Archive for the ‘pemerolehan bahasa’ Category

Studi Pemerolehan Bahasa Pada Anak Usia 4 Tahun (Kajian Sintaksis)

Hakim Usman

Universitas Mataram


Abstrak

Studi ini bertujuan mendeskripsikan pemerolehan sintaksis seorang anak yang berumur empat tahun. Dengan memfokuskan kajian pada bentuk kalimat deklaratif, interogatif, imperatif, dan interjektif. Menggunakan pendekatan kualitatif deskriptif dengan teknik perekaman. Hasil analisis menunjukkan pemerolehan sintaksis padakalimat deklaratif sebanyak 11 bentuk (48%), interjektif 6 bentuk (26%), imperatif 5 bentuk (22%), dan interogatif 1 bentuk(4%). Kategori pemerolehan bahasa pada tataran sintaksis sudah cukup baikkarenaminim penyimpangan terhadap bentuk ujaran yang dihasilkan. Hasil penelitian membuktikan bahwa ujaran anak yang mendominasi pada saatemosional berwujud kalimat deklaratif.

Kata kunci : Studi, pemerolehan bahasa, sintaksis.

 

Abstract

This study aimed to describe the syntactic derivation of a four year old child. By focusing the study on the form of declarative sentences, interrogative, imperative, and interjektif. Using descriptive qualitative approach with recording techniques. The results of analysis showed the acquisition of declarative syntax in sentence form as many as 11 (48%), interjektif 6 form (26%), 5 imperative form (22%), and interrogative 1 form (4%). Categories of language acquisition on the syntactic level is good enough for minimal deviation of the shape of the resulting speech. Research shows that children who dominate the speech when the intangible emotional declarative sentences.

Keywords: Study, language acquisition, syntactic.

 

PENDAHULUAN

Interaksi sosial manusia terjadi karena adanya komunikasi antara manusia yang satu dengan manusia yang lainnya. Komunikasi tersebut melalui beberapa jalan atau cara. Salah satu di antara cara tersebut adalah melalui media yang namanya bahasa. Kemampuan berbahasa seseorang sejak kecil sampai dewasa melewati beberapa proses maupun tahapan. Ada beberapa proses ataupun tahapan yang dilalui oleh seorang anak dalam pemerolehan bahasanya, misalnya, pemerolehan suku kata, seperti ma,pa, miq. Pemerolehan kata, seperti pegi, maem, minum. Pemerolehan frasa, seperti mimiq cucu, maem jajan, dan pegi banja (belanja). dan pemerolehan kalimat, seperti Zizi minum susu, Kita mau pergi ke Mall, dan lain-lain.

Sesungguhnya terkait pemerolehan bahasa seorang anak, penelititelah mengalaminya secara langsung sebagai seorang Ayah.Seperti yang dikemukakan penelitipada contoh di atas,merupakan fakta empiris yang selama ini peneliti peroleh dari anak (sendiri) yang ada di lingkungan keluarga.Oleh karena demikian, peneliti menganggap perlu menjadikan putri sendiri yang bernama Zia Rahmanita sebagai informan dalam penelitian yang dilakukan terkait pemerolehan bahasa yang dikaji dari segi sintaksis. Agar peneliti (ssekaligus seorang Ayah) dapat mengetahui serta memahami tingkat kematangan berbahasanya.

Pemerolehan bahasa pada seorang anak merupakan salah satu proses alamiah yang dialami dalam hidupnya. Oleh karenaitu, manusia dalam memperoleh bahasa merupakan satu proses yang amat mengagumkan, namun demikian sukar dibuktikan. Banyak teori serta pandangan dari berbagai penelitian yang telah dikemukakan oleh para pakar dan peneliti yang telah dilakukan untuk menerangkan terhadap proses pemerolehan bahasa di kalangan anak-anak. Akan tetapi, sampai hari ini semuanya masih merupakan suatu hipotesis semata.

Pemerolehan bahasa pada umumnya diperoleh dari hasil kontak verbal dengan lingkungan sosial yang merupakan lingkungan bahasa itu berada. Dengan demikian, istilah pemerolehan bahasa mengacu pada penguasaan bahasa secara tidak disadari dan tidak terpegaruh oleh pengajaran bahasa tentang sistem kaidah dalam bahasa yang dipelajari. Melainkan sesuatu proses yang terjadi dengan sendirinya ataupun alamiah. Dengan demikian, secara disadari ataupun tidak, penguasaan sistem-sistem linguistik oleh seorang anakpada awalnya tidak melalui pengajaran formal.

Sebagaimana yang penelitiketahui selama ini bahwa pemerolehan bahasa seorang anak berkaitan erat dengan keuniversalan bahasa. Keterkaitan satu sama lainnyamengaarahkan padaadanya elemen-elemen bahasa yangurutan pemerolehannyabersifatkemutlakan secara umum.Hal tersebut mengacu pada rangkaian pemerolehan bahasa anak dimulai dari beberapa tahap, mulai dari tahap menangis, menjerit, tertawa, mengeluarkan ujaran tanpa makna, menyebutkan satu atau dua kata, mengembangkan bahasa sampai pada struktur-struktur bahasa yang lebih rumit. Begitu pula tahapan yang dialami selama ini oleh putri peneliti sendiri. Telah mengalami proses melibatkan gabungan kata-kata sederhana dengan komplementasi, relativisasi dan konjungsi. Para pakar memandang tahapan proses tersebut telah dimulai saat umur seorang anakmulai menginjak 2 sampai 3 tahun.

Menyoroti pemerolehan bahasa seorang anak pada usia 4 tahun, tampakyang paling menonjol terkait penyusunan rangkaian kata menjadi sebuah kalimat. Menandakan proses tersebut sebagai bentuk pemerolehan sintaksis. Para ahli bahasa memberikan pengertian sintaksis sebagai cabang ilmu bahasa yang mempelajari pembentukan suatu struktur bahasa yang utuh. Seperti pendapat yang dikemukankan oleh Arifin dan Junaiyah (2009: 1), bahwa sintaksis merupakan cabang linguistik yang membicarakan hubungan antarkata dalam tuturan (speech). Sementara itu, menurut Verhaar (2012: 11) Sintaksis adalah cabang lingustik yang menyangkut kata-kata di dalam kalimat.Oleh karena itu, penelitian tentang pemerolehan bahasa secara sintaksisterhadap Zia Rahmanita yang berusia 4 tahun sangat perlu dilakukan oleh peneliti. Hal ini didasari ketertarikan penelitiuntuk memahami perkembangan bahasanya pada usia tersebut. Di sisi lain, dapat mencermati pola-pola rangkaian kata yang dituturkan dalam usahanya membuat suatu kalimat.

Pada prosesnya, seorang anak tidak pernah diajarkan secara formal untuk memperoleh suatu rangkaian kata.Akan tetapi,hal itu didapat melalui proses perkembangannya pengetahuan yang didapatkan secara empiris. Proses-proses yang terjadi dalam pemerolehan bahasa secara empiris tersebut merupakan hal yang ingin peneliti deskripsikan dalam penelitian ini. Menurut sumber yang peneliti pernah baca, bahwa ada dua proses yang terjadi ketika seorang anak sedang memperoleh bahasa pertamanya yaitu: 1) proses kompetensi, dan 2) proses performansi. Kompetensi adalah proses penguasaan tata bahasa yang berlangsung secara alami dan proses performansi adalah proses pemahaman dan proses penerbitan atau proses menghasilkan kalimat-kalimat. Proses ini adalah proses alami yang telah terjadi ketika anak-anak mulai mengoceh, mengucapkan dua kata atau satu kata, hingga akhirnya dapat mengucapkan satu kalimat yang sempurna.Walaupun secara realitas, anak-anak dalam proses pemerolehan bahasanya tidak pernah diajarkan secara formal terkait cara menyusun suatu kalimat yang sempurna.

Pemerolehan bahasa merupakan suatu proses yang berlangsung di dalam otak anak-anak.Hal itu terjadi ketika anak-anak memperoleh bahasa pertamanya atau bahasa ibunya. Oleh karena itu, pemerolehan bahasa biasanya dibedakan dengan pembelajaran bahasa. Pembelajaran bahasa berkaitan dengan proses-proses yang terjadi pada waktu seorang anak-anak mempelajari bahasa kedua setelah dia memperoleh bahasa pertamanya. Sedangkan pemerolehan bahasa tersebut adalah pemerolehan fonologi, morfologi, sintaksis, semantik, dan pragmatik yang tidak disadarinya sama sekali. Hal itu terjadi juga dalam pemerolehan bahasa (secara sintaksis)oleh Zia Rahmanita, bahwa ia telah mampumenyusun (mengkonstruksi) kalimat tanpa diajarkan. Menunjukkan pemerolehan bahasa tidak didapat melalui proses belajar.

Berdasarkan uraian tersebut, maka pemerolehan bahasa yang akan dibahas dalam penelitian ini adalah pemerolehan sintaksis. Lebih khusus lagi, penelititertarik untuk memfokuskan penelitian pada bentuk kalimat deklaratif, interogratif, imperatif, dan interjektif yang dituturkanZia Rahmanita atau yang sering disapa Zizi.

 

KAJIAN KEPUSTAKAAN

Chomsky (dalam Chaer, 2003: 168) menyatakan bahwa kompetensi mencakup tiga buah komponen tata bahasa yaitu, komponen sintaksis, kompenen semantik, dan komponen fonologi. Komponen di atas lazim disebut dengan pemerolehan sintaksis, pemerolehan semantik, dan pemerolehan fonologi. Ketiga pemerolehan ini tidak dapat secara sendiri-sendiri melainkan saling berhubungan satu sama lain. Pada penelitian yang dilakukan, pemerolehan sintaksis pada seorang anak berusia 4 tahun yang dikaji, dalam hal ini yang menjadi informan penelitian yakni Zia Rahmanita.

Banyak pakar pemerolehan bahasa menganggap bahwa pemerolehan sintaksis dimulai ketika kanak-kanak mulai dapat menggabungkan dua buah kata atau lebih (lebih kurang ketika berusia 2,0 tahun). Oleh karena itu, ada baiknya diikutsertakan dalam satu teori pemerolehan sintaksis. Pemerolehan bahasa anak-anak dapat dikatakan memiliki suatu rangkaian kesatuan yang bergerak dari ucapan satu kata sederhana menuju gabungan kata yang lebih rumit (Tarigan, 2011:5). Pemerolehan sintaksis pada anak merupakan suatu proses yang berlangsung di dalam otak seorang anak dan mampu untuk merangkai suatu kesatuan kalimat yang bergerak dari ucapan satu kata sederhana menuju gabungan kata yang rumit. Kelas atau golongan kata atau frase atau klausa pengisi suatu fungsi sintaksis disebut dengan kategori kata. Kategori kata terdiri atas nomina, verba, adjektiva, dan preposisi.

Kajian mengenai pemerolehan sintaksis oleh kanak-kanak pernah dilakukan oleh Brane (1963), Bellugi (1964), Brown dan Fraser (1964), dan Miler dan Ervin. Menurutnya ucapan dua kata kanak-kanak terdiri dari dua jenis kata menurut posisi dan frekuensi munculnya kata-kata itu dalam kalimat. Kedua jenis kata ini kemudian dikenal dengan nama kelas pivot dan kelas terbuka. Berdasarkan kedua jenis kata ini lahirlah teori yang disebut teori tata bahasa pivot.

Selanjutnya muncul tata bahasa generatif transformasi dari Chomsky (1957-1965). Sangat terasa pengaruhnya dalam pengkajian perkembangan sintaksis kanak-kanak. Menurut chomsky hubungan-hubungan tata bahasa tertentu bersifat universal dan dimiliki oleh semua bahasa yang ada di dunia ini.Berdasarkan teori Chomsky tersebut, Mc. Neil (1970) menyatakan pengetahuan kanak-kanak mengenai hubungan-hubungan tatabahasa universal ini bersifat “nurani”. Dalam prosesnya langsung memengaruhi pemerolehan sintaksis kanak-kanak sejak tahap awalnya. Jadi, pemerolehan sintaksis ditentukan oleh hubungan-hubungan tatabahasa universal ini.Sehubungan dengan teori hubungan tata bahasa nurani, Bloom (1970) mengatakan bahwa hubungan hubungan tata bahasa tanpa merujuk pada informasi situasi (konteks) belumlah mencukupi untuk menganalisis ucapan atau bahasa kanak-kanak.

Selain teori-teori pemerolehan sintaksis di atas, ada juga yang disebut teori kumulatif kompleks,Teori Brown dalam Tarigan (2008: 75) berdasarkan data yang dikumpulkannya. Menurut Brown, urutan pemerolehan sintaksis oleh kanak-kanak ditentukan oleh kumulatif kompleks semantik morfem dan kumulatif kompleks tata bahasa yang sedang diperoleh. Jadi, sama sekali tidak ditentukan oleh frekuensi munculnya morfem atau kata-kata itu dalam ucapan orang dewasa.

Ada beberapa tahap pemerolehan Sintaksis, antara lain :1)Masa Pra-lingual (anak usia 0,0-1,0). 2). Masa kalimat satu kata (anak usia 1,0-2,0). Pada tahap ini juga disebut tahap holofrastik (tahap linguistik pertama). Ini adalah tahap satu kata, yang mulai disekitar usia satu tahun. 3). Masa kalimat dengan rangkaian kata (anak usia 2,0-3,0). Pada tahap ini anak-anak akan mulai mengeluarkan ucapan-ucapan dua kata. Tahap linguistik kedua ini biasanya mulai menjelang hari ulang tahun kedua. 4). Masa konsrtuksi sederhana (anak usia 3,0-5,0). Pada tahap tata bahasa menjelang dewasa, tahap ini anak-anak mulai dengan struktur-struktur tata bahasa yang lebih rumit; banyak di antaranya yang melibatkan gabungan kalimat-kalimat sederhana dengan komplementasi, relativisasi dan kongjungsi. Tahap ini dimulai sejak umur 3 tahun.

Memasuki usia 3 tahun seorang anak telah memasuki suatu tahap yang disebut sebagai tahap menghasilkan suatu konstruksi yang sederhana dan kompleks. Anak mulai menghasilkan ujaran kata-ganda (multiple-word utterances) atau disebut juga ujaran telegrafis. Anak juga sudah mampu membentuk kalimat dan mengurutkan bentuk-bentuk itu dengan benar. Kosakata anak berkembang dengan pesat mencapai beratus-ratus kata dan cara pengucapan kata-kata semakin mirip dengan bahasa orang dewasa.

Pada usia dini dan seterusnya, seorang anak secara bertahap dengan caranya sendiri dalam pemerolehan bahasanya. Ada teori yang mengatakan bahwa seorang anak dari usia dini belajar bahasa dengan cara menirukan. Namun, Fromkin dan Rodman (1993:403) menyebutkan hasil peniruan yang dilakukan oleh si anak tidak akan sama seperti yang diinginkan oleh orang dewasa. Jika orang dewasa meminta sang anak untuk menyebutkan “He’s going out”, si anak akan melafalkan dengan “He go out”. Ada lagi teori yang mengatakan bahwa seorang anak belajar dengan cara penguatan (reinforcement), artinya kalau seorang anak belajar ujaran-ujaran yang benar, ia mendapat penguatan dalam bentuk pujian, misalnya bagus, pandai, dsb. Akan tetapi, jika ujaran-ujarannya salah, ia mendapat “penguatan negatif”, misalnya lagi, salah, tidak baik. Pandangan ini berasumsi bahwa anak itu harus terus menerus diperbaiki bahasanya kalau salah dan dipuji jika ujarannya itu benar.

Sintaksis membicarakan penataan dan pengaturan kata-kata ke dalam satuan-satuan yang lebih besar, yang disebut satuan-satuan sintaksis, yakni kata, frase, klausa, kalimat, dan wacana. Pada umumnya berwujud rentetan kata yang disusun sesuai dengan kaidah yang berlaku. Setiap kata termasuk kelas kata atau kategori kata mempunyai fungsi dalam kalimat. Pengurutan rentetan kata serta macam kata yang dipakai dalam kalimat menentukan pula macam kalimat yang dihasilkan.Jika ditinjau dari segi bentuknya, kalimat dapat berupa kalimat tunggal atau kalimat majemuk.

Menurut Chaer (2009:187), jika dilihat dari segi modus atau maknanya kalimat dapat dibedakan menjadi kalimat deklaratif (kalimat berita), kalimat interogatif (kalimat tanya), kalimat imperatif (kalimat perintah), dan kalimat interjektif (kalimat yang menyatakan emosi). Diperhatikan dari segi istilah, sudah tampak makna macam-ragam kalimat tersebut: kalimat berita menyampaikan berita pernyataan, kalimat tanya mengajukan pertanyaan, kalimat perintah memberikan perintah kepada yang bersangkutan, dan kalimat interjektif digunakan untuk menyatakan emosi.

Menurut pandangani yang dikemukan oleh Chaer (2009: 188), bahwa dilihat dari maksud penggunaannya, 1) Kalimat deklaratif dibedakan atas kalimat yang: a) hanya untuk menyampaikan informasi faktual berkenaan dengan alam sekitar atau pengalaman penutur; b) untuk menyatakan keputusan atau penilaian; c) untuk menyatakan perjanjian, peringatan, nasihat, dan sebagainya; d) untuk menyatakan ucapan selamat atau suatu keberhasilan atau ucapan prihatin atas suatu kemalangan; e) untuk memberi penjelasan, keterangan, atau perincian kepada seseorang. 2) Kalimat interogatif dilihat dari reaksi jawaban dibedakan adanya: a) kalimat interogatif yang meminta pengakuan jawaban “ya” atau “tidak”, atau “ya” atau ‘bukan”; b) kalimat interogatif yang meminta keterangan mengenai salah satu unsur (fungsi) kalimat; c) kalimat interogatif yang meminta alasan; d) kalimat interogatif yang meminta pendapat atau buah pikiran orang lain; dan e) kalimat interogatif yang menyuguhkan. 3) Kalimat imperatif dapat dibedakan menjadi: a) kalimat perintah; b) kalimat himbauan; c) kalimat larangan. 4) Kalimat interjektif merupakan kalimat untuk menyatakan emosi, seperti karena kagum, kaget, terkejut, takjub, heran, marah, marah, sedih, gemas, kecewa, tidak suka, dan sebagainya.

Dengan demikian, penelitian ini akan membahas secara khusus tentang penggunaan kalimat deklaratif, kalimat imperatif, kalimat interogatif,dan kalimat interjektif. Terhadap data tuturan yang diperoleh dari Zia Rahmanita sebagai informan dalam penelitian ini.

 

METODE PENELITIAN

Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan kualitatifdeskriptif, karena pendekatan kualitatif deskriptif bertujuan memahami fenomena tentang apa yang dialami oleh subjek penelitian misalnya perilaku, persepsi, motivasi, tindakan, dan sebagainya. Oleh karena demikian, pengumpulan data yang berupa kata-kata, kalimat, pernyataan atau uraian yang mendalam, bukan angka-angka. (Moleong, 2011:11).

Menurut Mahsun (2013: 132) salah satu metode dan teknik penyediaan data adalah teknik rekam. Oleh karena itu, data penelitian ini diambil dari hasil perekaman pada saat sang anak yang sedang menggerutu (marah). Peristiwa ini terjadi pada hari Jum’at, 19 September 2014 pukul 21.02 Wita. Rekaman tersebut berdurasi 07 menit 43 detik. Adapun alat rekaman yangdigunakan yakni handphone Samsung.

Adapun pengumpulan dan analisis data dilakukan dengan tahap-tahap : 1) Melakukan perekaman objek yang sedang berkata-kata (mengujarkan kalimat-kalimat / sintaksis); 2) Melakukan transkripsi terhadap rekaman; 3) Mengidentifikasi kalimat-kalimat menurut bentuknya (deklaratif, interogatif, imperatif, dan interjektif) dengan menggunakan sistem pengkodean serta model tabulasi; 4) Memberikan interpretasi terhadap hasil analisis.

 

TEMUAN

  1. Informan penelitian

Informan penelitian adalah seorang anakperempuan berusia 4 tahun bernama Zia Rahmanita disapa Zizi, lahir pada hari Ahad tanggal 17 Oktober 2010. Dia adalah anak kedua dari pasangan Hakim Usman dan Sukartini yang beralamat di Lingkungan Dasan Geres Selatan Kelurahan Dasan Geres Kecamatan Gerung Kabupaten Lombok Barat.Sehari-hari Zizi lebih banyak bermain di rumah ditemani oleh Kakak, orang tua serta keluarga lain dari ayahnya. Diketahui bahwa Zizi sangat aktif berbicara dan senantiasa merespon atau mengomentari setiap peristiwa yang ada di lingkukangannya.

Sesungguhnya Zizi dilahirkan  di keluarga yang menggunakan bahasa Sasak sebagai bahasa pertamanya (bahasa ibu). Meskipun dia merupakan hasil perkawinan sesama etnis (Sasak), namundalam keseharian Zizi menggunakan bahasa Indonesia sebagai bahasa pertamanya. Sedangkan orang tuanya menggunakan bahasa sasak dalam berkomunikasi sehari-hari mereka.

 

  1. Data Pemerolehan Bahasa Zia Rahmanita

Pada hari Jum’at, 19 September 2014 pukul 21.02,tiba-tiba Zizimenggerutu dengan ekspresif sesekali menangis dan marah-marah. Lalu peristiwa tersebut direkam oleh peneliti untuk dijadikan data pemerolehan bahasa yang dikaji secara sintaksis. Dengan demikian, data transkripsi dari hasil rekaman dapat dideskripsikan berikut.

Zizi      : (mengeluarkan suara tangisan) “Mama’ cana cama kak Fatin cama, Zizi cendiri di cana, mama pergi! Bapak cama Kak Atin Mama’ di rumah Mama’, Jiji cendiri di cini, (eee…suara tangis)”

Mama : “Cah (cepat sini) anakku cah, aloh (ayo) anakku, biar gak minta nanti”

Zizi      : “Gak mau, beliin maunya, itu kacul kak Atin itu-itu… (eeee2x nangis). Cana, jangan ke cini! rumahnya. Jiji, Bapak pergi cama Mama cama kak Atin cana, ini rumahnya Jiji aja. Cana pergi cana, berenti di cini rumahnya, campai berapa taun. Berenti di cini rumahnya. Campai lima taun. Cana ! Mama’ ndak baek, Bapak ndak baek, kak Atin ndak baek cama Jiji. Dia cuka marah aja.

Bapak  : “Lasing (soalnya) Zizi nangis-nangis terus, coba ndak usah nangis!”

Zizi      : “Tau dah Jiji, Bapak dia marah tu”.

Bapak  : “Lasing (soalnya) kuatnya nangis, lasingan lelah kita denger, Jiji juga abis air matanya nanti”.

Zizi      : (nangis…) “Biarin abis air mata jiji, kenapa emang? Eeeee….(nangis)

Bapak  : “Ayo nginep caranya, sama bibi’Jemi sana ayo, nginep!”

Zizi      : “Bapak cari rumah cama Mama, cama kak Fatin cana, Zizi, Zizi aja punya rumah ini”.

Bapak  : “Ya, ayo Bapak mau pergi bertiga, Zizi cama itu-tu kayak yang tadi di TV srem-srem itu, berani?.

Zizi      : “Berani Jiji, Jiji bica bejaguran (berantem), Jiji juga pake baju cowok, aneh, eeh.. orang Jiji bejaguran caranya”.

Bapak  : “Awas, awas berarak (serangga tembok), he..he..

Zizi      : “Orang, orang kan ndak ada pake picau yang panjang itu, Itu dipake cih, weeq..”

Bapak  : “Awas, awas berarak (serangga tembok), he..he..

Zizi      : “Apa eek, itu dia itu eek!”

Bapak  : “Ayo berani pegang berarak ini, ayo berani pegang?”

Zizi      : “Bapak aloh (sana) pegang, eek!”

Mam    : “Ee, untung bangun tadi, kadi (dung) digigit empoknya (kemaluannya)”.

Zizi      : “Nggak mau, nggak mau. Kak Fatin mau beli kacul (kasur) kayak Jiji itu, maeh Jiji ambil itu, ee’, itu”.

Fatin    : “bawa aja”.

Zizi      : “Ambil aja itu!” Jiji ndak mau, eeq’. Cucu mintaq, ee gdek (gak suka) cucu mintaq, cemuanya mintak”. Ekek itu

Bapak  : “Ee sekarang Bapak kasi jajan, nggak ucah kaciq mintaq ya!”

Zizi      : “Tadi marah cama Jiji, lagi baek. Dia cuka gitu dia jogang (gila) Bapak ini.

Mama’: “Zizi, Zizi, ndak denger suara kentutnya Kak Fatin tadi, TUT”

Fatin    : “Ha..ha..ha.. (tertawa).

Zizi      : “Jiji nggak mau, pokoknya Jiji cekarang mo bunuh diri”

Mama’ : “Zizi, gini suara kentutnya Kakak Fatin, cruut..”

Bapak  : “Zizi mau bunuh diri, trus tidur di kuburan sama mayit-mayit yang pocong-pocong itu”.

Zizi      : “Gak mau Jiji, Supaya gak ada adiknya itu. Itu, itu untuk anak kecil, bukan untuk orang becar”, kan Jiji macih kecil, Fatin lain umurnya bukan kayak Jiji umurnya.”

Bapak  : “Berapa umurnya, berapa umurnya Zizi?”

Zizi      : “Fatin lain umurnya jak dia, Eee.. ”. (masih nangis)

Bapak : “Wakwaoo…”

Zizi      : “Ndak lucu!”

Bapak  : “Wakwaoo…”

Zizi      : “Bapak lagi baik, tadi marah cekarang baik, dia jogang Bapak itu. Ciapa jak (sih) punya bapak itu. Jogangnya.”

Mama’ : “Bapaknya Fatin.”

Zizi      : “Anu punya bapak itu, ee.. tuyul. Tuyul punya bapak itu. Jiji di jauh rumahnya Jiji, di gunung, bukan di cini, ini bukan bukan di gunung ini, lain, bukan di gunung. Eee.. Kalau Bapak tidur Jiji pecahin HPnya dah, HP putih ini. Eee.. Biar Bapak berenti pake HP putih itu. Supaya Bapak ndak ada HPnya cama Mama cama Kak Atin, Jiji aja punya HP.”

Bapak  : “Kenapa kecil-kecil kuat marah.”

Zizi      : “Ya, orang Jiji juga pake baju cowok, weeq, pokoknya Jiji ndak mau, Jiji mau bunuh diri doang.”

Bapak  : “Pakai apa?”

Zizi      : “Jiji mau bunuh diri di lapan (sungai).”

Bapak  : “Ayo dong ayo, Bapak lihat ayo!”

Zizi      : “Eee…, nanti Bapak kalau Bapak mimpi, mimpiin Jiji, kalau Bapak mimpi gimana caranya, Zizi bunuh diri. Gimana cara Bapak cari Jiji orang Jiji bunuh diri.”

Bapak  : “ndak usah sih dicari, kan sudah sama Allah.”

Zizi      : “Pokoknya, Jiji mau punya mobil, Jiji mau tabrakan doing, Jiji mau bunuh diri, tau dah Jiji itu Bapak rekam.”

Bapak  : “ini mau nginap katanya Bi’Jemi.”

