strategi pembelajaran kooperatif tipe Students Teams Achievement Division (STAD)dapat meningkatkan pemahaman materi yang diajarkan, dapat meningkatkan hasil belajar mahasiswa, dapat meningkatkan aktivitas mahasiswa, interaksi mahasiswa, pembelajaran yang menyenangkan, bertanggungjawab, inovatif, dan kompetitif untuk belajar (Arnidah dkk., 2005). Dalam referensi dan hasil penelitian, pembelajaran yang menarik dapat meningkatkan motivasi belajar mahasiswa (Degeng, 1997). Pembelajar dituntut mampu menyelenggarakan pembelajaran yang inovatif (Ardhana dkk., 2004). Proses pembelajaran inovatif ditandai oleh pembelajaran yang tidak semata-mata memberikan pengetahuan dengan caranya sendiri sebagai perwujudan terhadap tugas dan tanggung jawab (Gredler, 1992). Adapun yang dimaksud dengan efektif adalah “how well the instruction work”, efisien adalah “the effectiveness of instruction divided by time and/or cost of the instruction”, dan menarik adalah “the extent to which the learners enjoy the instruction” (Reigeluth, 1999).

Hasil observasi peneliti menunjukkan bahwa target sasaran mata kuliah Bahasa Inggris di Politeknik Negeri Malang yang belum tercapai. Hal ini disebabkan karena penerapan strategi pembelajaran yang tidak sesuai dengan tujuan mata kuliah dan belum optimalnya praktek Bahasa Inggris dalam proses pembelajaran mata kuliah Bahasa Inggris. Hal ini disebabkan penggunaan komunitas berbahasa Inggris dan budaya kurangnya penggunaan Bahasa Inggris (Chaer & Leonie, 2006) menyatakan bahwa Bahasa Inggris dapat digunakan dan diaplikasikan meskipun secara tata bahasa mahasiswa tidak terlalu menguasainya. Selanjutnya, permasalahan lain dalam proses belajar mengajar Bahasa Inggris di Politeknik Negeri Malang yaitu dosen belum menggali bagaimana mahasiswa belajar sesuai dengan modalitas belajar yang mereka miliki. Modalitas belajar menurut DePorter dkk. (2000) dan DePorter & Hernacki (2007) yaitu visual, auditory, dan kinestetik.

Adapun target mata kuliah Bahasa Inggris di Politeknik Negeri Malang adalah mahasiswa mampu berkomunikasi lisan untuk mampu bersaing dalam dunia kerja. Hal ini di dukung bahwa dalam bursa kerja sering kita menemukan suatu lowongan pekerjaan yang mempersyaratkan penguasaan Bahasa Inggris aktif (speaking) dalam wawancara pekerjaan (Tim BAN PSTE, 2012); (Sriwahyuni, 2006) dan (Brown, 2007). Berbicara Bahasa Inggris dalam prakteknya mahasiswa membutuhkan penguasaan vocabulary yang cukup. Mahasiswa yang mempunyai vocabulary yang banyak akan mampu memproduksi kalimat yang banyak dan begitu sebaliknya.Belajar vocabularyBahasa Inggris merupakan sebuah hal yang amat penting di dalam pembelajaran. Tanpa pembendaharaan vocabulary yang cukup banyak, seseorang akan kesulitan dalam berbicara, mengerti maksud, dan menulis dalam bahasa Inggris.Dengan memperhatikanperanan penguasaan komunikasi bahasa maka dirasa perlu untuk memahami pengertian vocabulary.(Khanafi, 2015; Nurgiyanto, 1987; Setiadi;Solihin, 2013; Subekti, 2015; dan Witkin 1974).

Dari berbagai analisis masalah dalam penguasaan vocabularyberbicara Bahasa Inggris dalam proses belajar dan mengajar Bahasa Inggris di Politeknik Negeri Malang perlu adanya penerapan teori belajar yang cocok untuk pendekatan ini dengan teori pemerolehan bahasa ke dua dengan menggunakan teori strategi pembelajaran Student Teams Achievement Division (STAD) dan modalitas belajar dengan tujuan penguasaan Bahasa Inggris secara lisan (speaking) dalam menghadapi wawancara pekerjaan. Sehingga mahasiswa lulusan Politeknik Negeri Malang dapat diterima di perusahaan yang mereka idam-idamkan. Hal ini diperkuat dengan hasil penelitian Naghavi & Nakhel (2003) yang menyebutkan bahwa strategi pembelajaran Cooperative Learning dengan tipe Students Teams Achievement Division (STAD) dapat meningkatkan kemampuan berbicara Bahasa Inggris dari hasil kerjasama kelompok. Selain kooperatif mempunyai kelebihan dalam pengajaran EFL, kooperatif juga mempunyai kekurangan dalam pengajaran EFL ( Mudofir, 2006).

Penelitian ini ditekankan pada keahlian berbicara Bahasa Inggris (speaking) dikuatkan dengan hasil pra-kuesioner bahwa dari 180 mahasiswa di Program Studi Teknik Elektronika Politeknik Negeri Malang mengatakan bahwa 121 mahasiswa mengatakan bahwa pembelajaran Bahasa Inggris ditekankan pada penguasaan keahlian berbicara (speaking), 35 mahasiswa mengatakan bahwa pembelajaran Bahasa Inggris ditekankan pada penguasaan keahlian membaca (Reading), 19 mahasiswa mengatakan bahwa pembelajaran Bahasa Inggris ditekankan pada penguasaan keahlian mendengarkan (listening), dan 5 mahasiswa mengatakan bahwa pembelajaran Bahasa Inggris ditekankan pada penguasaan keahlian menulis (writing). Sehingga dapat disimpulkan bahwa mayoritas mahasiswa di Program Studi Teknik Elektronika Politeknik Negeri Malang mengatakan bahwa pembelajaran Bahasa Inggris ditekankan pada berbicara (speaking).

Selain itu juga, penelitian ini menerapkan strategi pembelajaran konvensional dalam proses belajar mengajar Bahasa Inggris di Politeknik Negeri Malang, Jurusan Teknik Elektro, Program Studi Teknik Elektronika untuk meningkatkan kemampuan berbicara Bahasa Inggris sebagai perbandingan hasil pembelajaran berbicara Bahasa Inggris untuk wawancara kerja dengan menggunakan strategi pembelajaran Student Teams Achievement Division (STAD).

Rumusan masalah penelitian ini adalah: 1) Apakah ada perbedaan hasil belajar vocabularyberbicara Bahasa Inggris antara mahasiswa yang diajar dengan strategi pembelajaran Student Teams Achievement Division (STAD) dan strategi pembelajaran konvensional? 2) Apakah mahasiswa yang mempunyai modalitas belajar berbeda (visual, auditory, kinestetik) memperoleh hasil belajar vocabularyberbicara Bahasa Inggris berbeda? 3) Apakah ada pengaruh interaksi antara strategi pembelajaran dan modalitas belajar (visual, auditory, kinestetik) mahasiswa terhadap hasil belajar vocabularyberbicara Bahasa Inggris?

Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menguji: 1) Perbedaan hasil belajar vocabulary berbicara Bahasa Inggris antara mahasiswa yang diajar dengan strategi pembelajaran Student Teams Achievement Division (STAD) dan strategi pembelajaran konvensional, 2) Perbedaan mahasiswa yang mempunyai modalitas belajar berbeda (visual, auditory, kinestetik) memperoleh hasil belajar vocabularyberbicara Bahasa Inggris berbeda, 3) Pengaruh interaksi antara strategi pembelajaran dan modalitas belajar (visual, auditory, kinestetik) mahasiswa terhadap hasil belajar vocabularyberbicara Bahasa Inggris.


Kajian Kepustakaan

Pembelajaran kooperatif merupakan suatu pembelajaran kelompok dengan jumlah peserta didik 2-5 orang dengan gagasan untuk saling memotivasi antara anggotanya untuk saling membantu agar tercapainya suatu tujuan pembelajaran yang maksimal. Suprijono, Agus (2010:54) “Model pembelajaran kooperatif adalah konsep yang lebih luas meliputi semua jenis kerja kelompok termasuk bentuk-bentuk yang dipimpin oleh pengajar atau diarahkan oleh pengajar”. Slavin (1995) “In cooperative learning methods, students work together in four member teams to master material initially presented by the teacher”. Ini berarti bahwa cooperative learning atau pembelajaran kooperatif adalah suatu model pembelajaran dimana sistem belajar dan bekerja kelompok-kelompok kecil berjumlah 4-5 orang secara kolaboratif sehingga dapat merangsang peserta didik lebih bergairah dalam belajar. Dari beberapa pengertian menurut para ahli dapat disimpulkan bahwa pembelajaran kooperatif adalah cara belajar dalam bentuk kelompok-kelompok kecil yang saling bekerjasama dan diarahkan oleh guru untuk mencapai tujuan pembelajaran yang diharapkan”.

Selain menggunakan strategi pembelajaran cooperative learning, pengajar menggali modalitas belajar mahasiswa untuk meningkatkan vocabulary bahasa Inggris mahasiswa. Gaya belajar atau modalitas belajar adalah cara seseorang menginterpretasi dunia sekitarnya melalui penginderaan. Setiap anak punya penginderaan yang paling domininan. Indera yang dominan inilah yang menjadi andalan seseorang untuk memproses sebuah informasi. Penginderaan yang dimaksud adalah Visual. Seseorang dengan gaya belajar visual, belajar menggunakan indera penglihatan. Anak dengan gaya belajar ini sangat menyukai gambar, ilustrasi, grafik, kartu dan warna. Kelak saat si kecil sudah dapat menulis, dia akan belajar dengan cara membuat catatan-catatan. Atau, dia akan sering memejamkan mata untuk membuat gambar dalam benaknya. Auditory adalah gaya belajar auditif, belajar dengan menggunakan indera pendengaran. Dia senang bicara sendiri, mengulang apa yang dikatakan orang lain sebagai sumber informasi. Ketika mendengarkan orang lain berbicara, anak dengan gaya belajar ini akan menirukannya untuk memproses informasi. Semakin keras suara yang dikeluarkannya, semakin mempermudah dia untuk mengingat. Kalau Anda sering mendapati anak bercerita dengan cara melagukannya alias nge-rap, pertanda dia pemilik gaya belajar auditif. Kinestetik adalah gaya belajar dengan menggunakan indera peraba, yaitu  menyentuh. Anak dengan gaya belajar ini adalah pembelajar yang aktif dan butuh banyak bergerak. Dia akan menggunakan tangannya untuk membuat apa saja. Anak yang punya gaya belajar ini mudah terganggu konsentrasinya. Karena itu, anak dengan gaya belajar ini kelak harus duduk di barisan paling depan di kelasnya. (DePorter dkk, 2000 dan DePorter & Hernacki, 2007).

Penggunaan strategi pembelajaran dan modalitas belajar digunakan untuk meningkatkan vocabulary bahasa Inggris mahasiswa. Vocabulary sangat penting dalam pembelajaran bahasa, sehingga pengajar harus menggunakan metode yang baik dalam mengajar vocabulary. Hal ini bertujuan untuk meningkatkan vocabulary yang dikuasai mahasiswa. Menurut Webster (1992) vocabulary merupakan elemen yang sangat penting dari bahasa.

Vocabulary adalah dasar yang harus dipelajari terlebih dahulu oleh peserta didik. Ini akan membantu pelajar dalam belajar bahasa Inggris dengan baik. Oleh karena itu dapat dikatakan vocabulary adalah komponen inti dari kemampuan bahasa bagi peserta didik untuk memproduksi kalimat dalam berbicara, mendengarkan, membaca dan menulis. 1) Vocabulary dalam membaca adalah seseorang dapat mengenali kata-kata ketika membaca, 2) vocabulary dalam mendengarkan adalah seseorang dapat mengenali kata-kata dalam mendengarkan pelafalan bahasa, 3) vocabulary dalam menulis adalah seseorang dapat menggunakan vocabulary secara tertulis, 4) vocabulary dalam berbicara adalah seseorang dapat menggunakan vocabulary dalam berbagai bentuk berbicara. Dari kegunaan vocabulary dalam empat keahlian bahasa maka vocabulary sangat penting dalam pembelajaran bahasa.


Metode Penelitian

Rancangan Penelitian

Penelitian ini dirancang dengan menggunakan desain penelitian eksperimental semu (quasi experiment), alasan digunakannya eksperimen ini karena dalam penelitian bidang pendidikan (ilmu sosial) sangat sulit melakukan keketatan kontrol seperti pada penelitian bidang eksakta. Desain quasi experimental berupaya untuk mengungkapkan hubungan sebab akibat dengan cara melibatkan kelompok kontrol di samping kelompok eksperimen, namun pemilahan kedua kelompok dilakukan dengan menggunakan dengan purposive random sampling dengan penentuan sampel dengan 1) mengambil responden yang pada saat ini sedang menempuh mata kuliah Bahasa Inggris, 2) mengambil responden yang pada saat ini sedang menempuh mata kuliah Bahasa Inggris di semester dua.


Rancangan faktorial penelitian ini adalah (3 x 2) (Tuckman, 1999).

Tabel 1. Rancangan Penelitian

Visual Y111, Y112,…Y11n. Y121, Y122,… Y12n
Auditorial Y211,Y212,… Y21n Y221, Y222,… Y22n
Kinestetik Y311,Y312,… Y31n Y321, Y322,… Y32n



Y111, Y112,…Y11n. = Kelompok mahasiswa yang memiliki modalitas belajar visual diberikan perlakuan dengan strategi pembelajaran Student Teams Achievement Division (STAD)

Y121, Y122,… Y12n = Kelompok mahasiswa yang memiliki modalitas belajar visual diberikan perlakuan dengan strategi pembelajaran konvensional

Y211,Y212,… Y21n= Kelompok mahasiswa yang memiliki modalitas belajar auditory diberikan perlakuan dengan strategi pembelajaran Student Teams Achievement Division (STAD)

Y221, Y222,… Y22n= Kelompok mahasiswa yang memiliki modalitas belajar auditory diberikan perlakuan dengan strategi pembelajaran konvensional

Y311,Y312,… Y31n= Kelompok mahasiswa yang memiliki modalitas belajar auditory diberikan perlakuan dengan strategi pembelajaran Student Teams Achievement Division (STAD)

Y321, Y322,… Y32n= Kelompok mahasiswa yang memiliki modalitas belajar auditory diberikan perlakuan dengan strategi pembelajaran konvensional


Subjek Penelitian

Subjek penelitian ini adalah di POLINEMA (Politeknik Negeri Malang). Secara populasi penelitian ini dilakukan di Progam Studi Teknik Elektronika, Jurusan Teknik Elektro, Politeknik Negeri Malang untuk angkatan 2013 sebanyak 4 kelas untuk D3 dan 2 kelas untuk D4, dengan jumlah mahasiswa 150 mahasiswa. Penentuan kelompok mahasiswa dengan mengadakan tes vocabulary berbicara dengan cara1) mahasiswa di wawancarai dengan menggunakan tes wawancara pekerjaan “job interview”, 2) dosen menilai penampilan tes wawancara pekerjaan “job interview” mahasiswa pada komponen vocabulary, 3) dosen mengelompokkan mulai nilai yang tetinggi sampai terendah (total skor 0 – 100), 4) dosen membentuk beberapa kelompok dengan 4 anggota setiap kelompoknya secara acak dengan mencampur antara nilai tertinggi dan terendah.


Variabel Penelitian

Variabel dalam penelitian ini adalah 1) Variabel bebas: Strategi pembelajaran yang terdiri dari Student Teams Achievement Division (STAD) dan Konvensional, 2) Variabel moderator: Modalitas belajar (visual, auditory, dan kinestetik) yang diukur dengan menggunakan instrument yang dikembangkan dari DePorter dan Hernacki (2007), 3) Variabel terikat: Hasil belajar vocabularyberbicara Bahasa Inggris.Hasil belajar dalam penelitian ini diperoleh dengan menggunakan tes vocabularyberbicara (speaking) untuk wawancara kerja setelah pelaksanaan strategi pembelajaran Student Teams Achievement Division (STAD).

Dari empat kelas yang terpilih sebagai subyek penelitian selanjutnya diberikan tes modalitas belajar. Pada pertemuan berikutnya diberikan pre-test untuk mengetahui kemampuan awal mahasiswa. Subyek yang telah memiliki kondisi kemampuan belajar Bahasa Inggris yang diasumsikan sama atau homogen diberikan perlakuan strategi pembelajaran Student Teams Achievement Division (STAD) yang dialokasikan waktu 8 kali pertemuan (1 kali pertemuan adalah 2 jam dengan alokasi waktu 1 jam perkuliahan adalah 45 menit).


Prosedur Penelitian

Tahap persiapan ekperimen: 1) melakukan studi pendahuluan, 2) Menentukan waktu pelaksanaan eksperimen, 3) mempersiapkan semua instrumen penelitian, 3) mengadakan diskusi dengan dosen pengampu mata kuliah Bahasa   Inggris, 4) menyiapkan perangkat pembelajaran: a) Langkah-Langkah Umum Strategi Pembelajaran STAD dan Konvensional b) Skenario Strategi Pembelajaran STAD dan Konvensional, 3) RPP Strategi Pembelajaran STAD, 4) RPP Strategi Pembelajaran Konvensional, 5) Bahan Ajar, 6) Kisi-Kisi Ulangan Harian, 7) Kisi- Kisi Soal Pre-test dan Post-test, 8) Instrumen Evaluasi VocabularyBerbicara Bahasa Inggris, 9) Instrumen Modalitas Belajar.

Tahap pelaksanaan eksperimen: 1) memberikan tes modalitas belajar mahasiswa, 2) memberikan pre-test vocabulary berbicara untuk wawancara kerja, 3) Melaksanakan perlakuan pembelajaran (eksperimen) menggunakan Student Teams Achievement Division (STAD) dan Konvensional, 4) melakukan evaluasi (post-test) untuk strategi pembelajaran Student Teams Achievement Division (STAD) dan Konvensional

Tahap pasca eksperimen: Langkah terakhir setelah memberikan perlakuan, maka kedua kelompok diberi tes akhir atau post-test vocabularyberbicara untuk wawancara kerja, bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh perlakuan pada kelompok eksperimen dan kelompok kontrol terhadap hasil belajar mahasiswa dalam vocabularyberbicara untuk wawancara kerja, serta interaksi pengaruh antara variabel bebas dan variabel moderator terhadap hasil belajar vocabularyberbicara Bahasa Inggris untuk wawancara kerja. Prosedur pelaksanaan penelitian eksperimen tergambar pada bagan 1 sebagai berikut:


Bagan Prosedur Pelaksanaan Penelitian Eksperimen


PKs     : Pembelajaran STAD

PKv     : Pembelajaran Konvensional

MB      : Modalitas Belajar

MBv    : Modalitas Belajar Visual

MBa    : Modalitas Belajar Auditory

MBk    : Modalitas Belajar Kinestetik

Pada bagan 1 di atas dapat dijelaskan bahwa penelitian ini berlangsung selama 8 kali pertemuan, baik kelompok pembelajaran STAD maupun pada kelompok pembelajaran konvensional. Rincian pelaksanaan pembelajaran adalah: Pertemuan 1 (Penentuan kelas yang menjadi kelompok PKs dan                                   kelompok PKv), pertemuan 2 (pelaksanaan pengumpulan data siswa yang memiliki modalitas belajar) pertemuan 3 – 6 (Pre-test), pertemuan 7 – 14 (pelaksanaan eksperimen dilakukan pada kelompok PKs PKv), pertemuan 15 (peer Assessment, persiapan post-test), pertemuan 16 – 19 (Post-test)


Teknik Pengumpulan Data

Pengumpulan data penelitian ini dilakukan dengan melalui langkah-langkah sebagai berikut: 1) memberikan kuesioner modalitas belajar untuk mengetahui modalitas belajar mahasiswaserta pre-test pada semua kelas subyek untuk mengetahui kemampuan awal pemahaman bahasa Inggris, 2) melaksanakan intervensi pembelajaran (eksperimen), dan 3) memberikan post-test pada semua mahasiswa pada semua kelas subyek penelitian untuk mengetahui hasil belajar setelah eksperimen.


Teknik Analisis Data

Sesuai dengan jenis variabel penelitian ini teknik analisis data yang digunakan adalah Analisis of Varians (ANOVA) dua jalur interaksi. Hal ini sejalan dengan pendapat Tuckman (1999) analisis varians memberikan peneliti untuk mempelajari pengaruh secara simultan dari beberapa variabel bebas namun penerapannya memiliki ciri khusus (dua, tiga atau empat). Penggunaan desain penelitian faktorial di dalamnya terdapat variabel bebas, variabel moderator dan variabel terikat. Variabel bebas dan variabel moderator disebut faktor. Teknik analisis data pada penelitian ini dilakukan dengan statistik deskriptif dan inferensial. Untuk pengujian hipotesis penelitian dilakukan melalui dua tahap, yaitu tahap uji asumsi analisis dan tahap uji hipotesis. Keputusan yang digunakan untuk menyatakan adanya pengaruh variabel bebas terhadap variabel terikat di dasarkan pada taraf kesalahan 5% atau taraf keyakinan 95%.

Hasil Analisis

Tabel 4.4   Hasil Perbandingan antara Nilai Hasil Belajar Siswa PostTestdengan Menggunakan Metode Konvensional

Pre-test Post-test
Skor Nilai Skor Nilai
Vocabulary 2.22 22.20 2.47 24.68


Hasil belajar vocabulary berbicara Bahasa Inggris mahasiswa Politeknik Negeri Malang Semester II Program Studi Teknik Elektronika yang menggunakan metode pembelajaran konvensional sebelum dilakukan bimbingan belajar Bahasa Inggris dengan menggunakan metode pembelajaran metode konvensional diperoleh rata-rata nilai yang cukup baik yaitu sebesar 22.20. Namun setelah dilakukan bimbingan belajar Bahasa Inggris menggunakan metode pembelajaran metode konvensional diperoleh rata-rata nilai yang lebih tinggi daripada saat sebelumnya, yaitu sebesar 24.68. Hal ini dapat menjadi indikasi bahwa bimbingan belajar Bahasa Inggris dengan menggunakan metode pembelajaran konvensional dapat meningkatkan nilai hasil belajar vocabulary berbicara Bahasa Inggris mahasiswa Politeknik Negeri Malang Semester II Program Studi Teknik Elektronika.

Tabel 4.8   Hasil Perbandingan antara Nilai Hasil Belajar Siswa PostTestdengan Menggunakan Metode STAD


Pre-test Post-test
Skor Nilai Skor Nilai
Vocabulary 2.41 24.11 2.93 29.32


Hasil belajar vocabulary berbicara Bahasa Inggris mahasiswa Politeknik Negeri Malang Semester II Program Studi Teknik Elektronika menggunakan metode pembelajaran STAD sebelum dilakukan bimbingan belajar Bahasa Inggris menggunakan metode pembelajaran metode STAD diperoleh rata-rata nilai yang cukup baik yaitu sebesar 24.11. Namun setelah dilakukan bimbingan belajar Bahasa Inggris menggunakan metode pembelajaran metode STAD diperoleh rata-rata nilai yang lebih tinggi daripada saat sebelumnya, yaitu sebesar 29.32. Hal ini dapat menjadi indikasi bahwa bimbingan belajar Bahasa Inggris menggunakan metode pembelajaran metode STAD dapat meningkatkan nilai hasil belajar vocabulary berbicara Bahasa Inggris mahasiswa Politeknik Negeri Malang Semester II Program Studi Teknik Elektronika.

Tabel 4.18   Tabel Hasil Uji ANOVA 2 Jalur dengan Interaksi

Tests of Between-Subjects Effects
Dependent Variable:Score
Source Type III Sum of Squares df Mean Square F
Corrected Model 6276.708a 5 1255.342 29.181 .000
Intercept 102346.913 1 102346.913 2379.089 .000
MB 560.179 1 560.179 13.022 .000
SP 5880.253 2 2940.126 68.344 .000
MB * SP 67.389 2 33.695 .783 .459
Error 7313.292 170 43.019
Total 119234.000 176
Corrected Total 13590.000 175
a. R Squared = .462 (Adjusted R Squared = .446)


Hipotesis 1: Berdasarkan hasil ANOVA di atas dapat diketahui bahwa untuk perbandingan rata-rata nilai skor hasil belajar vocabulary berbicara Bahasa Inggris mahasiswa berdasarkan metode pembelajaran menunjukkan adanya perbedaan yang bermakna (signifikan) pada rata-rata nilai skor hasil belajar vocabulary berbicara Bahasa Inggris mahasiswa antara metode pembelajaran konvensional dan metode pembelajaranStudent Teams Achievement Division(STAD). Hasil uji pembandingan berganda (shceffe Test) pada metode pembelajaran konvensional berbeda signifikan dengan rata-rata nilai skor hasil belajar vocabulary berbicara Bahasa Inggris mahasiswa (posttest) pada kelompok yang diajarkan dengan metode pembelajaranStudent Teams Achievement Division(STAD) (p=0.000<0.05). Perbedaan tersebut disebabkan rata-rata nilai skor hasil belajar vocabulary berbicara Bahasa inggris pada kelompok yang menggunakan metode pembelajaran konvensional tersebut sebesar 24.682 mempunyai selisih yang cukup jauh dengan rata-rata nilai skor hasil belajar vocabulary berbicara Bahasa inggris pada kelompok yang menggunakan metode pembelajaran Student Teams Achievement Division (STAD) dengan rata-rata nilai 29.318.

Hipotesis 2: Untuk perbandingan rata-rata nilai skor hasil belajar vocabulary berbicara Bahasa Inggris mahasiswa berdasarkan modalitas belajar dari tabel ANOVA di atas menunjukkan adanya perbedaan yang bermakna (signifikan) pada rata-rata nilai skor hasil belajar Bahasa Inggris mahasiswa antara yang mempunyai Modalitas Belajar secara kinestetik, auditory, dan visual. Hasil uji pembandingan berganda (multiple comparisons) dengan uji Scheffe (Scheffe Test) sebagai salah satu uji pembandingan berganda yang mempunyai sensitivitas cukup tinggi dalam menguji adanya perbedaan antar perlakuan dalam multiple comparisons. Dengan metode ini akan dilakukan pembandingan berganda terhadap rata-rata nilai skor hasil belajar vocabulary berbicara Bahasa Inggris mahasiswa (posttest) antara setiap modalitas belajar. Hasil uji pembandingan berganda (Scheffe Test) antara rata-rata nilai skor hasil belajar vocabulary berbicara Bahasa Inggris mahasiswa dengan modalitas belajarkinestetik adalah 28.90, auditoy adalah 18.14, dan visual 33.52, sehingga dapat dikatakan bahwa nilai skor vocabulary berbicaraBahasa Inggris mahasiswa dengan modalitas belajar mahasiswa berbedahasilnya adalah berbeda signifikan (p=0.00). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa modalitas belajar secara visual, auditory, dan visual memberikan pengaruh yang berbeda terhadap hasil belajar vocabulary berbicaraBahasa Inggris mahasiswa Politeknik Negeri Malang Semester II. Modalitas belajar secara visual memberikan rata-rata hasil belajar vocabulary berbicara Bahasa Inggris yang paling besar dibandingkan modalitas belajar secara auditory dan kinestetik, sedangkan modalitas belajar secara auditory memberikan rata-rata hasil yang lebih rendah dibandingkan dengan secara visual maupun kinestetik.

Hipotesis 3: Hasil perbandingan rata-rata nilai skor hasil belajar vocabulary berbicara Bahasa Inggris mahasiswa berdasarkan interaksi antara kelompok perlakuan metode pembelajaran (konvensional dan STAD), serta modalitas belajar (kinestetik, auditory, dan visual) dari hasil ANOVA menunjukkan adanya perbedaan yang bermakna (signifikan) pada rata-rata nilai skor hasil belajar vocabulary berbicara Bahasa Inggris mahasiswa berdasarkan interaksi antara kelompok perlakuan metode pembelajaran (konvensional dan STAD), serta modalitas belajar (kinestetik, auditory, dan visual).

Berdasarkan paparan di atas dapat diketahui bahwa dalam penelitian ini: 1) terdapat perbedaan yang bermakna (signifikan) pada rata-rata nilai skor hasil belajar vocabulary berbicara Bahasa Inggris mahasiswa antara metode pembelajaran konvensional dan metode pembelajaran STAD, 2) terdapat perbedaan yang bermakna (signifikan) pada rata-rata nilai skor hasil belajar vocabulary berbicara Bahasa Inggris mahasiswa antara yang mempunyai modalitas belajar secara kinestetik, auditory, dan visual, 3) tidak terdapat perbedaan yang bermakna (signifikan) pada rata-rata nilai skor hasil belajar vocabulary berbicara Bahasa Inggris mahasiswa berdasarkan interaksi antara kelompok perlakuan metode pembelajaran (konvensional dan STAD), serta modalitas belajar (kinestetik, auditory, dan Visual).



Strategi Student Teams Achievement Division (STAD) berhasil memberikan pembelajaran yang membuat mahasiswa Politeknik Negeri Malang Semester II aktif dan berminat untuk mengikuti pembelajaran tersebut dibandingkan strategi pembelajaran konvensional.Slavin (1995) mengemukakan bahwa metode kooperatif Student Teams Achievement Division (STAD) berpengaruh positif terhadap hasil belajar ilmu-ilmu eksakta, sosial dan bahasa.

Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa modalitas belajar secara visual, auditory, dan kinestetik memberikan pengaruh yang berbeda terhadap hasil belajar vocabulary berbicaraBahasa Inggris mahasiswa Politeknik Negeri Malang Semester II. Modalitas belajar secara visual memberikan rata-rata hasil belajar vocabulary berbicaraBahasa Inggris yang paling besar dibandingkan modalitas belajar secara auditory dan kinestetik, sedangkan modalitas belajar secara auditory memberikan rata-rata hasil yang lebih rendah dibandingkan dengan secara visual maupun kinestetik. Vermunt & Vermetten (2004) mengatakan bahwa siswa yang memiliki dan merefleksikan modalitas belajar (learning style) akan berprestasi lebih baik daripada tidak memperhatikan modalitas belajar.

Interaksi antara strategi pembelajaran dan modalitas belajar memberikan pengaruh yang berbeda-beda terhadap hasil belajar vocabulary berbicara Bahasa Inggris mahasiswa Politeknik Negeri Malang Semester II Program Studi Teknik Elektronika. Hal ini dibuktikan oleh hasil penelitian yang menyatakan bahwa Strategi pembelajaran Student Teams Achievement Division (STAD) secara visual menghasilkan nilai belajar vocabulary berbicaraBahasa Inggris mahasiswa Politeknik Negeri Malang Semester II Program Studi Teknik Elektronika yang paling tinggi dan berbeda dengan interaksi strategi belajar dengan modalitas belajar lainnya. Sedangkan strategi belajar konvensional secara auditory dan kinestetik, serta STAD secara auditory menghasilkan nilai belajar vocabulary berbicaraBahasa Inggris mahasiswa Politeknik Negeri Malang Semester II Program Studi Teknik Elektronika yang sama dan paling rendah dibandingkan interaksi lainnya.



Simpulan dari penelitian ini, sebagai berikut:

  1. Pembelajaran vocabulary berbicaraBahasa Inggris yang dilaksanakan oleh dosen kepada mahasiswa Politeknik Negeri Malang Semester II Program Studi Teknik Elektronika dilakukan dengan strategi dasar (konvensional) dan strategi Student Teams Achievement Division (STAD) menghasilkan pengaruh yang berbeda terhadap hasil belajar mahasiswa tersebut, implementasi strategi Student Teams Achievement Division (STAD) memberikan nilai yang lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan hasil pembelajaran konvensional.
  2. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa modalitas belajar secara visual, auditory, dan visual memberikan pengaruh yang berbeda terhadap hasil belajar vocabulary berbicara bahasa inggris mahasiswa Politeknik Negeri Malang Semester II. Modalitas belajar secara visual memberikan rata-rata hasil belajar vocabulary berbicara Bahasa Inggris yang paling besar dibandingkan modalitas belajar secara auditory dan kinestetik, sedangkan modalitas belajar secara auditory memberikan rata-rata hasil yang lebih rendah dibandingkan dengan secara visual maupun kinestetik.
  3. Penerapan strategi pembelajaran konvensional maupun Student Teams Achievement Division (STAD) dan modalitas belajar diidentifikasi memiliki pengaruh dalam proses pembelajaran vocabulary berbicaraBahasa Inggris. Dengan demikian dapat dinyatakan bahwa terdapat interaksi antara strategi pembelajaran dan modalitas belajar mahasiswa terhadap hasil belajar vocabulary berbicara Bahasa Inggris. Interaksi antara strategi pembelajaran dan modalitas belajar memberikan pengaruh yang berbeda-beda terhadap hasil belajar mahasiswa Politeknik Negeri Malang Semester II Program Studi Teknik Elektronika. Strategi pembelajaran Student Teams Achievement Division (STAD) secara visual menghasilkan rata-rata hasil belajar vocabulary berbicaraBahasa Inggris yang paling tinggi, sedangkan strategi pembelajaran konvensional secara auditory menghasilkan rata-rata belajar vocabulary berbicaraBahasa Inggris yang paling rendah dibandingkan dengan interaksi lainnya


Saran-saran untuk pemanfaatan hasil penelitian dan penelitian lanjutan:

  1. Saran-Saran untuk Pemanfaatan Pembelajaran

            Berdasarkan hasil penelitian yang dipaparkan pada kesimpulan, berikut ini diajukan beberapa saran kepada:

  1. Dosen bahasa Inggris Politeknik Negeri Malang dapat menggunakan Student Teams Achievement Division(STAD) dapat dilakukan dengan baik dengan memperhatikan modalitas belajar mahasiswa
  2. Ketua Program Studi Teknik Elektronika mengadakan perbaikan pembelajaran bahasa Inggris dengan menyediakan fasilitas pembelajaran untuk kelancaran pembelajaran kooperatif STAD dan meningkatkan mutu, pengetahuan dan ketrampilan dosen dalam mengelola pembelajaran.
  3. Temuan penelitian ini dapat memberi masukan dan pertimbangan dalam perbaikan desain pembelajaran, pengorganisasian pembelajaran, pengelolaan pembelajaran dan penyampaian materi pembelajaran

2. Saran-saran untuk penelitian lanjutan

  1. Dosen dapat memilih metode pembelajaran yang tepat, yang dapat meningkatkan hasil belajar. Dan disarankan pula untuk diadakan penelitian lanjutan dengan cakupan materi yang lebih luas dan metode pembelajaran yang lebih banyak.

b. Variabel-variabel moderator (selain modalitas belajar) yang diduga juga berpengaruh terhadap hasil belajar vocabulary berbicara Bahasa Inggris, disarankan untuk diadakan penelitian lebih lanjut dan dikombinasikan dengan metode pembelajaran kooperatif.

c. Perlu menguji keefektifan pembelajaran kooperatif model STAD dalam pengajaran bahasa Inggris Program Studi Teknik Elektronika, Jurusan Teknik Elektro, Politeknik Negeri Malang dengan menggunakan angket pada mahasiswa terhadap keterlaksanaan pembelajaran.




Daftar Rujukan

Arnidah, Daud, A., Nurstan, & Rahmaniar. 2005. Pengembangan Perangkat Pembelajaran Mata Diklat Matematika untuk Model Pembelajaran Kooperatif Tipe STAD (Student Teams Achievement Division) Siswa di SMKN 1 Makassar. Jurnal Ilmu Pendidikan, 2 (3): 282-299


Brown, H. D. 2007. Principles of Language Learning and Teaching. Engle Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall


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Lusia Eni Puspandari

Surabaya Shipbuilding Institute of Polytechnic


Abstract This paper is directed to find out an alternative way for students of Elementary School in understanding motion prepositions. The result of this study is in form of courseware which is directed to overcome learners’ difficulties in understanding and using motion prepositions. This study is used as an adjunct to English learning processes and this courseware can be accessed every time in indefinite pace as self-learning media based on the learners’ own ability.

In developing attractive learning media, the concept of independent learning and instructional animation are the basis of the study. It is supported by some components namely: attention-gaining material, pretest/posttest, instructional objectives, tutorial, content, exercises, and feedback.

The result of the try out shows that most of the students become more understand the uses and the differences of the motion prepositions in sentences.


Key words: Motion Prepositions, E-Learning Animated Media, Attention-gaining material, Instructional Objectives, Courseware



In some developing countries, English is considered as second language or as foreign language. It is the principal language chosen for international business and for communication between countries all over the world. English is also used in all sides of human activities in that country, from science, education, entertainment, politics and others. All sides of human life are related to English as the International Language.

Indonesia, as one of developing country, considered English as a language that should be known by all people in the early ages. Previously, English was originally first taught in high schools, and it has been taught in primary or even pre-primary schools in the last decade. In addition, parents have introduced English to their children in their early ages by given them simple instruction or simple vocabulary. Some of them also send their children to language institutions to learn English at an age earlier then ever before. It is supported by Indonesia’s Minister of Education in his statement that English is intended to provide students an opportunity to gain science and at the same time develop their knowledge of English in anticipation of the environmental condition which has been influenced by the development of science, technology, arts, and cultures such that the knowledge of English is a demand.

The fact that English has been taught to the earlier ages created the English teachers to be more creative. A great deal of effort has been trying to make English teaching and learning interesting, especially for children. So many books are written in attractive way in order to attract learners’ motivation and attention to learn English. Firstly, the existence of children English books has accommodated the learners’ need of English but together with the advance of technology, they can not accomplish the learners’ needs. The role of teachers in creating good environment to learn English, and the teachers’ creativity become the most important thing for children in learning English.

Beside the creativity and the attractive books used in English learning, the used of technology is also has an important role in achieving successful English learning. Computer as a means of Information Technology development has proven that it holds a significant role in teaching learning process, especially in language learning.. Many language institutions and schools use computers as a supporting means in language teaching and in learning process. It is supported by the fact that computer can be used as a medium of real communication in the target language, including composing and exchanging messages with other students in the classroom or around the world (Oxford, 1990, p.79). The abundant research, studies, and class experiments in the use of information technology in language learning reported that technology brought more advantages and development than disadvantages.

The technology that has been used mostly by educators and trainers is internet which is created on the concept of web. Using internet as learning resources has some advantages such as: (1) it can be accessed by many people in the same time in unlimited time; (2) it can be used as distance learning which is used individually based on their own level or capability, and (3) it can be responded via e-mail to the trainers or educators. Beside the advantages, there are some disadvantages of using internet as learning resources, such as it must be connected to the internet which means that it can not be used on stand-alone computer.

Considering that using internet can not be used for stand-alone computer, there are many educators and trainers who have created and designed learning materials in the form of software which can be accessed by all computers without connecting to internet to be used as an alternative media. This kind of software is preferred by learners and is even more popular among students because they are associated with fun and games or because they are considered to be fashionable. The learners’ motivation therefore increases, especially whenever a variety of activities are offered, which make them feel more independent.

The existing learning software is to improve the conventional methods in language learning which primarily depend on the presence of teachers in the classroom to convey the material. The teaching learning process which relies on books often causes students’ lack of interest as well, especially when there is no instructional objectives provided in the book and it easily generates students’ boredom in learning language. Besides, the use of books for teaching learning have some weaknesses such as there are no varieties tests provided to measure the students’ achievement in learning, and the feedback given by the book is very limited or not given at all. The most apprehensive thing in conveying conventional teaching learning method is that it must be held in a classroom setting.

The electronic learning material that is effectively designed will facilitate the achievement of desired learning outcomes (Pramono, 1996:124). In addition, learning using computer will equip learners with a skill to choose the desired topic, based on their level of ability and will improve the learners’ motivation in learning. It is emphasized by Kweldju (1995:37) who argued that computer has self-access procedure which is completed with eye-catching color and animation to increase the users’ attractiveness.

Realizing that the numbers of electronic learning software are so many, the teachers and educators must be more selective in choosing the most suitable e-learning materials because not all the software are carefully designed and are provided with adequate feedback. Feedback in the software becomes the most important thing because without feedback, a learner is left to perform with no sense of direction or measure of correctness. (Cates, 1988:115).

In order to create ideal learning software, some aspects should be considered, such as: (1) the software must be designed to support the available curriculum, (2) the software must contain the learning objectives, (3) the software must use multimedia animation, (4) the product software must be analyzed and must be tested by the experts of subject material, learning technology and computer graphic.

Those statements inspired the writer as an English teacher to develop an innovative and attractive electronic learning media as a means to convey a material in computer based learning with the aim to provide an interactive instruction in a specific area which is delivered on a CD-ROM by using Macromedia Flash. It is expected that by using the interactive media, the learners’ imagination and understanding will be facilitated in learning a certain material.

She believes that using computers in education through Computer Assisted Learning (CAL) is more effective than using Internet based technologies. CAL is run either straight from a CD or flash disk or over local network so the constraint of the internet –slow download times for multimedia materials may not apply. It means that it has the potential to offer more advanced, interactive, multimedia learning experiences than it is currently reasonable to expect from the Web.

Based on the reality that learning is a systematic process with some components which influence each other in achieving learner’s successful learning, the writer recognized that in a learning process there must be an interaction between learner and the learning resources to achieve the ideal learning objectives. The writer believed that using interactive electronic media in the form of computer in learning language will create more advantages in learning process as stated by Harmanto (2002) that Learning using computers can be accessed by anyone in anytime and it can be applied individually based on their own ability (Harmanto, 2002).

As an English teacher which has been teaching English both for adult and for young learners for ages, she has so many experiences in dealing with students. Using an interactive and attractive ways in teaching English can reduce learner’s bored in learning for the first time, but if it is not combined with the use of technology it will be disastrous, especially in teaching motion prepositions which need real movement of object.

It is supported by Tomasello who said that learning to use prepositions is fundamentally important in young learners’ grammatical development (Tomasello, 1987). It is also supported by the reality that the students’ mistakes in understanding preposition in YPPI I Elementary school are often happened, especially in motion preposition even though it has been aided by pictures.

The above reasons generate the writer to be more creative in finding out interactive material to assist learners in understanding preposition, especially motion preposition. It is caused by her experience when she taught prepositions to young learners using a picture on white board, and it doesn’t help them to be comprehensible with the meaning of those prepositions.

Knowing about the difficulties, the writer anxious to create an attractive learning media using computer to learn English prepositions. . It is also supported by Pramono’s research (2004,p.3) which is said that the visual representations are intrinsically effective in supporting language learning.. Those reasons accentuated the writer to create and develop the interactive media in a form of CD-ROM.

The decision in developing materials in the form of CD-ROM has been made based upon some considerations as follows:

a. The development must have many advantages for learners such as it must help them to learn the subject matter (motion prepositions) easier, so that they will not get confused in understanding the meaning of and using motion prepositions in sentences. Ultimately, it must support learners to be more independent learners.

b. The development of materials for motion preposition needs to be done in order to facilitate English learners who find difficulties in grasping the meaning and function of motion prepositions.

c. The development media of using computer in understanding motion prepositions are extremely suitable by using animated visualization as stated by Galton that the most appropriate illustrative scenarios to present to subjects in an experimental investigation of motion preposition would be animated sequences. (Galton, 2002)

The above considerations underline the reasons of using animation in learning motion preposition, which is clarified as follows:

  1. Animation has “translation” characteristics that involves “the movement of whole entities from one location to another and can be perceived with respect to the border of the animation or other material within the animated display”. (Lowe, 2002, p.3)
  2. Understanding concepts using animation was significantly improved if verbal explanation ran concurrently with the animation.
  3. Animations have the potential to be especially beneficial for instruction presenting dynamic contents because animated pictures can show information about two important visual attributes: motion and trajectory (Pramono, 2005,p.22)
  4. Animated illustrations seem to be superior for the visualization of spatial aspect and dynamic process in preposition learning because a preposition usually indicates the spatial and temporal relationships of its object to the rest of the sentence.


Literature Review

There are some theories which support the study of developing e-learning media to facilitate learners in learning motion preposition, such as: Computer-Based Learning, Designing E-Learning Software, Characteristic of E-Learning Software, Using Animation in Learning Motion Preposition.

Computer- Based Learning

According to Hick and Hyde a teaching process directly involving a computer in the presentation of instructional materials in an attractive mode to provide and control the individualized learning environment for each individual student (Joiner, 1982:29)

It is stated that in learning using computer students interact with computer directly. The interaction between students and computers are in individual setting, based on their own language capacity and ability, so that the computer usage in language learning can be arranged by the students itself.

Based on the above reasons, the interactive method of teaching learning process in class cannot be done maximally. As the consequence, computer is designed to overcome those problems by creating some interactive programs inorder to attract students’ attention to increase their motivation in learning. It is hoped that using computer as an alternative teaching and learning media will increase students’ motivation because it is designed attractively by involving students’ or learners in the program so that there is an extensive interaction between computer and students.

The Advantages of Computer Based Learning/Teaching

The advantages of the use of computers in lecture theatres are caused by a few factors. The most important one is that simple large problems can be solved in a straightforward way in front of students’ eyes.(Miller, 98). Some advantages of using computer in learning are:

  1. Computers are able to give information about mistakes and the total time of learning spent by learners to do the exercises.
  2. Learning by using computer train students to be skilful tochoose the material they want to learn.
  3. Learning by using computer will help students who find difficulties in class meeting to review the material again individually.
  4. By using computer, the weak students who cannot follow the material and shy to ask the teacher will have a chance to repeat the material by themselves as many as they want.
  5. Computer Based Learning supports the individual learning which is suggested in modern education (Tsai and Pohl, 1981).
  6. Computer-based learning enable students to be accustomed with computer which is become important thing in this era and it will support many contributions for training and carrier in the future (Dhaif, 1989:13)
  7. The research shows that computer is an effective learning media (Kearsey, 1976 as quoted by Thompson, 1980:40).