 

PEMBAHASAN

Pemerolehan bahasa Zizi pada tataran sintaksis sudah cukup baik. Hal ini terlihat dari data yang didapatkan. Pemerolehan sintaksis Zizi telah sampai pada tahap masa konstruksi sederhana, karena umur Zizi telah mencapai 4 tahun. Masa konstruksi sederhana berlangsung pada anak usia tiga tahun sampai lima tahun. Pada usia ini anak-anak sudah mulai berbicara dengan kalimat-kalimat yang sederhana dan berangsur-angsur menjadi kalimat kompleks. Selain itu, dalam melakukan percakapan Zizi sudah mengerti makna dari setiap ujarannya. Hanya saja, ada sebagian tuturannya tidak terstruktur dengan baik, misalnya: “Gak mau, beliin maunya, itu kacul anu kak Atin itu-itu Seharusnya kalimat tersebut adalah Zizi tidak mau, Zizi maunya dibelikan saja, kasur itu punyanya kak Atin”.

 

 

  1. Pemerolehan Kalimat Bentuk Deklaratif

Analisis pemerolehan kalimat deklaratif disajikan dalam bentuk tabulasi dengan menggunakan sistem pengkodean sebagai berikut :

1.a =   Kalimat deklaratif untuk menyampaikan informasi faktual berkenaan dengan alam sekitar atau pengalaman penutur.

1.b =   Kalimat deklaratif untuk menyatakan keputusan atau penilaian.

1.c =   Kalimat deklaratif untuk menyatakan perjanjian, peringatan, nasihat, dan sebagainya.

1.d =   Kalimat deklaratif untuk menyatakan ucapan selamat atau suatu keberhasilan atau ucapan prihatin atas suatu kemalangan.

1.e =   Kalimat deklaratif untuk memberi penjelasan, keterangan, atau perincian kepada seseorang.

No Data Kode Jenis Kalimat Argumentasi / Situasi
 

1.

 

 

 

 

2.

 

 

 

 

3.

 

 

 

 

4.

 

 

 

5.

 

 

 

 

6.

 

 

 

7.

 

 

 

 

 

 

8.

 

 

9.

 

 

 

 

10.

 

 

 

 

11.

Mama’ ndak baek, Bapak ndak baek, kak Atin ndak baek cama Jiji. Dia cuka marah aja.

 

 

Tau dah Jiji, Bapak dia marah tu.

 

 

 

Berani Jiji, Jiji bica bejaguran (berantem), Jiji juga pake baju cowok, aneh, eeh.. orang Jiji bejaguran caranya.

 

Orang, orang kan ndak ada pake picau yang panjang itu, Itu dipake cih, weeq.

 

Apa eek, itu dia itu eek.

 

 

 

 

Tadi marah cama Jiji, lagi baek. Dia cuka gitu dia jogang(gila) Bapak ini.

 

Gak mau Jiji, Supaya gak adaadiknya itu. Itu, itu untuk anak kecil, bukan untuk orang becar”, kan Jiji macih kecil, Fatin lain umurnya bukan kayak Jiji umurnya.

 

Fatin lain umurnya jak dia, Eee..

 

Bapak lagi baik, tadi marah cekarang baik, dia jogang Bapak itu. Ciapa jak (sih) punya bapak itu. Jogangnya.”

 

Anu punya bapak itu, ee.. tuyul. Tuyul punya bapak itu.

 

 

 

Pokoknya, Jiji mau punya mobil, Jiji mau tabrakan doang, Jiji mau bunuh diri, tau dah Jiji itu Bapak rekam.

 

 

1.b

 

 

 

 

1.b

 

 

 

 

1.e

 

 

 

 

1.a

 

 

 

1.e

 

 

 

 

1.b

 

 

 

1.a

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.a

 

 

 

1.b

 

 

 

1.b

 

 

 

 

1.b

 

 

 

 

Data tersebut berisi pernyataan yang menyatakan penilaian informan (Zizi) terhadap orang-orang di sekitarnya.

 

Data tersebut berisi pernyataan yang menyatakan penilaian informan (Zizi) terhadap lawan tutur (Bapak)

 

Data tersebut berisi penjelasan, ini ditandai dengan kata ‘pakai’ dan kata ‘cara’.

 

 

Data tersebut menyampaikan informasi bahwa tidak ada orang yang pakai pisau.

 

Data itu berisi pernyataan tentang penjelasan tentang letak sesuatu yang dimaksud oleh penutur.

 

Data tersebut berisi penilaian informan (Zizi) terhadap lawan tuturnya (Bapak)

 

Data itu menyatakan fakta bahwa informan (Zizi) lebih kecil usianya daripada kakaknya.

 

 

 

 

Data itu berisi penjelasan bahwa Fatin berbeda usia dengan informan.

 

Data tersebut berisi penilaian informan (Zizi) terhadap lawan tuturnya (Bapak).

 

Data itu berisi pernyataan yang menyatakan penilaian informan (Zizi) kepada lawan tuturnya (Bapak)

 

Data tersebut berisi keputusan informan (Zizi) untuk punya mobil dan untuk menabrakkan mobilnya

 

 

  1. Pemerolehan Kalimat Bentuk Interogatif

Analisis pemerolehan kalimat bentuk interogatif juga disajikan dalam bentuk tabulasi dengan menggunakan sistem pengkodean sebagai berikut :

2.a = Kalimat interogatif yang meminta pengakuan jawaban ‘ya” atau “tidak” atau “ya” atau “bukan”.

2.b =   Kalimat interogatif yang meminta keterangan mengenai salah satu unsur (fungsi) kalimat.

2.c =   Kalimat interogatif yang meminta alasan.

2.d =   Kalimat interogatif yang meminta pendapat atau buah pikiran orang lain.

2.e =   Kalimat interogatif yang menyuguhkan

 

 

 

No Data Kode Jenis Kalimat Argumentasi / Situasi
 

1.

 

 

 

 

Biarin abis air mata jiji, kenapa emang?

 

 

 

2.c

 

 

 

Data tersebut berisi pertanyaan yang meminta jawaban dalam bentuk alasan.

 

 

  1. Pemerolehan Kalimat Bentuk Impratif

Sebagaimana analisis sebelumnya, analisis pemerolehan sintaksis pada kalimat bentuk imperatif juga disajikan dalam bentuk tabulasi dengan sistem pengkodean, seperti berikut ini :

3.a =   Kalimat perintah mengharapkan adanya reaksi berupa tindakan fisik.

3.b =   Kalimat larangan mengharapkan jawaban berupa tidak melakukan sesuatu yang disebutkan dalam kalimat itu.

No Data Kode Jenis Kalimat Argumentasi / Situasi
 

1.

 

 

 

 

2.

 

 

 

 

3.

 

 

 

 

4.

 

 

 

 

5.

 

Mama’ cana (sana) cama (sama) kak Fatin cama, Zizi cendiri di cana, mama pergi !

 

 

Cana, jangan ke cini ! rumahnya Jiji, Bapak pergi cama Mama cama kak Atin cana, ini rumahnya Jiji aja.

 

Bapak cari rumah cama Mama, cama kak Fatin cana ! Zizi, Zizi aja punya rumah ini.

 

 

Bapak aloh (sana) pegang!

 

 

 

 

Ambil aja itu! Jiji ndak mau.

 

 

3.a

 

 

 

 

3.a

 

 

 

 

3.a

 

 

 

 

3.a

 

 

 

 

3.a

 

Data tersebut merupakan kalimat yang berisi perintah untuk melakukan tindakan berupa ‘pergi’

 

Data tersebut juga merupakan kalimat yang berisi perintah untuk melakukan tindakan berupa ‘pergi’

 

Data tersebut merupakan kalimat yang berisi perintah ini ditandai oleh adanya kata ‘cari’ dan kata ‘sana’.

 

Data tersebut merupakan kalimat yang berisi perintah untuk melakukan tindakan berupa ‘memegang’.

 

Data tersebut merupakan kalimat yang berisi perintah ini ditandai oleh adanya kata ‘ambil aja’.

 

  1. Pemerolehan Kalimat Bentuk Interjektif

Kalimat interjektif merupakan kalimat untuk menyatakan emosi, seperti karena kagum, kaget, terkejut, takjub, heran, marah, sedih, gemas, kecewa, tidak suka, dan sebagainya. Analisis pemerolehan sintaksis pada kalimat bentuk interjektif Penyajiannya juga dalam bentuk tabulasi tetapi tidak menggunakan sistem pengkodean.

No Data Penjelasan / Keterangan
 

1.

 

 

 

 

2.

 

 

 

 

 

3.

 

 

 

4.

 

 

 

 

 

 

5.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

6.

 

Nggak mau, nggak mau. Kak Fatin mau beli kacul (kasur) kayak Jiji itu, maeh Jiji ambil itu, ee’, itu

 

 

Jiji nggak mau, pokoknya Jiji cekarang mo bunuh diri.

 

 

 

 

Ndak lucu!

 

 

 

Jiji di jauh rumahnya Jiji, di gunung, bukan di cini, ini bukan, bukan di gunung ini, lain, bukan di gunung.

 

 

 

 

Eee.. Kalau Bapak tidur Jiji pecahin HPnya dah, HP putih ini. Eee.. Biar Bapak berenti pake HP putih itu. Supaya Bapak ndak ada HPnya cama Mama cama Kak Atin, Jiji aja punya HP.

 

 

Jiji mau bunuh diri di lapan (sungai).

 

Data tersebut termasuk dalam bentuk interjektif oleh karena kalimat ini mengandung ‘kekesalan’ informan terhadap lawan tuturnya.

 

Data tersebut termasuk dalam bentuk interjektif karena kalimat itu mengandung ‘kemarahan’ informan terhadap lawan tuturnya. Ini ditandai oleh adanya frasa ‘bunuh diri’.

 

Pernyataan dalam data tersebut menyiratkan bahwa sang informan sedang kesal terhadap mitra tuturnya.

 

Pernyataan dalam data tersebut menyiratkan bahwa sang informan sedang kesal atau marah terhadap mitra tuturnya. Hal ini ditandai adanya kaliamat kekesalan, seperti ‘Jiji di jauh rumahnya, di gunung’,

 

Data di samping berisi pernyataan yang menyiratkan kemarahan informan. Hal ini ditandai dengan adanya kalimat atau frasa ‘Pecahin HPnya’.

 

 

 

 

Data tersebut menyiratkan rasa tidak suka dan marah sehingga keluar frasa ‘bunuh diri’.

 

Mencermati pemerolehan masing-masing bentuk kalimat pada data di atas, pemerolehan sintaksis pada anak Zia Rahmanita yang dalam keadaan marah dan menggerutu, dapat diketahui bahwa yang mendominasi adalah pemerolehan kalimat bentuk deklaratif, yakni sebanyak 11 data atau 48% dari 23 data yang dianalisis, selanjutnya disusul oleh kalimat bentuk interjektif sebanyak 6 data atau 26% kemudian kalimat bentuk imperatif sebanyak 5 data atau 22%, serta yang paling sedikit adalah kalimat bentuk interogatif yang hanya 1 data atau 4%.

KESIMPULAN DAN SARAN

Pemerolehan bahasa pada tataran sintaksis Zia Rahmanita selaku objek penelitian dapat dikatakan sudah cukup baik. Sangat minim adanya penyimpangan yang berarti dalam tuturan yang dihasilkan. Pada tahap ini (usia 4 tahun)pemerolehan bahasa anak berada pada tahap perkembangan kalimat. Anak sudah mengenal pola dialog, sudah memahami kapan gilirannya berbicara dan kapan giliran lawan tuturnya berbicara. Anak telah memahami sebagain dari kaedah-kaedahkebahasaan yang pokok dari orang dewasa, perbendaharaan kata berkembang, dan perkembangan fonologi dapat dikatakan telah berakhir, kecuali penyebutan fonem ‘S’, meskipun sudah dapat diujarkan dengan sempurna namun bagi fonem ‘S’ yang terdapat pada awal dan di tengah kata masih belum sempurna yakni masih diujarkan seperti fonem ‘C’. hal ini terbukti dari data yang diperoleh oleh peneliti, tetapi apabila fonem ‘S’ tersebut berada di akhir kata maka anak Zizi telah mampu mengujarkannya dengan sempurna. Mungkin masih ada kesukaran pengucapan beberapa konsonan namun segera akan berhasil dilalui anak.

Terkait dengan analisis pemerolehan sintaksis pada beberapa bentuk kalimat yang telah disebutkan dalam pembahasan makalah ini, didapati bahwa pemerolehan sintaksis anak Zizi didominasi oleh bentuk kalimat deklaratif, selanjutanya berturut-turut disusul oleh bentuk kalimat interjektif, imperatif, dan terakhir kalimat interogatif.

Dapat disimpulkan bahwa meskipun objek penelitian dalam keadaan marah yang dibarengi menggerutu, tidak berarti bahwa bentuk kalimat yang mendominasi adalah kalimat bentuk interjektif yang menyatakan makna emosi. Hal ini berarti bahwa dalam keadaan apapun seorang anak ketika berbahasa, khususnya anak yang telah memasuki suatu tahap yang disebut sebagai tahap menghasilkan suatu konstruksi yang sederhana dan kompleks, maka yang akan mendominasi pemerolehan sintaksisnya adalah sintaksis bentuk kalimat deklaratif.

Peneliti meyakini bahwa makalah ini masih jauh dari sempurna, oleh karena itu akan sangat membantu apabila para pembaca memberikan masukan atau saran yang dapat menyempurnakan kekurangan dari makalah ini.

 

DAFTAR PUSTAKA

Arifin, Zaenal dan Junaiyah. 2009. Sintaksis. Jakarta: Kompas Gramedia.

Chaer, Abdul. 2003. Psikolinguistik, Kajian Teoretik. Jakarta: Rineka Cipta.

Chaer, Abdul. 2009. Sintaksis Bahasa Indonesia. Jakarta: Rineka Cipta.

http://adheliana92.blogspot.com/2013/10/kalimat-deklaratif-kalimat-imperatif.html

http://yoviersariadi.blogspot.com/2014/10/pemrolehan-sintaksis-pada-anak-umur-3.html

Mahsun. 2013. Metode Penelitian Bahasa. Jakarta: PT Rajagrafindo Persada.

Moleong, Lexy J. 2011. Metodologi Penelitian Kualitatif. Bandung: PT Remaja Rosdakarya.

Tarigan, Henry Guntur. 2011. Pengajaran Pemerolehan Bahasa. Bandung: Angkasa.

Verhaar, J.W.M. 2012. Asas-asas Linguistik Umum. Yogyakarta: Gadjah Mada University Press.

 

Studi Kasus Pemerolehan Bahasa Anak Usia 2 Tahun Hasil Pernikahan Pasangan Beda Daerah: Kajian Fonologi (Fonetik Artikulatoris)

Kurniawan

Universitas Mataram

 

Abstrak

Studi kasus pemerolehan bahasa pada anak laki-laki berusia dua tahun yang merupakan hasil pernikahan pasangan beda daerah. Digunakan kajian fonologi pada aspek fonetik artikulatoris untuk menguraikan data kebahasaan. Menerapkan pendekatan kualitatif deskriptif dengan metode lapangan. Pemerolehan bahasa banyak dipengaruhi lingkungan keluarga. Tampaknya anak pada usia dua tahun menghasilkan pelesapan dan perubahan bunyi terhadap bahasa yang diujarkan. Hasil analisis menunjukkan bentuk pelesapan bunyi dipengaruhi ketidaksempurnaan alat ucap serta cara mengartikulasikannya sedangkan perubahan bunyi terkait rangkain tahapan pemerolehan bahasa yang sempurna.

 

Kata kunci: studi kasus, pemerolehan bahasa, fonologi

 

Abstract

Case studies of language acquisition in boys aged two years is the result of the wedding couple different areas. Used phonological studies on aspects of articulatory phonetic language to decipher the data. Descriptive qualitative approach with field methods. Language acquisition greatly influenced the family environment. It seems that children at the age of two years resulted in deletion and change the sound of the language uttered. The analysis showed deletion forms influenced sound imperfections said tool and how to articulate while the sound changes associated string of perfect stages of language acquisition.

 

Keywords: case studies, language acquisition, phonology

 

PENDAHULUAN

Bahasa telah menjadi sarana paling efektif yang dimiliki manusia. Pantaslah dijadikan alat komunikasi untuk menyampaikan maksud pada orang lain. Menyangkut pikiran, perasaan, gagasan, dan sebagainya dalam berbagai interaksi antarsesama manusia. Dengan demikian, harus diakui bahwa bahasa telah memainkan peran penting dalam kehidupan manusia.

Pada perkembangannya, sudut pandang terhadap dinamika bahasa manusia telah menjadi perhatian bagi para pakar serta peneliti. Termasuk yang paling disoroti menyangkut awal mula pemerolehannya. Disebabkan tahapan tersebut memiliki keunikan sebelum mencapai bahasa yang sempurna. Hal tersebut dapat diperhatikan dari wujud artikulasi dalam proses awal pemerolehan bahasa seorang anak. Begitu tampak berbeda dengan bahasa yang digunakan oleh orang dewasa. Oleh karena itu, orang-orang yang berada di lingkungan sekitar anak selalu takjub terhadap pemerolehan bahasa yang “ajaib” tersebut.

Proses pemerolehan bahasa pada anak menarik untuk dicermati serta diteliti secara intensif oleh berbagai pihak. Termasuk penelitian yang dilakukan terhadap seorang anak laki-laki berusia 2 tahun hasil pernikahan antara orang Lombok (laki-laki) dengan orang Dompu (perempuan) yang berbeda latar belakang suku, budaya, dan bahasa. Dengan perbedaan tersebut, maka kontak budaya dan bahasa tidak dapat dihindari oleh pasangan suami-istri tersebut. Mengakibatkan anak yang dihasilkan dari pasangan pernikahan beda daerah akan mengalami kesulitan menguasai bahasa yang menjadi latar belakang asal kedua orangtuanya. Dalam hal memilih bahasa dari pihak Ibu atau bahasa dari pihak Ayah yang akan menjadi awal pemerolehan bahasa bagi si anak. Biasanya yang terjadi yakni anak diajarkan pada penggunaan bahasa yang netral dari bahasa kedua orang tuanya. Oleh karena demikian, bahasa Indonesia menjadi pilihan bagi orang tua yang memiliki latar belakang pernikahan berbeda suku, budaya, dan bahasa terhadap proses awal pemerolehan bahasa untuk anaknya .

Secara realitas, proses pemerolehan ataupun penguasaan bahasa seorang anak merupakan sesuatu yang menakjubkan. Pada prosesnya, pemerolehan bahasa tetap menjadi suatu isu disebabkan belum ada pembuktian yang akurat. Muncul berbagai pandangan tentang pemerolehan bahasa, seperti dinyatakan Dardjowidjojo (2003:225) bahwa pemerolehan menyangkut proses penguasaan bahasa yang dilakukan oleh anak secara natural pada waktu dia belajar bahasa ibunya (native language). Sedangkan menurut Maksan (1993:20), pemerolehan bahasa merupakan proses penguasaan bahasa yang dilakukan oleh seorang anak secara tidak sadar, implisit, dan informal. Pendapat lain, Chaer (2003:167) menyatakan bahwa pemerolehan bahasa adalah proses yang berlangsung di dalam otak seorang anak-anak ketika dia memperoleh bahasa pertamanya atau bahasa ibunya. Pandangan berbeda muncul dari Tarigan (2011:5) bahwa pemerolehan bahasa anak mempunyai ciri berkesinambungan serta rangkaian kesatuan yang bergerak dari ucapan satu kata sederhana menuju gabungan kata yang lebih rumit. Dari berbagai pandangan tersebut, dapat dinyatakan bahwa semuanya pandangan para pakar tersebut masih merupakan sebuah hipotesis. Sebab belum ada seorangpun (para pakar) yang dapat memastikan manifestasi proses berpikir seorang anak dalam pemerolehan bahasanya.

Adapun hal paling nyata terkait pemerolehan bahasa seorang anak sangat bergantung pada berbagai sumber serta cara mendapatkannya. Seperti dinyatakan Tarigan (2011:5) bahwa pemerolehan bahasa banyak ditentukan oleh interaksi rumit aspek kematangan biologis, kognitif, dan sosial. Perihal tersebut terkait pernyataan Slobin (dalam Tarigan, 2011:5), pemerolehan bahasa akan menghadapi kenyataan bahwa bahasa dibangun sejak semula oleh setiap anak dan memanfaatkan aneka kapasitas bawaan sejak lahir yang beragam dalam interaksinya dengan pengalaman-pengalaman dunia fisik dan sosial.

Terkait unsur biologis yang dipandang dapat membantu pemerolehan bahasa seorang anak. Diasumsikan bahwa proses pemerolehan bahasa sebagai hasil interaksi antara kemampuan mental seorang anak dengan lingkungan bahasa. Terdapatnya kemampuan internal yang telah ada dengan sesuatu yang “baru” diterima seorang anak. Pernyataan tersebut menyangkut bagian yang dimiliki seorang anak sejak lahir berupa language acquisition device (LAD) atau “sarana pemerolehan bahasa”. Sejak lahir anak telah dibekali kecerdasan termasuk kemampuan berbahasa (Campbel, dkk, 2006:2-3). Akan tetapi, hal itu tidak akan berarti jika tanpa adanya penerimaan seorang anak terhadap lingkungan bahasa disekitarnya. Oleh karena lingkungan menjadi faktor yang dapat memperngaruhi kemampuan berbahasa seorang anak (Campbel, dkk, 2006:2-3). Keduanya perlu menjadi pertimbangan dalam upaya membantu pemerolehan bahasa seorang anak. Dapat diistilahkan sebagai faktor internal (kemampuan mental) dan faktor eksternal (lingkungan bahasa). Dengan demikian, diperlukan keseimbangan antara kedua faktor tersebut agar dapat menghantarkan seorang anak memperoleh kematangan berbahasa. Dapat disimpulkan bahwa kematangan biologis mencoba memadukan kedua faktor dalam usahanya mencapai pemerolehan “kematangan” bahasa seorang anak.

Pada perspektif kognitif banyak menitikberatkan pada pemikiran Piaget, seorang pakar dari Universitas Geneva, Swiss. Piaget memandang pemerolehan bahasa seorang anak memiliki korelasi dengan perkembangan kognisi. Oleh sebab itu, para pihak yang terlibat dengan anak dianjurkan memperhatikan tahapan dalam perkembangan kognisinya. Menurut Chaer (2003:223), urutan-urutan perkembangan kognitif menentukan urutan perkembangan bahasa. Perihal tersebut memang beralasan sebab tahapan yang merupakan proses yang harus dilalui seorang anak tidak dapat dipaksakan secepat mungkin untuk menghasilkan “kemampuan” berbahasanya. Namun, seorang anak tetap secara bertahap dalam proses pemerolahan bahasanya. Dengan mencermati perkembangan kognisi, maka dapat diperhatikan peningkatan kemampuan bahasa seorang anak. Oleh karena demikian, hubungan perkembangan kognisi dengan proses pemerolehan bahasa seorang anak telah membentuk ikatan komplementer. Seperti yang digambarkan Piaget (dalam Tarigan, 2011:41) melalui rancangan tahap-tahap perkembangan bahasa seorang anak. Adapun tahapan yang dimaksud, meliputi: a) pralinguistik I – tahap meraban antara usia 0 – 0,5 tahun, b) pralinguistik II – tahap meraban dengan kemunculan kata nonsense dimulai antara usia 0,5  – 1 tahun, c) liguistik I – tahap kalimat satu kata antara usia 1 – 2 tahun, d) linguistik II – tahap kalimat dua kata dimulai antara usia 2 – 3 tahun, e) linguistik III – tahap pengembangan tata bahasa antara usia 3 – 4 tahun, f) linguistik IV – tahap tata bahasa pradewasa dimulai antara usia 4 – 5 tahun, dan g) linguistik V – merupakan tahap kompetensi penuh dimulai antara usia 5 tahun dan seterusnya. Sesungguhnya pembagian tahapan oleh Piaget dapat dijadikan pertimbangan bagi pihak-pihak yang terlibat dengan pemerolehan bahasa anak, termasuk orang tua.

Sesuatu yang tidak dapat disepelakan dalam proses pemerolehan bahasa seorang anak berupa keberadaan lingkungan sosial. Diduga banyak mempengaruhi pemerolehan bahasa seorang anak, khususnya lingkungan keluarga terutama keberadaan seorang Ibu yang senantiasa dekat dengan anak. Seperti dinyatakan Dardjowidjojo (2003:241) bahwa bahasa seorang Ibu dianggap mendominasi pengaruh pemerolehan bahasa anak. Melalui interaksi secara intensif antara anak dan Ibu, maka membuka peluang hadirnya stimulus dalam proses pemerolehan bahasa. Akan tumbuh kemampuan seorang anak untuk menghasilkan tuturan secara bertahap serta dikemudian hari dapat memahami tuturan orang lain. Oleh karena demikian, betapa sangat penting interaksi seorang anak dengan lingkungan sosial (terutama Ibu sebagai orang tua) dalam rangka “membantu” pemerolahan bahasanya. Oleh sebab kehadiran orang tua (Ibu) merupakan pemrakarsa untuk mendampingi anaknya dalam berkomunikasi. Dengan demikian, orang tua akan selalu mengasah kemampuan berbahasa dalam proses pemerolehan bahasa anak. Dalam praktiknya, proses pemerolehan bahasa seorang anak dapat dioptimalkan melalui interaksi komunikasi yang intensif dengan lingkungan sosial terutama keluarga. Pada akhirnya dapat membantu perkembangan kognisi serta kematangan bahasa seorang anak. Serta menghasilkan pola-pola berkomunikasi yang mengarah bahasa orang dewasa. Dapat dinyatakan bahwa keaktivan interaksi seorang anak dengan lingkungan sosial (keluarga) dapat meningkatkan kematangan pemerolehan bahasa seperti orang dewasa.

Dicermati dari aspek biologis, kognisi, serta sosial terhadap pemerolehan bahasan seorang anak. Ketiganya cenderung menitikberatkan pada interaksi terhadap lingkungan untuk membentuk kematangan bahasa seorang anak pada usia dini. Oleh karena demikian, peran lingkungan (khususnya keluarga) secara signifikan memberikan dominasi terhadap perkembangan bahasa seorang anak. Keberadaan lingkungan sebagai bentuk penguatan untuk tingkah laku bahasa (Skinner dalam Pateda, 1990:43). Munculnya penguatan karena dipengaruhi adanya interaksi seorang anak dengan lingkungannya. Menunjukkan suatu pengkondisian, terdapatnya stimulus dari lingkungan yang dapat menimbulkan respon seorang anak sebagai penerima. Oleh karena itu, ketika terjadi perubahan lingkungan, maka dapat mempengaruhi perasaan serta pikiran terhadap prilaku berbahasa seorang anak secara bertahap. Adanya stimulus-respon, berpeluang mengarahkan pemerolehan bahasa seorang anak melalui proses pengulangan. Menurut Pateda (1990:45), hal itu dilakukan sebagai wujud peniruan karena berulangnya frekuensi satu kata dan urutan kata yang selalu diucapkan anak.