The Form of Computer-Based Learning

According to Kemp and Dayton (1985:246) there are five forms of learning using computer: tutorials, drill and practice, problem solving, simulations, and games. Tutorial learning is a process of conveying new information to students in forms of explanation, exercises, and branching. Drill and practice is given to measure the students’ ability to understand certain knowledge. Problem solving is a process to give a solution about certain problem happened in teaching learning process. Games is one teaching forms which is given in order to increase students motivation and competition to learn something in a fun way.

Interaction between computer and learner is an individual interaction (Pramono, 1996). A teaching process is directly involving a computer in the presentation of instructional materials in an interactive mode to provide and control the individualized learning environment for each individual student.


Characteristics of Computer-Based Software Product

In order to improve the learning quality, Computer-Based Software must be designed through good learning principle. Besides, the designed of computer-based learning software must enclose the characteristics programmed instruction. The main characteristics of programmed instruction according to Burke (1982:23) are: (1) small steps, (2) active responding, and (3) immediate feedback.


Benefits of Animation in Learning Motion Preposition

The number of English prepositions often causes difficulties for learners to distinguish the kinds and the meaning of preposition, especially if the preposition is related to motion preposition, because there is only few lines to distinguish them.

Animation is one of media which is able to convey a vast amount of information in a very short period of time, and can be a powerful method of reinforcing concepts and topics first introduced to students through text, discussion, or other media. Though still in its fledgling stage, animation holds the promise of allowing visual learners and those with special needs new and powerful ways to comprehend complex phenomena.

The design of animations involves manipulation of various dynamic characteristics. Animation has “translation” characteristics that involves “the movement of whole entities from one location to another and within the animated display (Pramono: 2004: 21).


Types and Usage of Prepositions

Prepositions denote spatial relations, which are principally used to predicate constraints on such attributes as location, orientation, and disposition. (Hersekovits, 1997: 160). Preposition expressing spatial relations are of two kinds: prepositions of location, which is called prepositions of place (static) and prepositions of direction, sometimes called motion prepositions (Purdue University, 2002).

According to Linstromberg a preposition expresses a relationship between a subject and a landmark. Landmarks and Subjects are often (but not always) nouns, noun phrases, or pronouns.(Linstromberg: 1997: 15).

Preposition of direction are dynamic and have a directional meaning, such as to, from, up, down, through, towards, and appear with verbs of motion (movement) such as roll, walk, swim, come, go, etc.        Every motion preposition fits in a syntactic frame:

NP [activity verb] Preposition NP

as with      The ball      rolled across    the street

                   Figure                                     Ground

                  Moving Object                      Reference Object

Here the Figure is the moving object; the Ground is still the referent of the object of the preposition; the preposition constrains the trajectory; or path of the Figure.(Herskovits, 1997:162)


Expected Product specification

The CD-ROM that will be produced in this study is the actualization of Computer Assisted Learning product. It has some specifications as follows:

–            It can be used to convey a new material but it is as an alternative media because the major media is still based on books.

–            It can be used as an individualised learning media because:

–            It can be accessed in unlimited time and space without depending on the Internet facility.

–            It is the realisation of self-learning material which has instructional objectives in it.

–            There are a summary and exercises which are completed with the feedback.

–            It gives a chance to learners to study the material freely based on their own capacity.

–            The material has specific components which can assist learners to learn easily, as follows


Benefits of Software Development

Developing this e-learning media is directed to overcome learners’ confusion and learners’ mistake in understanding motion preposition. This study belongs to developing domain, especially in developing learning resources in order to enrich the learning media in computer based technology.

This study is also intended to improve English learning process which relies on the book with the presence of a teacher in the classroom to the computer based technology which can be accessed every time in indefinite space based on their own capability as self-learning media.


Assumption and Development Limitation

Developing e-learning media to help students in understanding motion preposition is based on the related assumption, as follows:

–     An attractive learning resources will arouse students’ learning motivation

–     Developing animated media is required to develop the education quality

–     This development study is intended to design a self-learning media through CD-ROM

–     A learning process using CD-ROM is properly used for computer literacy students



Computer-Based Learning Software Development

Developing media in teaching learning technology is the implementation of a design which has been made. It cannot be separated from designing, managing, and evaluating as said by Seels & Richey (1994:9) that instructional teaching is a theory and practice of design, development, utilization, management and evaluation processes and resources for learning.

In order to create interactive and innovative learning software, there must be designing and developing procedures that must be passed obviously. The procedures that must be overtaken to assist the writer in developing qualified e-learning material software are known as ADDIE or Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation and Evaluation (Sambel, Developing and Evaluating E-learning, 2005).



The first step is analyzing the learners’ characteristic which are going to use the e-learning material. The learners’ characteristics that should be identified are the level of learners, whether the program is used in class or not, and whether the program is used as individual learning or not. Then, it is continued by designing and organizing the learning software.



Determine the design of the software

There are three kinds of design to be used according to Burke (1982), functional design, physical design, and logical design. Functional design is related to the function of the software as media to introduce new material and to convey it in order to strengthen learning motivation. Physical design is related to the type of the design, which is divided into linear, branch and repetition. Logical design covers the mode of the design, which is divided into deductive (rules and followed by examples) and inductive mode (examples and followed by rules).

As a developer, the writer must choose one of those design mode in order to be applied in the software development.

Developing Flowchart

Flowchart is used to communicate the ideas of the developer and the graphic designer. It is used to describe the main parts of the software and to arrange the steps of designing the courseware. See the flowchart in Appendix 1.

Writing Storyboard

Storyboard is a media which is used by developer and graphic designer to communicate about the form of material and the activity that will be appeared in the software.


Learning Media Development

Developing learning media in the form of software is the realisation of learning technology application especially for developing learning resources. It is expected to reduce the obstacles of limitation in finding learning resources. See Appendix 2.


Try-out and Evaluation

The next step which must be done is doing the trial test or user acceptance test which will evaluate the e-learning media. The material must be tested in order to verify the validity of the material. The processes of verifying the validity are through trial test which is done by group of students to represent some students to use the software development. The result of the trial test will be evaluated. The steps of evaluating learning software can be seen in Appendix 3.

After the media is created, the next step is try-out and evaluation. The tryout and evaluation is needed in order to measure whether the product can achieve the set specification, i.e.

–  It can be used to convey a new material but it is as an alternative media because the major media is still based on books.

–  It can be used as an individualized learning media because:

–  It can be accessed in unlimited time and space without depending on the Internet facility.

–  It is the realization of self-learning material which has instructional objectives in it.

–  There are a summary and exercises which are completed with the feedback.

–  It gives a chance to learners to study the material freely based on their own capacity.

–  The material has specific components which can assist learners to learn easily, as follows.

The result of try out shows the following:

(1) Attention Gaining Material could gather an average score of 100 %. The result showed that the component of attention-gaining material could attract the students’ attention at the start and could motivate them to learn.

(2) The Instructional Objectives of this courseware could gather an average score of 88.9 %; that means the students under­stood the objectives of learning using this developed courseware.

(3)  The clarity of doing the pretest and the understanding of the students on pre-test items and the appropriateness of animation with the items got an average score of 70.4 %. It can be concluded that the pre test components were good.

(4) The clarity of the tutorial and the attractive­ness of the explanation could get an average score of 100%.  It can be concluded that the tutorial component of this product was very good.

(5) The content with respect to the com­prehensibility of the material, the appro­priateness of the animation with the story, and the attractiveness of the animated pictures got an average score of  88.9 %, therefore, it can be considered that the content of this developed product was good.

(6) The exercises of this product got an average score of 74.1 % with respect to the   attractiveness of the items, the quality of the animations used, and the appropriateness of the items.

(7) The average score of the feedback is  88.9% with respect to the effectiveness and appropriateness of the feedback.

(8) The practicality to operate this courseware, the benefits of using this courseware, and the possibility to use this courseware without the help of teachers got an average score of 88.9%. It can be concluded that this courseware development can be used as an individual learning to enrich the learners’ competence on motion prepositions.

Based on the data above, it can be concluded that this courseware develop­ment obtains good response from learners and has good quality as an alternative learning resource. The main interface can be seen in Appendix 4.


Armstrong, K.M. & Yetter-Vassot, C. (1994). Transforming teaching through technology. Foreign Language Annals, 27(4), 475-486.

Brown, Andrew R.(2005) Elements of Effective e-Learning Design

Burke, R.L. 1992, Computer Assisted Instruction. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, Inc

Cates, J.S. 1988. Delay Feedback and Cognitive Task Level in Practice Exercises. A paper Presented at the 1988 Annual Convention of the Association for Educational Communication and Technologies, New Orleans. L.A., USA

Dick, W and Carey, L. 1985. The systematic Design of Instruction (2nd edition) London: Scott, Foresman and company

Galton, Antony. 2002.

Hersekovits, A. 1997. Language, spatial cognition, and vision. In O. Stock (Ed), Spatial and Temporal Reasoning, 155-202

International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, Retrieved from

Kemp, J.E. and Dayton, D.K. 1985. Planning and Producing Instructional Media. Cambridge: Harper & Row, Publisher,

Kurtus, Ron. 2004. What is eLearning?

Kweldju, S. 1985. SMA Teachers’ Performance in Using English as Medium of S-1 Graduates of IKIP Malang in Kodya Malang. Thesis PPS IKIP MALANG: Unpublished

Lindstromberg, Seth. 1998, English Prepositions Explained, Philadelphia: John Benjamins North America

Littlewood,W.1997. Autonomy and independence in language learning. Harlow: Addison Wesley Longman 79-91.

Lowe, R.K. 1999. Extracting Information from an Animation during Complex Visual Learning. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 14, 225 – 244

Miller, Karol. 1998. Computer-based teaching but pen-and-pencil examination? Retrievedfrom

Pramono, Harto. 2004. Picture-Text Complementarily in English Language Learning by Primary School Students in Indonesia, Thesis Curtin University of Technology.

Purdue University, 2002. Preposition of Direction: To, On(to), In (to).

Rieber, L.P. 1996. Animation as feedback in a computer-based simulation: The Representation matters. Educational Technology Research and Development, 5-22

Salaberry, R. (1999). ‘CALL in the year 2000: still developing the research agenda’. Language Learning and Technology 3/1: 104-107.

Sambel, Sandra. 2005. Developing and Evaluating E-learning, 2005.

Seels, B.B. and Richey, R.C. 1994. Instructional Technology: The definition and Domains of the field. Washington, DC: Association for educational Communication and Technology

Stock, Oliviero, 1997, Spatial and Temporal Reasoning, Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers

Swan, Michael. 2001. The Good Grammar Book, OxfordUniversity Press

Tomasello, M. 1987, (PR.9) Learning to use prepositions: a case study. Journal of Child Language, 14, 79-96


 Appendix 1

Flow chart used in the development stage



 Steps of Media Development




Appendix 3

Product Evaluation Steps



Appendix 4

The Main Interfaces


Pre-Test screenshot


Reading menu screenshot




 Speaking Menu Screenshot

Luci 4



Exercise Menu Screenshot





by: Zubaidi, State Polytechnic of Malang




The objective of this research was to study the communication strategies (CS) used by a non-English lecturer teaching her subject in English. The study was to investigate the types and frequency of CS used by the lecturer and the students’ perception of the use of communication strategies by their lecturer. Data was collected from classroom observations and a questionnaire. Tarone’s (1980) taxonomy of CS was used in this descriptive-qualitative analysis. The results showed that the lecturer used language switch, literal translation, appeal-for-assistance, circumlocution, approximation and message abandonment strategies. Fillers and pauses were also used during her teaching. The students perceived that the use of CS by the lecturer helped them understand the subject better. The strategies that help them to comprehend the lecturer’s explanation better were language switch, literal translation and circumlocution strategy. The students perceived that the use of Indonesian could make understanding easier because their English was still not good.


Keywords: communication strategies, bilingual class, non-English lecturer


Bilingual education is an educational program which involves the use of two languages of instruction at some point in the schooling process (Brisk, 2006; González, 2008). This program involves the first language (L1) and one second or foreign language (L2) which is the target language of acquisition as the medium of instruction(Baker, 2001). In terms of the use of the two languages in the classroom, a bilingual program is determined by the aims of the program. The bilingual instruction in the Indonesian education environment is commonly intended to improve the quality of the human resources, especially their English proficiency.

In this circumstance, bilingual classes need proficient teachers who can teach the subject matter in English well even though they can use their native language to explain a certain concept when it is difficult to do so in English. Nevertheless, the bigger proportion of use of English language is preferable. However, in a bilingual (or even multilingual) situation like in Indonesia, the mastery of both English and Indonesian can be imbalanced. This imbalance may be caused by the teacher’s less proficiency of one language and may result in problems in explaining a concept. To solve the problems the teachers will apply several different CS in order they can elucidate their linguistic difficulty (Auer, 1999; Bolander, 2008).

The study is intended to know what different CSs are used by a non-English lecturer in a bilingual class in the Business Administration Department of State Polytechnic of Malang. It includes the types and frequency of CS and the students’ perception of the use of CS by the lecturer.

The concept of CS was first introduced by Selinker (1972) in his paper called “Interlanguage” where these strategies are one of the five central processes involved in second language learning. These strategies were then studied by some researchers, such as Tarone (1980), Faerch & Kasper (1983), Corder (1981), and others. Tarone (1980:419) defines a communication strategy “as a mutual attempt of two interlocutors to agree on a meaning in situation where requisite meaning structures are not shared.” In this definition CSs are used when there is an interaction between the interlocutors who are negotiating the meaning.

Faerch& Kasper (1983:81)define CS as ‘potentially conscious plans for solving what to an individual presents itself as a problem in reaching a particular communicative goal’. Faerch and Kasper look CS as a result of conscious planning which may occur to solve potential communicative problems and to produce communication smoothness and fluency.

Corder (1981:103) defines the communicative strategies of second language learners “as a systematic technique employed by a speaker to express his meaning when faced with some difficulty.” In his definition Corder focuses the use of CS to solve the problems in the communication.

Tarone (1980) suggests taxonomy of CS from the social interactional perspective. This perspective is based on the notion that communication happens in an interaction between the language learners and their interlocutors and that both parties negotiate the meaning. She lists nine strategies which she groups into five categories, as follows:

(1)  Paraphrase:

  1. Approximation
  2. Word Coinage
  3. Circumlocution

(2)  Borrowing:

  1. Literal Translation
  2. Language Switch

(3)  Appeal for Assistance

(4)  Mime

(5)  Avoidance:

  1. Topic Avoidance
  2. Message Abandonment

The second important communication strategy taxonomy is suggested by Faerch and Kasper (1983). Their classification of the CS is based on the notion that CSs are actually a cognitive process of the speaker with a focus on comprehension and production. Therefore, they suggest different taxonomy of CS. Some of their strategies are the same as suggested by Tarone, yet they propose more strategies and different categories. The following are Faerch & Kasper’s (1983) taxonomy of CS.

Another set of taxonomy is suggested by Bialystok (1990) who groups two principal classes of CS in the process-oriented approach: analysis-based and control-based strategies. This classification is based on a framework of language processing. The analysis-based strategies include circumlocution, paraphrase, transliteration, word coinage, and mime, while the control-based strategies include language switch, ostensive definition, appeal for help, and mime. She states that the analysis-based strategies involve “an attempt to convey the structure of the intended concept by making explicit the relational defining features.” The control-based strategies involve “choosing a representational system that is possible to convey and that makes explicit information relevant to the identity of the intended concept” (Bialystok, 1990:134).

This study uses Tarone’s taxonomy of CS because it is developed on the basis of interactional perspective and consists of clear classifications. Tarone’s taxonomy involves the context where communication happens. It pays attention to the understanding of the interlocutor towards the meaning which is trying to get across. In this sense, the choice of the strategy depends more or less on the listener’s understanding. When the listener seems still confused or does not understand the meaning, the speaker will probably use another strategy. In addition, it is often used as the bases for the investigation in many pieces of research studying CS in different situations, such as in Hung (2012), Yang & Gai (2010), Kongsom (2009), Zhang(2007).




This is a descriptive qualitativestudy of the CS which are used by a non-English lecturer in a bilingual class at the Business Administration Department of State Polytechnic of Malang. One lecturer of the department was picked purposively as the subject of the study and was observed of her use of CS in three classroom meetings in a bilingual class. The study is to discover the types and frequency of CS used by the lecturer, and the students’ perception towards the use of CS by the lecturer in the classroom

Several types of data were collected in the study. The first data was video-recorded verbal classroom communication between the non-English lecturer and the students taken from three different meetings of the same bilingual class. The verbal classroom communication was then transcribed to identify the CS used by the lecturer and the frequency of their use. The transcription was done carefully to include any pauses and their duration, repetition of certain utterances, intonation and other aspects of conversation analysis and discourse analysis as described by Wooffitt (2005). The second type of data was the students’ perception towards the use of CS by the lecturer in her or his teachingobtained from a questionnaire given to the students.




The Communication Strategies Used by the Lecturer


The communication strategies of Tarone’s (1980) taxonomy used by the lecturer were language switch, literal translation, appeal for assistance, approximation, circumlocution and message abandonment. Fillers and pauses were also used by the lecturer.

The type and frequency of the use of CS are summarized in the following table.


Table 1.   Type and frequency of communication strategies used by the lecturer


Communication Strategy %
Language switch 274 52.49
Literal translation 139 26.63
Circumlocution 12 2.30
Approximation 36 6.90
Appeal for assistance 8 1.53
Message abandonment 14 2.68
Fillers 21 4.02
Pauses 18 3.45
Total 522 100


Language Switch Strategy

It was found that the lecturer used the language switch strategy in two different ways. They were code mixing and code switching. She used these strategies alternatively for different reasons and purposes.

Language switch strategy was used the most often (52.49%) by the lecturer. The lecturer believed that it was the easiest way to solve the difficulty with the second language. She felt that when she did not know the proper expressions in English, using the mother tongue was the best way. Her statement proved that the definition of communication strategy mentioned by some scholars in part is true; for example, the definitions by Tarone (1980), Corder (1981), and Faerch & Kasper (1983) which relate the use of communication strategy to an attempt to solve the speaker’s problem in communicating his message to his/her listener.

The language switch strategy is commonly used in a bilingual context where two languages are shared proportionally by the interlocutors. This strategy is often used by speakers with lower degree of L2 proficiencyor by those who speak with lower speakers, as studied by Sinha (2009) in an Indian classroom situation and by Takehara (2000) in a Japanese classroom situation.

The language switch in this study, however, was used by the lecturer for two reasons: to make the subject understandable to the students, and to avoid misunderstanding due to misuse of English expressions.

The finding of this study is similar to that of another study by Suharyadi (2010). His findings showed many uses of language switch by the teacher of mathematics, chemistry and biology. These three teachers stated that the use of language switch was for emergency situations where the teachers did not know the English expressions and for students’ comprehension on the topic being discussed in the classroom.

The findings of a piece of research by Ghout-Khenoune (2006), however, do not support the finding of this study. In her dissertation for the degree of Magister in Linguistics at University of Algiers, she investigates a group of EFL learners who are given different tasks with different level of difficulty: description tasks and discussion tasks. She finds that the learners do not use different CS in solving their problem in completing the tasks. They use the same CS in the two sets of tasks: repetition, restructuring, message abandonment and appeal for assistance. It is inferred from the research that the different levels of difficulty of the tasks do not affect the types of CS the learners use in solving their communication problems.

The different findings of Ghout-Khenoune’s (2006) study and this study do not mean that they contradict each other. Different subjects and objects of communication, classroom interactions, and topics cause different use of CS. Blom and Gumperz (1972 in Nilep, 2006:7) call these three factors as participants, setting and topic. These factors, as they mention, “restrict the selection of linguistic variables in a manner that is somewhat analogous to syntactic or semantic restriction.”

They further explain that in certain social situations, some linguistic forms or utterances may be more appropriate than others. Take for an example, the types of utterances or communication used by a group of mechanics in a workshop are different from the variety of language used by teachers presenting text material in the public school. It can be inferred, therefore, that different social events may result in different language forms even with the same participants in the same setting when the topic shifts.

In the current study the lecturer used language switch strategy together with literal translation strategy to make sure that her students understood the topic she was explaining. It was the students’ understanding to the topic which became the lecturer’s concern. Both strategies were used alternatively along the course of the teaching. Under the observation the lecturer did not seem to show any linguistic problems in explaining the topic. This fact was confirmed by the lecturer’s statement in the interview.


Literal Translation Strategy

Literal translation strategy was used by the lecturer as many as 139 times (26.63%) to make sure that the concepts and her explanation could be understood by the students. The lecturer felt that the students’ understanding was more important than the use of English. This was because the concepts of accounting were rather difficult to the students, let alone that the students might not have much background knowledge about accounting.

The use of language switch strategy and literal translation strategy was intended in one part to make the message comprehensible by the students. It was the students’ understanding which counted more than just the use of the second language or English. The lecturer in this situation did not always have the lexical problem as mentioned in some definitions by language experts, such as Tarone (1980), Faerch & Kasper (1983) and others. They state that CSs are used when the speaker has difficulties in the language. The lecturer in the study deliberately used the first language to make her message understood by her students.

The use of the first language in the language switch strategy and literal translation strategy in that situation was similar to the summary made by Begovic (2011). Her study is conducted with four Swedish L2 learners of upper secondary school who share the same first language. She summarizes that code switching is used to bring an effect to an utterance, and not because of lacking knowledge in their L2. From these findings it can be inferred that the use of certain CS is not always caused by the lack of lexical knowledge of the second language.

In the students’ point of view in this study, the use of CS which involved the first language was also preferred. When asked to rank the effectiveness of the nine communication categories, the students put literal translation strategy and language switch in the first and second ranks respectively. It showed that the use of Indonesian was still important for the communication to be able to convey the message. This fact might indicate that because the students were not proficient in English, the use of Indonesian was for understanding.

This finding is similar to what is found by Ting & Phan (2008) who mention that the less-proficient speakers of English in their study tend to choose the strategies which involve the first language, while more-proficient speakers tend to prefer the strategies which are more L2 oriented. The L1-oriented strategies in their study are literal translation and language switch strategies. The less-proficient speakers use the literal translation strategy 5 times out of 142 strategies used or 4%, while the language switch strategy is employed 25 times or 18%.

Another piece of research by Yang & Gai (2010) also supports the present study, where they find that most students under study use strategies which involve the use of first language. In their study, the students use the language switch more often than the other strategies. Reduction strategies, which can be topic avoidance or message abandonment, are also preferred by the students when they have problems in expressing their message. They use these to be able to overcome nervousness and stress, reducing errors to reach the goal of communication.

For the present study, the lecturer used the language switch and literal translation because either that the lecturer wanted to make sure that her message was comprehensible to the students or that she was not sure how to express her message in English correctly due to her lack of vocabulary. When she was asked why she did not use other strategies, she said that using Indonesian was more effective and easy to do. In addition, she was concerned more to make the students understand the important concepts of her subject than to use English which was difficult to understand.


Circumlocution Strategy

The circumlacution strategy was used by the lecturer as many as 12 times. This strategy is one used to exemplify, illustrate or describe a concept or object (Dornyei& Scott,1995: 188). The lecturer used this strategy when she came across a new concept that she thought the students deserve an explanation.