Mencermati situasi tersebut, dianjurkan lingkungan (keluarga) anak sejak awal membentuk perilaku berbahasa secara baik serta positif. Namun yang harus diperhatikan oleh lingkungan bahwa pemerian penguatan berkala perlu disesuaikan dengan kemampuan kognisi anak. Agar seorang anak efektif dalam proses pemerolehan bahasanya. Menurut Pateda (1990:51) bahwa adanya gagasan pemerolehan bahasa anak yang menekankan proses latihan dalam bentuk pertanyaan (stimulus orang tua) karena dapat memunculkan suatu jawaban (respon anak).  Oleh sebab itu, dianjurkan pertanyaan yang diajukan mulai dari bentuk yang sederhana sampai pada kategori rumit. Dengan pertanyaan yang tepat sesuai tingkat kognisi yang dimiliki, maka anak dapat memberikan tanggapannya. Dengan demikian, proses membiasakan (stimulus-respon) dari lingkungan khususnya keluarga dapat membantu seorang anak memperoleh kematangan bahasa.

Sesungguhnya proses pemerolehan bahasa seorang anak memunculkan bunyi-bunyian, yang berawal dari pralinguistik menuju linguistik. Menandakan kehadiran struktur tata bahasa di dalam proses tersebut, perihal proses pralinguistik menjadi linguistik yang dimaksud, yakni: 1) pengocehan (babbling) – bunyi-bunyi yang berwujud teriakan, rengekan, atupun tangisan terkait suku kata tunggal. Terdapat beberapa ahli yang berbeda pendapat tentang usia anak pada tahap ocehan. Seperti pandangan Mar’at (2005:43), bahwa tahap ocehan terjadi pada usia antara 5 dan 6 bulan. Sedangkan Dardjowidjojo dan Atmaja (2000: 244) menyatakan bahwa tahap celoteh terjadi sekitar umur 6 bulan. Adanya perbedaan usia anak berceloteh sangat bergantung pada situasi perkembangan neurologi seorang anak. Namun yang paling penting untuk diingat bahwa seorang anak pada fase pengocehan sangat menyukai objek berbentuk gambar. Menurut Trevar (dalam Tarigan, 2011:17), sang anak akan memberi respon yang berbeda-beda terhadap orang dan objek “bergambar”. 2) satu kata (holofrastis) – berlangsung ketika anak berusia antara 12 dan 18 bulan. Situasi ujaran yang dihasilkan seorang anak akan mengandung kata-kata tunggal karena mengacu pada benda-benda yang dijumpai sehari-hari. Seorang anak terus menerus berupaya mengumpulkan nama-nama benda dan orang di dunia (Tarigan, 2011:18). Mulailah  seorang anak menggunakan serangkaian bunyi secara berulang-ulang untuk mengemukakan gagasan pada makna yang sama maupun berbeda. Oleh karena demikian, anak mulai mengerti bahwa bunyi ujaran berkaitan dengan ekspresi pesan yang disampaikan pada orang lain (Indah, 2011:32). Pada proses tersebut, seorang anak sudah mengucapkan pengembangan kata-kata yang pertama. Dari ucapan yang dihasilkan dalam kosakata permulaan dapat muncul berbagai tipe kata. Seperti dinyatakan Tarigan (2011:18), seorang anak dapat mencari dan menemukan kata: tindak (makan, minum, duduk, dsb), ekspresi sosial (hei, halo, dsb), lokasional (di sini, di sana, dsb), dan pemerian (panas, dingin, dsb) 3) dua kata – dapat berlangsung ketika anak berusia 18-20 bulan. Menurut Tarigan (2011:21) hal tersebut merupakan kesinambungan dalam makna anak-anak pada ujaran satu kata yang menjadi ujaran kombinasi untuk mengekspresikan makna-makna mereka. Dengan demikian, ujaran seorang anak harus ditafsirkan sesuai dengan konteksnya. Memperlihatkan bahwa seorang anak sudah dapat berpikir melalui penggunaan subjek dan predikat. Walaupun pada penggunaan infleksi, kata ganti orang, dan sebagainya belum dapat dilakukan (Tarigan, 2011:20). 4) telegram (telegraphic speech) – mulai pada usia 2 dan 3 tahun. Sebab anak akan mulai menghasilkan ujaran kata-ganda (multiple-word utterances). Pada proses selanjutnya, seorang anak dapat membentuk kalimat serta mengurutkan bentuk-bentuknya dengan benar. Kosakata yang dihasilkan anak berkembang dengan pesat. Dampaknya, bahasa yang diujarkan seorang anak semakin mirip dengan bahasa orang dewasa.

Pralinguistik menjadi linguistik terkait proses perkembangan pemerolehan bahasa seorang anak. Perubahan pralinguistik menjadi linguistik karena adanya penguatan dari interaksi seorang anak dengan lingkungan sosial sebagai lingkungan bahasa. Dalam istilah Bruner (dalam Tarigan, 2011:68) sebagai sistem pendukung pemerolehan bahasa (language-acquisition support system atau LASS). Dalam hal ini yang paling menonjol yakni kehadiran lingkungan keluarga, memungkinkan dapat membantu secara optimal dalam pemerolehan bahasa seorang anak. Semakin tinggi tingkat interaksi seorang anak dengan lingkungan keluarga, maka semakin besar peluang dalam pemerolehan bahasanya, begitupun sebaliknya. Pada perkembangannya, peranan yang dilakukan lingkungan keluarga pada anak dalam pemerolehan bahasanya akan mengasah kemampuannya untuk berinteraksi dengan orang lain di luar dari lingkungannya.

Seorang anak dalam merealisasikan proses pemerolehan bahasa tentu memiliki strategi tersendiri. Akan menyesuaikan dengan tingkat usia serta perkembangan kognisinya. Secara umum terdapat empat strategi pemerolehan bahasa seorang anak, meliputi: peniruan, produktivitas, umpan balik, dan prinsip operasi. Adanya strategi yang dimaksud sebagai orientasi yang secara sistematis dilakukan seorang anak dalam pemerolehan bahasa serta mengasah kemampuannya dalam berkomunikasi dengan lawan tutur. Untuk menguatkan pernyataan tersebut, dapat mengacu pada pandangan Chomsky. Terdapat dua proses yang muncul ketika pemerolehan bahasa seorang anak dimulai. Proses yang dimaksud adalah proses kompetensi dan proses performansi. Adapun yang dimaksud kompetensi yakni proses penguasaan tata bahasa (fonologi, morfologi, sintaksis, semantik, dan pragmatik) seorang anak secara tidak disadari – “bakat” yang dibawa setiap anak sejak lahir. Akan tetapi, kompetensi perlu mendapatkan bimbingan, dalam hal ini tentu dari lingkungan sosial (khususnya keluarga). Pada akhirnya seorang anak dapat menghadirkan performansi dalam berbahasa. Namun yang perlu dipahami bahwa kedua proses tersebut memiliki perbedaan yang menonjol. Jika eksistensi kompetensi merupakan pengetahuan intuitif yang dimiliki seorang anak terkait bahasa ibunya. Sedangkan performansi menyangkut kemampuan anak menggunakan bahasa dalam rangka berkomunikasi dengan lingkungannya. Oleh karena berkomunikasi dibutuhkan dua proses yakni pemahaman dan pemroduksian bahasa. Menurut Chaer (2003:167), proses pemahaman melibatkan kemampuan mengamati atau mempersepsi ujaran yang didengar, sedangkan proses penerbitan (pemroduksian) melibatkan kemampuan menghasilkan bahasa sendiri.

Berdasarkan uraian tersebut, bahwa bahasa yang diperoleh seorang anak karena terdapatnya proses mental yang telah ada lalu diperkuat melalui interaksi dengan lingkungan sosial (bahasa) serta terbantu oleh perkembangan kognisinya. Perihal tersebut dapat memberi pemahaman bagi peneliti dalam upaya mengetahui pemerolahan bahasa anak. Oleh karena demikian, penelitian yang dilakukan perlu mencari informasi tentang sumber-sumber pemerolehan bahasa anak. Sebagai pembuktian secara empiris terhadap penyataan yang dikemukakan oleh para pakar. Akan tetapi, fokus utama tetap tertuju pada studi kasus terhadap wujud pemerolehan “bunyi” bahasa seorang anak berusia 2 tahun. Dengan demikian, penelitian yang dilakukan mengkaji dari bidang fonologi terkait fonetik artikulatoris .

 

KAJIAN KEPUSTAKAAN

Sesungguhnya fonologi sebagai satuan bahasa yang mendeskripsikan bunyi bahasa. Beberapa para ahli telah mengemukakan tentang fonologi sebagai ilmu tentang bunyi. Seperti pandangan Verhaar (2012:9) yang menyatakan bahwa fonologi merupakan bidang khusus dalam linguistik yang mengamati bunyi-bunyi suatu bahasa tertentu sesuai dengan fungsinya untuk membedakan makna leksikal dalam suatu bahasa. Sementara menurut Chaer (2013:3) fonologi merupakan ilmu yang mempelajari bunyi-bunyi bahasa pada umumnya. Sedangkan KBBI (2008:244) mendefinisikan fonologi sebagai ilmu tentang bunyi bahasa, terutama yang mencakup sejarah dan teori perubahan bunyi. Dengan demikian, dapat disimpulkan bahwa fonologi merupakan ilmu yang mempelajari bunyi bahasa terkait ujaran yang dihasilkan oleh alat ucap manusia.

Bidang fonologi terdapat dua jenis kajian yakni fonetik dan fonemik. Namun, penelitian yang dilakukan hanya mengkhususkan pada aspek fonetik. Dalam rangka mencermati bunyi bahasa yang diujarkan serta menyikapi asumsi adanya pelesapan dan perubahan yang terjadi ketika anak menuturkan bunyi bahasa. Diketahui bahwa fonetik sebagai bagian ilmu dalam linguistik yang mempelajari atau menyelidiki bunyi bahasa yang diproduksi oleh manusia tanpa melihat fungsi bunyi itu sebagai pembeda makna dalam suatu bahasa (Marsono, 2008:2). Pandangan yang sama juga dikemukakan oleh Chaer (2013:4), fonetik merupakan studi tentang bunyi-bunyi ujar yang tidak memiliki fungsi sebagai pembeda makna. Sedangkan Verhaar (2012:10) bahwa fonetik merupakan cabang linguistik yang ruang lingkupnya membahas tentang bunyi bahasa yang lebih terfokus pada sifat-sifat akusifnya atau pelafalanya. Sementara menurut Muslich (dalam Sulastri, 2013), fonetik sebagai bidang kajian ilmu pengetahuan yang menelaah tentang bunyi-bunyi bahasa dalam ujaran manusia. Dengan demikian, fonetik hanya membedakan bunyi ujaran yang dihasilkan.

Penelitian terhadap pemerolehan bahasa seorang anak yang berusia 2 tahun difokuskan pada aspek fonetik yang menitikberatkan pada segi artikulatoris. Adapun fonetik artikulatoris hanya mendeskripsikan mekanisme alat-alat ucap manusia dalam menghasikan bunyi bahasa. Lebih lanjut, mendeskripsikan cara membentuk dan mengucapkan bunyi bahasa serta pembagian bunyi bahasa dan pengartikulasiannya. Hal tersebut menunjukkan bahwa fonetik artikulatoris hanya sebatas lingkup linguistik teoretis.

Difokuskan penelitian pada aspek fonetik artikulatoris, didasari ketertarikan peneliti untuk mengetahui serta mengemukakan tentang bentuk “keanehan” pemerolehan bahasa terhadap bunyi yang dihasilkan seorang anak berusia 2 tahun. Memahami bunyi merupakan sesuatu hal yang dipandang penting dalam proses awal pemerolehan bahasa seorang anak (Samsuri dalam Sulastri, 2013). Oleh karena demikian, perlu dilakukan identifikasi serta pendataan terhadap bunyi-bunyi bahasa yang tidak lazim dalam menghasilkan sebuah kata. Selanjutnya menyikapi adanya pelesapan dan perubahan bunyi terhadap kata yang dituturkan. Melalui proses tersebut, maka peneliti dapat menguraikan wujud bunyi bahasa serta bentuk pelesapan dan perubahan yang dihasilkan oleh anak yang dijadikan subjek penelitian. Pada akhirnya, peneliti dapat mengetahui seberapa baik tingkat kematangan bunyi bahasa yang dimiliki seorang anak pada usia 2 dalam proses pemerolehannya.

Asumsi penelitian yang dilakukan, bahwa anak yang masih berusia antara 2 tahun menghasilkan bunyi bahasa yang “tidak biasa” atau berbeda dengan bahasa yang dituturkan oleh orang dewasa. Disebabkan seorang anak belum mencapai tahap kesempurnaan pada alat ucapnya. Biasanya seorang anak akan menggunakan bunyi yang telah dikuasainya serta mudah diujarkan untuk mengganti bunyi yang belum dipelajari. Menurut Werdiningsih (2002:6) bahwa pemerolehan bunyi bahasa melalui beberapa tahapan. Oleh karenanya seorang anak harus selalu intensif menuturkan bunyi bahasa agar dapat menguasai bahasa secara sempurna seperti orang dewasa. Menurut Samsuri (dalam Sulastri, 2013) bahwa penguasaan bunyi dipandang penting dalam pembelajaran bahasa dan penelitian bahasa. Dapat dinyatakan bahwa seorang anak berusia 2 tahun masih dalam proses menghasilkan bunyi bahasa yang sempurna.

Studi kasus terhadap pemerolehan bahasa seorang anak yang berusia 2 tahun dengan menyoroti pada bidang fonologi (fonetik artikulatoris). Penelitian berlandaskan pandangan para pakar yang mengemukakan tentang fonologi, khususnya fonetik artikulatoris serta penyebab terjadinya gejala pelesapan dan perubahan bunyi bahasa. Oleh karena demikian,  untuk memahami tujuan yang dimaksud maka pijakan teoretis yang digunakan meliputi pandangan Werdiningsih (2002) dalam bukunya “Dasar-dasar Psikolinguistik”, Mar’at (2005) dalam bukunya “Psikolinguistik: Suatu Pengantar”, Marsono (2008) dalam bukunya “Fonetik: Seri Bahasa”, Chaer (2013) dalam bukunya “Fonologi Bahasa Indonesia”, dan  Muslich (2014) dalam bukunya “Fonologi Bahasa Indonesia”.

 

METODE PENELITIAN

Penelitian menggunakan pendekatan kualitatif deskriptif, bertujuan menggambarkan objek apa adanya (Sugiyono, 2010:59). Adapun yang menjadi subjek penelitian yakni seorang anak bernama Mirza Ukail (disapa Mirza), yang berusia antara 2 tahun. Merupakan hasil pernikahan pasangan yang memiliki latar belakang perbedaan daerah (Lombok dan Dompu). Untuk mendata pemerolehan bahasa yang telah dimiliki oleh Mirza. Proses pengumpulan data penelitian dilakukan menggunakan metode lapangan melalui observasi, perekaman, dan wawancara terhitung tanggal 16 – 22 Desember 2014, dikediaman Mirza yang beralamat di BTN Blencong Jalan Blusafir Blok I No. 1 Gunungsari Lombok Barat, NTB. Dengan demikian, peneliti merupakan instrumen utama dalam mengumpulkan data terhadap pemerolehan bahasa. Untuk mendapatkan data yang akurat, maka peneliti menggunakan instrumen pendukung berupa alat perekam, pulpen, dan buku catatan. Setelah data rekaman diperoleh, maka data ditranskripkan ke dalam bentuk tulisan agar mempermudah menelaah dan mendeskripsikan bahasa yang dituturkan oleh Mirza. Selanjutnya bahasa tersebut dikaji secara fonologi khususnya aspek fonetik artikulatoris. Selain itu, untuk memperkaya penelitian maka dikemukakan informasi tentang sumber pemerolehan bahasa Mirza berdasarkan hasil observasi serta wawancara dengan orang yang ada di lingkungan keluarga (tempat tinggal  Mirza).

 

TEMUAN

  1. Informan Penelitian

Seorang anak laki-laki yang bernama Mirza Ukail, kerap dipanggil dengan sapaan Mirza. Ia merupakan anak pertama dari pasangan Abdul Azis dan Omi Nova, lahir pada tanggal 19 Desember 2012. Profesi Ayahnya sebagai seorang Kontraktor dan Ibunya seorang Bidan. Berdasarkan pengamatan terhadap aktivitas yang dilakukan, Mirza senang bergerak dan mengoceh terhadap objek yang dilihat serta ditemukan. Oleh sebab itu, Mirza dapat dikategorikan sebagai anak yang lincah dan aktif. Paling mengejutkan berdasarkan informasi yang diperoleh, bahwa Mirza selalu tidur malam paling cepat pukul ± 01.00 dini hari – diisi dengan kegiatan bermain.

Di lingkungan keluarga, ternyata Mirza hanya ditemani Ibu dan Neneknya sedangkan Ayahnya masih bekerja di Kalimantan. Sehingga interaksi Mirza dan Ayahnya hanya melalui telepon. Dengan demikian, Ibu dan Nenek menjadi orang yang paling dekat dengan Mirza. Namun, orang yang paling intensif berkomunikasi dengan Mirza yakni Neneknya dibandingkan Ibunya. Dalam keseharian, bahasa Indonesia menjadi media berinteraksi pada lingkungan keluarga tersebut. Oleh karena itu, pemerolehan bahasa Mirza tentu menggunakan bahasa Indonesia, bukan bahasa yang menjadi latar belakang kedua orang tuanya.

  1. Sumber Pemerolehan Bahasa Mirza Ukail

Oleh karena Mirza merupakan tipe anak yang aktif serta lincah. Hal itu sangat membuat kewalahan Nenek serta Ibunya. Lalu Mirza dibatasi area bermain, hanya di rumah dan jarang berinteraksi dengan teman sebaya. Adapun pemerolehan bahasa Mirza lebih banyak diperoleh dari Nenek, Ibu, dan media televisi yang ditonton sehari-hari. Dalam penguasaan bahasa, Mirza selalu merespon (fase peniruan dan melafalkan) terhadap segala sesuatu bunyi-bunyian yang dihasilkan oleh objek yang diamati (Nenek, Ibu maupun media). Tampak terasa dari perbendaharaan kata yang terus meningkat karena bermula dari pengulangan kata-kata yang didengar serta dihasilkan sendiri. Sedangkan dari sisi bunyi bahasa yang diujarkan, kata yang dituturkan oleh Mirza belum terdengar secara jelas.

Berdasarkan uraian tersebut, dapat dinyatakan sumber pemerolehan Mirza dari lingkungan bahasa banyak dipengaruhi oleh lingkungan keluarga. Selain itu, terdapat pula bahasa yang dihasilkan sendiri – mental serta perkembangan kognisi. Terkait lingkungan keluarga sebagai sumber pemerolehan bahasa, karena tempat tersebut  bahasa didengar serta diajarkan sehari-hari. Dengan demikian, pengaruh lingkungan kelurga sangat dominan, khususnya sang Nenek. Serta kecenderungan pemerolehan bahasa oleh Mirza pada usia 2 tahun berada pada tahap peralihan satu kata ke dua kata. Namun pada situasi tertentu, sesekali mengungkapkan tiga kata.

  1. Data Pemerolehan “Bunyi” Bahasa Mirza Ukail

Setelah dilakukan penelitian selama satu pekan terhitung mulai tanggal 16 – 22 Desember 2014. Pada rentang tanggal tersebut, pengumpulan data terhadap pemerolehan bahasa Mirza dilakukan secara sporadis. Namun, tidak menghilangkan esensi dari tujuan penelitian yang ingin mengumpulkan bunyi bahasa atau pembendaharaan kosa kata yang dimiliki Mirza untuk dikaji secara fonologi, khususnya pada aspek fonetik artikulatoris. Pada proses selanjutnya, hasil transkripsi rekaman lalu dipilah dengan hanya menfokuskan pendataan pada kata yang mengalami pelesapan dan perubahan bunyi bahasa. Adapun data tentang bunyi bahasa yang diujarkan oleh Mirza dimasukkan ke dalam tabel serta disusun sesuai abjad. Daftar kaka-kata yang dimaksud dapat dideskripsikan sebagai berikut:

Kata yang Benar Bunyi Bahasa oleh Mirza Pelesapan Bunyi Perubahan Bunyi
air ai [r]
mangga angga [m]
halo alo [h]
hape ape [h]
sate ate [s]
awas awa [s]
batuk batu [k]
bebek bεbε [?]
bundar bunda [r]
duduk dudu [?]
empat empah <t> menjadi [h]
enak ena [?]
gatal gata [l]
hujan hujah <n> menjadi [h]
ikan ikah <n> menjadi [h]
biru iru [b]
burung iyuh [b] <u> menjadi [i] dan

<r> menjadi [y]

jajan jacan [n] <j> menjadi [c]
jatuh jatu [h]
kakak kaka [?]
kotor koto [r]
merah melah <r> menjadi [l]
motor moto [r]
naik nai [k]
nenek nεnε [?]
gerobak oba [g], [ə], [r], [k]
mobil obi [m], [l]
orang olah, oyah <r> menjadi [l] dan [y]
lompat ompa [l], [t]
sepeda peda [s], [ə]
sakit saki [t]
senang sənan [g]
sungguh sunggu [h]
suap uap, sua [s] atau [p]
bunga unga [b]
quran ura [q], [n]

 

Mengacu data pada tabel di atas, telah teridentifikasi pelesapan dan perubahan bunyi bahasa yang dihasilkan Mirza. Tampak pelesapan lebih dominan dibandingkan perubahan dalam bunyi bahasa. Pada pelesapan bunyi bahasa dalam berbagai variasi kata, yang tidak muncul seperti [b], [ə], [g], [h], [?], [l], [m], [n], [p], [q], [r], [s], dan [t]. Sedangkan untuk perubahan bunyi bahasa terdapat kemunculan bunyi [c], [h], [i], [l], [y], dan [h].

 

 

PEMBAHASAN

Setelah diketahui bentuk kata yang diujarkan oleh Mirza telah mengalami gejala pelesapan dan perubahan bunyi bahasa. Dengan demikian, diperlukan pemaparan terhadap pelesapan dan perubahan bunyi bahasa tersebut. Perihal yang dimaksud dapat mengacu pada pandangan para pakar dalam menjelaskan permasalahan pelesapan dan perubahan bunyi. Dua hal tersebut dapat dijabarkan sebagai berikut:

  1. Pelesapan Bunyi

Posisi alat ucap serta cara artikulasi merupakan bagian pembahasan dari fonetik artikulatoris. Oleh karena itu, pelesapan bunyi terhadap kata yang diujarkan oleh Mirza dapat dideskripsikan berdasarkan bentuk alat ucap serta cara artikulasi yang dikemukakan oleh para pakar (Mar’at, Marsono, Chaer, dan Muslich).

  1. Pelesapan bunyi [b] yang terdapat pada kata <biru> menjadi [iru] dan kata <buruh> menjadi [iyuh]. Dapat dinyatakan bahwa Mirza mengalami kesulitan menghasilkan konsonan hambat letup bersuara bilabial melalui bunyi [b] di awal kata.
  2. Pelesapan bunyi vokal [ə] pada kata <gərobak> menjadi [oba] dan <səpeda> menjadi [peda]. Hal tersebut menunjukkan bahwa Mirza masih kesulitan membunyikan vokal [ə] yang berada di tengah kata. Diketahui bunyi [ə] merupakan vokal pusat tengah tidak bundar yang berentetan dengan konsonan hambat letup bersuara dorso velar melalui bunyi [g] dan konsonan frikatif tidak bersuara lamino alveolar pada bunyi [s].
  3. Pelesapan bunyi [g] pada kata <gərobak> menjadi [oba], dan <sənah> menjadi [sənan]. Dengan demikian, Mirza mengalami kesulitan memunculkan konsonan hambat letup bersuara dorso velar pada bunyi [g] yang terdapat di awal dan akhir kata.
  4. Pelesapan bunyi [h] terdapat pada kata <halo> menjadi [alo], <hape> menjadi [ape], <jatuh> menjadi [jatu], dan <suhguh> menjadi [suhgu]. Hal ini menandakan bahwa Mirza mengalami kesulitan untuk menghasilkan konsonan frikatif tidak bersuara maupun bersuara laringal pada bunyi [h] di awal dan akhir kata.
  5. Pelesapan bunyi [?] pada kata <batu?> menjadi [batu], <bεbε?> menjadi [bεbε], <dudu?> menjadi [dudu], <ena?> menjadi [ena], <kaka> menjadi [kaka], <nai?> menjadi [nai], dan <nεnε?> menjadi [nεnε]. Dapat dinyatakan bahwa Mirza masih kesulitan untuk mengungkapkan konsonan hambat letup bersuara dan tidak bersuara glotal hamzah melalui bunyi [?] yang terdapat pada akhir kata. Demikian pula pada kata <gərobak> menjadi [oba], Mirza juga mengalami kesulitan untuk munculnya bunyi [k] di akhir kata, yang merupakan konsonan hambat letup tidak bersuara dorsovelar.
  6. Pelesapan bunyi [l] terdapat pada kata <gatal> menjadi [gata], <mobil> menjadi [obi], dan <lompat> menjadi [ompa]. Hal itu menunjukkan bahwa Mirza mengalami kesulitan dalam menghasilkan konsonan lateral bersuara apiko alveolar pada bunyi [l] yang terdapat di awal maupun akhir kata.
  7. Pelesapan bunyi [m] pada kata <mangga> menjadi [angga], dan <mobil> menjadi [obi]. Dengan demikian, Mirza masih kesulitan untuk menghasilkan konsonan nasal bersuara bilabial pada bunyi [m] di awal kata.
  8. Pelesapan bunyi [n] terdapat pada kata <quran> menjadi [ura]. Hal itu menandakan bahwa Mirza belum dapat menghadirkan konsonan nasal bersuara apiko alveolar pada bunyi [n] yang terdapat di akhir kata.
  9. Pelesapan bunyi [p] pada kata <suap> menjadi [sua]. Hal tersebut menunjukkan bahwa Mirza masih kesulitan memunculkan konsonan hambat letup tidak bersuara bilabial melalui bunyi [p] pada akhir kata.
  10. Pelesapan bunyi [q] pada kata <quran> menjadi [ura]. Perihal tersebut belum dapat dijelaskan sebab bunyi [q] tidak termasuk bunyi konsonan dalam bahasa Indonesia.
  11. Pelesapan bunyi [r] yang terdapat pada kata <air> menjadi [ai], <kotor> menjadi [koto], <motor> menjadi [moto], dan <gərobak> menjadi [oba]. Oleh karena demikian, Mirza mengalami kesulitan dalam mengungkapkan konsonan getar apiko alveolar melalui bunyi [r] di awal maupun tengah kata.
  12. Pelesapan bunyi [s] pada kata <sate> menjadi [ate], <awas> menjadi [awa], dan <suap> menjadi [uap]. Oleh karena demikian, Mirza masih kesulitan untuk menghadirkan konsonan frikatif tidak bersuara lamino alveolar melalui bunyi [s] yang terdapat di awal kata.

Berdasarkan hasil deskripsi tersebut, dapat dinyatakan bahwa alat ucap serta cara artikulasi Mirza masih belum berada pada tahap kesempurnaan sehingga selalu mengalami kesulitan dalam menghasilkan bunyi-bunyi tertentu, baik berada di awal, tengah, maupun akhir kata. Oleh karenanya, bunyi bahasa yang dihasilkan Mirza tentu berbeda dengan bunyi bahasa yang dihasilkan oleh orang dewasa. Sebab Mirza masih melakukan pelesapan bunyi bahasa terhadap kata-kata yang diujarkan. Hal itu tampak dari pelesapan bunyi [ə], konsonan hambat letup ([p], [b], [g], dan [?] atau [k]), konsonan frikatif ([s] dan [h]), konsonan nasal melalui bunyi [m], konsonan lateral melalui bunyi [l], serta konsonan getar melalui bunyi [r], yang seharusnya dibunyikan pada berbagai variasi kata yang menjadi data. Menunjukkan bahwa belum sempurnanya pembentukan alat ucap serta cara mengartikulasikan sehingga mengakibatkan Mirza “terpaksa” melakukan pelesapan beberapa bunyi terhadap kata-kata yang diujarkan. Menurut (Mar’at 2005:46-47) bahwa proses penyederhanaan disebabkan oleh memory span yang terbatas, kemampuan representasi yang terbatas, kepandaian artikulasi yang terbatas.

Mencermati hasil deskripsi data pemerolehan bahasa dikaji secara fonologi yang menitikberatkan pada aspek fonetik artikulatoris. Diketahui wujud pelesapan yang dilakukan oleh Mirza terdapat pada awal, tengah, dan akhir kata. Hal tersebut diistilahkan oleh Muslich (2014:123) sebagai zeroisasi – pelesapan yang dilakukan melalui penghilangan bunyi sebagai akibat upaya penghematan pengucapan. Menandakan ketidaksempurnaan alat ucap serta cara artikulasi, hal tersebut dapat terjadi pula pada anak-anak normal maupun berkebutuhan khusus, perubahan bunyi dalam proses tersebut kerap terjadi akibat kompetensi yang belum baik atau kondisi artikulator yang belum berkembang (Muslich, 2014:125). Lebih lanjut, Muslich (2014:125) menyatakan bahwa jika proses penghilangan, penanggalan, atau pelesapan satu atau lebih fonem pada awal kata disebut aferesis, pada tengah kata disebut sinkop, dan pada akhir kata disebut apokop.

  1. Perubahan Bunyi

Untuk mengujarkan kata secara sempurna tidak dapat berlangsung secara tiba-tiba. Melainkan butuh proses panjang untuk menghasilkan hal tersebut. Begitu juga yang dialami oleh Mirza dalam proses menghasilkan bunyi bahasa secara sempurna terkait pemerolehan bahasanya. Upaya yang dilakukan berupa mengubah bunyi yang berada pada titik artikulasi yang sama dengan bunyi bahasa yang dimaksud. Oleh sebab itu, untuk menguatkan pernyataan tersebut dapat mengacu pada pandangan yang dikemukakan oleh Werdiningsih (2002), Chaer (2013), dan Muslich (2014).

  1. Perubahan bunyi <j> menjadi [c] terdapat pada kata <jajan> menjadi [jacan]. Perubahan bunyi tersebut masih dapat dijelaskan, bahwa kedua bunyi tersebut secara struktur (daerah) artikulasi masuk dalam konsonan palatal yang dihasilkan oleh bagian tengah lidah (medio) sebagai artikulator dan langit-langit keras (palatum) sebagai titik artikulasi. Adapun cara mengartikulasikan konsonan hambat pada bunyi [j] dengan bersuara, sebaliknya bunyi [c] dengan menghalangi sama sekali udara pada daerah artikulasi. Oleh karena keduanya berada pada daerah artikulasi yang sama, maka dapat diistilahkan sebagai kehomorganan atau hanya berbeda pada cara mengartikulasikannya (Chaer, 2013:11). Terkait perubahan bunyi yang dihasilkan oleh Mirza, dapat dinyatakan sebagai proses tahapan pencapaian pemerolehan bunyi bahasa yang sempurna. Hal ini dipengaruhi keberadaan alat ucap serta cara artikulasi belum mencapai tahap kesempurnaan, namun Mirza berusaha membunyikan [j] yang merupakan bunyi hambat letup bersuara melalui [c] yang merupakan bunyi hambat letup tak bersuara.
  2. Perubahan bunyi <u> menjadi [i] pada kata <buruh> menjadi [iyuh]. Adapun perubahan bunyi tersebut masih dapat dijelaskan prosesnya karena sama-sama berada pada struktur atau posisi artikulator aktif dengan artikulator pasif – kedua bunyi termasuk jenis vokal tertutup. Pada praktiknya, bunyi [u] dan [i] berada pada titik artikulasi pembentukan vokal yang terletak pada tinggi rendahnya lidah ketika lidah diangkat setinggi mungkin mendekati langit-langit dalam batas vokal. Lalu menghasilkan vokal tinggi, yang dibentuk jika rahang bawah merapat ke rahang atas. Oleh karena demikian, untuk menghasilkan bunyi [u] pada kata [buruh] maka Mirza terlebih dahulu menggunakan bunyi [i] untuk mengantikannya karena dianggap lebih mudah diujarkan. Hal itu dapat dilakukan sebab kedua bunyi masih berada pada titik artikulasi yang sama.
  3. Perubahan bunyi <r> menjadi [y] pada kata <buruh> menjadi [iyuh], <r> menjadi [l] pada kata <merah> menjadi [melah] serta <r> menjadi [y] dan [l] pada kata <orah> menjadi [olah] maupun [oyah]. Dapat dinyatakan bahwa perubahan bunyi /r/ menjadi [y] dan [l] pada kata tersebut sebagai suatu tahapan dalam mencapai kesempurnaan bunyi bahasa dalam upaya pemerolehan bahasa pada kata [buruh], [merah], dan [orah]. Hal tersebut didasari pandangan Werdiningsih (2002:6-7) bahwa pemerolehan atau penguasaaan /r/ diperoleh pembelajar (bahasa Jawa) melalui empat tahap, yaitu (1) tahap zero (kosong) yang tampak pada ucapan <roti> menjadi [oti], (2) tahap /r/ berubah menjadi [y] yang tampak pada ucapan <roti> menjadi [yoti], (3) tahap /r/ berubah menjadi [l] yang tampak pada ucapan <roti> menjadi [loti] dan (4) tahap /r/ terealisasi bunyi [r] yang tampak pada ucapan <roti> diucapkan [roti] pula.
  4. Perubahan bunyi <n> menjadi [h] yang terdapat pada kata <hujan> menjadi [hujah] dan <ikan> menjadi [ikah]. Situasi tersebut masih dapat diuraikan, bahwa bunyi /n/ dan /h/ digolongkan ke dalam bunyi nasal dihasilkan dengan menutup arus udara ke luar melalui rongga mulut, tetapi membuka jalan agar dapat keluar melalui rongga hidung. Jika dilakukan antara ujung lidah dengan gusi maka hasilnya bunyi [n] sedangkan jika dilakukan antara pangkal lidah dengan langit-langit lunak maka hasilnya bunyi [h]. Oleh karena demikian, untuk menghasilkan bunyi bahasa secara sempurna dalam proses pemerolehan bahasa pada kata [hujan] dan [ikan], maka Mirza terlebih dahulu menggunakan bunyi [h] sebelum [n].

Berdasarkan uraian tersebut, dapat dinyatakan bahwa perubahan bunyi dihasilkan oleh alat ucap serta cara artikulasi yang dilakukan oleh Mirza sebagai rangkaian tahapan untuk menghasilkan bunyi bahasa yang sempurna. Seperti perubahan bunyi <j> menjadi [c], <u> menjadi [i], <r> menjadi [y] dan [l], serta <n> menjadi [h]. Menurut Chaer (2009:96), saat berbicara dan melafalkan kata-kata, tidak dapat berdiri sendiri sehingga selalu berkaitan dan saling memengaruhi dengan yang lain dalam suatu rangkaian. Dengan demikian, perubahan-perubahan bunyi bahasa yang dilakukan oleh Mirza merupakan suatu proses mencapai tahap kesempurnaan pemerolehan bahasa seperti bahasa yang dituturkan serta dimiliki oleh orang dewasa.

Dapat dikemukakan bahwa perubahan terkait pelemahan bunyi. Menurut Muslich (2014:116) bahwa pelemahan bunyi sebagai sebuah gejala kebahasaan berupa ketika bunyi lemah memengaruhi bunyi kuat sehingga terjadi perubahan bunyi, seperti bunyi <j> menjadi [c]. Hal tersebut diistilahkan sebagai Lenisi (Crowley dalam Muslich, 2008:117). Sementara menurut Fernandez (dalam Muslich, 2008:118) bahwa konsep pelemahan bunyi mencakup bunyi-bunyi getar, sentuhan, luncuran, dan sebagainya – dapat diistilah sebagai Rotatisme, seperti bunyi [r] dan [l] serta [y].

 

KESIMPULAN DAN SARAN

Berdasarkan pemaparan hasil dan pembahasan tentang pemerolehan bahasa Mirza. Ternyata lingkungan bahasa yang paling dominan yakni lingkungan keluarga (khususnya sang nenek). Lebih lanjut, data kebahasaan terkait pemerolehan bahasa oleh Mirza dikaji secara fonologi yang menitikberatkan aspek fonetik artikulatoris. Diketahui bahwa Mirza pada usia 2 tahun dalam menghasilkan bunyi bahasa masih melakukan pelesapan dan perubahan. Pada pelesapan bunyi bahasa, Mirza belum dapat menghasilkan bunyi vokal [ə], konsonan hambat letup ([p], [b], [g], dan [?] atau [k]), konsonan frikatif ([s] dan [h]), konsonan nasal melalui bunyi [m], konsonan lateral melalui bunyi [l], serta konsonan getar melalui bunyi [r] pada variasi kata-kata yang didata, hal itu terjadi pada awal, tengah, dan akhir kata. Banyak dipengaruhi oleh bentuk alat ucap serta cara artikulasi Mirza yang belum mencapai tahap kesempurnaan. Sedangkan pada perubahan bunyi, Mirza membunyikan <j> menjadi [c], <u> menjadi [i], <r> menjadi [y] dan [l], serta <n> menjadi [h]. Adapun perubahan bunyi yang terjadi terkait rangkaian tahapan untuk menghasilkan bunyi bahasa sempurna seperti tuturan orang dewasa.

Untuk mencapai kematangan berbahasa Mirza, maka dibutuhkan peran lingkungan bahasa terutama keluarga. Harus secara intensif melakukan interaksi komunikasi sehingga Mirza membiasakan bunyi-bunyi bahasa yang belum dikuasainya. Hal tersebut dapat membantu kematangan kognisi dalam upaya Mirza memperoleh bahasanya. Hingga akhirnya bunyi bahasa yang dituturkan oleh Mirza dapat mencapai tingkat kematangan seperti bahasa yang dituturkan oleh orang dewasa.

 

 

DAFTAR PUSTAKA

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Werdiningsih, Dyah. 2002. Dasar-dasar Psikolinguistik. Bandung. Angkasa.

PENGARUH STRATEGI PEMBELAJARAN (STAD VS KONVESIONAL) DAN MODALITAS BELAJAR TERHADAP HASIL BELAJAR VOCABULARY DALAM BERBICARA BAHASA INGGRIS

Imam Mudofir

Program Studi Teknik Elektronika Jurusan Teknik Elektro, Politeknik Negeri Malang

imammudofir76@yahoo.com

 

ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to examine (1) the differences vocabulary English speaking learning outcome taught by Student Teams Achievement Division (STAD) and the conventional learning strategies, (2) student differences vocabulary in English speaking learning outcome that have different learning modalities (visual, auditory, kinesthetic) gain different result in English speaking skill vocabulary, and (3) the interaction effect between learning strategies and learning modalities (visual, auditory, kinesthetic) towards vocabulary English speaking learning outcome.This research was conducted in the second semester of academic year 2012-2013 of Electronics Engineering Department, State Polytechnic of Malang, which consists of 44 students of experimental class and 44 students of control class. This studyis designed by using quasi-experimental research designs (quasi -experiment) with the model design is Nonequivalent Pretest – Posttest Control Group Design. Based on data analysis, the results of the study (1) there are differences in learning outcome between groups of English speaking students taught by learning strategy STAD with a group of students who are taught by conventional learning strategies (F = 68.344, p = 0.000), (2) there are differences in English speaking learning outcome between the students who have different learning modalities (F = 13.022, p = 0.000), and there is no interaction effect between learning strategy STAD and conventional and learning modalities (visual, auditory and kinesthetic) on English speaking learning outcome (F = 0.783, p = 0.499).

 

Keywords: Students Team Learning Achievement Division (STAD), Conventional, Learning Modality, Learning outcome, vocabulary English Speaking Performance.

 

ABSTRAK: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji (1) perbedaan hasil belajar vocabulary dalam berbicara Bahasa Inggris antara mahasiswa yang diajar dengan strategi pembelajaran Student Teams Achievement Division (STAD) dan strategi pembelajaran konvensional, (2) perbedaan hasil belajar Bahasa Inggris mahasiswa yang mempunyai modalitas belajar berbeda (visual, auditory, dan kinestetik) memperoleh hasil belajar vocabulary dalam berbicara Bahasa Inggris berbeda, dan (3) pengaruh interaksi antara strategi pembelajaran dan modalitas belajar (visual, auditory, kinestetik) terhadap hasil belajar vocabulary dalam berbicara Bahasa Inggris. Penelitian ini dilakukan di Program Studi Teknik Elektronika, Politeknik Negeri Malang semester II tahun akademik 2012-2013, yang terdiri dari 44 mahasiswa kelas eksperimen dan 44 mahasiswa kelas kontrol. Penelitian ini menggunakan strategi penelitian yang dirancang dengan menggunakan desain penelitian eksperimental semu (quasi experiment) dengan model rancangan yang digunakan adalah Nonequavalent Pretest-Postest Control Group Design. Hasil penelitian sebagai berikut. (1) ada perbedaan hasil belajar berbicara Bahasa Inggris antara kelompok mahasiswa yang belajar dengan strategi pembelajaran STAD (PKs) dengan kelompok mahasiswa yang belajar dengan strategi pembelajaran konvensional (PKv) (F = 13.022, p = 0.000), (2) ada perbedaan hasil belajar berbicara bahasa Inggris antara kelompok mahasiswa yang memiliki modalitas belajar berbeda (MB) (F = 68.344, p = 0.000), dan (3) tidak ada pengaruh interaksi antara strategi pembelajaran STAD dan konvensional dan modalitas belajar (visual, auditory dan kinesthetik) terhadap hasil belajar berbicara Bahasa Inggris (F = 0.783, p = 0.499).

 

Kata kunci: Students Team Achievement Division (STAD), konvensional,   modalitas belajar, hasil belajar, dan vocabulary dalam berbicara Bahasa Inggris

 

Salah satu strategi pembelajaran kooperatif tipe Student Teams Achievement Division (STAD)dapat digunakan sebagai alternatif pembelajaran yang menarik bagi mahasiswa dan bisa menanamkan aspek-aspek soft skills pada mahasiswa (Setyasari, 2009). Hasil penelitian Kendek & Ardhana (2004) menyatakan bahwa pembelajaran kooperatif tipe Students Teams Achievement Division (STAD) lebih baik hasilnya dari strategi pembelajaran konvensional. Strategi pembelajaran kooperatif tipe Students Teams Achievement Division (STAD)dapat meningkatkan pemahaman materi yang diajarkan, dapat meningkatkan hasil belajar mahasiswa, dapat meningkatkan aktivitas mahasiswa, interaksi mahasiswa, pembelajaran yang menyenangkan, bertanggungjawab, inovatif, dan kompetitif untuk belajar (Arnidah dkk., 2005). Dalam referensi dan hasil penelitian, pembelajaran yang menarik dapat meningkatkan motivasi belajar mahasiswa (Degeng, 1997). Pembelajar dituntut mampu menyelenggarakan pembelajaran yang inovatif (Ardhana dkk., 2004). Proses pembelajaran inovatif ditandai oleh pembelajaran yang tidak semata-mata memberikan pengetahuan dengan caranya sendiri sebagai perwujudan terhadap tugas dan tanggung jawab (Gredler, 1992). Adapun yang dimaksud dengan efektif adalah “how well the instruction work”, efisien adalah “the effectiveness of instruction divided by time and/or cost of the instruction”, dan menarik adalah “the extent to which the learners enjoy the instruction” (Reigeluth, 1999).

Hasil observasi peneliti menunjukkan bahwa target sasaran mata kuliah Bahasa Inggris di Politeknik Negeri Malang yang belum tercapai. Hal ini disebabkan karena penerapan strategi pembelajaran yang tidak sesuai dengan tujuan mata kuliah dan belum optimalnya praktek Bahasa Inggris dalam proses pembelajaran mata kuliah Bahasa Inggris. Hal ini disebabkan penggunaan komunitas berbahasa Inggris dan budaya kurangnya penggunaan Bahasa Inggris (Chaer & Leonie, 2006) menyatakan bahwa Bahasa Inggris dapat digunakan dan diaplikasikan meskipun secara tata bahasa mahasiswa tidak terlalu menguasainya. Selanjutnya, permasalahan lain dalam proses belajar mengajar Bahasa Inggris di Politeknik Negeri Malang yaitu dosen belum menggali bagaimana mahasiswa belajar sesuai dengan modalitas belajar yang mereka miliki. Modalitas belajar menurut DePorter dkk. (2000) dan DePorter & Hernacki (2007) yaitu visual, auditory, dan kinestetik.

Adapun target mata kuliah Bahasa Inggris di Politeknik Negeri Malang adalah mahasiswa mampu berkomunikasi lisan untuk mampu bersaing dalam dunia kerja. Hal ini di dukung bahwa dalam bursa kerja sering kita menemukan suatu lowongan pekerjaan yang mempersyaratkan penguasaan Bahasa Inggris aktif (speaking) dalam wawancara pekerjaan (Tim BAN PSTE, 2012); (Sriwahyuni, 2006) dan (Brown, 2007). Berbicara Bahasa Inggris dalam prakteknya mahasiswa membutuhkan penguasaan vocabulary yang cukup. Mahasiswa yang mempunyai vocabulary yang banyak akan mampu memproduksi kalimat yang banyak dan begitu sebaliknya.Belajar vocabularyBahasa Inggris merupakan sebuah hal yang amat penting di dalam pembelajaran. Tanpa pembendaharaan vocabulary yang cukup banyak, seseorang akan kesulitan dalam berbicara, mengerti maksud, dan menulis dalam bahasa Inggris.Dengan memperhatikanperanan penguasaan komunikasi bahasa maka dirasa perlu untuk memahami pengertian vocabulary.(Khanafi, 2015; Nurgiyanto, 1987; Setiadi;Solihin, 2013; Subekti, 2015; dan Witkin 1974).

Dari berbagai analisis masalah dalam penguasaan vocabularyberbicara Bahasa Inggris dalam proses belajar dan mengajar Bahasa Inggris di Politeknik Negeri Malang perlu adanya penerapan teori belajar yang cocok untuk pendekatan ini dengan teori pemerolehan bahasa ke dua dengan menggunakan teori strategi pembelajaran Student Teams Achievement Division (STAD) dan modalitas belajar dengan tujuan penguasaan Bahasa Inggris secara lisan (speaking) dalam menghadapi wawancara pekerjaan. Sehingga mahasiswa lulusan Politeknik Negeri Malang dapat diterima di perusahaan yang mereka idam-idamkan. Hal ini diperkuat dengan hasil penelitian Naghavi & Nakhel (2003) yang menyebutkan bahwa strategi pembelajaran Cooperative Learning dengan tipe Students Teams Achievement Division (STAD) dapat meningkatkan kemampuan berbicara Bahasa Inggris dari hasil kerjasama kelompok. Selain kooperatif mempunyai kelebihan dalam pengajaran EFL, kooperatif juga mempunyai kekurangan dalam pengajaran EFL ( Mudofir, 2006).

Penelitian ini ditekankan pada keahlian berbicara Bahasa Inggris (speaking) dikuatkan dengan hasil pra-kuesioner bahwa dari 180 mahasiswa di Program Studi Teknik Elektronika Politeknik Negeri Malang mengatakan bahwa 121 mahasiswa mengatakan bahwa pembelajaran Bahasa Inggris ditekankan pada penguasaan keahlian berbicara (speaking), 35 mahasiswa mengatakan bahwa pembelajaran Bahasa Inggris ditekankan pada penguasaan keahlian membaca (Reading), 19 mahasiswa mengatakan bahwa pembelajaran Bahasa Inggris ditekankan pada penguasaan keahlian mendengarkan (listening), dan 5 mahasiswa mengatakan bahwa pembelajaran Bahasa Inggris ditekankan pada penguasaan keahlian menulis (writing). Sehingga dapat disimpulkan bahwa mayoritas mahasiswa di Program Studi Teknik Elektronika Politeknik Negeri Malang mengatakan bahwa pembelajaran Bahasa Inggris ditekankan pada berbicara (speaking).

Selain itu juga, penelitian ini menerapkan strategi pembelajaran konvensional dalam proses belajar mengajar Bahasa Inggris di Politeknik Negeri Malang, Jurusan Teknik Elektro, Program Studi Teknik Elektronika untuk meningkatkan kemampuan berbicara Bahasa Inggris sebagai perbandingan hasil pembelajaran berbicara Bahasa Inggris untuk wawancara kerja dengan menggunakan strategi pembelajaran Student Teams Achievement Division (STAD).

Rumusan masalah penelitian ini adalah: 1) Apakah ada perbedaan hasil belajar vocabularyberbicara Bahasa Inggris antara mahasiswa yang diajar dengan strategi pembelajaran Student Teams Achievement Division (STAD) dan strategi pembelajaran konvensional? 2) Apakah mahasiswa yang mempunyai modalitas belajar berbeda (visual, auditory, kinestetik) memperoleh hasil belajar vocabularyberbicara Bahasa Inggris berbeda? 3) Apakah ada pengaruh interaksi antara strategi pembelajaran dan modalitas belajar (visual, auditory, kinestetik) mahasiswa terhadap hasil belajar vocabularyberbicara Bahasa Inggris?

Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menguji: 1) Perbedaan hasil belajar vocabulary berbicara Bahasa Inggris antara mahasiswa yang diajar dengan strategi pembelajaran Student Teams Achievement Division (STAD) dan strategi pembelajaran konvensional, 2) Perbedaan mahasiswa yang mempunyai modalitas belajar berbeda (visual, auditory, kinestetik) memperoleh hasil belajar vocabularyberbicara Bahasa Inggris berbeda, 3) Pengaruh interaksi antara strategi pembelajaran dan modalitas belajar (visual, auditory, kinestetik) mahasiswa terhadap hasil belajar vocabularyberbicara Bahasa Inggris.

 

Kajian Kepustakaan

Pembelajaran kooperatif merupakan suatu pembelajaran kelompok dengan jumlah peserta didik 2-5 orang dengan gagasan untuk saling memotivasi antara anggotanya untuk saling membantu agar tercapainya suatu tujuan pembelajaran yang maksimal. Suprijono, Agus (2010:54) “Model pembelajaran kooperatif adalah konsep yang lebih luas meliputi semua jenis kerja kelompok termasuk bentuk-bentuk yang dipimpin oleh pengajar atau diarahkan oleh pengajar”. Slavin (1995) “In cooperative learning methods, students work together in four member teams to master material initially presented by the teacher”. Ini berarti bahwa cooperative learning atau pembelajaran kooperatif adalah suatu model pembelajaran dimana sistem belajar dan bekerja kelompok-kelompok kecil berjumlah 4-5 orang secara kolaboratif sehingga dapat merangsang peserta didik lebih bergairah dalam belajar. Dari beberapa pengertian menurut para ahli dapat disimpulkan bahwa pembelajaran kooperatif adalah cara belajar dalam bentuk kelompok-kelompok kecil yang saling bekerjasama dan diarahkan oleh guru untuk mencapai tujuan pembelajaran yang diharapkan”.

Selain menggunakan strategi pembelajaran cooperative learning, pengajar menggali modalitas belajar mahasiswa untuk meningkatkan vocabulary bahasa Inggris mahasiswa. Gaya belajar atau modalitas belajar adalah cara seseorang menginterpretasi dunia sekitarnya melalui penginderaan. Setiap anak punya penginderaan yang paling domininan. Indera yang dominan inilah yang menjadi andalan seseorang untuk memproses sebuah informasi. Penginderaan yang dimaksud adalah Visual. Seseorang dengan gaya belajar visual, belajar menggunakan indera penglihatan. Anak dengan gaya belajar ini sangat menyukai gambar, ilustrasi, grafik, kartu dan warna. Kelak saat si kecil sudah dapat menulis, dia akan belajar dengan cara membuat catatan-catatan. Atau, dia akan sering memejamkan mata untuk membuat gambar dalam benaknya. Auditory adalah gaya belajar auditif, belajar dengan menggunakan indera pendengaran. Dia senang bicara sendiri, mengulang apa yang dikatakan orang lain sebagai sumber informasi. Ketika mendengarkan orang lain berbicara, anak dengan gaya belajar ini akan menirukannya untuk memproses informasi. Semakin keras suara yang dikeluarkannya, semakin mempermudah dia untuk mengingat. Kalau Anda sering mendapati anak bercerita dengan cara melagukannya alias nge-rap, pertanda dia pemilik gaya belajar auditif. Kinestetik adalah gaya belajar dengan menggunakan indera peraba, yaitu  menyentuh. Anak dengan gaya belajar ini adalah pembelajar yang aktif dan butuh banyak bergerak. Dia akan menggunakan tangannya untuk membuat apa saja. Anak yang punya gaya belajar ini mudah terganggu konsentrasinya. Karena itu, anak dengan gaya belajar ini kelak harus duduk di barisan paling depan di kelasnya. (DePorter dkk, 2000 dan DePorter & Hernacki, 2007).

Penggunaan strategi pembelajaran dan modalitas belajar digunakan untuk meningkatkan vocabulary bahasa Inggris mahasiswa. Vocabulary sangat penting dalam pembelajaran bahasa, sehingga pengajar harus menggunakan metode yang baik dalam mengajar vocabulary. Hal ini bertujuan untuk meningkatkan vocabulary yang dikuasai mahasiswa. Menurut Webster (1992) vocabulary merupakan elemen yang sangat penting dari bahasa.

Vocabulary adalah dasar yang harus dipelajari terlebih dahulu oleh peserta didik. Ini akan membantu pelajar dalam belajar bahasa Inggris dengan baik. Oleh karena itu dapat dikatakan vocabulary adalah komponen inti dari kemampuan bahasa bagi peserta didik untuk memproduksi kalimat dalam berbicara, mendengarkan, membaca dan menulis. 1) Vocabulary dalam membaca adalah seseorang dapat mengenali kata-kata ketika membaca, 2) vocabulary dalam mendengarkan adalah seseorang dapat mengenali kata-kata dalam mendengarkan pelafalan bahasa, 3) vocabulary dalam menulis adalah seseorang dapat menggunakan vocabulary secara tertulis, 4) vocabulary dalam berbicara adalah seseorang dapat menggunakan vocabulary dalam berbagai bentuk berbicara. Dari kegunaan vocabulary dalam empat keahlian bahasa maka vocabulary sangat penting dalam pembelajaran bahasa.