Several studies on CS, such as by Malasit & Sarobol (2013), Hung (2012) and Suharyadi (2010), mention that circumlocution strategy is used to paraphrase a certain concept which may be difficult to understand or one which the speaker does not know the word or phrase in the target language.

Approximation Strategy

The approximation strategy is one to refer to the use of a single target language (L2) word or structure which shares the semantic features of the target word or structure (Dorneyi & Scott, 1997). The lecturer under study used this strategy 36 times accounting for 6.90 percent of all strategies identified during the classroom commnication.

In several ocassions the lecturer in the study used the strategy when she did not know the term in English. For instance, when she talked about the concept of ‘transporting,’ due to her being not sure with the target word she used ‘transporter’ or ‘transformer.’


Appeal for Assistance Strategy

The appeal for assistance strategy is used when the speaker seeks help, either directly or indirectly, from his/her interlocutor for solving his/her linguistic problems. The use of this strategy is reported in many recent studies concerning communication in the context of second language learning, for example Hung, (2012), Binhayeearong (2009), Chen (2009), and Ghout-Khenoune (2006). In these studies the appeal for assistance strategy is used because the speakers do not know the intended word or words, either asked implicitly or explicitly.

The use of appeal for assistance strategy by the lecturer in this study was found eigth times during the teaching-learning process in the classroom, which indicated that the lecturer had difficulty in using English in the classroom by asking the students for certain target words or phrases. For example, when she asked about a special term which was related to the topic being discussed, ‘barang jadi,’ she asked the students.

In astudy by Suharyadi (2010) three teachers who are observed to investigate the use of CS in the classroom does not find any use of appeal for assistance. Three teachers of mathematics, chemistry, and biology use the strategies of code switching and code mixing, repetition, paraphrasing–approximation, direct translation and circumlocution. Even though his study has similar classroom situation to this study, the types of strategies used by the teachers are different. There seems to be factors that influence the use of CS; and there have been several studies which investigate these factors.

Guhlemann (2011:20), for example, finds that there is a significant correlation between personality & motivation and the use of CS. He investigates students with low anxiety and high anxiety also those students who are low motivated and high motivated. The results show that the students who have low anxiety and high motivation tend to use circumlocution (score: 4.29), approximation (score: 4.21), and use of all-purpose words (score:3.93). Meanwhile, the students with high anxiety and low motivation tend to use avoidance (score: 1.93), code switching (score: 2.5), and foreignerization, as well as topic avoidance (score: 2.86).

In another study of factors affecting the use of CS, Huang (2010) finds that the students’ oral proficiency, the frequency of speaking in English and the motivation in speaking English are significant factors influencing the use of oral CS. He also finds that gender has a little affect on the use of CS.


Message Abandonment Strategy

Message abandonment strategy is a communication strategy which “occurs when the learner begins to talk about a concept but is unable to continue due to lack of meaning structure, and stops in mid-utterance” (Tarone, 1980: 429). This strategy was used by the lecturer when she did not continue her explanation of the topic due to a couple of reasons. In the interview, the lecturer mentioned that she did not actually want to avoid the topic; rather, her mind was distracted by the slide presentation. The slide showed something else when she had not finished explaining the current topic, so that she then explained what was shown on the screen/computer. Thus, it can be said that the use of the message abandonment strategy was not due to her lack of lexical and grammatical inadequacy; rather, to technical effect of the usage of the teaching aid and psychological distraction of focus.

Malasit & Sarobol (2013) investigate 30 students of an English program in Thai classroom situation for the use of CS with different tasks. Their findings show the frequent use of message abandonment strategy and put it in fifth rank of frequency. They mention that for difficult tasks the students tend to use the avoidance strategies which include topic avoidance and message abandonment.


The Use of Fillers and Pauses

The lecturer used fillers, such as er or um many times during the teaching learning process. Even though Tarone (1980) does not include fillers as a communication strategy in her taxonomy, several researchers (Malasit & Sarobol, 2013; Hua, et al. 2012; Begovic, 2011; Jorda, 1997; Dornyei & Scott, 1995) who discuss on CS mention that fillers are part of CS which are categorized under stalling or time gaining strategy which are used to have time to think for the proper language units to make the conversation keep going. Kongsom (2009:30) states in his research that the use of fillers is not intended to compensate vocabulary lack but rather to give time to think and to keep on the conversation.

Begovic (2011) mentions that pauses and fillers are good tools for a speaker to think and plan what they want to say next, and how to do so. In more details Faerch and Kasper (1983) distinguish four different types of pausing: articulatory pauses, pauses for breathing, conventional pauses, and hesitation pauses. These pauses are categorized into unfilled (silent) pauses and filled pauses which are indicated by non-lexical activity such as er, em, erm, oh or turn-based starters such as well, I mean, you know, I don’t know (Faerch and Kasper, 1983).

The interview with the lecturer in this study showed the reason for the use of many fillers and pauses that was slight different from the results of Kongsom’s research. The lecturer said that she used the fillers and pauses because she waited to see the students’ reaction of what she had just said.

This finding of using many pauses and fillers in this current study is similar to the finding of the study conducted by Malasit & Sarobol (2013) who investigate the use of CS by Thai learners. They find that these learners use fillers/hesitation most frequently (43.33%). They use them because the strategyallows the learners to process their cognitive demands required from the task and help the speech to flow naturally.


The Students’ Perception of Communication Strategy Use


The students of the bilingual class perceived the use of CS employed by the lecturer as a helpful tool for better comprehension of the subject matter. As found in the findings, the students perceived positively towards the use of strategies which involve the first language, which are language switch and literal translation, and circumlocution. They, in contrast, perceived negatively towards the use of topic avoidance and message abandonment.

These findings are not similar to those of a study by Moattarian (2012). She investigates 100 students to give their perceptions about the use of CS in oral and written mediums. Even though their perceptions are not aimed at the use of CS by their teacher, their opinions about the use of CS are relevant to the current study. In Moattarian’s study, the students perceive that the use of strategies which involve the use of first language get negative attitudes, while the strategies which go to the group of achievement or compensatory strategies get positive attitude.

Most of the students (88%) in this study perceived that the use of CS by the lecturer helped them in understanding what the lecturer tried to explain. However, the strategies which involved the second language were preferred by the students. When the students were asked to rank which CS help them best, they determined that literal translation communication strategy was the best, followed by language switch strategy and circumlocution strategy. Their choice was based on the reason that these strategies could help them in understanding the message better.

The students (77%) also mentioned that they liked the lecturer’s use of English in the classroom though she often experienced difficulties in expressing herself in English (67%) and she used several CS to overcome her difficulties. The CS that the lecturer used most often, as perceived by the students, wererespectively: literal translation (90%), language switch (82%), circumlocution (46%), approximation (46%), appeal for assistance (44%), and message abandonment (35%). In responding to the use of these fillers and pauses the students perceived that they did not help much for their comprehension but it did not matter much because the students can comprehend it from the actions of the lecturer in the classroom.




In terms of the use of CS in the classroom, it can be concluded that the lecturer used several different CS to help them convey the subjects she was teaching. The strategies that she used most often were those which were related to the first language (L1), namely language switch and literal translation. The language switch strategy that was used by the lecturer includes code-switching and code-mixing. In line with the fact that language switch strategy can be code-mixing and code-switching, the use of code-mixing strategy in this study was more frequent than code-switching. From the interview with the lecturer the use of more code-mixing was caused partly by automatic slip of tongue and mostly by her intention to make her message understood by the students.

In summary, the conclusion drawn from this study stated that the use of the CS by the lecturer was intended to make the concepts of the subject matters understood by the students, and because the lecturer had difficulties in the linguistic system. The use of language switch was intended to make the language understood by the listeners. Language switch strategy was unavoidable and important in the process of teaching-learning since it functioned to increase attention among students, to qualify messages and to facilitate further understanding on the topic discussed. It is clear that in this study understanding or making the message across is more important in the communication and interaction between the lecturer and the students than the efforts to use English in the bilingual class.





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Improving Intelligibility of Voiced and Voiceless “th” Consonants in the Speeches of Sophomores Using Pronunciation Drills



Maksud Temirov, Graduate Program in English Language Teaching, StateUniversity of Malang




 This article is based on a study conducted with the intention of treating a university sophomores’ difficulties in producing intelligible /θ, ð/ sounds and enabling them to achieve faultless pronunciation of these sounds by applying pronunciation drilling technique through authentic teaching sessions.

The research design was an Action Research. The subjects were 25 sophomores (4th semester students) of English Department of State University of Malang (East Java, Indonesia). Coming from four different groups (G, GG, H, and J), they formed up a single speaking class at the department. Their ages ranged from 18 to 20. The preliminary study as well as the remedial classes were held on the University campus. The focal instrument of the study was a short text including 12 words each having “th” consonants (/ð/, /θ/ sounds) that was read aloud by the subjects in the preliminary study as well as during and after the teaching sessions. The 3 recordings were carefully analyzed and compiled on a compact disc.

The pronunciation drilling technique was implemented in one cycle comprising 4 remedial lessons.The implementation of the action was based on the lesson plans. The researcher himself was the teacher to deliver the remedial lessons through various pronunciation activities such as exercising drills, minimal pair discrimination, tongue-twisters, reading texts on the subjects.The three pronunciation activities were chosen because of the practice in hearing and saying the “th” consonants, moreover, the words containing “th” consonants are pronounced in two ways and the spelling of “th” does not overlap with pronunciation. The assessment of “th” sounds were assessed on whether the sounds were pronounced correctly or not. If one of the sounds, either the voiced “th” or the voiceless one were confusedly pronounced using a different similar or dissimilar sounds instead, such as [d], [t], [f], [s], [z], they were immediately noted down in corresponding tables. However, the correctly pronounced consonants were shown in ticks (ü). The success percentage of each 12 words included in the short text were shown in interactive graphs.

The important questions that the researcher decided to deal with were:(1) Can pronunciation drilling technique improve the sophomores’ pronunciation of /θ/ and /ð/ consonants? (2) Can sophomores achieve intelligible pronunciation of /θ/ and /ð/ consonants with ease? The questions were answered with positive results. The students could achieve intelligible production of the two sounds by the end of the study. The findings of this study showed that implementing pronunciation drilling technique when teaching individual sounds, such as /θ/and /ð/ in this case, could make the students achieve rather intelligible pronunciation of English words.

Even though several linguists argue that the pronunciation drilling techniques are rather old-fashioned method of teaching pronunciation, based on the results of the present study, however, the researcher believes that this technique is at least useful in teaching individual sounds. Therefore, the speaking class teachers, especially those at secondary schools, have to apply more pronunciation drilling activities in order enable their students achieve an intelligible English pronunciation before they reach the University level. For future researchers, it is suggested to use the result of this study as a reference in conducting researches in the related areas.

Keywords: pronunciation, voiced and voiceless consonants, problematic sounds in pronunciation, pronunciation of /θ, ð/, intelligibility


The background of the study chiefly discusses the topics, such as what pronunciation is, its importance, and why pronunciation should be taught. It also deals with intelligibility of speech, factors that interfere with correct pronunciation, drilling technique and its several ways of application when teaching individual sounds. Also, it explains about potential difficult and problematic English sounds for the Indonesian speakers of English, and production of voiced and unvoiced “th”consonants.


Pronunciation Problems of Most Indonesian Speakers of English

Through the years spent as well as the personal observations obtained through teaching English pronunciation to University students and being adjudicator in several provincial English language student contests in Malang, East Java, Indonesia, the researcher was faced with unintelligible English pronunciation of some students. Although the students were undergraduates or studying their Master’s Degree in the English department of some prominent Universities like Brawijaya University and State University of Malang, they were unaware of certain pronunciation mistakes in their speeches. Most of the students have substantial knowledge of English grammar and are able to make correct complex sentences in English; however, their unintelligibility in pronunciation makes their English proficiency incomplete and hard to be effortlessly perceived by another listener. For example, they happen to pronounce the words “fan” and “van” in the same way. That is because of the L1 impact, of course because Bahasa Indonesia lacks the English “v” sound. Apart from this, other relevant instances could be the incorrect pronunciation of the words “path”, “theater”, “whether”, etc. This problem comes either from the L1 effect or simply lack of awareness of correct English pronunciation. Those problems need to be treated.

Intelligible pronunciation is essential during a listening process, clear and correct pronunciation makes a conversation more comfortable for both the speaker and the listener and even helps to avoid misunderstanding.

David Keating (2013: 3) states that Indonesian speakers of English have problems resulting from L1 (first language) interference. In terms of pronunciation, many Indonesians have trouble pronouncing consonant clusters (3 or more consonants together in a word), as these clusters do not occur in Bahasa Indonesia.

Likewise, Indonesian speakers of English like several other non-native English speakers have significant problems concerning English consonant blends. In the current study to be conducted, the researcher takes the voiceless and voiced “th” sounds which are /θ/ as in the word thin and /ð/ as in the word mother to be one of the core issues that need to be studied and corrected through teaching and practice as they are commonly mispronounced among non-native speakers of English, such as the native speakers of Bahasa Indonesia.

In the case of sophomores at the university, a reasonable accuracy in the pronunciation of individual sounds such as the /θ/ and /ð/ sounds as mentioned above should certainly have been achieved; earlier at school; however many students still fail to attain perfection.

Pronunciation problems may occur when non-native speakers communicate because speakers are used to sounds that exist in their mother tongue but may not exist in the target language. There are a lot of sounds that do exist or are similar in English and Indonesian; however, there are sounds that are very different or do not exist in Indonesian.

There are several factors that influence the pronunciation of Indonesian learners of English. First, Indonesian learners use sounds that are in Indonesian language but may not exist in English. For instance the clear pronunciation of the[r] sound by an Indonesian speaker of English like in the word rektor (Eng.: rector) definitely makes their English speech worse and somehow irritating for the listener. Second, when reading or speaking, Indonesian students apply the rule of last syllable prominence which is not presented in English. For example, in the word Canada the stress normally falls on the first syllable [Canada] in the English language. However, when a typical Indonesian speaker of English pronounces the same word, he or she happens to stress either the second or the last syllable[Canada]/[Canada]. Lastly, Indonesian learners do not distinguish between the written and spoken form as in Indonesian the written and spoken forms resemble and this goes hand in hand with pronouncing the silent letters e.g. the word salmon is usually pronounced as /sælmən/ instead of /sæmən/ by Indonesian learners.


Potentially Problematic English Sounds for Indonesians

The most problematic vowel sounds for Indonesian learners of English are such as follows (there might be more; however, here are some instances only): /æ/ as in the word cat: since the vowel /æ/ does not exist in Indonesian, it is often pronounced as /e/ as in the word men; /ɪ/ as in the word ship: the short vowel does occur in Indonesian but it is frequently mixed with long vowel /i:/ as in the word sheep; /ɜ:/ as in the word bird: the vowel does not exist in Indonesian and it is frequently mispronounced by inexperienced Indonesian learners as / ʌ / as in the word cup or /ɑ:/ as in the word heart or vice versa; /eɪ/ as in the word tail: It is commonly pronounced as /e/ as in the word pen; or / əʊ/ as in the word phone: The common error made by Indonesian learners is that they do not distinguish between written and spoken form and therefore it is pronounced as /ɒ/ as in the word clock.

According to the researcher’s intent as well as his specific area of interest a closer look will be paid to consonants; particularly the two voiced and unvoiced “th” sounds. There are consonant sounds in English that neither exist nor have equivalent form in Indonesian and therefore confusion between consonants may occur.

The most problematic consonant sounds for Indonesian learners of English could probably be the followings: /θ/ as in the word theater: there is no sound similar to this consonant in Indonesian, and therefore it is often pronounced as /t/ or /s/ because of a close place of articulation; /ð/ as in the word brother: there is no representation of the consonant in Indonesian and therefore it is pronounced as /d/ or /z/ because of a close place of articulation; /dʒ / as in the word jar or language: the common error made by Indonesian learners is that they do not distinguish between written and spoken form and therefore it is usually confused with /j/ or / tʃ/; /z/ as in the word maze: in Indonesian language a rule of assimilation of end consonants is applied, which means that a voiced consonant becomes voiceless when it occurs in a final position, therefore the voiced consonant is pronounced as voiceless /s/ if it is in a final position; /g/ as in the word frog: Indonesian learners use a rule of assimilation of final consonants; therefore the voiced consonant becomes voiceless /k/ in a final position; /b/ as in the word cab: in Indonesian language a rule of assimilation of final consonants is used therefore, the voiced consonant is changed into voiceless /p/ in a final position; /v/ as in the word brave: in Indonesian learners apply a rule of assimilation of end consonants; therefore the voiced consonant is transformed into voiceless /f/ in a final position.

Similarly, another difficulty an Indonesian learner of the English language might face is that of minimal pairs. The term “minimal pairs” refers to two words within a language which have different meanings but vary in one sound segment only (Fromkin & Rodman,1993). Examples of this in English are the words “hit” and “heat”. There are many of these in the English language. Which minimal pairs cause a student problems, depends on the phonetics of their native language and their language of study (L1 and L2). In the case of Indonesian learners, “van” and “fan”, pose a problem because of the nature of the Indonesian language which lacks the sound for the English “v”. For this reason the language learners have difficulty with clearly differentiating between the sounds both when they hear them and when they attempt to pronounce them. In turn, difficulties with minimal pairs may even cause language learners problems in areas like reading and spelling, as students mix up words and thus meanings.


Similar Previous Studies in the Related Fields

In his famous book, Better Pronunciation, O’ Connor (1980: 25) presented 5 categories of pronunciation problems among learners from 6 Western and Oriental nationalities. One of them is sound substitution with other ones from English or from learners’ L1 due to the lack of corresponding English sounds in their mother tongues. As revealed by Fraser (2001: 33), speakers of other languages usually replace English consonants that are unfamiliar with near ones available in their mother tongues(also seen in Cruttenden, 2001, Lewis & Hill, 1992, River & Temperley, 1978).

Another similar investigation was conducted by Shafiro et al (2012)on the perception of American-English (AE) vowels and consonants by young adults who were either (a) early Arabic-English bilinguals whose native language was Arabic or (b) native speakers of the English dialects spoken in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), where both groups were studying. In a closed-set format, participants were asked to identify 12 AE vowels presented in /hVd/ context and 20 AE consonants (C) in three vocalic contexts: /ɑCɑ/, /iCi/, and /uCu/. Both native Arabic and native English groups demonstrated high accuracy in identification of vowels (70 and 80% correct, respectively) and consonants (94 and 95% correct, respectively). For both groups, the least-accurately identified vowels were /ɑ/, /ɔ/, /æ/, while most consonant errors were found for /ð/, which was most frequently confused with /v/.

Dental fricatives /ð/ and /θ/ are among the most difficult phonemes for speakers of other languages due to the lack of them in most languages other than English (Cruttenden, 2001). He also noticed that /t/ and /d/were used as their frequent substitutions (also seen in Chan & Li, 2000)/z/, d/ and /s/ were produced instead of /ð/ and /θ/ correspondingly. Nguyen (2007) proved that 80% of her subjects were found to mispronounce /ð/ and /θ/ sounds.

In an action research on the role of continuous feedback in students’ pronunciation improvement Tran (2006) reviewed seven factors that affect the pronunciation of Vietnamese learners. Apart from well-known causes: native language, learners’ ages, she emphasized the influence of the amount of exposure to English, students’ own phonetic ability, their attitude to the learning of the language, motivation and teacher’s role. In attempt to discuss Vietnamese learners’ pronunciation of English sounds, Duong (2009) showed four main reasons that account for their failure in making the truly English consonants: (1) failure in distinguishing the difference, (2) influence of the mother tongue, (3) perception of mistakes, (4) inadequate drills and practice.


Why Teach Pronunciation?

Teaching pronunciation has undergone a long evolution. At the beginning of the 20th century everything was subordinated to teaching grammar and lexis and pronunciation was totally overlooked. Many things have changed since that time but on the other hand there are still some teachers who do not pay enough attention to pronunciation. According to Scrivener (2005: 284) this is partly because teachers themselves may feel more uncertain about it than about grammar and lexis, worried that they don’t have enough technical knowledge to help students appropriately.

It is widely recognized that acquiring good pronunciation is very important because bad pronunciation habits are not easily corrected. Kelly (2002: 11) states:

a learner who consistently mispronounces a range of phonemes can be extremely difficult for a speaker from another language community to understand. This can be very frustrating for the learner who may have a good command of grammar and lexis but have difficulty in understanding and being understood by a native speaker.

In the researcher’s opinion pronunciation is still neglected at schools. When teaching pronunciation it is difficult to create a lesson that would be only focused on pronunciation practice because pronunciation is taken as an additional practice in all course books. Another problem can be caused by the fact that emphasis is frequently given on individual sounds or distinguishing sounds from each other. According to Gilbert (2008: 1) there are two main reasons why pronunciation is neglected in classes. First, teachers do not have enough time in their lessons, which would be dedicated to pronunciation, and if there is time attention is usually given to drills which lead to discouraged students and teachers who both want to avoid learning and teaching pronunciation. Second, psychological factor plays a relevant role in learning pronunciation because students are not as sure about their pronunciation as they are about their knowledge of grammar and lexis. Gilbert (2008: 1) claims that the most basic elements of speaking are deeply personal and our sense of community is bound up in the speech rhythms of our first language. These psychological barriers are usually unconscious but they prevent speakers from improving the intelligibility. To be able to overcome the fears of speaking, teachers should set at the outset that the aim of pronunciation improvement is not to achieve a perfect imitation of a native accent, but simply to get the learner to pronounce accurately enough to be easily and comfortably comprehensible to other speakers (Ur 1984: 52).



Since pronunciation is a complex and important part of learning and teaching process teachers need to set goals and aims they want to achieve with their students. According to Ur (1984: 52) perfect accents are difficult if not impossible to achieve in foreign language the goal of teachers need to be, to make their students be easily understandable when communicating with other people.

When speaking about intelligibility there is no clear definition of it, but in general we can say that intelligibility means that a hearer can understand a speaker at a set time and situation without major difficulties, in other words, the more words a listener is able to identify accurately when said by a particular speaker, the more intelligible the speaker is (Kenworthy, 1990: 13). Therefore the pronunciation of the speaker does not have to be without errors if a listener is able to understand the utterance. Dalton & Seidlhofer (1994: 11) point out that intelligibility is by no means guaranteed by linguistic similarity and phonetic accuracy, but it is often overridden by cultural and economic factors.Consequently, despite the language factors there are other points that can influence the intelligibility such as whether the topic is familiar to both a speaker and a listener or whether the utterance of a speaker is expected by a listener (Online AMEP article published by Macquarie University of Sydney).

As far as intelligibility is concerned, Kenworthy (1990: 14) also points out that other factors can affect a speaker’s utterance e.g. if a learner’s speech is full of self-corrections, hesitations, and grammatical restructurings, then listeners will tend to find what he or she says difficult to follow. AMEP research center views this matter a little bit differently as they state that aspects influencing intelligibility are complex issues ranging from prosody, intonation, word stress, rhythm, syllable structure, segments, and voice quality to phrasing and sense group. The authors further outline that language teaching used to emphasize learning individual sounds rather than focusing on all aspects influencing intelligibility, and point out that recent studies claim that overall prosody, comprising stress, rhythm and intonation, may have greater prominence on intelligibility regardless a learner’s mother tongue.