 

Metode Penelitian

Rancangan Penelitian

Penelitian ini dirancang dengan menggunakan desain penelitian eksperimental semu (quasi experiment), alasan digunakannya eksperimen ini karena dalam penelitian bidang pendidikan (ilmu sosial) sangat sulit melakukan keketatan kontrol seperti pada penelitian bidang eksakta. Desain quasi experimental berupaya untuk mengungkapkan hubungan sebab akibat dengan cara melibatkan kelompok kontrol di samping kelompok eksperimen, namun pemilahan kedua kelompok dilakukan dengan menggunakan dengan purposive random sampling dengan penentuan sampel dengan 1) mengambil responden yang pada saat ini sedang menempuh mata kuliah Bahasa Inggris, 2) mengambil responden yang pada saat ini sedang menempuh mata kuliah Bahasa Inggris di semester dua.

 

Rancangan faktorial penelitian ini adalah (3 x 2) (Tuckman, 1999).

Tabel 1. Rancangan Penelitian

MODALITASBELAJAR STRATEGI PEMBELAJARAN
STAD KONVENSIONAL
Visual Y111, Y112,…Y11n. Y121, Y122,… Y12n
Auditorial Y211,Y212,… Y21n Y221, Y222,… Y22n
Kinestetik Y311,Y312,… Y31n Y321, Y322,… Y32n

 

Keterangan:

Y111, Y112,…Y11n. = Kelompok mahasiswa yang memiliki modalitas belajar visual diberikan perlakuan dengan strategi pembelajaran Student Teams Achievement Division (STAD)

Y121, Y122,… Y12n = Kelompok mahasiswa yang memiliki modalitas belajar visual diberikan perlakuan dengan strategi pembelajaran konvensional

Y211,Y212,… Y21n= Kelompok mahasiswa yang memiliki modalitas belajar auditory diberikan perlakuan dengan strategi pembelajaran Student Teams Achievement Division (STAD)

Y221, Y222,… Y22n= Kelompok mahasiswa yang memiliki modalitas belajar auditory diberikan perlakuan dengan strategi pembelajaran konvensional

Y311,Y312,… Y31n= Kelompok mahasiswa yang memiliki modalitas belajar auditory diberikan perlakuan dengan strategi pembelajaran Student Teams Achievement Division (STAD)

Y321, Y322,… Y32n= Kelompok mahasiswa yang memiliki modalitas belajar auditory diberikan perlakuan dengan strategi pembelajaran konvensional

 

Subjek Penelitian

Subjek penelitian ini adalah di POLINEMA (Politeknik Negeri Malang). Secara populasi penelitian ini dilakukan di Progam Studi Teknik Elektronika, Jurusan Teknik Elektro, Politeknik Negeri Malang untuk angkatan 2013 sebanyak 4 kelas untuk D3 dan 2 kelas untuk D4, dengan jumlah mahasiswa 150 mahasiswa. Penentuan kelompok mahasiswa dengan mengadakan tes vocabulary berbicara dengan cara1) mahasiswa di wawancarai dengan menggunakan tes wawancara pekerjaan “job interview”, 2) dosen menilai penampilan tes wawancara pekerjaan “job interview” mahasiswa pada komponen vocabulary, 3) dosen mengelompokkan mulai nilai yang tetinggi sampai terendah (total skor 0 – 100), 4) dosen membentuk beberapa kelompok dengan 4 anggota setiap kelompoknya secara acak dengan mencampur antara nilai tertinggi dan terendah.

 

Variabel Penelitian

Variabel dalam penelitian ini adalah 1) Variabel bebas: Strategi pembelajaran yang terdiri dari Student Teams Achievement Division (STAD) dan Konvensional, 2) Variabel moderator: Modalitas belajar (visual, auditory, dan kinestetik) yang diukur dengan menggunakan instrument yang dikembangkan dari DePorter dan Hernacki (2007), 3) Variabel terikat: Hasil belajar vocabularyberbicara Bahasa Inggris.Hasil belajar dalam penelitian ini diperoleh dengan menggunakan tes vocabularyberbicara (speaking) untuk wawancara kerja setelah pelaksanaan strategi pembelajaran Student Teams Achievement Division (STAD).

Dari empat kelas yang terpilih sebagai subyek penelitian selanjutnya diberikan tes modalitas belajar. Pada pertemuan berikutnya diberikan pre-test untuk mengetahui kemampuan awal mahasiswa. Subyek yang telah memiliki kondisi kemampuan belajar Bahasa Inggris yang diasumsikan sama atau homogen diberikan perlakuan strategi pembelajaran Student Teams Achievement Division (STAD) yang dialokasikan waktu 8 kali pertemuan (1 kali pertemuan adalah 2 jam dengan alokasi waktu 1 jam perkuliahan adalah 45 menit).

 

Prosedur Penelitian

Tahap persiapan ekperimen: 1) melakukan studi pendahuluan, 2) Menentukan waktu pelaksanaan eksperimen, 3) mempersiapkan semua instrumen penelitian, 3) mengadakan diskusi dengan dosen pengampu mata kuliah Bahasa   Inggris, 4) menyiapkan perangkat pembelajaran: a) Langkah-Langkah Umum Strategi Pembelajaran STAD dan Konvensional b) Skenario Strategi Pembelajaran STAD dan Konvensional, 3) RPP Strategi Pembelajaran STAD, 4) RPP Strategi Pembelajaran Konvensional, 5) Bahan Ajar, 6) Kisi-Kisi Ulangan Harian, 7) Kisi- Kisi Soal Pre-test dan Post-test, 8) Instrumen Evaluasi VocabularyBerbicara Bahasa Inggris, 9) Instrumen Modalitas Belajar.

Tahap pelaksanaan eksperimen: 1) memberikan tes modalitas belajar mahasiswa, 2) memberikan pre-test vocabulary berbicara untuk wawancara kerja, 3) Melaksanakan perlakuan pembelajaran (eksperimen) menggunakan Student Teams Achievement Division (STAD) dan Konvensional, 4) melakukan evaluasi (post-test) untuk strategi pembelajaran Student Teams Achievement Division (STAD) dan Konvensional

Tahap pasca eksperimen: Langkah terakhir setelah memberikan perlakuan, maka kedua kelompok diberi tes akhir atau post-test vocabularyberbicara untuk wawancara kerja, bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh perlakuan pada kelompok eksperimen dan kelompok kontrol terhadap hasil belajar mahasiswa dalam vocabularyberbicara untuk wawancara kerja, serta interaksi pengaruh antara variabel bebas dan variabel moderator terhadap hasil belajar vocabularyberbicara Bahasa Inggris untuk wawancara kerja. Prosedur pelaksanaan penelitian eksperimen tergambar pada bagan 1 sebagai berikut:

Mudof1

Bagan Prosedur Pelaksanaan Penelitian Eksperimen

Keterangan:

PKs     : Pembelajaran STAD

PKv     : Pembelajaran Konvensional

MB      : Modalitas Belajar

MBv    : Modalitas Belajar Visual

MBa    : Modalitas Belajar Auditory

MBk    : Modalitas Belajar Kinestetik

Pada bagan 1 di atas dapat dijelaskan bahwa penelitian ini berlangsung selama 8 kali pertemuan, baik kelompok pembelajaran STAD maupun pada kelompok pembelajaran konvensional. Rincian pelaksanaan pembelajaran adalah: Pertemuan 1 (Penentuan kelas yang menjadi kelompok PKs dan                                   kelompok PKv), pertemuan 2 (pelaksanaan pengumpulan data siswa yang memiliki modalitas belajar) pertemuan 3 – 6 (Pre-test), pertemuan 7 – 14 (pelaksanaan eksperimen dilakukan pada kelompok PKs PKv), pertemuan 15 (peer Assessment, persiapan post-test), pertemuan 16 – 19 (Post-test)

 

Teknik Pengumpulan Data

Pengumpulan data penelitian ini dilakukan dengan melalui langkah-langkah sebagai berikut: 1) memberikan kuesioner modalitas belajar untuk mengetahui modalitas belajar mahasiswaserta pre-test pada semua kelas subyek untuk mengetahui kemampuan awal pemahaman bahasa Inggris, 2) melaksanakan intervensi pembelajaran (eksperimen), dan 3) memberikan post-test pada semua mahasiswa pada semua kelas subyek penelitian untuk mengetahui hasil belajar setelah eksperimen.

 

Teknik Analisis Data

Sesuai dengan jenis variabel penelitian ini teknik analisis data yang digunakan adalah Analisis of Varians (ANOVA) dua jalur interaksi. Hal ini sejalan dengan pendapat Tuckman (1999) analisis varians memberikan peneliti untuk mempelajari pengaruh secara simultan dari beberapa variabel bebas namun penerapannya memiliki ciri khusus (dua, tiga atau empat). Penggunaan desain penelitian faktorial di dalamnya terdapat variabel bebas, variabel moderator dan variabel terikat. Variabel bebas dan variabel moderator disebut faktor. Teknik analisis data pada penelitian ini dilakukan dengan statistik deskriptif dan inferensial. Untuk pengujian hipotesis penelitian dilakukan melalui dua tahap, yaitu tahap uji asumsi analisis dan tahap uji hipotesis. Keputusan yang digunakan untuk menyatakan adanya pengaruh variabel bebas terhadap variabel terikat di dasarkan pada taraf kesalahan 5% atau taraf keyakinan 95%.

Hasil Analisis

Tabel 4.4   Hasil Perbandingan antara Nilai Hasil Belajar Siswa PostTestdengan Menggunakan Metode Konvensional

Pre-test Post-test
Skor Nilai Skor Nilai
Vocabulary 2.22 22.20 2.47 24.68

 

Hasil belajar vocabulary berbicara Bahasa Inggris mahasiswa Politeknik Negeri Malang Semester II Program Studi Teknik Elektronika yang menggunakan metode pembelajaran konvensional sebelum dilakukan bimbingan belajar Bahasa Inggris dengan menggunakan metode pembelajaran metode konvensional diperoleh rata-rata nilai yang cukup baik yaitu sebesar 22.20. Namun setelah dilakukan bimbingan belajar Bahasa Inggris menggunakan metode pembelajaran metode konvensional diperoleh rata-rata nilai yang lebih tinggi daripada saat sebelumnya, yaitu sebesar 24.68. Hal ini dapat menjadi indikasi bahwa bimbingan belajar Bahasa Inggris dengan menggunakan metode pembelajaran konvensional dapat meningkatkan nilai hasil belajar vocabulary berbicara Bahasa Inggris mahasiswa Politeknik Negeri Malang Semester II Program Studi Teknik Elektronika.

Tabel 4.8   Hasil Perbandingan antara Nilai Hasil Belajar Siswa PostTestdengan Menggunakan Metode STAD

 

Pre-test Post-test
Skor Nilai Skor Nilai
Vocabulary 2.41 24.11 2.93 29.32

 

Hasil belajar vocabulary berbicara Bahasa Inggris mahasiswa Politeknik Negeri Malang Semester II Program Studi Teknik Elektronika menggunakan metode pembelajaran STAD sebelum dilakukan bimbingan belajar Bahasa Inggris menggunakan metode pembelajaran metode STAD diperoleh rata-rata nilai yang cukup baik yaitu sebesar 24.11. Namun setelah dilakukan bimbingan belajar Bahasa Inggris menggunakan metode pembelajaran metode STAD diperoleh rata-rata nilai yang lebih tinggi daripada saat sebelumnya, yaitu sebesar 29.32. Hal ini dapat menjadi indikasi bahwa bimbingan belajar Bahasa Inggris menggunakan metode pembelajaran metode STAD dapat meningkatkan nilai hasil belajar vocabulary berbicara Bahasa Inggris mahasiswa Politeknik Negeri Malang Semester II Program Studi Teknik Elektronika.


Tabel 4.18   Tabel Hasil Uji ANOVA 2 Jalur dengan Interaksi

Tests of Between-Subjects Effects
Dependent Variable:Score
Source Type III Sum of Squares df Mean Square F
Corrected Model 6276.708a 5 1255.342 29.181 .000
Intercept 102346.913 1 102346.913 2379.089 .000
MB 560.179 1 560.179 13.022 .000
SP 5880.253 2 2940.126 68.344 .000
MB * SP 67.389 2 33.695 .783 .459
Error 7313.292 170 43.019
Total 119234.000 176
Corrected Total 13590.000 175
a. R Squared = .462 (Adjusted R Squared = .446)

 

Hipotesis 1: Berdasarkan hasil ANOVA di atas dapat diketahui bahwa untuk perbandingan rata-rata nilai skor hasil belajar vocabulary berbicara Bahasa Inggris mahasiswa berdasarkan metode pembelajaran menunjukkan adanya perbedaan yang bermakna (signifikan) pada rata-rata nilai skor hasil belajar vocabulary berbicara Bahasa Inggris mahasiswa antara metode pembelajaran konvensional dan metode pembelajaranStudent Teams Achievement Division(STAD). Hasil uji pembandingan berganda (shceffe Test) pada metode pembelajaran konvensional berbeda signifikan dengan rata-rata nilai skor hasil belajar vocabulary berbicara Bahasa Inggris mahasiswa (posttest) pada kelompok yang diajarkan dengan metode pembelajaranStudent Teams Achievement Division(STAD) (p=0.000<0.05). Perbedaan tersebut disebabkan rata-rata nilai skor hasil belajar vocabulary berbicara Bahasa inggris pada kelompok yang menggunakan metode pembelajaran konvensional tersebut sebesar 24.682 mempunyai selisih yang cukup jauh dengan rata-rata nilai skor hasil belajar vocabulary berbicara Bahasa inggris pada kelompok yang menggunakan metode pembelajaran Student Teams Achievement Division (STAD) dengan rata-rata nilai 29.318.

Hipotesis 2: Untuk perbandingan rata-rata nilai skor hasil belajar vocabulary berbicara Bahasa Inggris mahasiswa berdasarkan modalitas belajar dari tabel ANOVA di atas menunjukkan adanya perbedaan yang bermakna (signifikan) pada rata-rata nilai skor hasil belajar Bahasa Inggris mahasiswa antara yang mempunyai Modalitas Belajar secara kinestetik, auditory, dan visual. Hasil uji pembandingan berganda (multiple comparisons) dengan uji Scheffe (Scheffe Test) sebagai salah satu uji pembandingan berganda yang mempunyai sensitivitas cukup tinggi dalam menguji adanya perbedaan antar perlakuan dalam multiple comparisons. Dengan metode ini akan dilakukan pembandingan berganda terhadap rata-rata nilai skor hasil belajar vocabulary berbicara Bahasa Inggris mahasiswa (posttest) antara setiap modalitas belajar. Hasil uji pembandingan berganda (Scheffe Test) antara rata-rata nilai skor hasil belajar vocabulary berbicara Bahasa Inggris mahasiswa dengan modalitas belajarkinestetik adalah 28.90, auditoy adalah 18.14, dan visual 33.52, sehingga dapat dikatakan bahwa nilai skor vocabulary berbicaraBahasa Inggris mahasiswa dengan modalitas belajar mahasiswa berbedahasilnya adalah berbeda signifikan (p=0.00). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa modalitas belajar secara visual, auditory, dan visual memberikan pengaruh yang berbeda terhadap hasil belajar vocabulary berbicaraBahasa Inggris mahasiswa Politeknik Negeri Malang Semester II. Modalitas belajar secara visual memberikan rata-rata hasil belajar vocabulary berbicara Bahasa Inggris yang paling besar dibandingkan modalitas belajar secara auditory dan kinestetik, sedangkan modalitas belajar secara auditory memberikan rata-rata hasil yang lebih rendah dibandingkan dengan secara visual maupun kinestetik.

Hipotesis 3: Hasil perbandingan rata-rata nilai skor hasil belajar vocabulary berbicara Bahasa Inggris mahasiswa berdasarkan interaksi antara kelompok perlakuan metode pembelajaran (konvensional dan STAD), serta modalitas belajar (kinestetik, auditory, dan visual) dari hasil ANOVA menunjukkan adanya perbedaan yang bermakna (signifikan) pada rata-rata nilai skor hasil belajar vocabulary berbicara Bahasa Inggris mahasiswa berdasarkan interaksi antara kelompok perlakuan metode pembelajaran (konvensional dan STAD), serta modalitas belajar (kinestetik, auditory, dan visual).

Berdasarkan paparan di atas dapat diketahui bahwa dalam penelitian ini: 1) terdapat perbedaan yang bermakna (signifikan) pada rata-rata nilai skor hasil belajar vocabulary berbicara Bahasa Inggris mahasiswa antara metode pembelajaran konvensional dan metode pembelajaran STAD, 2) terdapat perbedaan yang bermakna (signifikan) pada rata-rata nilai skor hasil belajar vocabulary berbicara Bahasa Inggris mahasiswa antara yang mempunyai modalitas belajar secara kinestetik, auditory, dan visual, 3) tidak terdapat perbedaan yang bermakna (signifikan) pada rata-rata nilai skor hasil belajar vocabulary berbicara Bahasa Inggris mahasiswa berdasarkan interaksi antara kelompok perlakuan metode pembelajaran (konvensional dan STAD), serta modalitas belajar (kinestetik, auditory, dan Visual).

 

Pembahasan

Strategi Student Teams Achievement Division (STAD) berhasil memberikan pembelajaran yang membuat mahasiswa Politeknik Negeri Malang Semester II aktif dan berminat untuk mengikuti pembelajaran tersebut dibandingkan strategi pembelajaran konvensional.Slavin (1995) mengemukakan bahwa metode kooperatif Student Teams Achievement Division (STAD) berpengaruh positif terhadap hasil belajar ilmu-ilmu eksakta, sosial dan bahasa.

Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa modalitas belajar secara visual, auditory, dan kinestetik memberikan pengaruh yang berbeda terhadap hasil belajar vocabulary berbicaraBahasa Inggris mahasiswa Politeknik Negeri Malang Semester II. Modalitas belajar secara visual memberikan rata-rata hasil belajar vocabulary berbicaraBahasa Inggris yang paling besar dibandingkan modalitas belajar secara auditory dan kinestetik, sedangkan modalitas belajar secara auditory memberikan rata-rata hasil yang lebih rendah dibandingkan dengan secara visual maupun kinestetik. Vermunt & Vermetten (2004) mengatakan bahwa siswa yang memiliki dan merefleksikan modalitas belajar (learning style) akan berprestasi lebih baik daripada tidak memperhatikan modalitas belajar.

Interaksi antara strategi pembelajaran dan modalitas belajar memberikan pengaruh yang berbeda-beda terhadap hasil belajar vocabulary berbicara Bahasa Inggris mahasiswa Politeknik Negeri Malang Semester II Program Studi Teknik Elektronika. Hal ini dibuktikan oleh hasil penelitian yang menyatakan bahwa Strategi pembelajaran Student Teams Achievement Division (STAD) secara visual menghasilkan nilai belajar vocabulary berbicaraBahasa Inggris mahasiswa Politeknik Negeri Malang Semester II Program Studi Teknik Elektronika yang paling tinggi dan berbeda dengan interaksi strategi belajar dengan modalitas belajar lainnya. Sedangkan strategi belajar konvensional secara auditory dan kinestetik, serta STAD secara auditory menghasilkan nilai belajar vocabulary berbicaraBahasa Inggris mahasiswa Politeknik Negeri Malang Semester II Program Studi Teknik Elektronika yang sama dan paling rendah dibandingkan interaksi lainnya.

 

Simpulan

Simpulan dari penelitian ini, sebagai berikut:

  1. Pembelajaran vocabulary berbicaraBahasa Inggris yang dilaksanakan oleh dosen kepada mahasiswa Politeknik Negeri Malang Semester II Program Studi Teknik Elektronika dilakukan dengan strategi dasar (konvensional) dan strategi Student Teams Achievement Division (STAD) menghasilkan pengaruh yang berbeda terhadap hasil belajar mahasiswa tersebut, implementasi strategi Student Teams Achievement Division (STAD) memberikan nilai yang lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan hasil pembelajaran konvensional.
  2. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa modalitas belajar secara visual, auditory, dan visual memberikan pengaruh yang berbeda terhadap hasil belajar vocabulary berbicara bahasa inggris mahasiswa Politeknik Negeri Malang Semester II. Modalitas belajar secara visual memberikan rata-rata hasil belajar vocabulary berbicara Bahasa Inggris yang paling besar dibandingkan modalitas belajar secara auditory dan kinestetik, sedangkan modalitas belajar secara auditory memberikan rata-rata hasil yang lebih rendah dibandingkan dengan secara visual maupun kinestetik.
  3. Penerapan strategi pembelajaran konvensional maupun Student Teams Achievement Division (STAD) dan modalitas belajar diidentifikasi memiliki pengaruh dalam proses pembelajaran vocabulary berbicaraBahasa Inggris. Dengan demikian dapat dinyatakan bahwa terdapat interaksi antara strategi pembelajaran dan modalitas belajar mahasiswa terhadap hasil belajar vocabulary berbicara Bahasa Inggris. Interaksi antara strategi pembelajaran dan modalitas belajar memberikan pengaruh yang berbeda-beda terhadap hasil belajar mahasiswa Politeknik Negeri Malang Semester II Program Studi Teknik Elektronika. Strategi pembelajaran Student Teams Achievement Division (STAD) secara visual menghasilkan rata-rata hasil belajar vocabulary berbicaraBahasa Inggris yang paling tinggi, sedangkan strategi pembelajaran konvensional secara auditory menghasilkan rata-rata belajar vocabulary berbicaraBahasa Inggris yang paling rendah dibandingkan dengan interaksi lainnya

Saran

Saran-saran untuk pemanfaatan hasil penelitian dan penelitian lanjutan:

  1. Saran-Saran untuk Pemanfaatan Pembelajaran

            Berdasarkan hasil penelitian yang dipaparkan pada kesimpulan, berikut ini diajukan beberapa saran kepada:

  1. Dosen bahasa Inggris Politeknik Negeri Malang dapat menggunakan Student Teams Achievement Division(STAD) dapat dilakukan dengan baik dengan memperhatikan modalitas belajar mahasiswa
  2. Ketua Program Studi Teknik Elektronika mengadakan perbaikan pembelajaran bahasa Inggris dengan menyediakan fasilitas pembelajaran untuk kelancaran pembelajaran kooperatif STAD dan meningkatkan mutu, pengetahuan dan ketrampilan dosen dalam mengelola pembelajaran.
  3. Temuan penelitian ini dapat memberi masukan dan pertimbangan dalam perbaikan desain pembelajaran, pengorganisasian pembelajaran, pengelolaan pembelajaran dan penyampaian materi pembelajaran

2. Saran-saran untuk penelitian lanjutan

  1. Dosen dapat memilih metode pembelajaran yang tepat, yang dapat meningkatkan hasil belajar. Dan disarankan pula untuk diadakan penelitian lanjutan dengan cakupan materi yang lebih luas dan metode pembelajaran yang lebih banyak.

b. Variabel-variabel moderator (selain modalitas belajar) yang diduga juga berpengaruh terhadap hasil belajar vocabulary berbicara Bahasa Inggris, disarankan untuk diadakan penelitian lebih lanjut dan dikombinasikan dengan metode pembelajaran kooperatif.

c. Perlu menguji keefektifan pembelajaran kooperatif model STAD dalam pengajaran bahasa Inggris Program Studi Teknik Elektronika, Jurusan Teknik Elektro, Politeknik Negeri Malang dengan menggunakan angket pada mahasiswa terhadap keterlaksanaan pembelajaran.

 

 

 

Daftar Rujukan

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DEVELOPING ELECTRONIC ANIMATED MEDIA TO HELP STUDENTS OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOL UNDERSTAND MOTION PREPOSITIONS

Lusia Eni Puspandari

Surabaya Shipbuilding Institute of Polytechnic

luciaeni@yahoo.com

 

Abstract This paper is directed to find out an alternative way for students of Elementary School in understanding motion prepositions. The result of this study is in form of courseware which is directed to overcome learners’ difficulties in understanding and using motion prepositions. This study is used as an adjunct to English learning processes and this courseware can be accessed every time in indefinite pace as self-learning media based on the learners’ own ability.

In developing attractive learning media, the concept of independent learning and instructional animation are the basis of the study. It is supported by some components namely: attention-gaining material, pretest/posttest, instructional objectives, tutorial, content, exercises, and feedback.

The result of the try out shows that most of the students become more understand the uses and the differences of the motion prepositions in sentences.

 

Key words: Motion Prepositions, E-Learning Animated Media, Attention-gaining material, Instructional Objectives, Courseware

 

Introduction

In some developing countries, English is considered as second language or as foreign language. It is the principal language chosen for international business and for communication between countries all over the world. English is also used in all sides of human activities in that country, from science, education, entertainment, politics and others. All sides of human life are related to English as the International Language.

Indonesia, as one of developing country, considered English as a language that should be known by all people in the early ages. Previously, English was originally first taught in high schools, and it has been taught in primary or even pre-primary schools in the last decade. In addition, parents have introduced English to their children in their early ages by given them simple instruction or simple vocabulary. Some of them also send their children to language institutions to learn English at an age earlier then ever before. It is supported by Indonesia’s Minister of Education in his statement that English is intended to provide students an opportunity to gain science and at the same time develop their knowledge of English in anticipation of the environmental condition which has been influenced by the development of science, technology, arts, and cultures such that the knowledge of English is a demand.

The fact that English has been taught to the earlier ages created the English teachers to be more creative. A great deal of effort has been trying to make English teaching and learning interesting, especially for children. So many books are written in attractive way in order to attract learners’ motivation and attention to learn English. Firstly, the existence of children English books has accommodated the learners’ need of English but together with the advance of technology, they can not accomplish the learners’ needs. The role of teachers in creating good environment to learn English, and the teachers’ creativity become the most important thing for children in learning English.

Beside the creativity and the attractive books used in English learning, the used of technology is also has an important role in achieving successful English learning. Computer as a means of Information Technology development has proven that it holds a significant role in teaching learning process, especially in language learning.. Many language institutions and schools use computers as a supporting means in language teaching and in learning process. It is supported by the fact that computer can be used as a medium of real communication in the target language, including composing and exchanging messages with other students in the classroom or around the world (Oxford, 1990, p.79). The abundant research, studies, and class experiments in the use of information technology in language learning reported that technology brought more advantages and development than disadvantages.

The technology that has been used mostly by educators and trainers is internet which is created on the concept of web. Using internet as learning resources has some advantages such as: (1) it can be accessed by many people in the same time in unlimited time; (2) it can be used as distance learning which is used individually based on their own level or capability, and (3) it can be responded via e-mail to the trainers or educators. Beside the advantages, there are some disadvantages of using internet as learning resources, such as it must be connected to the internet which means that it can not be used on stand-alone computer.

Considering that using internet can not be used for stand-alone computer, there are many educators and trainers who have created and designed learning materials in the form of software which can be accessed by all computers without connecting to internet to be used as an alternative media. This kind of software is preferred by learners and is even more popular among students because they are associated with fun and games or because they are considered to be fashionable. The learners’ motivation therefore increases, especially whenever a variety of activities are offered, which make them feel more independent.

The existing learning software is to improve the conventional methods in language learning which primarily depend on the presence of teachers in the classroom to convey the material. The teaching learning process which relies on books often causes students’ lack of interest as well, especially when there is no instructional objectives provided in the book and it easily generates students’ boredom in learning language. Besides, the use of books for teaching learning have some weaknesses such as there are no varieties tests provided to measure the students’ achievement in learning, and the feedback given by the book is very limited or not given at all. The most apprehensive thing in conveying conventional teaching learning method is that it must be held in a classroom setting.