Factors that Interfere with Correct Pronunciation

Most researchers agree that the learner’s first language influences the pronunciation of the target language and is a significant factor in accounting for foreign accents. So called interference from the first language is likely to cause errors in aspiration, stress, and intonation in the target language. Some Indonesian students tend to have difficulty with English sounds because they are deeply influenced by similar Indonesian sounds. However, they are very different from each other. A particular sound which does not exist in the native language can therefore pose a difficulty for the second language learners to produce or some times to try to substitute those sounds with similar ones in their mother tongue. These sounds include both vowels and consonants.

It is necessary to mention that there are several factors that need to be considered to be potential obstacles for a foreign language learner through acquisition of correct pronunciation. Those factors can be age factor, phonetic ability, lack of practice, motivation, personality or attitude and mother tongue. (Riswanto & Haryanto, 2012).

Underhill (1994: 15) said “sounds and words are the building blocks for connected speech, and specific and detailed work can be done at these levels without losing touch with the fluent speech from which the parts have been extracted.” Actually, sounds are the building blocks for all language skills. The researcher has seen great enthusiasm from teachers for learning, but also experienced resistance to teaching sounds, but sounds of a language are like the foundations of a building, or the roots of a tree. It should not just be B.Ed or M.Ed students who are learning phonology, it is an injustice to teachers who are expected to teach language if they are not given this practical knowledge and an injustice to the children who are struggling to learn.

Similarly, Schmid and Yeni-Komshian (1999), for example, found that native speaker listeners had increased difficulty detecting mispronunciations at the phonemic level as accentedness increased, and Derwing and Rossiter (2003) found similar issues among the experienced listeners in their study. Research has indicated that many teachers lack training and confidence in their expertise in pronunciation learning and teaching (Levis, 2006; Macdonald, 2002).


What is Drilling in Language Teaching?

According to Tice (2004), drilling is a technique that has been used in foreign language classrooms for many years. It was a key feature of audio lingual approaches to language teaching which placed emphasis on repeating structural patterns through oral practice.

At its simplest, drilling means listening to a model, provided by the teacher, or a tape or another student, and repeating what is heard. This is a repetition drill, a technique that is still used by many teachers when introducing new language items to their students. The teacher says (models) the word or phrase and the students repeat it.

Other types of drill include substitution drills, or question and answer drills. Substitution drills can be used to practice different structures or vocabulary items (i.e. one or more words change during the drill).


Prompt: ‘I go to work. He?

Response: ‘He goes to work.’

In question and answer drills the prompt is a question and the response the answer. This is used for practicing common adjacency pairs such as ‘What’s the matter?’, ‘I’ve got a (headache’) or ‘Can I have a (pen) please?’, ‘Yes here you are.’ The words in brackets here can be substituted during the drill.

In all drills learners have no or very little choice over what is said so drills are a form of very controlled practice. There is one correct answer and the main focus is on ‘getting it right’ i.e. on accuracy. Drills are usually conducted chorally (i.e. the whole class repeats) then individually. There is also the possibility of groups or pairs of students doing language drills together.



The researcher focused his study on pronunciation teaching of the voiced and voiceless “th” consonants /ð, θ/ as several previous empirical findings show as well as the researcher himself regards them as the most problematic aspects of pronunciation for Indonesian learners of English. It is important to mention that it was really problematic issue to find relevant previous studies on the current question in terms of Indonesian learners of English. The scholastic sources are limited and therefore most of the examples are often referred to the studies conducted outside the country. Considering the above mentioned alarming matter, the main questions at issue can be concluded as follows:

(1)   Can pronunciation drilling technique improve the sophomores’ pronunciation of /θ/ and /ð/ consonants?

(2)   Can sophomores achieve intelligible pronunciation of /θ/ and /ð/ consonants with ease?


The theoretical part concerns with crucial pronunciation issues as well as the factors that might have potential impact on teaching and learning process of pronunciation and it also provides some suggestions to elevate common pronunciation skills to real enunciation. Furthermore, it also emphasizes the issues of pronunciation in daily communication, the most problematic sounds for Indonesian learners of English as well as responding to certain questions like why pronunciation should be taught that may arise.

The theoretical significance can also be seen in reflecting on the teachers’ and students’ roles and aspects that influence a speaker’s intelligibility. The researcher finds the production of voiced and voiceless consonants /ð, θ/ to be of utmost significance that needs to be studied with the sophomore undergraduate students of English department of the State University of Malang through practicing certain pronunciation drills since these two consonants are representatives of the most difficult sounds in English for Indonesian speakers.

The research gives contribution to the English enunciation where the result of this study can be reference to improve the undergraduate students’ advance in pronunciation skills. For the other readers, the present research can be guidance whenever to investigate the other elements of enunciation issues with University students, especially ones who are enrolled in English departments.

The present study particularly concentrated on the controversial pronunciation issues; particularly concerning improving awareness of the correct pronunciation of certain English sounds such as [s], [z], [t], and [d] distinguishing them from “th” sounds observed in the speeches of the sophomore undergraduates of English department of the State University of Malang through using pronunciation drilling technique. Nevertheless, the research mostly dealt with the correct pronunciation of two problematic English sounds: voiced /ð/ and voiceless /θ/ that are encoded as “th” in written discourses.



The research was an action research to improve the students’ pronunciation of [th] /ð, θ/ sounds through practicing pronunciation drills. According to Bassey (as quoted by Koshy, 2005), action research (AR) is an inquiry which is carried out in order to understand, to evaluate, and then to change, in order to improve the educational practice as well as to provide teacher-researcher with a method for solving his or her everyday teaching problems.This action research was conducted in four cyclical processes: (1) planning, (2) implementing, (3) observing, and (4) reflecting (See table 2.1). The process was stopped in one cycle only as the researcher found out that the students could successfully meet the requirements stated in the success criterion.


Subjects and the Site of the Study

As the site of the study to be conducted, the researcher has selected the State University of Malang which is one of the prominent and accredited Universities in East Java, Indonesia. This University is well-known for its exceptional personnel preparation techniques along with erudite professors. Specifically, the subjects were 25 sophomores (4th semester) of English department of the University. The subjects, coming from four different groups (G, GG, H, and J), formed up a single speaking class at the department. Their ages ranged from 18 to 20. As of the students’ backgrounds, it is important to mention that they came from different parts of Indonesia and learned various local languages, such as Javanese, Madurese, Lomboknese, Balinese, Sundanese, Papuanese, etc., as their first language and that would have impact on their pronunciation of English sounds.

As the researcher found out from various sources, the English department was once found to be one of the best English teacher training institutions in South-East Asia. The subjects as well as the site to conduct the present research were selected according to the researcher’s personal observations, experience, and authentic empirical findings based on the current question at issue.


Research Procedure

In this study, the research procedure involved at least one cycle consisting of planning, acting, observing, and reflecting. The action was stopped when the objectives of the research had been achieved according to the success criterion. The researcher initially conducted a preliminary study as the starting point to conduct this research. The research procedure can be seen in Table1 below.


Table 1: Action Research Procedure (adapted from Kemmis & Mc. Taggart, 2000, cited in Koshy, 2005).

 25 students of the combined speaking class were given a short text which included words with 12 “th”consonants i.e. /ð, θ/ sounds in their pronunciation in order to find out whether the subjects had difficulty with pronouncing them correctly. The short text were read aloud by the subjects in turns and were simultaneously recorded by the researcher for further analysis. The task remained the same with the same conditions till the end of the research.
Findings: Subjects’ pronunciation of [th] /ð, θ/ sounds needs to be improved through remedial activities: exercising drills, minimal pair discrimination, tongue-twisters,   and reading texts.The preliminary study findings are thoroughly stated in the below pages.
Relevant lesson plans, materials (activities, handouts, etc.) multimedia (LCD projector, laptop, speaking dictionary, active speaker), the criteria of success, and research instruments were all prepared.
Four authentic teaching sessions took place based on lesson plans which were aimed at improving the students’ pronunciation of [th] /ð, θ/ sounds through remedial activities: exercising drills, minimal pair discrimination, tongue-twisters, and reading texts. After each two lessons, students underwent 2 recording sessions.
The collected data was analyzed, determined that the actions were successful and reported.


Problem Identification

At this very stage of the study (preliminary study) the researcher wanted to find out whether the presumed question in mind that the sophomores of the English Department, State University of Malang had problems with the pronunciation of voiced and voiceless “th” consonants as there are no same sounds in their mother tongue, was right or not. Second, the researcher wanted to ascertain if the students substitute the “th” sounds with other consonants with a near place of articulation. Lastly, the first recording functioned as an indicator of the initial conditions of the students’ pronunciation of “th” consonants.

The researcher recorded all the 25 students of the speaking class. The class was first introduced to the research questions. Additionally, the entire class got to know with the terms and conditions of the study in its turn. So, there evolved a stable mutual understanding between the class and the researcher before the launch of the research.

The researcher had prepared a short text with at least 12 words containing “th” consonants. Each student was given 10 minutes for preparation so that they could get familiar with the text. After the period of 10 minutes the students were asked to come individually in front of the class where the researcher recorded their readings. The students were required to come individually because the researcher presumed that they would be fully concentrated on the text; moreover, they might be distracted by the other students as well. While the students were reading the text the researcher was carefully recording their voices for further analysis.

After the recordings underwent a careful analysis, the pre-assumed problems were detected in the subjects’ pronunciations: almost all the subjects did not show any positive result. Taking this into account, the researcher began to plan the actions to take and prepared relevant lesson plans which were targeted to improve the subjects’ pronunciation of the “th” sounds. The lesson plans can be found in the appendices of the paper. The preliminary study results of each student are transformed into tables and the overall findings are presented in a graph demonstrating the exact number of correct and incorrect production.

MaksudFigure 1: First recording results.

Taking the results of the first recording in the preliminary study as a whole,the researcher’s initial questions were proven right. In nearly all cases students substituted “th” consonants with the consonants of a near place of articulation. To be specific, two similar sounds /t/ and /d/ superseded the /θ/and /ð/ sounds in most cases. However, there were rare occasions where some students produced /θ/and /ð/ sounds as /s/, /z/, /td/ /ds/, and /dz/. For example, according to the data analyzed from the preliminary study of this research, the word without was pronounced in various different ways. Those include the following unintelligible pronunciation samples of the word without:

/wɪtaʊt/ student 5, 20
/wɪzaʊt/ student 1
/wɪtdaʊt/ student 10
/wɪdsaʊt/ student 9, 13, 14, 19, 21, 22
/wɪdzaʊt/ student 15, 11
/wɪdaʊt/ stdnt 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 16, 17, 18, 21, 23, 25
/wɪ ð aʊt/ student 8, 12, 24

Table 2: Unintelligible pronunciations of the word without by the students in the preliminary study.

As it is obvious from the example above, most of the students have replaced the /ð/ sound with the /d/ sound which is encoded as d consonant in written discourses. It is because the consonant d is pronounced with a near place of articulation to the voiced th. However, there were at least three students who could pronounce the word without correctly as it is supposed to be; yet it does not make a great difference because those successful respondents have failed to pronounce other words correctly. Besides, according to the analysis results of the first recording, some students presented correct pronunciation of certain words too. Nevertheless, it had no such a big power to prevent the research from proceeding to initiate immediate possible treatment on the students’ pronunciation dealing with the problem due to the huge pronunciation issue that showed up in the graph of overall results above. The graph shows that the sample words, such as the, then, there, and another were pronounced totally incorrectly by all 25 subjects. The only word that was pronounced correctly by at least four students was think as it is described in the chart.

In conclusion, there were all 25 subjects present during the first recording.The outcomes seem to be clear and support the researcher’s initial assumption. Students’ real problems with the “th” consonants were finally discovered. Thus, following the results, remedial lessons got a start at the next meeting according to the plan. The results from the second and third recordings can be found in the 3rd chapter of the paper.


The Cycle

The cycle consisted of four consequent stages: planning the action, implementing the action, observing the action, and reflecting the action. The detailed description of each stage is listed below.


Planning the Action

In this stage, the researcher prepared the procedure of using pronunciation drills to improve and correct the subjects’ production of “th” sounds. He prepared the relevant lesson plans to explain how the pronunciation drills can be implemented in teaching pronunciation and achieving the students’ success in producing the correct pronunciation. Furthermore, the researcher set the criterion of success as the guidance of the research’s success. The research instruments were also prepared along with lesson materials (activities, handouts, etc.) and multimedia (LCD projector, laptop, speaking dictionary, active speaker).


Success Criterion

In conducting the research, the criterion of success was crucially important in order to know whether the action was successful or not. Related to the study, the criterion was utilized to see whether the implementation of drilling technique in teaching pronunciation was successful or failed. The students underwent three recordings based on a short text which included 12 words with “th” consonants:

The students think it is possible to pass an exam without getting prepared. They think there is another way to succeed. There is something called “cheating paper” to help them. What if what they thought does not happen through the exam? Then nothing can help them.

The assessment of “th” sounds focused on whether the sounds were pronounced correctly and if not which consonants were used instead of them, the correctly pronounced consonants were ticked in the tables and if the consonants were pronounced incorrectly, a consonant used instead of them was noted down. The overall results are shown in graphs for each recording. In this case, the students’ success was determined according to the following criterion: Each student is able to correctly pronounce at least 10 of those words in the text at the time of final recording.


Research Instruments

The focal instrument to conduct the study was the researcher himself. However, a short text including 12 words each having “th” consonants (/ð/, /θ/ sounds) was prepared by the researcher in order to find out and solve the problem, respectively. The recordings were accomplished on an “iPhone 5” device in three subsequent steps: 1st recording during the preliminary study, the 2nd during the remedial lessons, and the last 3rd recoding after the remedial lessons were over. All those three steps of recordings are compiled on a CD. Additionally, there occurred unstructured interviews between recording events. They involved the researcher wanting to know or find out more about their comprehension and producing the correct pronunciation of those sounds without there being a structure or a preconceived plan or expectation as to how they will deal with that procedure.


Implementing the Action

The implementation of the action was based on the lesson plans and it took four weeks for the remedial lessons and recordings to be accomplished. The schedule of the lessons as well as the recordings can be found in the appendices section of this paper. The researcher himself was the teacher to deliver the remedial lessons through various pronunciation activities such as exercising drills, minimal pair discrimination, tongue-twisters, reading texts on the subjects. After each two remedial lessons there were held recording events to find out whether they perceived the input provided by the teacher-practitioner. The researcher had prepared a short text having 12 words with “th” consonants to be read aloud by the students individually. Their readings were then recorder for further analysis. The short text including the conditions remained the same for further recordings also.

The three pronunciation activities were chosen because of the practice in hearing and saying the “th” consonants, moreover, the words containing “th” consonants are pronounced in two ways and the spelling of “th” does not overlap with pronunciation. During the activities the researcher tried to follow the steps, which are needed when introducing new sounds, proposed by Doff (qtd. in Dalton and Seidlhofer 1994). The necessary steps to follow when students are introduced to new sounds are shown in Table 3 below.


Table 3: Steps taken when introducing new sounds to students according to Doff (qtd. in Dalton and Seidlhofer 1994).

1.Say the sound alone.
2. Say the sound in a word.
3. Contrast it with other sounds.
4. Write the word on a board.
5. Explain how to make the sound.
6. Get students to repeat the sound in chorus.
7. Get individual students to repeat the sound.


Kenworthy (1990) adds that when introducing new sounds students need to hear them together with familiar sounds occurring in their mother tongue.

First, the introductory lesson was only about how to produce the sounds and what happens with our vocal tract during the production. The objectives of the lesson were to explain the basic features of pronunciation and create a friendly and supportive atmosphere in the class. Second, the minimal pair practice activities focused on demonstrating the contrast between the target consonants /θ/ and /ð/ and other consonants with a near place of articulation. These activities helped the students to realize how different the sounds are and therefore, comprehensible pronunciation is needed. Third, tongue twisters were selected because they present the difference between the /θ/ and /ð/ consonants and other sounds; and moreover, they represent activities that are funny and enjoyable for the students. Finally, the usage of the reading texts moved the students beyond repetition and drills as they had to think about the text properly, practice how to say each word and get encouraged to work on their intelligibility.

  1. Observing the Action

Observing the action was intended to obtain the data as the result of the stage of implementing the actions. Observing was chiefly the process of recording and gathering data about any aspects or events which were occurring during the implementation. Generally speaking, the students’ pronunciation of [th] /ð, θ/ sounds based on a short text were recorded after each two remedial lessons.

In collecting the data related to the students’ attendance during the teaching and learning process the attendance record checklist was used. The checklist was later given to the home teacher who preferred to know if her students were all present through the research period. Later, the home teacher asked the researcher’s opinion about her class: how active and interested the students were, what improvement they made, what shortcomings the researcher experienced during the study, and so forth. The sample conversation in the format of Whatsapp chat can be found in the documentation section of this paper.

  1. Reflecting the Action

In this step, all the relevant data from the implementation was analyzed and reviewed to examine if the action was successful or not by matching the observation results with the success criterion. In other words, reflection was intended to see what had been done and what had not been done within the action. In reflecting, data analysis was carried out. The data obtained from the recordings between each two remedial lessons was analyzed. Further explanations on the assessment of the recordings can be seen below.

  1. Assessing the Recordings

Assessing the recordings was a crucial part of the thesis, but it was not an easy task to be done as Celce-Murcia et al (1996) state that in the existing literature on teaching pronunciation, little attention is paid to issues of testing and evaluation. Likewise, in this study the assessment of “th” sounds were assessed by the researcher himself on whether the sounds were pronounced correctly or not. If one of the sounds, either the voiced “th” or the voiceless one were confusedly pronounced using a different similar or dissimilar sounds instead, such as [d], [t], [f], [s], [z], they were immediately noted down in the individual tables. However, the correctly pronounced consonants were shown in ticks (ü). The success percentage of each 12 words included in the short text were shown in interactive graphs.It is important to mention that the researcher used speaking dictionaries, such as Encarta and Longman in assessing the recordings.



Taking the results from the preliminary study into account, the researcher began to take actions based on the lesson plans prepared. The research was conducted during the academic year 2014 while the subjects – 25 combined speaking class attendants coming from four different classes at the English department, G, GG, H, and J classes were in their 4th semester. The remedial lessons were delivered in four meetings for four weeks; specifically, the lessons took place on March 6, 12, 18, and 24, 2014. The recording sessions took place after each two meetings: on March 17 and March 27, 2014.

After a couple of remedial lessons (March 6 and March 12, 2014) devoted to the practice of /θ/and /ð/ consonants were delivered to the subjects, they were recorded again for the second time (March 17, 2014) to see whether the activities applied through the two previous lessons were already showing their efficiency on the subjects. The students were provided with exactly the same text which was used in the preliminary study. Similarly, the conditions also remained the same as they were during the first recording that is reading the short text aloud to get their speeches recorded.

According to the consequent steps that were supposed to be taken through the research procedure, the next action in the plan was continuing delivering the remedial lessons consisting of various pronunciation activities dealing with /θ/and /ð/ sounds practice as shown in the lesson plans. After two active and encouraging lessons (March 18 and March 24, 2014), the students underwent the last recording session on March 27, 2014. The text,conditions and the process of recording remained completely the same as they were during the previous two recordings.

The assessment of the recordings during the observation process are thoroughly described on the following section.


  1. Second Recording

During the period between the first and second recording the students got familiar with “th” consonant production and were exposed to several activities that were devoted to pronunciation practise of “th” sounds.

First, they students were explained how “th” consonants are produced. Then they were provided with opportunities to practice their production. The aims of the activity were to raise students’ awareness about the ways the consonants are produced and to focus their attention to their production.

Second, students were working with minimal pair practice activities.These activities helped them with discrimination of “th” sounds from other consonants with a near place of articulation. The objectives of these exercises were to assist students with realization of the differences in pronunciation of “th” consonants and other consonants, to raise their awareness of “th” sounds production and to provide them with opportunities to practice the sounds. Moreover, both activities demonstrated how intelligibility is important during communication process.

On March 17, 2014 the students were recorded again. At this stage the researcher wanted to find out whether they still had problems with pronunciation of “th”consonants or whether their pronunciation improved and if yes which “th”sounds were pronounced correctly, whether those that occur in the initial,middle or final position.

Like the results from the first recording, the results of the second recording of each student were also transformed into tables. The tables offer an opportunity to compare how the pronunciation of individual “th” sounds changed. Tables can be found in the appendices. The overall findings are presented in a graph demonstrating the percentage rate of correct answers.


Figure 2: Second recording results.

The graph above shows that the students showed significant results during the second recording unlike the first recording results. It means that two remedial lessons during the period between the first and second recordings were advantageous for the students. The words think, nothing, they, something, through, without, them, and thought were pronounced correctly by most of the students during the second recording. However, the words like the, then, there, and another were incorrectly pronounced by the majority of the subjects. This means the students were still experiencing difficulty with the pronunciation of the voiced “th” because most of them did well in pronouncing the voiceless one as it is also clear from the graph above. In this part, students’ pronunciation based on the comparison of the two recordings will be analyzed.


Student 1, 8, 12, 18:

These students showed better results compared with other respondents during the first recording. Like any other respondent in the second recording, most of them did well in pronouncing voiceless “th” consonant. Taking the results from the table we can say that their pronunciation was improved significantly till the time of second recording.


Student 2, 4, 21, 22, 24:

These are the students who could pronounce at least one word correctly in the first recording. Nontheless, based on the results from the table we can say that their pronunciation showed noteworthy improvement during the second recording. It can be seen on the individual tables in the appendices.


Student 3, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 11, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 19, 20, 23, 25:

These students produced the most problematic “th” sounds pronunciation during the first recording. However, the results of the second recording show that their awareness of the sounds has significantly improved. Most of them could correctly pronounce the words with voiceless “th” consonant. Though their results are getting improved, they still need to be aware of the voiced “th” consonant pronunciation as most of them are still experiencing difficulties.

To conclude, the analysis of the first and second recording, in terms of improvement of “th” sounds pronunciation, demonstrates that pronunciation of the voiceless “th” consonant is easier for the students than pronunciation of the voiced one. The students were able to improve their pronunciation of the consonant mainly in the initial and middle positions, but on the other hand pronunciation of the word another was not improved at all. There was only one student, namely student 2 (AN) who pronounced the word correctly. There were some students who changed the certain sounds to other sounds pronounced with a near place of articulation during the second recording. Nevertheless, as far as the voiced “th” sounds is concerned, pronunciation was slightly improved as well, mainly in the initial position.

  1. Third recording

The period between the second and third recording was filled up with activities aimed at further correction of “th” consonants.

The first set of activities was devoted to tongue twisters. The objectives of using the tongue twisters were to provide the students with funny and enjoyable drilling exercises in order to practice pronunciation of the target sounds.