The electronic learning material that is effectively designed will facilitate the achievement of desired learning outcomes (Pramono, 1996:124). In addition, learning using computer will equip learners with a skill to choose the desired topic, based on their level of ability and will improve the learners’ motivation in learning. It is emphasized by Kweldju (1995:37) who argued that computer has self-access procedure which is completed with eye-catching color and animation to increase the users’ attractiveness.

Realizing that the numbers of electronic learning software are so many, the teachers and educators must be more selective in choosing the most suitable e-learning materials because not all the software are carefully designed and are provided with adequate feedback. Feedback in the software becomes the most important thing because without feedback, a learner is left to perform with no sense of direction or measure of correctness. (Cates, 1988:115).

In order to create ideal learning software, some aspects should be considered, such as: (1) the software must be designed to support the available curriculum, (2) the software must contain the learning objectives, (3) the software must use multimedia animation, (4) the product software must be analyzed and must be tested by the experts of subject material, learning technology and computer graphic.

Those statements inspired the writer as an English teacher to develop an innovative and attractive electronic learning media as a means to convey a material in computer based learning with the aim to provide an interactive instruction in a specific area which is delivered on a CD-ROM by using Macromedia Flash. It is expected that by using the interactive media, the learners’ imagination and understanding will be facilitated in learning a certain material.

She believes that using computers in education through Computer Assisted Learning (CAL) is more effective than using Internet based technologies. CAL is run either straight from a CD or flash disk or over local network so the constraint of the internet –slow download times for multimedia materials may not apply. It means that it has the potential to offer more advanced, interactive, multimedia learning experiences than it is currently reasonable to expect from the Web.

Based on the reality that learning is a systematic process with some components which influence each other in achieving learner’s successful learning, the writer recognized that in a learning process there must be an interaction between learner and the learning resources to achieve the ideal learning objectives. The writer believed that using interactive electronic media in the form of computer in learning language will create more advantages in learning process as stated by Harmanto (2002) that Learning using computers can be accessed by anyone in anytime and it can be applied individually based on their own ability (Harmanto, 2002).

As an English teacher which has been teaching English both for adult and for young learners for ages, she has so many experiences in dealing with students. Using an interactive and attractive ways in teaching English can reduce learner’s bored in learning for the first time, but if it is not combined with the use of technology it will be disastrous, especially in teaching motion prepositions which need real movement of object.

It is supported by Tomasello who said that learning to use prepositions is fundamentally important in young learners’ grammatical development (Tomasello, 1987). It is also supported by the reality that the students’ mistakes in understanding preposition in YPPI I Elementary school are often happened, especially in motion preposition even though it has been aided by pictures.

The above reasons generate the writer to be more creative in finding out interactive material to assist learners in understanding preposition, especially motion preposition. It is caused by her experience when she taught prepositions to young learners using a picture on white board, and it doesn’t help them to be comprehensible with the meaning of those prepositions.

Knowing about the difficulties, the writer anxious to create an attractive learning media using computer to learn English prepositions. . It is also supported by Pramono’s research (2004,p.3) which is said that the visual representations are intrinsically effective in supporting language learning.. Those reasons accentuated the writer to create and develop the interactive media in a form of CD-ROM.

The decision in developing materials in the form of CD-ROM has been made based upon some considerations as follows:

a. The development must have many advantages for learners such as it must help them to learn the subject matter (motion prepositions) easier, so that they will not get confused in understanding the meaning of and using motion prepositions in sentences. Ultimately, it must support learners to be more independent learners.

b. The development of materials for motion preposition needs to be done in order to facilitate English learners who find difficulties in grasping the meaning and function of motion prepositions.

c. The development media of using computer in understanding motion prepositions are extremely suitable by using animated visualization as stated by Galton that the most appropriate illustrative scenarios to present to subjects in an experimental investigation of motion preposition would be animated sequences. (Galton, 2002)

The above considerations underline the reasons of using animation in learning motion preposition, which is clarified as follows:

  1. Animation has “translation” characteristics that involves “the movement of whole entities from one location to another and can be perceived with respect to the border of the animation or other material within the animated display”. (Lowe, 2002, p.3)
  2. Understanding concepts using animation was significantly improved if verbal explanation ran concurrently with the animation.
  3. Animations have the potential to be especially beneficial for instruction presenting dynamic contents because animated pictures can show information about two important visual attributes: motion and trajectory (Pramono, 2005,p.22)
  4. Animated illustrations seem to be superior for the visualization of spatial aspect and dynamic process in preposition learning because a preposition usually indicates the spatial and temporal relationships of its object to the rest of the sentence.

 

Literature Review

There are some theories which support the study of developing e-learning media to facilitate learners in learning motion preposition, such as: Computer-Based Learning, Designing E-Learning Software, Characteristic of E-Learning Software, Using Animation in Learning Motion Preposition.

Computer- Based Learning

According to Hick and Hyde a teaching process directly involving a computer in the presentation of instructional materials in an attractive mode to provide and control the individualized learning environment for each individual student (Joiner, 1982:29)

It is stated that in learning using computer students interact with computer directly. The interaction between students and computers are in individual setting, based on their own language capacity and ability, so that the computer usage in language learning can be arranged by the students itself.

Based on the above reasons, the interactive method of teaching learning process in class cannot be done maximally. As the consequence, computer is designed to overcome those problems by creating some interactive programs inorder to attract students’ attention to increase their motivation in learning. It is hoped that using computer as an alternative teaching and learning media will increase students’ motivation because it is designed attractively by involving students’ or learners in the program so that there is an extensive interaction between computer and students.

The Advantages of Computer Based Learning/Teaching

The advantages of the use of computers in lecture theatres are caused by a few factors. The most important one is that simple large problems can be solved in a straightforward way in front of students’ eyes.(Miller, 98). Some advantages of using computer in learning are:

  1. Computers are able to give information about mistakes and the total time of learning spent by learners to do the exercises.
  2. Learning by using computer train students to be skilful tochoose the material they want to learn.
  3. Learning by using computer will help students who find difficulties in class meeting to review the material again individually.
  4. By using computer, the weak students who cannot follow the material and shy to ask the teacher will have a chance to repeat the material by themselves as many as they want.
  5. Computer Based Learning supports the individual learning which is suggested in modern education (Tsai and Pohl, 1981).
  6. Computer-based learning enable students to be accustomed with computer which is become important thing in this era and it will support many contributions for training and carrier in the future (Dhaif, 1989:13)
  7. The research shows that computer is an effective learning media (Kearsey, 1976 as quoted by Thompson, 1980:40).

 

The Form of Computer-Based Learning

According to Kemp and Dayton (1985:246) there are five forms of learning using computer: tutorials, drill and practice, problem solving, simulations, and games. Tutorial learning is a process of conveying new information to students in forms of explanation, exercises, and branching. Drill and practice is given to measure the students’ ability to understand certain knowledge. Problem solving is a process to give a solution about certain problem happened in teaching learning process. Games is one teaching forms which is given in order to increase students motivation and competition to learn something in a fun way.

Interaction between computer and learner is an individual interaction (Pramono, 1996). A teaching process is directly involving a computer in the presentation of instructional materials in an interactive mode to provide and control the individualized learning environment for each individual student.

 

Characteristics of Computer-Based Software Product

In order to improve the learning quality, Computer-Based Software must be designed through good learning principle. Besides, the designed of computer-based learning software must enclose the characteristics programmed instruction. The main characteristics of programmed instruction according to Burke (1982:23) are: (1) small steps, (2) active responding, and (3) immediate feedback.

 

Benefits of Animation in Learning Motion Preposition

The number of English prepositions often causes difficulties for learners to distinguish the kinds and the meaning of preposition, especially if the preposition is related to motion preposition, because there is only few lines to distinguish them.

Animation is one of media which is able to convey a vast amount of information in a very short period of time, and can be a powerful method of reinforcing concepts and topics first introduced to students through text, discussion, or other media. Though still in its fledgling stage, animation holds the promise of allowing visual learners and those with special needs new and powerful ways to comprehend complex phenomena.

The design of animations involves manipulation of various dynamic characteristics. Animation has “translation” characteristics that involves “the movement of whole entities from one location to another and within the animated display (Pramono: 2004: 21).

 

Types and Usage of Prepositions

Prepositions denote spatial relations, which are principally used to predicate constraints on such attributes as location, orientation, and disposition. (Hersekovits, 1997: 160). Preposition expressing spatial relations are of two kinds: prepositions of location, which is called prepositions of place (static) and prepositions of direction, sometimes called motion prepositions (Purdue University, 2002).

According to Linstromberg a preposition expresses a relationship between a subject and a landmark. Landmarks and Subjects are often (but not always) nouns, noun phrases, or pronouns.(Linstromberg: 1997: 15).

Preposition of direction are dynamic and have a directional meaning, such as to, from, up, down, through, towards, and appear with verbs of motion (movement) such as roll, walk, swim, come, go, etc.        Every motion preposition fits in a syntactic frame:

NP [activity verb] Preposition NP

as with      The ball      rolled across    the street

                   Figure                                     Ground

                  Moving Object                      Reference Object

Here the Figure is the moving object; the Ground is still the referent of the object of the preposition; the preposition constrains the trajectory; or path of the Figure.(Herskovits, 1997:162)

 

Expected Product specification

The CD-ROM that will be produced in this study is the actualization of Computer Assisted Learning product. It has some specifications as follows:

–            It can be used to convey a new material but it is as an alternative media because the major media is still based on books.

–            It can be used as an individualised learning media because:

–            It can be accessed in unlimited time and space without depending on the Internet facility.

–            It is the realisation of self-learning material which has instructional objectives in it.

–            There are a summary and exercises which are completed with the feedback.

–            It gives a chance to learners to study the material freely based on their own capacity.

–            The material has specific components which can assist learners to learn easily, as follows

 

Benefits of Software Development

Developing this e-learning media is directed to overcome learners’ confusion and learners’ mistake in understanding motion preposition. This study belongs to developing domain, especially in developing learning resources in order to enrich the learning media in computer based technology.

This study is also intended to improve English learning process which relies on the book with the presence of a teacher in the classroom to the computer based technology which can be accessed every time in indefinite space based on their own capability as self-learning media.

 

Assumption and Development Limitation

Developing e-learning media to help students in understanding motion preposition is based on the related assumption, as follows:

–     An attractive learning resources will arouse students’ learning motivation

–     Developing animated media is required to develop the education quality

–     This development study is intended to design a self-learning media through CD-ROM

–     A learning process using CD-ROM is properly used for computer literacy students

 

Discussion

Computer-Based Learning Software Development

Developing media in teaching learning technology is the implementation of a design which has been made. It cannot be separated from designing, managing, and evaluating as said by Seels & Richey (1994:9) that instructional teaching is a theory and practice of design, development, utilization, management and evaluation processes and resources for learning.

In order to create interactive and innovative learning software, there must be designing and developing procedures that must be passed obviously. The procedures that must be overtaken to assist the writer in developing qualified e-learning material software are known as ADDIE or Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation and Evaluation (Sambel, Developing and Evaluating E-learning, 2005).

 

Analysis

The first step is analyzing the learners’ characteristic which are going to use the e-learning material. The learners’ characteristics that should be identified are the level of learners, whether the program is used in class or not, and whether the program is used as individual learning or not. Then, it is continued by designing and organizing the learning software.

 

Design

Determine the design of the software

There are three kinds of design to be used according to Burke (1982), functional design, physical design, and logical design. Functional design is related to the function of the software as media to introduce new material and to convey it in order to strengthen learning motivation. Physical design is related to the type of the design, which is divided into linear, branch and repetition. Logical design covers the mode of the design, which is divided into deductive (rules and followed by examples) and inductive mode (examples and followed by rules).

As a developer, the writer must choose one of those design mode in order to be applied in the software development.

Developing Flowchart

Flowchart is used to communicate the ideas of the developer and the graphic designer. It is used to describe the main parts of the software and to arrange the steps of designing the courseware. See the flowchart in Appendix 1.

Writing Storyboard

Storyboard is a media which is used by developer and graphic designer to communicate about the form of material and the activity that will be appeared in the software.

 

Learning Media Development

Developing learning media in the form of software is the realisation of learning technology application especially for developing learning resources. It is expected to reduce the obstacles of limitation in finding learning resources. See Appendix 2.

 

Try-out and Evaluation

The next step which must be done is doing the trial test or user acceptance test which will evaluate the e-learning media. The material must be tested in order to verify the validity of the material. The processes of verifying the validity are through trial test which is done by group of students to represent some students to use the software development. The result of the trial test will be evaluated. The steps of evaluating learning software can be seen in Appendix 3.

After the media is created, the next step is try-out and evaluation. The tryout and evaluation is needed in order to measure whether the product can achieve the set specification, i.e.

–  It can be used to convey a new material but it is as an alternative media because the major media is still based on books.

–  It can be used as an individualized learning media because:

–  It can be accessed in unlimited time and space without depending on the Internet facility.

–  It is the realization of self-learning material which has instructional objectives in it.

–  There are a summary and exercises which are completed with the feedback.

–  It gives a chance to learners to study the material freely based on their own capacity.

–  The material has specific components which can assist learners to learn easily, as follows.

The result of try out shows the following:

(1) Attention Gaining Material could gather an average score of 100 %. The result showed that the component of attention-gaining material could attract the students’ attention at the start and could motivate them to learn.

(2) The Instructional Objectives of this courseware could gather an average score of 88.9 %; that means the students under­stood the objectives of learning using this developed courseware.

(3)  The clarity of doing the pretest and the understanding of the students on pre-test items and the appropriateness of animation with the items got an average score of 70.4 %. It can be concluded that the pre test components were good.

(4) The clarity of the tutorial and the attractive­ness of the explanation could get an average score of 100%.  It can be concluded that the tutorial component of this product was very good.

(5) The content with respect to the com­prehensibility of the material, the appro­priateness of the animation with the story, and the attractiveness of the animated pictures got an average score of  88.9 %, therefore, it can be considered that the content of this developed product was good.

(6) The exercises of this product got an average score of 74.1 % with respect to the   attractiveness of the items, the quality of the animations used, and the appropriateness of the items.

(7) The average score of the feedback is  88.9% with respect to the effectiveness and appropriateness of the feedback.

(8) The practicality to operate this courseware, the benefits of using this courseware, and the possibility to use this courseware without the help of teachers got an average score of 88.9%. It can be concluded that this courseware development can be used as an individual learning to enrich the learners’ competence on motion prepositions.

Based on the data above, it can be concluded that this courseware develop­ment obtains good response from learners and has good quality as an alternative learning resource. The main interface can be seen in Appendix 4.

References

Armstrong, K.M. & Yetter-Vassot, C. (1994). Transforming teaching through technology. Foreign Language Annals, 27(4), 475-486.

Brown, Andrew R.(2005) Elements of Effective e-Learning Design

Burke, R.L. 1992, Computer Assisted Instruction. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, Inc

Cates, J.S. 1988. Delay Feedback and Cognitive Task Level in Practice Exercises. A paper Presented at the 1988 Annual Convention of the Association for Educational Communication and Technologies, New Orleans. L.A., USA

Dick, W and Carey, L. 1985. The systematic Design of Instruction (2nd edition) London: Scott, Foresman and company

Galton, Antony. 2002. www.dcs.ex.ac.uk/studyRes/COM3401/ag.html

Hersekovits, A. 1997. Language, spatial cognition, and vision. In O. Stock (Ed), Spatial and Temporal Reasoning, 155-202

International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, Retrieved from http://www.irrodl.org/content/v6.1/brown_voltz.html

Kemp, J.E. and Dayton, D.K. 1985. Planning and Producing Instructional Media. Cambridge: Harper & Row, Publisher,

Kurtus, Ron. 2004. What is eLearning? www.warwick.ac.uk/services/cap/resources/guides/elearning/overview

Kweldju, S. 1985. SMA Teachers’ Performance in Using English as Medium of S-1 Graduates of IKIP Malang in Kodya Malang. Thesis PPS IKIP MALANG: Unpublished

Lindstromberg, Seth. 1998, English Prepositions Explained, Philadelphia: John Benjamins North America

Littlewood,W.1997. Autonomy and independence in language learning. Harlow: Addison Wesley Longman 79-91.

Lowe, R.K. 1999. Extracting Information from an Animation during Complex Visual Learning. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 14, 225 – 244

Miller, Karol. 1998. Computer-based teaching but pen-and-pencil examination? Retrievedfromhttp://lsn.curtin.edu.au/tlf/tlf1998/miller.html

Pramono, Harto. 2004. Picture-Text Complementarily in English Language Learning by Primary School Students in Indonesia, Thesis Curtin University of Technology.

Purdue University, 2002. Preposition of Direction: To, On(to), In (to). http://owl.english.purdue.edu/handouts/esl/eslprep.html

Rieber, L.P. 1996. Animation as feedback in a computer-based simulation: The Representation matters. Educational Technology Research and Development, 5-22

Salaberry, R. (1999). ‘CALL in the year 2000: still developing the research agenda’. Language Learning and Technology 3/1: 104-107.

Sambel, Sandra. 2005. Developing and Evaluating E-learning, 2005.

Seels, B.B. and Richey, R.C. 1994. Instructional Technology: The definition and Domains of the field. Washington, DC: Association for educational Communication and Technology

Stock, Oliviero, 1997, Spatial and Temporal Reasoning, Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers

Swan, Michael. 2001. The Good Grammar Book, OxfordUniversity Press

Tomasello, M. 1987, (PR.9) Learning to use prepositions: a case study. Journal of Child Language, 14, 79-96

 APPENDICES

 Appendix 1

Flow chart used in the development stage

Luci-app-1

APPENDIX 2

 Steps of Media Development

 Luci-append2a

Luci-append2b

 


Appendix 3

Product Evaluation Steps

Luci-append3

 

Appendix 4

The Main Interfaces

Luci1

Pre-Test screenshot

Luci2

Reading menu screenshot

Luci3

 

 

 Speaking Menu Screenshot

Luci 4

 

 

Exercise Menu Screenshot

Luci5

Improving Intelligibility of Voiced and Voiceless “th” Consonants in the Speeches of Sophomores Using Pronunciation Drills

maksud-IMG_3470

 

Maksud Temirov, Graduate Program in English Language Teaching, StateUniversity of Malang

(maqsudlee@inbox.ru)

 

Abstract

 This article is based on a study conducted with the intention of treating a university sophomores’ difficulties in producing intelligible /θ, ð/ sounds and enabling them to achieve faultless pronunciation of these sounds by applying pronunciation drilling technique through authentic teaching sessions.

The research design was an Action Research. The subjects were 25 sophomores (4th semester students) of English Department of State University of Malang (East Java, Indonesia). Coming from four different groups (G, GG, H, and J), they formed up a single speaking class at the department. Their ages ranged from 18 to 20. The preliminary study as well as the remedial classes were held on the University campus. The focal instrument of the study was a short text including 12 words each having “th” consonants (/ð/, /θ/ sounds) that was read aloud by the subjects in the preliminary study as well as during and after the teaching sessions. The 3 recordings were carefully analyzed and compiled on a compact disc.

The pronunciation drilling technique was implemented in one cycle comprising 4 remedial lessons.The implementation of the action was based on the lesson plans. The researcher himself was the teacher to deliver the remedial lessons through various pronunciation activities such as exercising drills, minimal pair discrimination, tongue-twisters, reading texts on the subjects.The three pronunciation activities were chosen because of the practice in hearing and saying the “th” consonants, moreover, the words containing “th” consonants are pronounced in two ways and the spelling of “th” does not overlap with pronunciation. The assessment of “th” sounds were assessed on whether the sounds were pronounced correctly or not. If one of the sounds, either the voiced “th” or the voiceless one were confusedly pronounced using a different similar or dissimilar sounds instead, such as [d], [t], [f], [s], [z], they were immediately noted down in corresponding tables. However, the correctly pronounced consonants were shown in ticks (ü). The success percentage of each 12 words included in the short text were shown in interactive graphs.

The important questions that the researcher decided to deal with were:(1) Can pronunciation drilling technique improve the sophomores’ pronunciation of /θ/ and /ð/ consonants? (2) Can sophomores achieve intelligible pronunciation of /θ/ and /ð/ consonants with ease? The questions were answered with positive results. The students could achieve intelligible production of the two sounds by the end of the study. The findings of this study showed that implementing pronunciation drilling technique when teaching individual sounds, such as /θ/and /ð/ in this case, could make the students achieve rather intelligible pronunciation of English words.

Even though several linguists argue that the pronunciation drilling techniques are rather old-fashioned method of teaching pronunciation, based on the results of the present study, however, the researcher believes that this technique is at least useful in teaching individual sounds. Therefore, the speaking class teachers, especially those at secondary schools, have to apply more pronunciation drilling activities in order enable their students achieve an intelligible English pronunciation before they reach the University level. For future researchers, it is suggested to use the result of this study as a reference in conducting researches in the related areas.

Keywords: pronunciation, voiced and voiceless consonants, problematic sounds in pronunciation, pronunciation of /θ, ð/, intelligibility

 

The background of the study chiefly discusses the topics, such as what pronunciation is, its importance, and why pronunciation should be taught. It also deals with intelligibility of speech, factors that interfere with correct pronunciation, drilling technique and its several ways of application when teaching individual sounds. Also, it explains about potential difficult and problematic English sounds for the Indonesian speakers of English, and production of voiced and unvoiced “th”consonants.

 

Pronunciation Problems of Most Indonesian Speakers of English

Through the years spent as well as the personal observations obtained through teaching English pronunciation to University students and being adjudicator in several provincial English language student contests in Malang, East Java, Indonesia, the researcher was faced with unintelligible English pronunciation of some students. Although the students were undergraduates or studying their Master’s Degree in the English department of some prominent Universities like Brawijaya University and State University of Malang, they were unaware of certain pronunciation mistakes in their speeches. Most of the students have substantial knowledge of English grammar and are able to make correct complex sentences in English; however, their unintelligibility in pronunciation makes their English proficiency incomplete and hard to be effortlessly perceived by another listener. For example, they happen to pronounce the words “fan” and “van” in the same way. That is because of the L1 impact, of course because Bahasa Indonesia lacks the English “v” sound. Apart from this, other relevant instances could be the incorrect pronunciation of the words “path”, “theater”, “whether”, etc. This problem comes either from the L1 effect or simply lack of awareness of correct English pronunciation. Those problems need to be treated.

Intelligible pronunciation is essential during a listening process, clear and correct pronunciation makes a conversation more comfortable for both the speaker and the listener and even helps to avoid misunderstanding.

David Keating (2013: 3) states that Indonesian speakers of English have problems resulting from L1 (first language) interference. In terms of pronunciation, many Indonesians have trouble pronouncing consonant clusters (3 or more consonants together in a word), as these clusters do not occur in Bahasa Indonesia.

Likewise, Indonesian speakers of English like several other non-native English speakers have significant problems concerning English consonant blends. In the current study to be conducted, the researcher takes the voiceless and voiced “th” sounds which are /θ/ as in the word thin and /ð/ as in the word mother to be one of the core issues that need to be studied and corrected through teaching and practice as they are commonly mispronounced among non-native speakers of English, such as the native speakers of Bahasa Indonesia.

In the case of sophomores at the university, a reasonable accuracy in the pronunciation of individual sounds such as the /θ/ and /ð/ sounds as mentioned above should certainly have been achieved; earlier at school; however many students still fail to attain perfection.

Pronunciation problems may occur when non-native speakers communicate because speakers are used to sounds that exist in their mother tongue but may not exist in the target language. There are a lot of sounds that do exist or are similar in English and Indonesian; however, there are sounds that are very different or do not exist in Indonesian.

There are several factors that influence the pronunciation of Indonesian learners of English. First, Indonesian learners use sounds that are in Indonesian language but may not exist in English. For instance the clear pronunciation of the[r] sound by an Indonesian speaker of English like in the word rektor (Eng.: rector) definitely makes their English speech worse and somehow irritating for the listener. Second, when reading or speaking, Indonesian students apply the rule of last syllable prominence which is not presented in English. For example, in the word Canada the stress normally falls on the first syllable [Canada] in the English language. However, when a typical Indonesian speaker of English pronounces the same word, he or she happens to stress either the second or the last syllable[Canada]/[Canada]. Lastly, Indonesian learners do not distinguish between the written and spoken form as in Indonesian the written and spoken forms resemble and this goes hand in hand with pronouncing the silent letters e.g. the word salmon is usually pronounced as /sælmən/ instead of /sæmən/ by Indonesian learners.

 

Potentially Problematic English Sounds for Indonesians

The most problematic vowel sounds for Indonesian learners of English are such as follows (there might be more; however, here are some instances only): /æ/ as in the word cat: since the vowel /æ/ does not exist in Indonesian, it is often pronounced as /e/ as in the word men; /ɪ/ as in the word ship: the short vowel does occur in Indonesian but it is frequently mixed with long vowel /i:/ as in the word sheep; /ɜ:/ as in the word bird: the vowel does not exist in Indonesian and it is frequently mispronounced by inexperienced Indonesian learners as / ʌ / as in the word cup or /ɑ:/ as in the word heart or vice versa; /eɪ/ as in the word tail: It is commonly pronounced as /e/ as in the word pen; or / əʊ/ as in the word phone: The common error made by Indonesian learners is that they do not distinguish between written and spoken form and therefore it is pronounced as /ɒ/ as in the word clock.

According to the researcher’s intent as well as his specific area of interest a closer look will be paid to consonants; particularly the two voiced and unvoiced “th” sounds. There are consonant sounds in English that neither exist nor have equivalent form in Indonesian and therefore confusion between consonants may occur.

The most problematic consonant sounds for Indonesian learners of English could probably be the followings: /θ/ as in the word theater: there is no sound similar to this consonant in Indonesian, and therefore it is often pronounced as /t/ or /s/ because of a close place of articulation; /ð/ as in the word brother: there is no representation of the consonant in Indonesian and therefore it is pronounced as /d/ or /z/ because of a close place of articulation; /dʒ / as in the word jar or language: the common error made by Indonesian learners is that they do not distinguish between written and spoken form and therefore it is usually confused with /j/ or / tʃ/; /z/ as in the word maze: in Indonesian language a rule of assimilation of end consonants is applied, which means that a voiced consonant becomes voiceless when it occurs in a final position, therefore the voiced consonant is pronounced as voiceless /s/ if it is in a final position; /g/ as in the word frog: Indonesian learners use a rule of assimilation of final consonants; therefore the voiced consonant becomes voiceless /k/ in a final position; /b/ as in the word cab: in Indonesian language a rule of assimilation of final consonants is used therefore, the voiced consonant is changed into voiceless /p/ in a final position; /v/ as in the word brave: in Indonesian learners apply a rule of assimilation of end consonants; therefore the voiced consonant is transformed into voiceless /f/ in a final position.

Similarly, another difficulty an Indonesian learner of the English language might face is that of minimal pairs. The term “minimal pairs” refers to two words within a language which have different meanings but vary in one sound segment only (Fromkin & Rodman,1993). Examples of this in English are the words “hit” and “heat”. There are many of these in the English language. Which minimal pairs cause a student problems, depends on the phonetics of their native language and their language of study (L1 and L2). In the case of Indonesian learners, “van” and “fan”, pose a problem because of the nature of the Indonesian language which lacks the sound for the English “v”. For this reason the language learners have difficulty with clearly differentiating between the sounds both when they hear them and when they attempt to pronounce them. In turn, difficulties with minimal pairs may even cause language learners problems in areas like reading and spelling, as students mix up words and thus meanings.

 

Similar Previous Studies in the Related Fields

In his famous book, Better Pronunciation, O’ Connor (1980: 25) presented 5 categories of pronunciation problems among learners from 6 Western and Oriental nationalities. One of them is sound substitution with other ones from English or from learners’ L1 due to the lack of corresponding English sounds in their mother tongues. As revealed by Fraser (2001: 33), speakers of other languages usually replace English consonants that are unfamiliar with near ones available in their mother tongues(also seen in Cruttenden, 2001, Lewis & Hill, 1992, River & Temperley, 1978).

Another similar investigation was conducted by Shafiro et al (2012)on the perception of American-English (AE) vowels and consonants by young adults who were either (a) early Arabic-English bilinguals whose native language was Arabic or (b) native speakers of the English dialects spoken in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), where both groups were studying. In a closed-set format, participants were asked to identify 12 AE vowels presented in /hVd/ context and 20 AE consonants (C) in three vocalic contexts: /ɑCɑ/, /iCi/, and /uCu/. Both native Arabic and native English groups demonstrated high accuracy in identification of vowels (70 and 80% correct, respectively) and consonants (94 and 95% correct, respectively). For both groups, the least-accurately identified vowels were /ɑ/, /ɔ/, /æ/, while most consonant errors were found for /ð/, which was most frequently confused with /v/.

Dental fricatives /ð/ and /θ/ are among the most difficult phonemes for speakers of other languages due to the lack of them in most languages other than English (Cruttenden, 2001). He also noticed that /t/ and /d/were used as their frequent substitutions (also seen in Chan & Li, 2000)/z/, d/ and /s/ were produced instead of /ð/ and /θ/ correspondingly. Nguyen (2007) proved that 80% of her subjects were found to mispronounce /ð/ and /θ/ sounds.

In an action research on the role of continuous feedback in students’ pronunciation improvement Tran (2006) reviewed seven factors that affect the pronunciation of Vietnamese learners. Apart from well-known causes: native language, learners’ ages, she emphasized the influence of the amount of exposure to English, students’ own phonetic ability, their attitude to the learning of the language, motivation and teacher’s role. In attempt to discuss Vietnamese learners’ pronunciation of English sounds, Duong (2009) showed four main reasons that account for their failure in making the truly English consonants: (1) failure in distinguishing the difference, (2) influence of the mother tongue, (3) perception of mistakes, (4) inadequate drills and practice.

 

Why Teach Pronunciation?

Teaching pronunciation has undergone a long evolution. At the beginning of the 20th century everything was subordinated to teaching grammar and lexis and pronunciation was totally overlooked. Many things have changed since that time but on the other hand there are still some teachers who do not pay enough attention to pronunciation. According to Scrivener (2005: 284) this is partly because teachers themselves may feel more uncertain about it than about grammar and lexis, worried that they don’t have enough technical knowledge to help students appropriately.

It is widely recognized that acquiring good pronunciation is very important because bad pronunciation habits are not easily corrected. Kelly (2002: 11) states:

a learner who consistently mispronounces a range of phonemes can be extremely difficult for a speaker from another language community to understand. This can be very frustrating for the learner who may have a good command of grammar and lexis but have difficulty in understanding and being understood by a native speaker.

In the researcher’s opinion pronunciation is still neglected at schools. When teaching pronunciation it is difficult to create a lesson that would be only focused on pronunciation practice because pronunciation is taken as an additional practice in all course books. Another problem can be caused by the fact that emphasis is frequently given on individual sounds or distinguishing sounds from each other. According to Gilbert (2008: 1) there are two main reasons why pronunciation is neglected in classes. First, teachers do not have enough time in their lessons, which would be dedicated to pronunciation, and if there is time attention is usually given to drills which lead to discouraged students and teachers who both want to avoid learning and teaching pronunciation. Second, psychological factor plays a relevant role in learning pronunciation because students are not as sure about their pronunciation as they are about their knowledge of grammar and lexis. Gilbert (2008: 1) claims that the most basic elements of speaking are deeply personal and our sense of community is bound up in the speech rhythms of our first language. These psychological barriers are usually unconscious but they prevent speakers from improving the intelligibility. To be able to overcome the fears of speaking, teachers should set at the outset that the aim of pronunciation improvement is not to achieve a perfect imitation of a native accent, but simply to get the learner to pronounce accurately enough to be easily and comfortably comprehensible to other speakers (Ur 1984: 52).

 

Intelligibility

Since pronunciation is a complex and important part of learning and teaching process teachers need to set goals and aims they want to achieve with their students. According to Ur (1984: 52) perfect accents are difficult if not impossible to achieve in foreign language the goal of teachers need to be, to make their students be easily understandable when communicating with other people.

When speaking about intelligibility there is no clear definition of it, but in general we can say that intelligibility means that a hearer can understand a speaker at a set time and situation without major difficulties, in other words, the more words a listener is able to identify accurately when said by a particular speaker, the more intelligible the speaker is (Kenworthy, 1990: 13). Therefore the pronunciation of the speaker does not have to be without errors if a listener is able to understand the utterance. Dalton & Seidlhofer (1994: 11) point out that intelligibility is by no means guaranteed by linguistic similarity and phonetic accuracy, but it is often overridden by cultural and economic factors.Consequently, despite the language factors there are other points that can influence the intelligibility such as whether the topic is familiar to both a speaker and a listener or whether the utterance of a speaker is expected by a listener (Online AMEP article published by Macquarie University of Sydney).

As far as intelligibility is concerned, Kenworthy (1990: 14) also points out that other factors can affect a speaker’s utterance e.g. if a learner’s speech is full of self-corrections, hesitations, and grammatical restructurings, then listeners will tend to find what he or she says difficult to follow. AMEP research center views this matter a little bit differently as they state that aspects influencing intelligibility are complex issues ranging from prosody, intonation, word stress, rhythm, syllable structure, segments, and voice quality to phrasing and sense group. The authors further outline that language teaching used to emphasize learning individual sounds rather than focusing on all aspects influencing intelligibility, and point out that recent studies claim that overall prosody, comprising stress, rhythm and intonation, may have greater prominence on intelligibility regardless a learner’s mother tongue.

 

Factors that Interfere with Correct Pronunciation

Most researchers agree that the learner’s first language influences the pronunciation of the target language and is a significant factor in accounting for foreign accents. So called interference from the first language is likely to cause errors in aspiration, stress, and intonation in the target language. Some Indonesian students tend to have difficulty with English sounds because they are deeply influenced by similar Indonesian sounds. However, they are very different from each other. A particular sound which does not exist in the native language can therefore pose a difficulty for the second language learners to produce or some times to try to substitute those sounds with similar ones in their mother tongue. These sounds include both vowels and consonants.

It is necessary to mention that there are several factors that need to be considered to be potential obstacles for a foreign language learner through acquisition of correct pronunciation. Those factors can be age factor, phonetic ability, lack of practice, motivation, personality or attitude and mother tongue. (Riswanto & Haryanto, 2012).

Underhill (1994: 15) said “sounds and words are the building blocks for connected speech, and specific and detailed work can be done at these levels without losing touch with the fluent speech from which the parts have been extracted.” Actually, sounds are the building blocks for all language skills. The researcher has seen great enthusiasm from teachers for learning, but also experienced resistance to teaching sounds, but sounds of a language are like the foundations of a building, or the roots of a tree. It should not just be B.Ed or M.Ed students who are learning phonology, it is an injustice to teachers who are expected to teach language if they are not given this practical knowledge and an injustice to the children who are struggling to learn.

Similarly, Schmid and Yeni-Komshian (1999), for example, found that native speaker listeners had increased difficulty detecting mispronunciations at the phonemic level as accentedness increased, and Derwing and Rossiter (2003) found similar issues among the experienced listeners in their study. Research has indicated that many teachers lack training and confidence in their expertise in pronunciation learning and teaching (Levis, 2006; Macdonald, 2002).

 

What is Drilling in Language Teaching?

According to Tice (2004), drilling is a technique that has been used in foreign language classrooms for many years. It was a key feature of audio lingual approaches to language teaching which placed emphasis on repeating structural patterns through oral practice.

At its simplest, drilling means listening to a model, provided by the teacher, or a tape or another student, and repeating what is heard. This is a repetition drill, a technique that is still used by many teachers when introducing new language items to their students. The teacher says (models) the word or phrase and the students repeat it.

Other types of drill include substitution drills, or question and answer drills. Substitution drills can be used to practice different structures or vocabulary items (i.e. one or more words change during the drill).

Example:

Prompt: ‘I go to work. He?

Response: ‘He goes to work.’

In question and answer drills the prompt is a question and the response the answer. This is used for practicing common adjacency pairs such as ‘What’s the matter?’, ‘I’ve got a (headache’) or ‘Can I have a (pen) please?’, ‘Yes here you are.’ The words in brackets here can be substituted during the drill.

In all drills learners have no or very little choice over what is said so drills are a form of very controlled practice. There is one correct answer and the main focus is on ‘getting it right’ i.e. on accuracy. Drills are usually conducted chorally (i.e. the whole class repeats) then individually. There is also the possibility of groups or pairs of students doing language drills together.

 

PROBLEM OF THE STUDY

The researcher focused his study on pronunciation teaching of the voiced and voiceless “th” consonants /ð, θ/ as several previous empirical findings show as well as the researcher himself regards them as the most problematic aspects of pronunciation for Indonesian learners of English. It is important to mention that it was really problematic issue to find relevant previous studies on the current question in terms of Indonesian learners of English. The scholastic sources are limited and therefore most of the examples are often referred to the studies conducted outside the country. Considering the above mentioned alarming matter, the main questions at issue can be concluded as follows:

(1)   Can pronunciation drilling technique improve the sophomores’ pronunciation of /θ/ and /ð/ consonants?

(2)   Can sophomores achieve intelligible pronunciation of /θ/ and /ð/ consonants with ease?

 

The theoretical part concerns with crucial pronunciation issues as well as the factors that might have potential impact on teaching and learning process of pronunciation and it also provides some suggestions to elevate common pronunciation skills to real enunciation. Furthermore, it also emphasizes the issues of pronunciation in daily communication, the most problematic sounds for Indonesian learners of English as well as responding to certain questions like why pronunciation should be taught that may arise.

The theoretical significance can also be seen in reflecting on the teachers’ and students’ roles and aspects that influence a speaker’s intelligibility. The researcher finds the production of voiced and voiceless consonants /ð, θ/ to be of utmost significance that needs to be studied with the sophomore undergraduate students of English department of the State University of Malang through practicing certain pronunciation drills since these two consonants are representatives of the most difficult sounds in English for Indonesian speakers.

The research gives contribution to the English enunciation where the result of this study can be reference to improve the undergraduate students’ advance in pronunciation skills. For the other readers, the present research can be guidance whenever to investigate the other elements of enunciation issues with University students, especially ones who are enrolled in English departments.

The present study particularly concentrated on the controversial pronunciation issues; particularly concerning improving awareness of the correct pronunciation of certain English sounds such as [s], [z], [t], and [d] distinguishing them from “th” sounds observed in the speeches of the sophomore undergraduates of English department of the State University of Malang through using pronunciation drilling technique. Nevertheless, the research mostly dealt with the correct pronunciation of two problematic English sounds: voiced /ð/ and voiceless /θ/ that are encoded as “th” in written discourses.

 

METHODOLOGY

The research was an action research to improve the students’ pronunciation of [th] /ð, θ/ sounds through practicing pronunciation drills. According to Bassey (as quoted by Koshy, 2005), action research (AR) is an inquiry which is carried out in order to understand, to evaluate, and then to change, in order to improve the educational practice as well as to provide teacher-researcher with a method for solving his or her everyday teaching problems.This action research was conducted in four cyclical processes: (1) planning, (2) implementing, (3) observing, and (4) reflecting (See table 2.1). The process was stopped in one cycle only as the researcher found out that the students could successfully meet the requirements stated in the success criterion.

 

Subjects and the Site of the Study

As the site of the study to be conducted, the researcher has selected the State University of Malang which is one of the prominent and accredited Universities in East Java, Indonesia. This University is well-known for its exceptional personnel preparation techniques along with erudite professors. Specifically, the subjects were 25 sophomores (4th semester) of English department of the University. The subjects, coming from four different groups (G, GG, H, and J), formed up a single speaking class at the department. Their ages ranged from 18 to 20. As of the students’ backgrounds, it is important to mention that they came from different parts of Indonesia and learned various local languages, such as Javanese, Madurese, Lomboknese, Balinese, Sundanese, Papuanese, etc., as their first language and that would have impact on their pronunciation of English sounds.

As the researcher found out from various sources, the English department was once found to be one of the best English teacher training institutions in South-East Asia. The subjects as well as the site to conduct the present research were selected according to the researcher’s personal observations, experience, and authentic empirical findings based on the current question at issue.

 

Research Procedure

In this study, the research procedure involved at least one cycle consisting of planning, acting, observing, and reflecting. The action was stopped when the objectives of the research had been achieved according to the success criterion. The researcher initially conducted a preliminary study as the starting point to conduct this research. The research procedure can be seen in Table1 below.

 

Table 1: Action Research Procedure (adapted from Kemmis & Mc. Taggart, 2000, cited in Koshy, 2005).

PRELIMINARY STUDY
 25 students of the combined speaking class were given a short text which included words with 12 “th”consonants i.e. /ð, θ/ sounds in their pronunciation in order to find out whether the subjects had difficulty with pronouncing them correctly. The short text were read aloud by the subjects in turns and were simultaneously recorded by the researcher for further analysis. The task remained the same with the same conditions till the end of the research.
ANALYSIS AND FINDINGS
Findings: Subjects’ pronunciation of [th] /ð, θ/ sounds needs to be improved through remedial activities: exercising drills, minimal pair discrimination, tongue-twisters,   and reading texts.The preliminary study findings are thoroughly stated in the below pages.
PLANNING
Relevant lesson plans, materials (activities, handouts, etc.) multimedia (LCD projector, laptop, speaking dictionary, active speaker), the criteria of success, and research instruments were all prepared.
IMPLEMENTING
Four authentic teaching sessions took place based on lesson plans which were aimed at improving the students’ pronunciation of [th] /ð, θ/ sounds through remedial activities: exercising drills, minimal pair discrimination, tongue-twisters, and reading texts. After each two lessons, students underwent 2 recording sessions.
REFLECTING
The collected data was analyzed, determined that the actions were successful and reported.

 

Problem Identification

At this very stage of the study (preliminary study) the researcher wanted to find out whether the presumed question in mind that the sophomores of the English Department, State University of Malang had problems with the pronunciation of voiced and voiceless “th” consonants as there are no same sounds in their mother tongue, was right or not. Second, the researcher wanted to ascertain if the students substitute the “th” sounds with other consonants with a near place of articulation. Lastly, the first recording functioned as an indicator of the initial conditions of the students’ pronunciation of “th” consonants.

The researcher recorded all the 25 students of the speaking class. The class was first introduced to the research questions. Additionally, the entire class got to know with the terms and conditions of the study in its turn. So, there evolved a stable mutual understanding between the class and the researcher before the launch of the research.

The researcher had prepared a short text with at least 12 words containing “th” consonants. Each student was given 10 minutes for preparation so that they could get familiar with the text. After the period of 10 minutes the students were asked to come individually in front of the class where the researcher recorded their readings. The students were required to come individually because the researcher presumed that they would be fully concentrated on the text; moreover, they might be distracted by the other students as well. While the students were reading the text the researcher was carefully recording their voices for further analysis.

After the recordings underwent a careful analysis, the pre-assumed problems were detected in the subjects’ pronunciations: almost all the subjects did not show any positive result. Taking this into account, the researcher began to plan the actions to take and prepared relevant lesson plans which were targeted to improve the subjects’ pronunciation of the “th” sounds. The lesson plans can be found in the appendices of the paper. The preliminary study results of each student are transformed into tables and the overall findings are presented in a graph demonstrating the exact number of correct and incorrect production.

MaksudFigure 1: First recording results.

Taking the results of the first recording in the preliminary study as a whole,the researcher’s initial questions were proven right. In nearly all cases students substituted “th” consonants with the consonants of a near place of articulation. To be specific, two similar sounds /t/ and /d/ superseded the /θ/and /ð/ sounds in most cases. However, there were rare occasions where some students produced /θ/and /ð/ sounds as /s/, /z/, /td/ /ds/, and /dz/. For example, according to the data analyzed from the preliminary study of this research, the word without was pronounced in various different ways. Those include the following unintelligible pronunciation samples of the word without:

PRONOUNCED AS: STUDENTS
/wɪtaʊt/ student 5, 20
/wɪzaʊt/ student 1
/wɪtdaʊt/ student 10
/wɪdsaʊt/ student 9, 13, 14, 19, 21, 22
/wɪdzaʊt/ student 15, 11
/wɪdaʊt/ stdnt 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 16, 17, 18, 21, 23, 25
/wɪ ð aʊt/ student 8, 12, 24

Table 2: Unintelligible pronunciations of the word without by the students in the preliminary study.

As it is obvious from the example above, most of the students have replaced the /ð/ sound with the /d/ sound which is encoded as d consonant in written discourses. It is because the consonant d is pronounced with a near place of articulation to the voiced th. However, there were at least three students who could pronounce the word without correctly as it is supposed to be; yet it does not make a great difference because those successful respondents have failed to pronounce other words correctly. Besides, according to the analysis results of the first recording, some students presented correct pronunciation of certain words too. Nevertheless, it had no such a big power to prevent the research from proceeding to initiate immediate possible treatment on the students’ pronunciation dealing with the problem due to the huge pronunciation issue that showed up in the graph of overall results above. The graph shows that the sample words, such as the, then, there, and another were pronounced totally incorrectly by all 25 subjects. The only word that was pronounced correctly by at least four students was think as it is described in the chart.

In conclusion, there were all 25 subjects present during the first recording.The outcomes seem to be clear and support the researcher’s initial assumption. Students’ real problems with the “th” consonants were finally discovered. Thus, following the results, remedial lessons got a start at the next meeting according to the plan. The results from the second and third recordings can be found in the 3rd chapter of the paper.

 

The Cycle

The cycle consisted of four consequent stages: planning the action, implementing the action, observing the action, and reflecting the action. The detailed description of each stage is listed below.

 

Planning the Action

In this stage, the researcher prepared the procedure of using pronunciation drills to improve and correct the subjects’ production of “th” sounds. He prepared the relevant lesson plans to explain how the pronunciation drills can be implemented in teaching pronunciation and achieving the students’ success in producing the correct pronunciation. Furthermore, the researcher set the criterion of success as the guidance of the research’s success. The research instruments were also prepared along with lesson materials (activities, handouts, etc.) and multimedia (LCD projector, laptop, speaking dictionary, active speaker).

 

Success Criterion

In conducting the research, the criterion of success was crucially important in order to know whether the action was successful or not. Related to the study, the criterion was utilized to see whether the implementation of drilling technique in teaching pronunciation was successful or failed. The students underwent three recordings based on a short text which included 12 words with “th” consonants:

The students think it is possible to pass an exam without getting prepared. They think there is another way to succeed. There is something called “cheating paper” to help them. What if what they thought does not happen through the exam? Then nothing can help them.

The assessment of “th” sounds focused on whether the sounds were pronounced correctly and if not which consonants were used instead of them, the correctly pronounced consonants were ticked in the tables and if the consonants were pronounced incorrectly, a consonant used instead of them was noted down. The overall results are shown in graphs for each recording. In this case, the students’ success was determined according to the following criterion: Each student is able to correctly pronounce at least 10 of those words in the text at the time of final recording.

 

Research Instruments

The focal instrument to conduct the study was the researcher himself. However, a short text including 12 words each having “th” consonants (/ð/, /θ/ sounds) was prepared by the researcher in order to find out and solve the problem, respectively. The recordings were accomplished on an “iPhone 5” device in three subsequent steps: 1st recording during the preliminary study, the 2nd during the remedial lessons, and the last 3rd recoding after the remedial lessons were over. All those three steps of recordings are compiled on a CD. Additionally, there occurred unstructured interviews between recording events. They involved the researcher wanting to know or find out more about their comprehension and producing the correct pronunciation of those sounds without there being a structure or a preconceived plan or expectation as to how they will deal with that procedure.

 

Implementing the Action

The implementation of the action was based on the lesson plans and it took four weeks for the remedial lessons and recordings to be accomplished. The schedule of the lessons as well as the recordings can be found in the appendices section of this paper. The researcher himself was the teacher to deliver the remedial lessons through various pronunciation activities such as exercising drills, minimal pair discrimination, tongue-twisters, reading texts on the subjects. After each two remedial lessons there were held recording events to find out whether they perceived the input provided by the teacher-practitioner. The researcher had prepared a short text having 12 words with “th” consonants to be read aloud by the students individually. Their readings were then recorder for further analysis. The short text including the conditions remained the same for further recordings also.

The three pronunciation activities were chosen because of the practice in hearing and saying the “th” consonants, moreover, the words containing “th” consonants are pronounced in two ways and the spelling of “th” does not overlap with pronunciation. During the activities the researcher tried to follow the steps, which are needed when introducing new sounds, proposed by Doff (qtd. in Dalton and Seidlhofer 1994). The necessary steps to follow when students are introduced to new sounds are shown in Table 3 below.

 

Table 3: Steps taken when introducing new sounds to students according to Doff (qtd. in Dalton and Seidlhofer 1994).

1.Say the sound alone.
2. Say the sound in a word.
3. Contrast it with other sounds.
4. Write the word on a board.
5. Explain how to make the sound.
6. Get students to repeat the sound in chorus.
7. Get individual students to repeat the sound.

 

Kenworthy (1990) adds that when introducing new sounds students need to hear them together with familiar sounds occurring in their mother tongue.

First, the introductory lesson was only about how to produce the sounds and what happens with our vocal tract during the production. The objectives of the lesson were to explain the basic features of pronunciation and create a friendly and supportive atmosphere in the class. Second, the minimal pair practice activities focused on demonstrating the contrast between the target consonants /θ/ and /ð/ and other consonants with a near place of articulation. These activities helped the students to realize how different the sounds are and therefore, comprehensible pronunciation is needed. Third, tongue twisters were selected because they present the difference between the /θ/ and /ð/ consonants and other sounds; and moreover, they represent activities that are funny and enjoyable for the students. Finally, the usage of the reading texts moved the students beyond repetition and drills as they had to think about the text properly, practice how to say each word and get encouraged to work on their intelligibility.

  1. Observing the Action

Observing the action was intended to obtain the data as the result of the stage of implementing the actions. Observing was chiefly the process of recording and gathering data about any aspects or events which were occurring during the implementation. Generally speaking, the students’ pronunciation of [th] /ð, θ/ sounds based on a short text were recorded after each two remedial lessons.

In collecting the data related to the students’ attendance during the teaching and learning process the attendance record checklist was used. The checklist was later given to the home teacher who preferred to know if her students were all present through the research period. Later, the home teacher asked the researcher’s opinion about her class: how active and interested the students were, what improvement they made, what shortcomings the researcher experienced during the study, and so forth. The sample conversation in the format of Whatsapp chat can be found in the documentation section of this paper.

  1. Reflecting the Action

In this step, all the relevant data from the implementation was analyzed and reviewed to examine if the action was successful or not by matching the observation results with the success criterion. In other words, reflection was intended to see what had been done and what had not been done within the action. In reflecting, data analysis was carried out. The data obtained from the recordings between each two remedial lessons was analyzed. Further explanations on the assessment of the recordings can be seen below.

  1. Assessing the Recordings

Assessing the recordings was a crucial part of the thesis, but it was not an easy task to be done as Celce-Murcia et al (1996) state that in the existing literature on teaching pronunciation, little attention is paid to issues of testing and evaluation. Likewise, in this study the assessment of “th” sounds were assessed by the researcher himself on whether the sounds were pronounced correctly or not. If one of the sounds, either the voiced “th” or the voiceless one were confusedly pronounced using a different similar or dissimilar sounds instead, such as [d], [t], [f], [s], [z], they were immediately noted down in the individual tables. However, the correctly pronounced consonants were shown in ticks (ü). The success percentage of each 12 words included in the short text were shown in interactive graphs.It is important to mention that the researcher used speaking dictionaries, such as Encarta and Longman in assessing the recordings.

 

FINDINGS

Taking the results from the preliminary study into account, the researcher began to take actions based on the lesson plans prepared. The research was conducted during the academic year 2014 while the subjects – 25 combined speaking class attendants coming from four different classes at the English department, G, GG, H, and J classes were in their 4th semester. The remedial lessons were delivered in four meetings for four weeks; specifically, the lessons took place on March 6, 12, 18, and 24, 2014. The recording sessions took place after each two meetings: on March 17 and March 27, 2014.

After a couple of remedial lessons (March 6 and March 12, 2014) devoted to the practice of /θ/and /ð/ consonants were delivered to the subjects, they were recorded again for the second time (March 17, 2014) to see whether the activities applied through the two previous lessons were already showing their efficiency on the subjects. The students were provided with exactly the same text which was used in the preliminary study. Similarly, the conditions also remained the same as they were during the first recording that is reading the short text aloud to get their speeches recorded.

According to the consequent steps that were supposed to be taken through the research procedure, the next action in the plan was continuing delivering the remedial lessons consisting of various pronunciation activities dealing with /θ/and /ð/ sounds practice as shown in the lesson plans. After two active and encouraging lessons (March 18 and March 24, 2014), the students underwent the last recording session on March 27, 2014. The text,conditions and the process of recording remained completely the same as they were during the previous two recordings.

The assessment of the recordings during the observation process are thoroughly described on the following section.

 

  1. Second Recording

During the period between the first and second recording the students got familiar with “th” consonant production and were exposed to several activities that were devoted to pronunciation practise of “th” sounds.

First, they students were explained how “th” consonants are produced. Then they were provided with opportunities to practice their production. The aims of the activity were to raise students’ awareness about the ways the consonants are produced and to focus their attention to their production.

Second, students were working with minimal pair practice activities.These activities helped them with discrimination of “th” sounds from other consonants with a near place of articulation. The objectives of these exercises were to assist students with realization of the differences in pronunciation of “th” consonants and other consonants, to raise their awareness of “th” sounds production and to provide them with opportunities to practice the sounds. Moreover, both activities demonstrated how intelligibility is important during communication process.

On March 17, 2014 the students were recorded again. At this stage the researcher wanted to find out whether they still had problems with pronunciation of “th”consonants or whether their pronunciation improved and if yes which “th”sounds were pronounced correctly, whether those that occur in the initial,middle or final position.

Like the results from the first recording, the results of the second recording of each student were also transformed into tables. The tables offer an opportunity to compare how the pronunciation of individual “th” sounds changed. Tables can be found in the appendices. The overall findings are presented in a graph demonstrating the percentage rate of correct answers.

 

Figure 2: Second recording results.