The second set was aimed at oral reading text. During these activities the students were exposed to two reading texts containing not only “th”consonants but also consonants with a near place of articulation. The main focus was paid to sustaining correct pronunciation and to demonstrate howunintelligible pronunciation can change the meaning of the texts.

On March 27, 2014 the students underwent the last recording.The findings of the third recording are stated in tables that were created foreach student and the final finding are noted in a graph demonstrating the percentage of correct answers.

Figure 3: Third recording results.

From the graph showing the students’ final results above, it can be concluded that the students were able to improve their pronunciation of both voiced and voiceless “th” consonants in no more than one cycle. The highest improvements were noted in both initial, middle positions. However, there still were some students, such as student 3 (PAR), student 16 (SF), student 17 (BYP), student 20 (ZP), student 22 (MHRH), and 23 (MRF) who could successfully meet the success criterion set by the researcher at the beginning of the research but presented at least one or two unintelligible pronunciation of certain words. Those are noted down in the corresponding tables respectively.Except for the student 17 (BYP) who unintelligibly pronounced the word through in the final recording, every student pronounced the voiceless “th” consonant i.e. /θ/ properly in all positions.On the other hand, the above mentioned students who provided at least one or two mispronunciation of “th” consonants in the 3rd recording experienced complexity with the voiced “th” consonant i.e. /ð/ in all three positions. They are shown in the corresponding individual tables above. The words which were not pronounced intelligibly are the, they, then, there, them, and another. Those five students were stuck to substituting the /ð/ sound with /d/ in most cases. Nevertheless, due to the fact that they made at least one mistake and managed to successfully meet the success criterion, it was not regarded as a considerable issue to proceed to the next cycle.Generally speaking, as far as the two voiced and voiceless “th” consonants: /θ/ and /ð/ are concerned, the results show that a major progress was made during a single cycle since the students were exposed to a wide range of pronunciation drilling activities through the remedial classes. It is important to mention that the remedial classes which occurred between the recordings were conducted in rather prolonged hours because the students showed a great enthusiasm toward the pronunciation practice activities and all of them had some sort of passion to improve their pronunciation of “th” consonants which are normally regarded as the most problematic English sounds for a non-native speaker. Therefore, the researcher had to expand the pre-planned lesson plans adding more similar pronunciation drilling activities which are not necessarily mentioned in the original lesson plans in order to equip the students with more skills of the intelligible practice of the problematic /θ/ and /ð/ sounds through using pronunciation drills, such as minimal pair discrimination, tongu-twisters, and reading texts respectively.



The discussion deals with the discussion of the findings presented in the previous chapter, principally the importance of pronunciation intelligibility for the EFL learners as well as the crucial role of pronunciation drills in attaining intelligibility. The discussion covers the procedures of the remedial lessons conducted during the research as well as their effectiveness on the subjects in relation to the existing theoretical and empirical evidence.


  1. English Pronunciation and the Target of Comfortable Intelligibility

As presented in the previous chapters, it was found out that almost all of the subjects have a problem when it comes to intelligible pronunciation of certain English sounds, particularly the two /θ/ and /ð/ sounds which majority of EFL learners consider to be one of the most problematic English sounds to produce. Hence, the researcher decided to give a treatment to the subjects’ unintelligible pronunciation of “th” consonants through conducting several remedial lessons applying pronunciation drilling technique in order to support them to achieve more intelligible production of /θ/ and /ð/ sounds of English. Let’s start the discussion with some theoretical support on comfortable intelligibility in pronunciation.

Morley (1991) states that the goal of pronunciation should be changed from the achievement of perfect pronunciation to the more realistic goals of developing functional intelligibility, communicability, increased self-confidence, the development of speech monitoring abilities and speech modification strategies for use beyond the classroom. Abercrombie (1991) describes comfortable intelligibility as pronunciation which can be understood with little or no conscious effort on the part of listener. Morley (1991) also states that the overall aim is for the learner to develop spoken English that is easy to understand, serves the learner’s individual needs, and allows a positive image as a speaker of a foreign language. Additionally, the learner needs to develop awareness and monitoring skills that will allow learning opportunities outside the classroom environment. Obviously, creating a stronger connection between pronunciation and communication can help enhance learners’ motivation by bringing pronunciation to a level of intelligibility and encouraging learners’ awareness of its potential as a tool for making their language not only easier to understand but more effective (Jones, 2002).

Pronunciation is clearly a central factor in learners’ success in making themselves understood (Elson, 1992). Morley(1991) also states that intelligible pronunciation is an essential component of communication competence that teachers should include in courses and expect learners to do well. The ability to employ stress,intonation, and articulation in ways that support comprehension is a skill that for learners from many language backgrounds will only come slowly. Elson (1992) urges that learners need to be encouraged to immerse themselves in the target language and to persist in spite of the difficulties that are part of the language-learning process. The experience of unintelligibility or incomprehension grows larger because of sensitivity to ‘correctness’ or the need to communicate successfully in the target language. The speaker’s self image and sense of accomplishment is closely bound to understanding and being understood. The result can be a high degree of frustration for the speaker or listener who might see each moment of incomprehension as a personal fault and responsibility. Klyhn (1986) observes that learners should be made aware that every message they utter needs to be understood.

  1. Individual Sounds Teaching and Its Application in the First Remedial Lesson

In terms of teaching individual sounds, most significant techniques suggested are minimal pairs, drilling, taping students’ speech to compare with each other as well as with a fixed model, choral pronunciation, lip-reading, classifying words according to their consonant, varying their criterion of “good” in pronunciation teaching(Kelly, 2003; Hewings, 2004; Lewis & Hill, 1992). Similarly, in the present study, the researcher has applied almost all of the above-mentioned techniques as key strategies to collect data as well as a means of improving the subjects’ pronunciation enabling them to achieve more intelligible English pronunciation.

As a compilation from materials of different sources, To et al. (2006) suggested a number of techniques of teaching sounds which are minimal pairs, and pronunciation games employing phonemic alphabet. Those ones have been suggested in view of Communicative Teaching approach. Vu (2008) proved that (1) Eliciting and Telling, (2) Minimal pairs, (3) Phonemic chart, (4) Exposure to English language are four really effective techniques to correct students’ mispronunciation. Those techniques are time-saving, therefore, suit well with the time limitation in class when pronunciation is integrated in speaking lessons.

During the first remedial lesson, the teaching method focused the students’ attention to the production of “th” consonant sounds. The main goals of the activities were to provide learners with an opportunity to practice the sounds in isolation, help them to fix the pronunciation and gain a control over the production. Moreover, students were given an opportunity to practice pronunciation of the problematic sounds. Since the activities were playful and entertaining students were actively involved from the very beginning and moreover, these activities helped them breakdown the initial fear of pronunciation. The only problem some students experienced was occasional substitution of /ð/ and /θ/ with /s/, /z/, /t/ or /d/. In this case the researcher followed the tip with the chewing gum suggested by Kenworthy (1990). The researcher told the students to position the gum on the roof of the mouth immediately behind the upper front teeth; for s/, /z/, /t/ and /d/ the tip of the tongue has to touch the gum; for “th” they must avoid it (Kenworthy, 1990). The researcher found her idea with a chewing gum extremely helpful as it offers an aid suitable for acquiring the postures needed for pronunciation of /ð/ and /θ/. After the introductory lesson the students felt more relaxed and familiar with the form and production of the sounds. Later, the second class concentrated on minimal pair discrimination.


  1. Minimal Pair Discrimination and Its Application in the Second Lesson


Minimal pairs have been defined in several ways.

(1)   Minimal pairs are “pairs of words that differ in meaning on the basis of a change in only one sound” (Avery & Ehrlich, 1995).

(2)   “A first rule of thumb to determine the phones of any language is to see whether substituting one sound for other results in a different word. If it does, the two sounds represent different phones. When two different forms are identical in every way except for one sound segment that occurs in the same place in the string, the two words are called a minimal pairs” (Fromkin & Rodman, 1993).

(3)   “A minimal pair consists of two words pronounced alike except for a single phonemic difference. A phoneme is the smallest unit of significantly distinctive sound. The phonemic difference is responsible for radical changes in the meaning of the word, as in hat-hit or thing-sing. Consequently, errors in auditory discrimination and/or articulation of these sounds may result in misunderstanding and misinterpretations of the meaning of the word, phrase or sentence”(Nilsen & Nilsen, 1973).

When properly employed, minimal pairs effectively facilitate pronunciation acquisition. The good cases in point are lessons and exercises designed by Baker (2006)in the two textbooks entitled Tree or Three and Sheep or Ship;and by Baker & Goldstein (2008) in the textbook entitled Pronunciation Pairs. These two authors share and illustrate the view that “language teachers can improve their students’ pronunciation markedly drilling minimal pairs in order to help them improve their intelligibility” (Hansen, 1995). When learners compare and contrast discrete sounds in the environment presented in minimal pairs, the importance of these sounds in denoting word meaning is transferred to their mind naturally.Experience shows that “pronunciation classes… make students more conscious of their own pronunciation and aware of ways in which their pronunciation differs from the model offered” (Rajadurai, 2001).

The teaching sequences applied through the remedial lessons were examples of pronunciation drilling activities. Moreover, in the second lesson, they were used to raise learners’ awareness of pronunciation and discrimination of /θ/ and /ð/ and the consonants with a near place of articulation. During the second stage students revised the problematic consonants /θ/ and /ð/ in order to establish accurate pronunciation and focus on them. The researcher prepared an interesting musical activity which enabled the students to practice the minimal pairs discrimination in a fun way. However, there were choir repeating and other similar tasks, additionally. The third stage served for realizing the difference between /θ/, /ð/ and consonants with a near place of articulation. The expected outcome was that the students would not have any major problems during any stage; although the last step was more complex they would not face up any difficulties and were able to distinguish the words correctly. The goals of those activities were to provide students with as much practice as possible in order to help them improve their pronunciation and show them how intelligibility is important during communication because mispronunciation of “th” sounds can lead into misunderstanding between a speaker and a listener. However, majority of the students were still having problems dealing with the pronunciation of the “th” sounds, particularly with the voiced “th” in most cases. Hence, the remedial lessons were kept undertaken further in order to achieve the expected result.

Actually, minimal pairs are a more serious problem than simple poor pronunciation or listening skills on the part of a student. This is because mistakes with minimal pairs do not simply impair understanding; they can lead students to believe that they understand when in fact they are quite mistaken. These kinds of mistakes can hamper their conversation skills in the obvious way that they are difficult to understand, but it can also affect their confidence and thus their inclination to even try to communicate in the first place.

The problem with helping students with minimal pairs is that it is not as simple as teaching a rule and then reinforcing it with an exercise and/or homework. This simply does not provide enough practice to enable to students to learn and become competent with new phonetics. Though minimal pairs are addressed by many language learning texts, they generally do so in a brief, one time activity or some simple repetition. Though this is better than nothing, this does little to aid students in gaining any lasting improvement in either listening or pronunciation. Minimal pairs need to be seen as a problem to be dealt with over a longer period.


  1. Tongue Twisters and Texts: Their Application in the 3rd and 4th Lessons

During the third meeting on March 18, 2014 the subjects were exposed to tongue twisters practice. Tongue twisters concentrated on accurate production and helped the students to improve their pronunciation skills. This step gave the students an opportunity to hear the sentences over and over so that they could fix the correct pronunciation of “th” consonants. As far as the last step concerned, students had to focus on faultless pronunciation. Since the texts did not only contain “th” consonants but also consonants with a near place of articulation and therefore the meaning of them would be changed completely. The objective of the tongue twisters was to help the students realize how important accurate pronunciation is through enjoyable activities. The results taken from the second recording showed that the students presented better results in contrast to the previous recording results. Nevertheless, there was one more step to go according to the lessons planned. Thus, the researcher went on conducting the remedial lessons further.

Tongue twisters are one of the few types of spoken wordplay that are fun to recite and are a great tool to aid learner’s language development.Attempting to recite a tricky rhyme or tongue twister as fast as possible without tripping over one’s tongue is a great challenge. For example, if one tries to recite this tongue twister “The thirty-three thieves thought that they thrilled the throne throughout Thursday a sample tricky one used in the remedial lesson and he/she can’t help but smile and enjoy the race to get it right. So did the subjects when they were exposed to similar activities. The tongue twisters used in the remedial lesson usually relied on alliteration – the repetition of a sound starting with a similar letter – with a phrase designed such that it is made very easy to slip (hence the fun).Tongue twisters are not only a linguistic fun and game but serve a practical purpose for language and speech development. For example, tongue twisters may be used by foreign students of English to improve their accent and speech pathologists often use them as a tool to help those with speech difficulties.

Brook suggests the following advantageous applications of tongue twisters to improve one’s pronunciation proficiency:

(1)   to target articulation, select tongue twisters featuring phonemes that are particularly difficult for your learners, for example if they have trouble making the hard ‘t’ sound, practice tongue twisters that use that particular alliteration.

(2)   to bolster confidence, select tongue twisters featuring phonemes your learners are particularly good at. To really make them laugh, the teacher can recite tongue twisters with phonemes they are bad at.

(3)   to make a game of it, print out a bunch of tongue twisters, cut them into individual strips, put the strips in a basket, have each player draw one, and award points based on how few repetitions are needed to master it.

(4)   to work on speed, add a stopwatch to the game and make the player who can recite the twister correctly in the shortest time the winner of each round.

(5)   to motivate your learners, use tongue twisters as “Get Out of Time-Out Free” cards; if your learners can recite one correctly, they are sprung.

Likewise, similar techniques were actively involved in the third remedial lesson. It was obvious that the students had fun with the tongue twisters provided. The classroom was full of laughter and shouts as the students were trying to get the tongue twisters right. Finally, after individual and choir practices along with the recorded samples, they could get the tricky tongue twisters right in their pronunciations. Later, in order to make sure that the students would come up with better results, the researcher applied reading texts in the last meeting on March 24, 2014. The students were once again aware of the both voiced and voiceless “th” consonants seeing their differences with the words which are pronounced with a near articulation in oral speech. The reading text activity was rather complex and therefore the researcher decided to use it as the last activity before the final recording. The reading text gave the students the opportunity to work on their pronunciation as a whole because the texts did not only contain the target “th” sounds but also other consonants with a near place of articulation and therefore mispronunciation of /θ/ and /ð/ would make them unintelligible. At this stage it was extremely important to provide the students with an appropriate and constructive feedback. Since as stated earlier, students were not able to assess their pronunciation. The inability to assess their pronunciation could lead to wrong assumptions about their pronunciation. Those wrong assumptions could make their speech unintelligible for a listener. The main aims of the activity were to revise pronunciation of the target “th” consonants and get used to their production.

All the pronunciation drilling activities applied through the remedial lessons finally proved their efficiency in at least one cycle without the necessity for proceeding to the next cycle. In the preliminary study, the subjetcs’ pronunciation of the two voiced and voiceless “th” consonants lacked intelligibility; however, after they had been exposed to interactive and interesting drilling activities, they have achieved better results and could meet the success criterion set by the researcher. The students were enthusiastic showing an exceptional interest and encouragement toward improving their pronunciation with the researcher and they did their utmost to attain intelligibility in their speeches. It is important to mention that the student 5 had the most unintelligible pronunciation of the both “th” sounds since the beginning of the study. Nevertheless, she came up with the best result by the final recording.



The final thesis has chiefly dealt with the improvement and correction of “th”consonants pronunciation that contribute to the intelligibility of non-native students of English, distinctively, the somphomores of the speaking class at the department of English, State University of Malang.

In the theoretical part, namely in the 1st chapter features of pronunciation and the potentially problematic sounds for the Indonesian learners of English were outlined in general. In this part, the researcher also inquires about the reasons for teaching pronunciation and how intelligibility of learners is important in everyday communication. Furthermore,since pronunciation teaching is still being neglected and for some reasons it is normally pushed to the margins of the language teaching, teachers’ and students’ rolesare also presented in the theoretical part. Moreover, the part presents factors that influence pronunciation acquisition. Lastly, attention was paid to the intelligible production of “th” consonants and characteristic features of them were thoroughly outlined.

In the practical part, however,the researcher aimed to present the actual research on improving and correcting the sophomores’ pronunciation of “th” sounds. In order to prove that the initial assumptions and the research questions were correct the researcher asked all the 25 subjects to undergo three recordings. The first recording proved the initial assumptions to be right since the students were not able to pronounce “th” consonants correctly.

On the basis of the finding from the first recording in the preliminary study, the researcher framed various pronunciation activities aimed at “th” consonants practice. During the pronunciation activities the students were introduced to the production of “th”consonants and exposed to pronunciation practice of them through the application of pronunciation drills. Then the students were recorded again to enable the researcher to compare the first and second recordings together. At this stage of the research the researcher focused on how “th”consonants were pronounced and if they were mispronounced which consonants were used instead. After the second recording, the students worked on other pronunciation practice activities and then they were recorded for the last time. Subsequently, the researcher compared all three recordings together in order to answer the research questions. On the basis of the results from the analysis of the recordings,the initial assumption was proved wrong; on the other hand, the research questions whether the sophomore undergraduates of the English department, State University of Malang were able to improve their pronunciation of /θ/ and /ð/ consonants and if those sophomores of the English department, State University of Malang achieve faultless pronunciation of /θ/ and /ð/consonants were in fact proved right. Since the students’ pronunciation of the both /θ/ and /ð/ was successfully corrected, the researcher decided to draw a conclusion within one cycle only.

Nevertheless, the findings from the research demonstrate that factors influencing pronunciation acquisition, such as age of the students or the mother tongue do play an important role in pronunciation learning process.On the other hand, systematic and continual work on pronunciation can help learners to become more intelligible.

To conclude, assessing the students’ pronunciation turned to be the most complicated and demanding part of the research since the researcher found it to be very difficult to set which sounds can still be considered as correct and which cannot. However, in this case, the researcher addressed the trusted speaking dictionaries in order to make the evaluation substantially fair.



Having the present opportunity, the researcher would like to address the English teachers, students, as well as the schools in Indonesia with certain suggestions which could be drawn from the current research. The preliminary study results of the present research gave the researcher less positive impressions. Although the University students majoring in English were in their 4th semester of study their pronunciation intelligibility was still under the common standards.

According to a number of scholarly sources that are mostly introduced in the theoretical part, pronunciation intelligibility of a non-native speaker of English is crucially important in making comprehensible communications. Since pronunciation is a complex and important part of learning and teaching process teachers need to set goals and aims they want to achieve with their students. As perfect accents are difficult if not impossible to achieve in foreign language(Ur, 1984) the goal of teachers should be making their students be easily understandable when communicating with other people. The speaking class teachers would better pay more attention to the practice of individual English sounds with which most of their students seem like experiencing difficulty in pronunciation. Even though several linguists argue that the pronunciation drilling techniques are rather old-fashioned method of teaching pronunciation, based on the results of the present study, however, the researcher believes that this technique is at least useful in teaching individual sounds. Therefore, the speaking class teachers have to apply more pronunciation drilling activities in order enable their students achieve an intelligible English pronunciation. The language teachers have to improve their own pronunciations first as their students see them as models from whom they learn correct pronunciation.

Likewise, the students are also suggested to be more aware of their speech intelligibility in the English language. Once they are aware, they would be willing to exercise more and gradually improve their pronunciation through constant practicing the difficult sounds like “th” consonants which were the focal issue of the present research. Additionally, the students need to be aware of their academic and social future considering English to be an international language. Once they have rather intelligible command of English, they would stand out among their fellow workers and achieve more than anyone with unintelligible speech in the English language. In order to achieve this, they need to be exposed to regular pronunciation practice at schools.

Lastly but most importantly, the schools as well as their curricula are equally responsible factors which can greatly contribute to the spoken English language intelligibility level of their students. The Indonesian schools have to include more speaking classes in their curricula in order to enable the students to achieve more intelligible English pronunciation at an early age when they are still more motivated and encouraged to learn and discover. Additionally, more similar researches need to be undertaken on the English pronunciation and its intelligibility issues in the Indonesian context and contribute to the development of teaching and learning process of the English language in the country. The future researchers are suggested to feel free to make use of the present research findings and investigate more and deeper in the similar fields.



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Sri Prameswari Indriwardhani, M.Pd.
(Jurusan Sastra Jerman Universitas Negeri Malang)


Abstract: One of the communicative languange competences is called strategic competence. Language learning strategies explain how a language can be learned and how mental concepts can be created to reach a certain language competence. Mnemotechniques are part of cognitive learning strategies. They enable the student to systematically store new vocabulary in his or her brain which can be accessed easily at any time. Mnemotechniques consist of, a)mnemonic rhymes, acronyms, b) storytelling technique, c) visualization.

Key Words: learning strategies, mnemotechniques


Menurut Brown (2000:7), belajar dan mengajar saling berhubungan karena belajar adalah mendapatkan atau memperoleh suatu pengetahuan dari suatu bahan atau keterampilan melalui pengalaman dan instruksi. Belajar merupakan perubahan tingkah laku yang relatif permanen sebagai hasil dari latihan yang matang. „ Learning is relatively permanent change in a behavioral tendency and is the result of reinforced practice“. Mengajar adalah menunjukkan atau membantu seseorang untuk belajar bagaimana mengerjakan sesuatu, memberikan instruksi-instruksi dan membimbing dalam belajar sesuatu. Mengajar merupakan pembimbingan dan menfasilitasi belajar, dan menyediakan kondisi yang kondusif untuk belajar.

Pembelajaran bahasa khususnya bahasa asing sekarang ini berdasarkan pada metode komunikatif. Metode ini mengembangkan beberapa kompetensi. Menurut Bachman dalam Brown (2000:248-249), dalam Communicative Language Competence dan Bimmel (2000:39), kompetensi komunikatif meliputi kompetensi linguistik dan kompetensi strategi. Kompetensi linguistik meliputi kompetensi tatabahasa, yang di dalamnya terdapat kosakata, morfologi, sintak, fonologi, kompetensi memahami teks, kompetensi pragmatik, dan sosiokultural. Kompetensi Strategi meliputi kompetensi menggunakan bahasa (strategi komunikasi) dan kompetensi menggunakan strategi belajar.

Menurut Neuner (1991:76), mengajarkan strategi belajar dalam pembelajaran bahasa sangatlah penting, karena dengan mengajarkan strategi belajar maka pembelajar dalam belajar bahasa akan menjadi lebih mandiri. Salah satu strategi belajar bahasa adalah dengan strategi belajar teknik Mnemo.

Mnemoteknik merupakan salah satu strategi belajar kognitif. Strategi belajar kognitif adalah menghubungkan apa yang sudah ketahui dengan konsep atau gagasan-gagasan baru, sehingga konsep atau gagasan itu mempunyai tambatan dalam ingatan sehingga tidak akan mudah untuk dilupakan. Ada dua proses yang sangat menentukan dalam otak yaitu: asosiasi dan penyortiran. Kata-kata dalam ingatan merupakan simbol-simbol yang mempunyai elemen-elemen yang saling berhubungan. Elemen-elemen itu bersifat semantis, morfologis, sintaktis, fonetis dan afektif. Jika semua elemen itu dihubungkan maka kata-kata itu akan tersimpan dengan baik dan dapat dengan mudah diingat. Penyortiran adalah proses pemilahan kata-kata dalam pikiran (Bohn, 2000: 82-84).

Teknik ini sudah ada sejak zaman dulu, akan tetapi bisa dikatakan bahwa penemunya adalah penyair Yunani Simonides, yang hidup pada tahun 556 – 468 sebelum Kristus lahir. Dalam suatu peristiwa pembantaian pada acara pesta makan malam di Thessalien, dia adalah satu-satunya orang yang selamat dalam pembantaian itu karena dia meninggalkan acara jamuan itu lebih awal dan dia dapat menceritakan secara detail korban pembantaian itu berdasarkan tempat duduknya. Teknik ini dinamakan Loci (tempat). Hal ini merupakan dasar dari teknik Mnemo (Sperber, 1989: 16-17)

Pada awal abad ke 16 sampai abad ke 17 sejalan dengan adanya zaman Reformasi dalam gereja, teknik ini digunakan untuk menghafalkan isi bibel dan pada zaman itu sudah ada Professor Mnemoteknik yang berkeliling untuk menyebarkan ilmunya dan karya-karyanya sudah dipublikasikan. Teknik Mnemo yang terkenal waktu itu adalah Kennworter yaitu pada setiap huruf mengandung kata tertentu, salah contoh dalam bahasa Indonesia adalah untuk mengingat warna pelangi dengan singkatan mejingkuhibiniu (merah, jingga, kuning, biru, nila, ungu).

Pada awal abad ke 20 dan abad 20 sudah banyak peneliti yang menghubungkan teknik ini dengan psikologi belajar dan efektifitas belajar. Menurut Levin dalam Sperber psikologi dalam belajar ialah Recoding, relating dan retrieving. Teknik Mnemo menghubungkan kata-kata yang akan dipelajari dengan pengetahuan sebelumnya (relating) melalui proses recoding.  Retrieving atau pengingatan kembali merupakan hasil dari kedua proses tersebut (Sperber,1989:22-29). Pada 20 tahun terakhir ini faktor-faktor dalam belajar seperti kenyataan (Konkretheit), kegairahan (Lebhaftigkeit), keanehan (Bizarrheit), emosi (Emotion), warna (Farbe) yang mempunyai pengaruh dalam belajar. Dalam Mnemoteknik faktor-faktor ini mendukung ingatan visual. Dalam mengingat suatu kata ada dua proses yaitu proses mengingat secara visual dan verbal. Proses ini akan saling menguntungkan apabila informasi itu diberikan secara gambar dan akustik motorik secara bersama-sama, sehingga apa yang telah diingat tidak akan mudah dilupakan. (Sperber,1989:83-84).

Menurut Brown (2000: 119) dan Pohl dalam, fungsi otak bagian kanan adalah menyimpan informasi secara visual baik gerak tubuh dan gambar, intuisi, perasaan, kreatif dan spontan, suka akan musik dan seni, tergantung pada ruang/tempat dan menyimpan informasi secara global dan garis besar. Sedangkan fungsi otak kiri adalah menyimpan informasi secara verbal, matematis, rasional/logik, teratur, analisis dan sangat detail, tahap demi tahap dan tergantung pada waktu.


Teknik Mnemo dalam Pembelajaran Bahasa Jerman

Syarat dari penerapan teknik Mnemo agar efektif menurut Mjima dalam adalah dengan terlebih dahulu mengaktifkan minat pembelajar, menggunakan semua panca indera dan perasan pembelajar dan informasi yang akan diberikan sedapat mungkin secara visual. Menurut Sperber (1989: 10-16) dan Bohn (2000:95-100) yang termasuk strategi belajar teknik Mnemo adalah:

  1. Eselsbrücken/Merkverse und Akronym (titian ingatan dan akronim). Yang terpenting dalam titian ingatan ini adalah adanya kombinasi keseragaman rima dengan visual, motorik dan ritmik, sehingga informasi yang dipelajari akan tersimpan dengan baik. Contoh: untuk mengingat preposisi dalam bahasa Jerman bisa dengan menyanyikannya, aus,bei,mit,nach,seit,von,zu,seit,von zu alle haben Dativ (melodi lagu ini seperti lagu Brother John dalam bahasa Inggris).

Huruf awal sebuah kata dapat dijadikan sebagai titian ingatan. Akronim ini sangat individualis tergantung pembelajar itu sendiri. Misalnya seorang pembelajar mengemudi akan selalu ingatkata Wolke karena kata ini merupakan akronim dari:

Wasser (air)

Oel (minyak)

Licht (lampu)

Kraftstoff (Benzin)

Elektrik (elektrik/bertenaga listrik)


2. Schlüsselwortmethode(keyword method/Kata Kunci)

Proses metode ini adalah menghubungkan kesamaan bunyi antara bahasa Ibu dengan bahasa yang dipelajari/bahasa sasaran. Sperber (1989:11) mengatakan bahwa metode ini mendukung interaksi visual dalam ingatan. Contoh: pembelajar bahasa Jerman dari Ceko menghubungkan kata spáti – dengan bahasa Jerman spät (terlambat). Padanan dalam bahasa Indonesia masih belum diketemukan.


3.   Metode Loci

Loci berasal dari bahasa Yunani berarti tempat. Metode ini menggunakan ingatan ruang/tempat yang telah dikenal dengan baik sebagai tempat untuk menyimpan dan mengingat kosakata yang akan dipelajari. Proses metode ini adalah:

  1. pembelajar membayangkan suatu jalan, misalnya jalan menuju rumah atau jalan menuju tempat kerja.
  2. kemudian pembelajar berjalan melalui jalan itu dengan menghubungkan kata-kata yang ingin dipelajari. Dengan kata lain, pembelajar meletakkan kata-kata yang ia pelajari di tempat-tempat yang dia kenal dengan baik, sehingga menjadi suatu situasi yang tidak lazim. Situasi yang tidak lazim ini sangat mendukung ingatan.

c. pembelajar melalui jalan itu dalam pikiran dan menemukan benda-benda yang tidak lazim di tempat yang dia sudah kenal dengan baik.

Pengaruh dari teknik ini adalah menghubungkan apa yang pembelajar sudah ketahui dengan baik dengan suatu yang baru/ kata baru. Sehingga kata baru itu tidak akan mudah dilupakan. Akan tetapi untuk konsep-konsep yang abstrak teknik ini sulit untuk dilakukan.

Contoh: pada gambar berikut ini digambarkan penerapan metodi Loci. Kata bak mandi (Badewanne) ditempatkan di depan rumah, kata kapal (Schiff) diletakkan di depan garasi (Garage), kata Harimau (Tiger)diletakkan di atas Pagar (Zaun), dan kata berlian (Diamant) ditempatkan dia atas pohon Ek besar (Eiche), kemudian kata-kata itu dirangkai menjadi sebuah kalimat.


Gambar. Metode Loci (Bohn, 2000:97)


  1. Teknik bercerita (die Geschichtentechnik)

Proses teknik ini adalah pembelajar diminta untuk mengingat 10 kata dan membuat cerita dari 10 kata tersebut. Sebagai contoh: dalam suatu eksperimen, salah seorang pembelajar membuat cerita dari 10 kata berikut ini   Ente (angsa), Hausfrau (nyonya rumah), Hecke (pagar), Holzfäller(penebang kayu), Kissen (bantal), Kolonie (sekumpulan), Möbelstück (mebel), schlitten(terpeleset), Strümpfe(kaos kaki/stocking), stürzen(berlari kencang).

Menjadi “ Der Holzfäller stürzte aus dem Wald, schlitterte um eine Hecke hinter einer Kolonie von Enten. Er stolperte über ein Möbelstück, zerriss sich seine Strümpfe, während er zu dem Kissen hastete, auf dem die Hausfrau lag.”(seorang penebang kayu berlari kencang dari hutan kemudian dia tersangkut di pagar tanama yang di belakangnya ada sekumpulan angsa. Dia tersandung sebuah mebel, hingga kaus kakinya robek, dan terjatuh di atas bantal yang di atasnya berbaring sang nyonya rumah).

5.   Visualisasi

Contoh dari visualisasi adalah permainan ingatan atau “ Memoryspiel”. Dalam permainan ini pembelajar mencocokkan kata dengan gambar atau menghubungkan kata dengan warna. Contoh: rot wie Blut (semerah darah), weiß wie Schnee(seputih salju), blau wie Meer(sebiru laut). Visualisasi dapat berbentuk diagram tata bahasa untuk memudahkan dalam mengingat kaidah bahasa. Visualisasi dapat memperjelas fenomena kaidah bahasa Jerman, sebagai contoh kata kerja disimbolkan dengan bentuk ellips dan subjek dengan bentuk segi empat.



Gambar. Teknik Visualisasi untuk Preposisi (Wolf,1988:11)


6. Gute Freunde (teman baik)

Teknik ini menghubungkan suatu kata dari bahasa ibu yang mempunyai hampir kesamaan tulisan dan pengucapan akan tetapi mempunyai arti/makna yang berbeda dengan bahasa sasaran. Teknik ini sangat cocok untuk bahasa yang serumpun. Contoh: kata come (dalam bahasa Inggris) dengan kommen, kedua kata ini menpunyai arti yang sama (Bohn, 2000:98-102 & Sperber, 1989: 113-140).

7. Menggunakan Flash cards yaitu menulis kata kata di kartu dan menggaris bawahi kata kata yang dianggap penting, membuat catatan sendiri tentang kaidah tata bahasa. Di balik kartu, siswa dapat menuliskan terjemahannya. Akan lebih bagus jika kartu disusun dalam 3 bagian, dengan sususan bagian pertama untuk kartu yang baru dipelajari, bagian kedua adalah kartu yang sudah dipelajari satu kali, dan bagian ketiga untuk kartu yang sudah kita pelajari secara mantap. Kartu dapat disusun secara abjad.

Sri-kartukosa kata

Gambar 2.13. Kartu Kosakata (Bohn.2000)




Strategi belajar teknik Mnemo bukan merupakan strategi belajar yang baru, terlebih strategi akronim kita telah mengenalnya sejak di sekolah dasar ketika kita menghafal warna pelangi. Tidak ada salahnya dan bahkan dianjurkan dalam belajar bahasa asing, pembelajar menggunakan strategi belajar yang telah dikenalnya sehingga belajar itu menjadi lebih baik dan bermakna, seperti yang dikatakan oleh Neuner yaitu man lernt besser wenn man weisst.


Daftar Pustaka

Bimmel, Peter., Kast, Bernd., Neuner, Gerd. 2003. Deutschunterricht planen Arbeit mit Lehrwerkslektionen Fernstudieneinheit 18. München: Uni Kassel, Goethe Institut & Langenscheidt

Bimmel, Peter & Rampilon, Utte.2002. Lernstrategien und Lernautonomi Fernstudieneinheit 23. Muenchen: Uni Kassel, Goethe Institut & Langenscheidt

Funk, Hermann. 2000. The Learner’s Handbook, Learning Strategies, German Phrases, German Grammar. Berlin: Cornelsen

Bohn, Rainer, 2000. Probleme der Wortschatzarbeit Fernstudiemeinheit 22. München: Uni Kassel, Goethe Institut & Langenscheidt

Brown, H.Douglas. 2000. Principles of Language Learning and Teaching, second edition. New Jersey:Prentice Hall inc

Heyd, Gertraude. 1990. Deutsch Lehren Grundwissen für den Unterricht in Deutsch als Fremdsprache. Frankfurt am Main: Diesterweg

Neuner, Gerhard. 1991. Lernerorientierte Wortschatzauswahl und –vermittlung. Majalah Deutsch als Fremdsprache. Edisi 2/1991 hal: 76-83. München: Goethe Institut

Sperber, G Horst. 1989. Mnemoteknik im Fremdsprachenerwerb. München:Iudicium Verlag, diakses pada 27.04.2011

The Use of Translation for English Teaching in Indonesia: An Attempt to Reclaim Its Legitimacy

by Futuh Handoyo, State Polytechnic of Malang


While the status of translation as a field of study is improving with increasing institutional standing, translation as learning and teaching device is still viewed with great suspicion. As a field of study, translation is learned by those who have acquired sufficient proficiency in second language with the purpose of becoming professional translators. As a tool of learning and teaching, translation is used as a technique in the process of acquiring the target language learned. Unluckily, the growing status of translation as a field of study does not automatically justify its rehabilitation as a language teaching instrument.
On the heyday of Grammar Translation Method, translation played a central role in language classroom. The method gained wide acceptance before its decline around the end of nineteenth century along with the advent of Direct Method (Omaggio, 1986). Since then translation for classroom use has been faced with objections of various kinds. The proponents of Direct Method argued that the goal of learning a second and or foreign language was the ability to communicate orally using the target language so the use of students’ native language was strongly prohibited. Audio Lingual Method, a subsequent popular method, also showed strong objection to the use of students’ native language in the classroom as they thought that students’ native language constituted a major source of interference, which would impede the successful process of acquiring the target language. Though not as strong as the above methods, Communicative Approach, which is still widely accepted nowadays, also have significant objection to the use of translation for classroom use. Most language teachers today have been the advocates of this method and largely avoid using translation in their teaching activities, although few of them begin to view it differently.
For a long time, foreign language teaching, particularly English language teaching, in non English departments in Indonesia has been swaying, going to where the winds of global mainstream methods blow, but until now there is still no record reporting significant improvement in the result. It has been a history of series of failures and disappointment. This seems to be the calling to approach the problem with more dignity and self confidence. Instead of just becoming loyal followers and consumers of global methods, experts and practitioners of language teaching in Indonesia should begin to dive into their own ocean directly, activating their own logic and intuition to probe real and actual problems and create genuine solutions. They should increase their understanding on their own problems and contexts so if strategies, methods, or approaches should be adopted or adapted from out there, consideration should be made on their suitability much more than on their worldwide acceptance.
The main objectives of this paper are, first, to reassess the role of translation in English pedagogy for Indonesian context and, second, to describe the case example of how translation is used to teach grammar for more productive purposes.

First objection
Translation should be avoided because the goal of foreign language teaching nowadays is to help learners to develop communicative competence, primarily spoken communication, while translation only works to develop the learners’ ability to understand written language. This is a typical criticism imposed by the proponents of Direct Method to Grammar Translation Method. This is obviously not fair to blame translation simply because the method that uses translation as its central technique does not serve the goal that is not its own goal. Translation has been abandoned due to the outdated ness of Grammar Translation Method orientation, not due to its own evil. Translation should not have been treated as a victim until hard efforts are made to adjust how it is used with the new language orientation.

Second objection
Translation should be rejected as it is a source of language interference which will result in language deviation. This is criticism from the proponents of Audio Lingual Method, who believe that language is habit formation. As they see it, wrong habits and deviation of any kinds should be avoided as early as possible, otherwise they will be very hard to eradicate. This criticism is, in fact, not realistic as a number of studies have convinced that errors are inevitable and even believed as an indicator of progress. Not even single human being can acquire language without making deviation even when he learns his native language.

A process of acquiring new language, then, should be seen as a process of acquiring successive dialects or language systems which have distinct features from the learners’ native language or target language, with the early systems being closer to their native language and the later systems to their target language. These successive language systems are referred to, in most literatures, as interlanguages (Selinker, 1974).
Learners of early interlanguage stages or beginners still have very limited skill and knowledge about the target language so they tend to use their previous mother tongue as a means to organize the target language data (Brown, 1978).. Therefore, in these stages, interference from native language is unavoidable and the learners will transfer their L1 features to their L2, in spite of prohibition whatsoever. The interlingual deviations will diminish gradually as their competence in L2 is increasing. Thus, it is a waste of time telling the early learners not to translate as it is unrealistic and against their instinct. To reduce the problems of interference, learners are not to block them but to go through them.

First argument
Most students, if not all, still have early interlanguage level and, thus, the pull of interference is still very strong. They still largely rely on Indonesian when producing English so they need to be guided how to do it properly.
Second argument
Comprehensible language input is very limited so the chance for incidental learning to take place is low and, in turns, the chance for progress to naturally proceed beyond early interlanguage stage is also low. Deliberate efforts on both sides, the students and the teachers, are necessary to avoid premature fossilization. Lack of grammatical competence has high risk of early fossilization and translation is potential to improve grammatical competence.

Third argument
All students and teachers come from the same native language background so translation strategy has high aspect of practicality. Potential difficulties that are rooted in L1 interference is possible to predict using contrastive linguistic and, thus, material selection and grading can be made for class.

Conscious vs. subconscious grammar
The terms conscious and subconscious grammar was coined by Stephen Krashen. Conscious grammar refers to grammar competence that is accomplished through conscious process of learning and usually in formal setting with language form as its focus, while subconscious grammar is grammar competence that is acquired subconsciously in natural setting with language meaning as its focus. He claimed that only acquired subconscious grammar competence can give contribution to productive ability, while learned conscious grammar competence only operates as monitoring agent. In addition, He also views that conscious and subconscious knowledge are entirely distinct with the result that conscious competence is not convertible into subconscious competence (Dulay and Krashen, 1982)
The above distinction has also been made by some other authors and variously referred to as declarative-procedural by Anderson, static-dynamic by Diana Larsen Freeman, controlled-automatic processing by Mclaughin and explicit-implicit by Rod Ellis. However, they are different from Krashen in that they believe that conscious grammar competence can be converted into subconscious grammatical competence. Therefore, unlike Krashen, who holds that explicit grammar teaching is not required and, thus, proposes zero-grammar instruction, they indicate its necessity.
Subconscious or implicit grammar competence can be acquired inductively through subconsciously generalizing substantial language input the learners are exposed to, or deductively through internalizing what they have learned consciously. The first, then, is called generalized subconscious or implicit grammar competence and the latter is called internalized subconscious or implicit grammar competence.

Theoretical framework: Anderson’s Cognitive Automaticity Theory
Anderson describes the route through which explicit or conscious knowledge is transformed into implicit or subconscious knowledge. Instead of using the terms explicit and implicit knowledge, he introduced the concept of declarative knowledge and procedural knowledge. In order to bring declarative knowledge into use, or to convert explicit knowledge into implicit knowledge, there are three stages to go through, cognitive stage, associative stage, and autonomous stage (O’Malley, retrieved 2008).

During the cognitive stage, the learner is instructed or self learn the rules to do a certain task consciously and result in a sort of declarative knowledge, which he or she can describe verbally. In this stage, the learner gets intellectual understanding on how to do the task but it is still inadequate for skilled performance. The knowledge is stored in short-term memory, which is capacity-limited. During the second or associative stage, two main changes occur along the process of converting the declarative into procedural knowledge. The learner begins to attempt to put his or her learned declarative knowledge in use. However, he or she still makes a lot of errors, which are gradually detected and eliminated along the course of practice. Besides, the connections among the various components required for successful performance are strengthened. This is a slow process and the ultimate result is that declarative knowledge is now turned into its procedural form or proceduralized. During the third or autonomous stage, the learner’s performance becomes increasingly fine-tuned. Performance of the skill becomes virtually spontaneous and automatic and errors inhibiting successful performance disappear. The force on the part of the learner becomes more effortless and less conscious. The knowledge now is stored in long-term memory, which is capacity-unlimited. In short, declarative knowledge can be learned in one trial but a skill can only be mastered after relatively long period of practice.

Anderson’s three stage processing matches PPP teaching procedure, in which Cognitive stage relates to Presentation, Associative stage to Practice, and Autonomous stage to Produce. Out of the three stages, it is obvious that the second stage constitutes the most complex and crucial stage because it is exactly there the process of converting knowledge to skill is in progress; consequently, in PPP procedure the Practice step constitutes the most challenging step. Mechanical drill in Audio-Lingual Approach and communicative drill in Communicative Language Teaching with their repetition seem to be designed to serve this purpose. Therefore, it makes sense to say that the success of converting knowledge into skill depends largely on whether the learners make a lot of practice or not.

General Principles:
1). Deductive grammar teaching is seen as complementary to inductive grammar teaching and consciousness raising.
2). Grammar items to be taught deductively should be selected only those that are basic and global and have strong role in comprehensibility. Other complicated details are left to subconscious acquisition process and consciousness raising through communicative activities in Speaking and Reading classes.
3). Though distinguishable, conscious learning is not separable from subconscious acquisition. Grammar items learned consciously can subsequently be put into the subconscious or made automatic through three stages described by Anderson.
4). Form-meaning connection should be made to enhance acquisition.
5). Grammar teaching should focus on facilitating students’ interlanguage development.
6). Translation practice should not be done on surface structure or syntactic level only but on semantic level.
7). The Indonesian expressions to be translated should be those that the students are likely to use, instead of standard Indonesian only.
8). Written drill should complement oral drill to reduce the students’ being too exhausted.
7). Students’ positive attitude and their active participation in teaching and learning activities play a very important role in learning success.

General procedure
The procedure of the teaching is basically deductive, proceeding from rule conscious understanding, which constitutes short term memory, to rule subconscious internalization, which is long term memory. In spite of hard criticism, the technique adapts the variant of Audio Lingual procedure which is often referred to as PPP. PPP stands for Presentation, Practice, and Produce.
Since grammar has delayed effect and, hence, takes long time to be reflected in language natural production, the target in this teaching is only to improve the students’ speed in translating Indonesian sentences orally. In Practice stage, a grammar rule consisting of mainly form and meaning is presented deductively using Indonesian language. In Practice stage, unlike in its original practice which focuses on mechanical drill such as substitution drill, etc., more cognitive practice in the form of translating Indonesian expressions into English is given. The early part of practice is focused to reinforce the students understanding. The effect of the practice is observed thoroughly to monitor the students’ conscious understanding and error correction, therefore, is often made. The later part is focused on internalizing the conscious understanding to more subconscious competence. In this stage, the speed of the practice is increased gradually and correction is focused more on students’ mistakes. Finally, Produce stage is used to test the result.
Since learning-acquisition category is seen as a continuum, there is no clear-cut demarcation border between conscious learning and internalization stage. The movement from reinforcing conscious understanding to internalizing the conscious understanding constitutes a fading emphasis from the heavy weight of conscious learning proceeding gradually to that of subconscious internalization.

Sample learning scenario
Topic : Full verbs vs. verbs be
Objectives : 1. Students are able to identify propositions that require verbs be and those that do not.
2. Students are able to translate propositions that require verbs be and those that do not into grammatical English sentences.
Procedure : 1. The teacher explains about the rules of basic English sentences (sentences with be and without be) by comparing with the corresponding Indonesian sentences.
2. The teacher trains the students to be able to judge very quickly whether a sentence requires be or not. First, the class is divided into groups of five or so, then they are given ten Indonesian sentences, some of which require be and some others do not when translated into English. What is required from them is only write be (is, am or are) or verb (go or goes etc.) For example, for the sentence Ayahku di rumah, they should write is, and for the sentence Ibu kerja di bank, they should write only works
3. The students submit their work (one work for one group). The teacher corrects their work and gives it back to discuss in the groups.
4. The teacher asks the groups to translate the complete sentences and submit to him to correct and give back to them.
5. The teacher dictates another ten Indonesian sentences and tells the students to work individually translating the sentences into English. In order that the students focus their attention on grammatical problem, they may ask the teacher about difficult vocabulary, if any. They, then, submit their work and the teacher correct the work at home.




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Ellis, Rod. 2001. The Study of Second Language Acquisition. Oxford: Oxford University Press

Dulay, Heidi., & Krashen .Stephen. 1982. Language Two. New York: Oxford University Press

Llantada, M Carmen Perez. 2007. New Trends in Grammar Teaching: Issues and Application: An Interview with Prof . Diana Larsen-Freeman. ATLANTIS 29.1. Retrieved August, 2008 fromérez-Llantada.pdf

Omaggio, Alice C. 1986. Teaching Language in Context. Heinle & Heinle Publishers Inc.

O’Malley, J. Michael, et al. Some Application of Cognitive Theory to Second Language Acquisition. Retrieved August, 2008 from

Selinker.1974. Interlanguage, in Jack Richard (ed), Error Analysis Perspectives on Second Language Acquisition,). London: Longman Group Limited,

Risk-Taking as a Contributing Factor to Make Learning English a Success

(Kutipan referensi/citation: Jurnal Linguistik terapan Vol 3/1, Mei 2013)

Ermyna Seri

Politeknik Negeri Medan



The success of language learning can be affected by internal and external factors. One of the internal factors is risk-taking. This factor drives learners to be able to gamble a bit, to be willing to try out hunches about the language and take the risk of being wrong. This article elaborates the characteristics of risk-taking learners on learning English, the learners’ personal learning problems on learning English, and the methods of increasing risk-taking ability. The methods discussed here directly address the learners’ personal learning problems which include inhibition to speak, low self-esteem, lack of motivation, and low risk-taking ability. Considering the significant role of risk-taking to the success in learning English, language teachers should establish an encouraging class atmosphere or a nonthreatening classroom climate in their classes to reveal risk takers.

Keywords: success, English learning, risk-taking


English is one of the languages widely used in the world by the speakers whose first language is not English. Besides its function as a means of communication with other speakers, it is also used as a medium to get some information or read materials in English about issues, advancement of technology and knowledge, and understand about different nation or people’s culture.

In Indonesia English is often considered as a foreign language or second language. English is one of the subjects taught in school starting from primary to university level. English is the subject on the school curriculum, and it is compulsory for students to take and pass the examination in order to be graduated from school.

To pass from this period, students have to go through the process of learning. Learning process is the path to reach success in which the students have to go through several stages in order to understand something that he or she has not known yet before. Furthermore a student who can carry out the learning activity can be assumed that he understands about something he or she has learnt about something (Rooijakkers, 1991:14). One individual’s learning process is called internal process. This internal process can be seen from the student’s individual behavioral change or action that reflects the learning (Rooijakkers, 1991:5).

Some students learn English faster and more easily than the others in school and they tends to be more .successful than the others. Success is perceived from two perspectives, namely the internal and external factors, but in this article, the internal factor would be discussed. Therefore the title chosen is “Risk-Taking as Contributing Factor To Make Success Of Learning English”.


Learning according to Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary is knowledge obtained by study. Dimiyati and Mudjiono (2006) said that this knowledge obtained by study, or done through a learning activity in any places such as at school, or out of school. Learning can be seen from two perspectives. The first perspective is from teacher’s side and it is designed through learning instructions, while from the student’s side, it comes from the student’s desire to learn.

Dimiyati and Mudjiono define learning is an student’s act and student. As an act, learning is only experienced by the student himself/ herself, and determined by the student whether the learning process happens or not (Dimiyati and Mudjiono 2006:7). Furthermore they say that the learning process happens because the student gets something from his/ her learning environment, and this can be seen from the act of learning from outside (Dimiyati and Mudjiono 2006:7).

According to Djamarah (2008:15) learning is an activity that we do to gain knowledge).

Jakobovits (1970:44) learning a language means learning the whole new pattern of habits,….. A little learning like to play the piano or the violin, except that it is easier. Therefore, it is important to practice, to practice, and to practice. The practice should be intensive and enthusiastic in class and out silently to oneself while reading or to fellow students. Involve all your senses as you learn a language by using your ears, mouth, eyes, fingers and use your imagination.

According to Brown learning is a relatively permanent change in a behavioural tendency and is the result of reinforced practice. The components of the definition of learning are : learning is acquisition or getting, retention of information or skill, retention implies storage system, memory, cognitive organization, active, conscious, focus on and acting upon events outside or inside the organism, relatively permanent but subject to forgetting, involves some form of practice, perhaps reinforced practice, change in behavior (Brown, 1994:7).


Definition of Success

Success by the Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary definition is the achievement of a desired aim (Hornby 1995 : 1193). Success in learning interpreted as a student’s desire to achieve something. Key to get a success in learning is to study harder and sacrifice for something to reach the goal (Djamarah 2008, 10-11).


Risk-Taking as a contributing factor to make a success of learning English

Many researches show, the key point to accomplish second language learning depend on the personality differences among learners. There are two contributing factors to make a success of learning the language such as internal and external. The internal factors consist of natural talent, age, exposure to native speakers, high motivation, risk-taking, strong self-confidence, high self-esteem. Brown uses the term as the affective domain (Brown 1994:134). Obviously students who have these factors are better than the students who do not.

Whereas the external factors are teachers, instructional materials, approach, method, teaching strategies (Shoebottom 1996-2012). According to Walqui, Internal factors deal with personality and motivation. They vary from one student to another. External factors refer to the institutional contexts in which language learning takes place; contextual factors in second language acquisition.

According to Brown, there are two aspects contributing to the success of language learning such as of the cognitive and affective domains. The first aspect of the affective domain is called intrinsic that deals with the personality factors within a person and the second aspect is that encompasses extrinsic factors such as socio-cultural variables that emerge as the second language learner brings not only the two languages into contact but also the two cultures, and in some sense, he/she must learn a second culture along with a second language (Brown 1994:134).

Affective domain according to Brown is the emotional side of human behavior, and it may be juxtaposed to the cognitive side (Brown 1994:135). Further Brown says the development of affective states of feelings involves a variety of personality factors, feelings both about ourselves and about others with whom we come into contact.

According to Djamarah, there are some factors contribute to the success of learning such as : (A) obeying learning guide : regularity, be discipline and have a good motivation, focus, good time management such as to rest and to sleep (Djamarah, 2008:15-27); (B) avoiding learning difficultness : determining the learning objective, recognizing the remembering system, recognizing the remembering system range, recognizing the learning type, recognizing the rate of difficulties of book read, avoiding laziness, fulfilling recent wish, note taking for the future wish, writing any unfinished assignments, not to push yourself to study if you are not ready, staying healthy, taking a rest whenever necessary, emptying any unnecessary memory, mastering the language (Djamarah, 2008:28-42); (C) having intellectual mentality : be honest in any way, smart in thinking and action, reliable, self confidence, optimistic, not to hesitate in taking action, be brave to face the challenge, patience and never give up, take a change in any opportunity, willing to do something in any circumstances, learning effectively, learning while praying, never get satisfied easily on success achieved; (D) mastering the learning method well (Djamarah, 2008: 43-58).

Jakobovits a psycholinguist cited that the Modern Language Association of America sponsored a conference in 1964 which resulted in a statement entitled “Advice to Language Learners” in which consists of ten statements. Then these statements were revised by teachers and linguist. The ten claims about the psychology of foreign learning have been extracted from the 1966 revised statements (Jakobovits 1970:43).

The extracts of statements related to the language learning are : (1)learning a FL facilitates subsequent learning of another FL; (2)any intelligent student can learn a FL provided there are present ‘hard work’, a good teacher, and a good textbook; (3)a helpful strategy in learning FL is to avoid making direct comparisons between it and English; (4)learning a language means a whole new pattern of habits… a little like learning to play the piano or the violin. Therefore, it is important to practice, to practice, and to practice. Practice should be intensive and enthusiastic in class and out, silently and loudly, to oneself while reading, and to fellow students; (5)there are three techniques in language learning : imitation, analogy, and analysis. Imitation consists of repeating what you hear as closely as you can by listening carefully to your teacher and the other models. Learning how to create by analogy is the purpose of pattern drills and other exercises. (6) As one grows older, he/she begins to lose capacity for easy imitation but he/she gains the advantage of being able to reason: to analyze language, information of this sort given in grammatical explanations or rules can help you to learn the language faster; (7)memorizing sessions should be broken up into several intense short periods; (8)reading and writing are learned more easily if one first learns to speak the language; (8)practicing to speak should be done right from the start; (9)when reading a FL, one should at first read only what has been previously practiced, and do so out loud; (10)English translation of words or phrases should never be written on the page in the reading book (Jakoboits, 1970:43-45)

Theoretical Approach

There are two theoretical approaches in relation with the success of learning the language as proposed by Brown and Jakobovits discussed in this article. Brown outlines a risk-taking factor as part of aspect of the affective domain or called intrinsic and how this factor influences the success of the language learning. Whereas Jakobovits  a psycholinguist outlines learning theory from psycholinguistic perspective adopted in the discussion of the techniques in language learning this article are points (4) and (5) as mentioned above.

 Personality Factor

Personality is the characteristics and qualities of a person seen as a whole. An individual’s personality is the complex of mental characteristics that makes her/him unique from other people and the qualities make somebody different from other people and interesting.

Personality factors according to Brown is the intrinsic side of affectivity that affects in learning English are self-esteem; inhibition risk – taking; anxiety; empathy; extroversion; motivation (Brown 1994:136-156). But in this article, I will focus on the risk-taking as contributing factor to make a success of learning English.



In this article, I would focus on one particular psychological dimension such as risk-taking. To improve students’ learning process towards success, I outlined three components that involved in the discussion of this article such as the first part of this article presents the overview of characteristic risk-taking learners on learning English and its effects. The second part is personal learning problems on learning English, The third part is the Method of increasing risk-taking ability

 Overview of the Characteristic of Risk-taking Learners on Learning English and Its Effects

The literature review of risk-taking behavior appeared in the literature of psychology in 1960s (Kogan & Wallach, 1967), and 1970s ;(Bem, 1971) and it appeared in literature of linguistics and English as a Second Language (ESL) in 1960s, (Labov, 1969), 1980s, (Beebe, 1983, Ely, 1986a). Kogan and Wallach correlated two personality dimensions, motivation and risk-taking behavior to this basis McClelland –Atkinson position, which is a theory of achievement motivation developed by McClelland, Atkinson, Clark and Lowell in 1953, (cited in Beebe, 1983).

Risk-taking is an important characteristic of successful learning of a second language. Learners have to be able to gamble a bit, to be willing to try out hunches about the language and take the risk of being wrong (Brown 1994:140). Related to the characteristics of a “good” language learner, risk-taking is also recognized as important factor in successful language learning. Risk-taking is not only one of the dimensions of individual differences (IDs), but also, it is one of the important parts in second language learning process; moreover, it is a language learning strategy for good language learners who are willing to take risks (cited in Gass & Selinker, 2000).

A risk-taking student is typically student who actively participate in discussion in the class room and answer the questions without being waited to be called by the teacher. This type of student is usually not afraid of speaking in front of his/her classmates and not afraid of making mistakes, and they are willing to take part in class discussions without any fear and they also get involved in language learning activities very quickly and easily. This involvement helps them to learn more and better and more successful. Besides, risk-taking students usually speak more, and talk much in the classroom and therefore they are better than shy students. Furthermore, risk-taking typical students are willing to make a try to produce words or sentences or guess and not be discouraged by making mistakes and   being appeared foolish in order to progress. By this way these students will improve their learning from the mistake they made. So the key to the success in second language learning is the students should be willing to make a try or guess and not be discouraged by making mistakes and being appeared foolish.


Personal Learning Problems on Learning English

I taught my students in Banking and Finance study program at Politeknik Negeri Medan in the semester 6. On the first day of the week in the beginning of the semester my students and I just met in the classroom. At the first meeting I introduced about the syllabus ,methods, communicative activities and other rules and regulations in class room and then started my lesson with the topic of ‘Introduction’ . In this topic, the students talked about making a self-introduction. Before it got started, I introduced my self then I called their name one by one to know them better then I introduced the syllabus and topics to be discussed within the semester. After a few weeks, I got to know the students better by their names and started to observe their characters.

In general I found the students have diversities in characters among other students in many individual characteristics. Mostly the students, were very quiet, shy, inhibited, low learning ability and were passive learners and listeners. The students only listened to the lecturer and were not even brave enough to give opinion or to put comments or to raise questions. They waited for the Lecturer to call their name in order to speak. I tried to find out why they behaved in this way. Through my observation in class, later I identified some problems faced by the students such as : (1) the students were inhibited; (2) the students had low self-esteem; (3) the students were lack of motivation; (4) had low risk-taking ability in a spoken language.


Method of increasing risk-taking ability

After I identified the students’ learning problems. I tried to solve their problems. The following learning problems are presented and methods used :

(1)   the students were inhibited to speak

Inhibition by the Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary definition is a feeling that makes one nervous and embarrassed, and unable to relax or behave in a natural way (Hornby 1995:613).

Brown said Anyone who has learned a foreign language is acutely aware that second language learning actually necessitates the making of mistakes; If we never ventured to speak a sentence until we were absolutely certain of its total correctness, we would likely never communicate productively at all (Brown 1994:139).

I found from several students why the students were inhibited to speak because they were afraid of making mistakes. The classmates often laughed at the student who made mistake in pronouncing the words, and this has made the students were lack of confidence. So the mistake was often viewed as threats. This student was descended from Batakist ethnic group who came from the village where they always use Batakist language ethnic group every day. This student usually has very accent of first language. This strong accent had influenced him from pronouncing the word in English. For example : What are the requirements to open a new bank account ? The word open phonetically must be pronounced as [əupən] but it was pronounced [əupæn]. Batakist has strong phonetically sound of [æ] instead of [ə]. This strong accent of his/her first language had influenced his/her speech production of how the word is supposedly pronounced. As the result, the pronunciation sounded awkward and funny to the other students’ ears. This condition made the students laughed at their classmate. Therefore, the student were inhibited to speak because they didn’t want to be looked stupid, or being embarrassed by their classmates when making mistakes.

In the condition of this problem, I told the students not to laugh because they might make the same mistake. I encouraged the students in their learning to be brave to speak out and neglects what ever circumstances his/her classmates may behave. I drilled the students to practice the pronunciation and gave more examples of words which have similar sounds until they pronounced the word correctly. I told the students not to worry making mistakes, because learners learn from mistake. If the students never tried, they would never know they made mistakes and never know how to improve.

I also recommended the students to use English-English dictionary. The students can look up the word and learn how the word is read and pronounced with its phonetically transcriptions. Other than that, I instructed the students to participate in the discussion when they were given tasks to do in class.  I told the students that I would ask them after they had finished discussing. if the first student could not answer the questions, the other students will be given a turn to answer. I rewarded the students’ when they could answer the questions and did well and made improvement in their study. I assured this atmosphere in their class happened. With this learning condition I made, the students could be risk-takers in many situations, because the students now became relax and not nervous anymore when they talked and expressed their ideas. As the result the students were willing to take part in the class and did well on learning English unconsciously.

(2)   the students had low self-esteem

Self-esteem is according to Coopersmith cited by Brown , it expresses an attitude of approval or disapproval, and indicates the extent to which an individual believes himself to be capable, significant, successful and worthy. In short, self-esteem is a personal judgment of worthiness that is expressed in the attitudes that the individual holds towards himself (Brown 1994:137).

In general, I found the students had low self-esteem and were lack of self-confidence . Mostly these students who were weak in structure or grammar and had limited vocabulary. For example the students did not know how the sentence(s) constructed correctly and this had made them were not able to produce sentences correctly, and also the students had limited vocabulary, and knowledge. All of these students’ weakness had made them lack of confidence.

In the condition of this problem, I was patience and reviewed the structure and grammatical explanations or rules in which area the students were not capable to do the communicative activities. I wrote some points where the students made mistakes. I explained the structure and grammar after the students had finished practicing the conversation. This way aims to refresh students’ mind as they have actually learned it before at school. In doing this review, I demonstrated the use and the usage of the language expressions through its communicative functions and I gave them varieties of sentence pattern related to its communicative functions. I always encouraged the students to try out what they knew and took the risk of being wrong. By practicing the conversations with their pairs, the students may increase their self-confidence, because the students were given the opportunity to speak their learned language in English in real life situations. Because of these important reasons, as Woolfolk (2001) noted and advised that activities can be done in order to increase the confidence of silent students in the classroom; give plenty of practice in the class room.

In order to increase students’ self-esteem, I asked the students to practice by using the imitation technique. With this technique the students repeated what they heard and the models of sentence pattern learned. When the students were capable enough to do the activities then I asked them to continue the practice by making analogy. With this analogy technique, the students were asked to create sentences by using the learned pattern drills. At last I asked the students to practice activities with analyzing technique. With this technique, the students were asked to create sentences and use the language of giving reasons. With these given techniques, I helped the students to rebuild their self-confidence and gradually they gain knowledge and skills and developed self-confidence. Finally, the students were able to produce words and sentences correctly and learned the language faster.

(3)   the students were lack of motivation;

Motvation by the Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary definition is to cause somebody to want to do something (Hornby 1995 : 758). According to Brown, motivation is commonly thought of as an inner drive, impulse, emotion, or desire that moves one to a particular action (Brown 1994:152). Robert Gardner and Wallace Lambert (1972) had made studies of foreign language learners in Canada, United States and Phillipines in an effort to determine how attitudinal and motivational factors affect language learning success. Motivation was examined as a factor of a number of different kinds of attitudes. They had put two clusters of attitudes divided two basic types of motivation: instrumental and Integrative motivation. Instrumental motivation refers to motivation to acquire a language as means for attaining instrumental goals such as furthering a career, reading technical material, translation, and so forth. An integrative motive is employed when learners wish to integrate themselves within the culture of the second language group, to identify themselves with and become a part of that society (cited by Brown, 1994:153-154).

I found the students were lack of motivation. This problem was caused of the students were in semester 6 and they were tired and bored a little bit after they passed five semesters studied and were busy writing reports after doing their on the job trainings and started again writing final assignments before they were graduated. Having this kind of condition, the students were lack of motivation in learning English.

In the condition of this problem, I stimulated their motivation again by telling them if they have capability in English, they would be able to work in International organizations. I also gave them a suggestion of learning strategies and tried to create a good encouraging class atmosphere in the class to reveal risk takers. I gave challenging communicative activities for speaking in the forms of role-plays or simulation. These communicative activities gave the unmotivated students to participate from passive into active learners. I encouraged students to take risk by asking the students to practice the conversation. Before I conducted the communicative activities, I gave them the example. This example of the conversation I put in one particular situation and context, so the students can use their learned knowledge in real life situations. I picked up one topic related to the banking and finance context. Then next I asked the students to choose one of the topics listed in their hand outs such as : Opening a new bank Account; Withdrawing Money; Making a Deposit; Enquiring about credit facilities, requirements and procedures; Applying for a credit card; Buying travelers’ cheques; Exchanging foreign currencies. These activities, especially to improve students’ oral skills, reduce anxiety level, and risk-taking ability improves. During the students practiced the dialogues with their partners, they were looked more relax and not worried or nervous, because they had more freedom to express out what they knew and thought. I walked around the class and took note for any area the students might make mistakes. After the practice, I wrote the mistakes on the whiteboard and asked if any student might know the answer. I encouraged the students to speak and say what they knew and thought about the answers. All the students’ answer were written on the whiteboard and to be checked together. If they got stuck with the choice of words or sentence patterns   and were not able to express out in a correct English grammar, then I helped. Finally, I wrote the correct answer on the whiteboard and the students copied. That was the way they increase again their motivation. If they got motivated, they would increase their risk-taking ability and became good risk-takers. Then I gave them language learning techniques, strategies, styles, and conducted the classroom as the student-centered and I told them being a risk taker in many situations would advantage the students in learning the language.

By doing this practice through the communicative activities, the students who never spoke in class or during conversational and oral practice before then became motivated. I also conducted quiz and told the students if they could answer they would be given an additional score of English Subject. More students participated to answer the questions. I think this competition also has an important role to play in the development of oral skills, motivation during the language learning process. Over all activities, I gave the students feedback and specific praise.

I also asked the students to do assignments for the project work by interviewing the tourists. The students worked in group of 4 people. They conducted an interview to the tourists and recorded the conversation. The students were motivated to speak with the native speakers than with their classmates. The reason is because they were more relax and not to be looked stupid when making mistakes.

However, some of the students still were not motivated, I tried to identify the students’ learning problem specifically concerning about their learning situation. After I found the problem, I used another method to help them and encouraged students to take risk (Oxford, 1992). I didn’t scold the students, and didn’t put them in embarrassment or punishment and I also told the students not to sneer their classmates.

(4)   had low risk-taking ability in a spoken language.

I found the students had a low risk-taking ability in a spoken language. This situation happened because they didn’t get enough practice and practice the language.

In the condition of this problem, I practically observed the students’ behavior among some students in the speaking class. There were a few students were silent and looked like stressful throughout the lesson. After the lesson, I asked the reason, why they did not participate the conversations, their explanation was that their friends might laugh at them and this situation could disturb their psychology and learning enthusiasm. This is a common student thought about them.

I also found some students were talkative and sociable ones in their peer group. They were quiet because they didn’t have ability to express out their ideas correctly and appropriately. Therefore they didn’t dare enough to take a high risk in speaking with their lecturer or teacher or because the students did not want to be looked foolish in the classroom. I made sure to call on everyone, and gave each student a chance to practice until the students mastered how  to use and know the usage of the language.

Beebe (1983) states that all of these three strategies are related to risk-taking, for example willing to guess is a part of risk-taking and willingness to appear foolish is willing to take risk. Therefore, I reinforced the students to be risk-taking, Furthermore, Beebe made another study about classroom participation and risk-taking ability, and tried to find the reason why L2 learners are shyer a second language around peers or classmates from their mother tongue group than around native speaker and teachers is that they perceive the risk of looking foolish as a greater in the presence of peers from their own country.



In the conclusion, risk-:taking has a significant role to the success in learning English. Risk-taking is a contributing factor hat associated with willing to make a try or experience, or to be wrong or to be embarrassed, or to gamble, and not to be shy, be active learners, learn from mistakes, not to be discouraged by making mistakes and being appeared foolish.

Language teachers should be aware of who their students are, what are the individual differences among their students. Language teachers should establish an encouraging class atmosphere or a nonthreatening classroom climate in their classes to reveal risk takers. Language teachers should reward and respect to boost the students learning style. Language teachers should encourage students to be risk-takers in many situations and classroom should be student-centered. Language teachers should be patient to review the structure and grammar such as the use and usage of the language. The language teachers should stimulate the students’ motivation by telling them if they have capability in English, they would be able to work in International organizations and give a suggestion of learning strategies and try to create a good encouraging class atmosphere in the class to reveal risk takers, and conduct communicative activities for speaking in the forms of role-plays or simulation. Language teachers should give each student a chance to practice until the students mastered how to use and the usage of the language.



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