The graph above shows that the students showed significant results during the second recording unlike the first recording results. It means that two remedial lessons during the period between the first and second recordings were advantageous for the students. The words think, nothing, they, something, through, without, them, and thought were pronounced correctly by most of the students during the second recording. However, the words like the, then, there, and another were incorrectly pronounced by the majority of the subjects. This means the students were still experiencing difficulty with the pronunciation of the voiced “th” because most of them did well in pronouncing the voiceless one as it is also clear from the graph above. In this part, students’ pronunciation based on the comparison of the two recordings will be analyzed.

 

Student 1, 8, 12, 18:

These students showed better results compared with other respondents during the first recording. Like any other respondent in the second recording, most of them did well in pronouncing voiceless “th” consonant. Taking the results from the table we can say that their pronunciation was improved significantly till the time of second recording.

 

Student 2, 4, 21, 22, 24:

These are the students who could pronounce at least one word correctly in the first recording. Nontheless, based on the results from the table we can say that their pronunciation showed noteworthy improvement during the second recording. It can be seen on the individual tables in the appendices.

 

Student 3, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 11, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 19, 20, 23, 25:

These students produced the most problematic “th” sounds pronunciation during the first recording. However, the results of the second recording show that their awareness of the sounds has significantly improved. Most of them could correctly pronounce the words with voiceless “th” consonant. Though their results are getting improved, they still need to be aware of the voiced “th” consonant pronunciation as most of them are still experiencing difficulties.

To conclude, the analysis of the first and second recording, in terms of improvement of “th” sounds pronunciation, demonstrates that pronunciation of the voiceless “th” consonant is easier for the students than pronunciation of the voiced one. The students were able to improve their pronunciation of the consonant mainly in the initial and middle positions, but on the other hand pronunciation of the word another was not improved at all. There was only one student, namely student 2 (AN) who pronounced the word correctly. There were some students who changed the certain sounds to other sounds pronounced with a near place of articulation during the second recording. Nevertheless, as far as the voiced “th” sounds is concerned, pronunciation was slightly improved as well, mainly in the initial position.

  1. Third recording

The period between the second and third recording was filled up with activities aimed at further correction of “th” consonants.

The first set of activities was devoted to tongue twisters. The objectives of using the tongue twisters were to provide the students with funny and enjoyable drilling exercises in order to practice pronunciation of the target sounds.

The second set was aimed at oral reading text. During these activities the students were exposed to two reading texts containing not only “th”consonants but also consonants with a near place of articulation. The main focus was paid to sustaining correct pronunciation and to demonstrate howunintelligible pronunciation can change the meaning of the texts.

On March 27, 2014 the students underwent the last recording.The findings of the third recording are stated in tables that were created foreach student and the final finding are noted in a graph demonstrating the percentage of correct answers.

Figure 3: Third recording results.

From the graph showing the students’ final results above, it can be concluded that the students were able to improve their pronunciation of both voiced and voiceless “th” consonants in no more than one cycle. The highest improvements were noted in both initial, middle positions. However, there still were some students, such as student 3 (PAR), student 16 (SF), student 17 (BYP), student 20 (ZP), student 22 (MHRH), and 23 (MRF) who could successfully meet the success criterion set by the researcher at the beginning of the research but presented at least one or two unintelligible pronunciation of certain words. Those are noted down in the corresponding tables respectively.Except for the student 17 (BYP) who unintelligibly pronounced the word through in the final recording, every student pronounced the voiceless “th” consonant i.e. /θ/ properly in all positions.On the other hand, the above mentioned students who provided at least one or two mispronunciation of “th” consonants in the 3rd recording experienced complexity with the voiced “th” consonant i.e. /ð/ in all three positions. They are shown in the corresponding individual tables above. The words which were not pronounced intelligibly are the, they, then, there, them, and another. Those five students were stuck to substituting the /ð/ sound with /d/ in most cases. Nevertheless, due to the fact that they made at least one mistake and managed to successfully meet the success criterion, it was not regarded as a considerable issue to proceed to the next cycle.Generally speaking, as far as the two voiced and voiceless “th” consonants: /θ/ and /ð/ are concerned, the results show that a major progress was made during a single cycle since the students were exposed to a wide range of pronunciation drilling activities through the remedial classes. It is important to mention that the remedial classes which occurred between the recordings were conducted in rather prolonged hours because the students showed a great enthusiasm toward the pronunciation practice activities and all of them had some sort of passion to improve their pronunciation of “th” consonants which are normally regarded as the most problematic English sounds for a non-native speaker. Therefore, the researcher had to expand the pre-planned lesson plans adding more similar pronunciation drilling activities which are not necessarily mentioned in the original lesson plans in order to equip the students with more skills of the intelligible practice of the problematic /θ/ and /ð/ sounds through using pronunciation drills, such as minimal pair discrimination, tongu-twisters, and reading texts respectively.

 

DISCUSSION

The discussion deals with the discussion of the findings presented in the previous chapter, principally the importance of pronunciation intelligibility for the EFL learners as well as the crucial role of pronunciation drills in attaining intelligibility. The discussion covers the procedures of the remedial lessons conducted during the research as well as their effectiveness on the subjects in relation to the existing theoretical and empirical evidence.

 

  1. English Pronunciation and the Target of Comfortable Intelligibility

As presented in the previous chapters, it was found out that almost all of the subjects have a problem when it comes to intelligible pronunciation of certain English sounds, particularly the two /θ/ and /ð/ sounds which majority of EFL learners consider to be one of the most problematic English sounds to produce. Hence, the researcher decided to give a treatment to the subjects’ unintelligible pronunciation of “th” consonants through conducting several remedial lessons applying pronunciation drilling technique in order to support them to achieve more intelligible production of /θ/ and /ð/ sounds of English. Let’s start the discussion with some theoretical support on comfortable intelligibility in pronunciation.

Morley (1991) states that the goal of pronunciation should be changed from the achievement of perfect pronunciation to the more realistic goals of developing functional intelligibility, communicability, increased self-confidence, the development of speech monitoring abilities and speech modification strategies for use beyond the classroom. Abercrombie (1991) describes comfortable intelligibility as pronunciation which can be understood with little or no conscious effort on the part of listener. Morley (1991) also states that the overall aim is for the learner to develop spoken English that is easy to understand, serves the learner’s individual needs, and allows a positive image as a speaker of a foreign language. Additionally, the learner needs to develop awareness and monitoring skills that will allow learning opportunities outside the classroom environment. Obviously, creating a stronger connection between pronunciation and communication can help enhance learners’ motivation by bringing pronunciation to a level of intelligibility and encouraging learners’ awareness of its potential as a tool for making their language not only easier to understand but more effective (Jones, 2002).

Pronunciation is clearly a central factor in learners’ success in making themselves understood (Elson, 1992). Morley(1991) also states that intelligible pronunciation is an essential component of communication competence that teachers should include in courses and expect learners to do well. The ability to employ stress,intonation, and articulation in ways that support comprehension is a skill that for learners from many language backgrounds will only come slowly. Elson (1992) urges that learners need to be encouraged to immerse themselves in the target language and to persist in spite of the difficulties that are part of the language-learning process. The experience of unintelligibility or incomprehension grows larger because of sensitivity to ‘correctness’ or the need to communicate successfully in the target language. The speaker’s self image and sense of accomplishment is closely bound to understanding and being understood. The result can be a high degree of frustration for the speaker or listener who might see each moment of incomprehension as a personal fault and responsibility. Klyhn (1986) observes that learners should be made aware that every message they utter needs to be understood.

  1. Individual Sounds Teaching and Its Application in the First Remedial Lesson

In terms of teaching individual sounds, most significant techniques suggested are minimal pairs, drilling, taping students’ speech to compare with each other as well as with a fixed model, choral pronunciation, lip-reading, classifying words according to their consonant, varying their criterion of “good” in pronunciation teaching(Kelly, 2003; Hewings, 2004; Lewis & Hill, 1992). Similarly, in the present study, the researcher has applied almost all of the above-mentioned techniques as key strategies to collect data as well as a means of improving the subjects’ pronunciation enabling them to achieve more intelligible English pronunciation.

As a compilation from materials of different sources, To et al. (2006) suggested a number of techniques of teaching sounds which are minimal pairs, and pronunciation games employing phonemic alphabet. Those ones have been suggested in view of Communicative Teaching approach. Vu (2008) proved that (1) Eliciting and Telling, (2) Minimal pairs, (3) Phonemic chart, (4) Exposure to English language are four really effective techniques to correct students’ mispronunciation. Those techniques are time-saving, therefore, suit well with the time limitation in class when pronunciation is integrated in speaking lessons.

During the first remedial lesson, the teaching method focused the students’ attention to the production of “th” consonant sounds. The main goals of the activities were to provide learners with an opportunity to practice the sounds in isolation, help them to fix the pronunciation and gain a control over the production. Moreover, students were given an opportunity to practice pronunciation of the problematic sounds. Since the activities were playful and entertaining students were actively involved from the very beginning and moreover, these activities helped them breakdown the initial fear of pronunciation. The only problem some students experienced was occasional substitution of /ð/ and /θ/ with /s/, /z/, /t/ or /d/. In this case the researcher followed the tip with the chewing gum suggested by Kenworthy (1990). The researcher told the students to position the gum on the roof of the mouth immediately behind the upper front teeth; for s/, /z/, /t/ and /d/ the tip of the tongue has to touch the gum; for “th” they must avoid it (Kenworthy, 1990). The researcher found her idea with a chewing gum extremely helpful as it offers an aid suitable for acquiring the postures needed for pronunciation of /ð/ and /θ/. After the introductory lesson the students felt more relaxed and familiar with the form and production of the sounds. Later, the second class concentrated on minimal pair discrimination.

 

  1. Minimal Pair Discrimination and Its Application in the Second Lesson

 

Minimal pairs have been defined in several ways.

(1)   Minimal pairs are “pairs of words that differ in meaning on the basis of a change in only one sound” (Avery & Ehrlich, 1995).

(2)   “A first rule of thumb to determine the phones of any language is to see whether substituting one sound for other results in a different word. If it does, the two sounds represent different phones. When two different forms are identical in every way except for one sound segment that occurs in the same place in the string, the two words are called a minimal pairs” (Fromkin & Rodman, 1993).

(3)   “A minimal pair consists of two words pronounced alike except for a single phonemic difference. A phoneme is the smallest unit of significantly distinctive sound. The phonemic difference is responsible for radical changes in the meaning of the word, as in hat-hit or thing-sing. Consequently, errors in auditory discrimination and/or articulation of these sounds may result in misunderstanding and misinterpretations of the meaning of the word, phrase or sentence”(Nilsen & Nilsen, 1973).

When properly employed, minimal pairs effectively facilitate pronunciation acquisition. The good cases in point are lessons and exercises designed by Baker (2006)in the two textbooks entitled Tree or Three and Sheep or Ship;and by Baker & Goldstein (2008) in the textbook entitled Pronunciation Pairs. These two authors share and illustrate the view that “language teachers can improve their students’ pronunciation markedly drilling minimal pairs in order to help them improve their intelligibility” (Hansen, 1995). When learners compare and contrast discrete sounds in the environment presented in minimal pairs, the importance of these sounds in denoting word meaning is transferred to their mind naturally.Experience shows that “pronunciation classes… make students more conscious of their own pronunciation and aware of ways in which their pronunciation differs from the model offered” (Rajadurai, 2001).

The teaching sequences applied through the remedial lessons were examples of pronunciation drilling activities. Moreover, in the second lesson, they were used to raise learners’ awareness of pronunciation and discrimination of /θ/ and /ð/ and the consonants with a near place of articulation. During the second stage students revised the problematic consonants /θ/ and /ð/ in order to establish accurate pronunciation and focus on them. The researcher prepared an interesting musical activity which enabled the students to practice the minimal pairs discrimination in a fun way. However, there were choir repeating and other similar tasks, additionally. The third stage served for realizing the difference between /θ/, /ð/ and consonants with a near place of articulation. The expected outcome was that the students would not have any major problems during any stage; although the last step was more complex they would not face up any difficulties and were able to distinguish the words correctly. The goals of those activities were to provide students with as much practice as possible in order to help them improve their pronunciation and show them how intelligibility is important during communication because mispronunciation of “th” sounds can lead into misunderstanding between a speaker and a listener. However, majority of the students were still having problems dealing with the pronunciation of the “th” sounds, particularly with the voiced “th” in most cases. Hence, the remedial lessons were kept undertaken further in order to achieve the expected result.

Actually, minimal pairs are a more serious problem than simple poor pronunciation or listening skills on the part of a student. This is because mistakes with minimal pairs do not simply impair understanding; they can lead students to believe that they understand when in fact they are quite mistaken. These kinds of mistakes can hamper their conversation skills in the obvious way that they are difficult to understand, but it can also affect their confidence and thus their inclination to even try to communicate in the first place.

The problem with helping students with minimal pairs is that it is not as simple as teaching a rule and then reinforcing it with an exercise and/or homework. This simply does not provide enough practice to enable to students to learn and become competent with new phonetics. Though minimal pairs are addressed by many language learning texts, they generally do so in a brief, one time activity or some simple repetition. Though this is better than nothing, this does little to aid students in gaining any lasting improvement in either listening or pronunciation. Minimal pairs need to be seen as a problem to be dealt with over a longer period.

 

  1. Tongue Twisters and Texts: Their Application in the 3rd and 4th Lessons

During the third meeting on March 18, 2014 the subjects were exposed to tongue twisters practice. Tongue twisters concentrated on accurate production and helped the students to improve their pronunciation skills. This step gave the students an opportunity to hear the sentences over and over so that they could fix the correct pronunciation of “th” consonants. As far as the last step concerned, students had to focus on faultless pronunciation. Since the texts did not only contain “th” consonants but also consonants with a near place of articulation and therefore the meaning of them would be changed completely. The objective of the tongue twisters was to help the students realize how important accurate pronunciation is through enjoyable activities. The results taken from the second recording showed that the students presented better results in contrast to the previous recording results. Nevertheless, there was one more step to go according to the lessons planned. Thus, the researcher went on conducting the remedial lessons further.

Tongue twisters are one of the few types of spoken wordplay that are fun to recite and are a great tool to aid learner’s language development.Attempting to recite a tricky rhyme or tongue twister as fast as possible without tripping over one’s tongue is a great challenge. For example, if one tries to recite this tongue twister “The thirty-three thieves thought that they thrilled the throne throughout Thursday a sample tricky one used in the remedial lesson and he/she can’t help but smile and enjoy the race to get it right. So did the subjects when they were exposed to similar activities. The tongue twisters used in the remedial lesson usually relied on alliteration – the repetition of a sound starting with a similar letter – with a phrase designed such that it is made very easy to slip (hence the fun).Tongue twisters are not only a linguistic fun and game but serve a practical purpose for language and speech development. For example, tongue twisters may be used by foreign students of English to improve their accent and speech pathologists often use them as a tool to help those with speech difficulties.

Brook suggests the following advantageous applications of tongue twisters to improve one’s pronunciation proficiency:

(1)   to target articulation, select tongue twisters featuring phonemes that are particularly difficult for your learners, for example if they have trouble making the hard ‘t’ sound, practice tongue twisters that use that particular alliteration.

(2)   to bolster confidence, select tongue twisters featuring phonemes your learners are particularly good at. To really make them laugh, the teacher can recite tongue twisters with phonemes they are bad at.

(3)   to make a game of it, print out a bunch of tongue twisters, cut them into individual strips, put the strips in a basket, have each player draw one, and award points based on how few repetitions are needed to master it.

(4)   to work on speed, add a stopwatch to the game and make the player who can recite the twister correctly in the shortest time the winner of each round.

(5)   to motivate your learners, use tongue twisters as “Get Out of Time-Out Free” cards; if your learners can recite one correctly, they are sprung.

Likewise, similar techniques were actively involved in the third remedial lesson. It was obvious that the students had fun with the tongue twisters provided. The classroom was full of laughter and shouts as the students were trying to get the tongue twisters right. Finally, after individual and choir practices along with the recorded samples, they could get the tricky tongue twisters right in their pronunciations. Later, in order to make sure that the students would come up with better results, the researcher applied reading texts in the last meeting on March 24, 2014. The students were once again aware of the both voiced and voiceless “th” consonants seeing their differences with the words which are pronounced with a near articulation in oral speech. The reading text activity was rather complex and therefore the researcher decided to use it as the last activity before the final recording. The reading text gave the students the opportunity to work on their pronunciation as a whole because the texts did not only contain the target “th” sounds but also other consonants with a near place of articulation and therefore mispronunciation of /θ/ and /ð/ would make them unintelligible. At this stage it was extremely important to provide the students with an appropriate and constructive feedback. Since as stated earlier, students were not able to assess their pronunciation. The inability to assess their pronunciation could lead to wrong assumptions about their pronunciation. Those wrong assumptions could make their speech unintelligible for a listener. The main aims of the activity were to revise pronunciation of the target “th” consonants and get used to their production.

All the pronunciation drilling activities applied through the remedial lessons finally proved their efficiency in at least one cycle without the necessity for proceeding to the next cycle. In the preliminary study, the subjetcs’ pronunciation of the two voiced and voiceless “th” consonants lacked intelligibility; however, after they had been exposed to interactive and interesting drilling activities, they have achieved better results and could meet the success criterion set by the researcher. The students were enthusiastic showing an exceptional interest and encouragement toward improving their pronunciation with the researcher and they did their utmost to attain intelligibility in their speeches. It is important to mention that the student 5 had the most unintelligible pronunciation of the both “th” sounds since the beginning of the study. Nevertheless, she came up with the best result by the final recording.

 

CONCLUSION

The final thesis has chiefly dealt with the improvement and correction of “th”consonants pronunciation that contribute to the intelligibility of non-native students of English, distinctively, the somphomores of the speaking class at the department of English, State University of Malang.

In the theoretical part, namely in the 1st chapter features of pronunciation and the potentially problematic sounds for the Indonesian learners of English were outlined in general. In this part, the researcher also inquires about the reasons for teaching pronunciation and how intelligibility of learners is important in everyday communication. Furthermore,since pronunciation teaching is still being neglected and for some reasons it is normally pushed to the margins of the language teaching, teachers’ and students’ rolesare also presented in the theoretical part. Moreover, the part presents factors that influence pronunciation acquisition. Lastly, attention was paid to the intelligible production of “th” consonants and characteristic features of them were thoroughly outlined.

In the practical part, however,the researcher aimed to present the actual research on improving and correcting the sophomores’ pronunciation of “th” sounds. In order to prove that the initial assumptions and the research questions were correct the researcher asked all the 25 subjects to undergo three recordings. The first recording proved the initial assumptions to be right since the students were not able to pronounce “th” consonants correctly.

On the basis of the finding from the first recording in the preliminary study, the researcher framed various pronunciation activities aimed at “th” consonants practice. During the pronunciation activities the students were introduced to the production of “th”consonants and exposed to pronunciation practice of them through the application of pronunciation drills. Then the students were recorded again to enable the researcher to compare the first and second recordings together. At this stage of the research the researcher focused on how “th”consonants were pronounced and if they were mispronounced which consonants were used instead. After the second recording, the students worked on other pronunciation practice activities and then they were recorded for the last time. Subsequently, the researcher compared all three recordings together in order to answer the research questions. On the basis of the results from the analysis of the recordings,the initial assumption was proved wrong; on the other hand, the research questions whether the sophomore undergraduates of the English department, State University of Malang were able to improve their pronunciation of /θ/ and /ð/ consonants and if those sophomores of the English department, State University of Malang achieve faultless pronunciation of /θ/ and /ð/consonants were in fact proved right. Since the students’ pronunciation of the both /θ/ and /ð/ was successfully corrected, the researcher decided to draw a conclusion within one cycle only.

Nevertheless, the findings from the research demonstrate that factors influencing pronunciation acquisition, such as age of the students or the mother tongue do play an important role in pronunciation learning process.On the other hand, systematic and continual work on pronunciation can help learners to become more intelligible.

To conclude, assessing the students’ pronunciation turned to be the most complicated and demanding part of the research since the researcher found it to be very difficult to set which sounds can still be considered as correct and which cannot. However, in this case, the researcher addressed the trusted speaking dictionaries in order to make the evaluation substantially fair.

 

SUGGESTIONS

Having the present opportunity, the researcher would like to address the English teachers, students, as well as the schools in Indonesia with certain suggestions which could be drawn from the current research. The preliminary study results of the present research gave the researcher less positive impressions. Although the University students majoring in English were in their 4th semester of study their pronunciation intelligibility was still under the common standards.

According to a number of scholarly sources that are mostly introduced in the theoretical part, pronunciation intelligibility of a non-native speaker of English is crucially important in making comprehensible communications. Since pronunciation is a complex and important part of learning and teaching process teachers need to set goals and aims they want to achieve with their students. As perfect accents are difficult if not impossible to achieve in foreign language(Ur, 1984) the goal of teachers should be making their students be easily understandable when communicating with other people. The speaking class teachers would better pay more attention to the practice of individual English sounds with which most of their students seem like experiencing difficulty in pronunciation. Even though several linguists argue that the pronunciation drilling techniques are rather old-fashioned method of teaching pronunciation, based on the results of the present study, however, the researcher believes that this technique is at least useful in teaching individual sounds. Therefore, the speaking class teachers have to apply more pronunciation drilling activities in order enable their students achieve an intelligible English pronunciation. The language teachers have to improve their own pronunciations first as their students see them as models from whom they learn correct pronunciation.

Likewise, the students are also suggested to be more aware of their speech intelligibility in the English language. Once they are aware, they would be willing to exercise more and gradually improve their pronunciation through constant practicing the difficult sounds like “th” consonants which were the focal issue of the present research. Additionally, the students need to be aware of their academic and social future considering English to be an international language. Once they have rather intelligible command of English, they would stand out among their fellow workers and achieve more than anyone with unintelligible speech in the English language. In order to achieve this, they need to be exposed to regular pronunciation practice at schools.

Lastly but most importantly, the schools as well as their curricula are equally responsible factors which can greatly contribute to the spoken English language intelligibility level of their students. The Indonesian schools have to include more speaking classes in their curricula in order to enable the students to achieve more intelligible English pronunciation at an early age when they are still more motivated and encouraged to learn and discover. Additionally, more similar researches need to be undertaken on the English pronunciation and its intelligibility issues in the Indonesian context and contribute to the development of teaching and learning process of the English language in the country. The future researchers are suggested to feel free to make use of the present research findings and investigate more and deeper in the similar fields.

 

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STRATEGI BELAJAR TEKNIK MNEMO DALAM PEMBELAJARAN BAHASA JERMAN

Sri Prameswari Indriwardhani, M.Pd.
(Jurusan Sastra Jerman Universitas Negeri Malang)

 

Abstract: One of the communicative languange competences is called strategic competence. Language learning strategies explain how a language can be learned and how mental concepts can be created to reach a certain language competence. Mnemotechniques are part of cognitive learning strategies. They enable the student to systematically store new vocabulary in his or her brain which can be accessed easily at any time. Mnemotechniques consist of, a)mnemonic rhymes, acronyms, b) storytelling technique, c) visualization.

Key Words: learning strategies, mnemotechniques

 

Menurut Brown (2000:7), belajar dan mengajar saling berhubungan karena belajar adalah mendapatkan atau memperoleh suatu pengetahuan dari suatu bahan atau keterampilan melalui pengalaman dan instruksi. Belajar merupakan perubahan tingkah laku yang relatif permanen sebagai hasil dari latihan yang matang. „ Learning is relatively permanent change in a behavioral tendency and is the result of reinforced practice“. Mengajar adalah menunjukkan atau membantu seseorang untuk belajar bagaimana mengerjakan sesuatu, memberikan instruksi-instruksi dan membimbing dalam belajar sesuatu. Mengajar merupakan pembimbingan dan menfasilitasi belajar, dan menyediakan kondisi yang kondusif untuk belajar.

Pembelajaran bahasa khususnya bahasa asing sekarang ini berdasarkan pada metode komunikatif. Metode ini mengembangkan beberapa kompetensi. Menurut Bachman dalam Brown (2000:248-249), dalam Communicative Language Competence dan Bimmel (2000:39), kompetensi komunikatif meliputi kompetensi linguistik dan kompetensi strategi. Kompetensi linguistik meliputi kompetensi tatabahasa, yang di dalamnya terdapat kosakata, morfologi, sintak, fonologi, kompetensi memahami teks, kompetensi pragmatik, dan sosiokultural. Kompetensi Strategi meliputi kompetensi menggunakan bahasa (strategi komunikasi) dan kompetensi menggunakan strategi belajar.

Menurut Neuner (1991:76), mengajarkan strategi belajar dalam pembelajaran bahasa sangatlah penting, karena dengan mengajarkan strategi belajar maka pembelajar dalam belajar bahasa akan menjadi lebih mandiri. Salah satu strategi belajar bahasa adalah dengan strategi belajar teknik Mnemo.

Mnemoteknik merupakan salah satu strategi belajar kognitif. Strategi belajar kognitif adalah menghubungkan apa yang sudah ketahui dengan konsep atau gagasan-gagasan baru, sehingga konsep atau gagasan itu mempunyai tambatan dalam ingatan sehingga tidak akan mudah untuk dilupakan. Ada dua proses yang sangat menentukan dalam otak yaitu: asosiasi dan penyortiran. Kata-kata dalam ingatan merupakan simbol-simbol yang mempunyai elemen-elemen yang saling berhubungan. Elemen-elemen itu bersifat semantis, morfologis, sintaktis, fonetis dan afektif. Jika semua elemen itu dihubungkan maka kata-kata itu akan tersimpan dengan baik dan dapat dengan mudah diingat. Penyortiran adalah proses pemilahan kata-kata dalam pikiran (Bohn, 2000: 82-84).

Teknik ini sudah ada sejak zaman dulu, akan tetapi bisa dikatakan bahwa penemunya adalah penyair Yunani Simonides, yang hidup pada tahun 556 – 468 sebelum Kristus lahir. Dalam suatu peristiwa pembantaian pada acara pesta makan malam di Thessalien, dia adalah satu-satunya orang yang selamat dalam pembantaian itu karena dia meninggalkan acara jamuan itu lebih awal dan dia dapat menceritakan secara detail korban pembantaian itu berdasarkan tempat duduknya. Teknik ini dinamakan Loci (tempat). Hal ini merupakan dasar dari teknik Mnemo (Sperber, 1989: 16-17)

Pada awal abad ke 16 sampai abad ke 17 sejalan dengan adanya zaman Reformasi dalam gereja, teknik ini digunakan untuk menghafalkan isi bibel dan pada zaman itu sudah ada Professor Mnemoteknik yang berkeliling untuk menyebarkan ilmunya dan karya-karyanya sudah dipublikasikan. Teknik Mnemo yang terkenal waktu itu adalah Kennworter yaitu pada setiap huruf mengandung kata tertentu, salah contoh dalam bahasa Indonesia adalah untuk mengingat warna pelangi dengan singkatan mejingkuhibiniu (merah, jingga, kuning, biru, nila, ungu).

Pada awal abad ke 20 dan abad 20 sudah banyak peneliti yang menghubungkan teknik ini dengan psikologi belajar dan efektifitas belajar. Menurut Levin dalam Sperber psikologi dalam belajar ialah Recoding, relating dan retrieving. Teknik Mnemo menghubungkan kata-kata yang akan dipelajari dengan pengetahuan sebelumnya (relating) melalui proses recoding.  Retrieving atau pengingatan kembali merupakan hasil dari kedua proses tersebut (Sperber,1989:22-29). Pada 20 tahun terakhir ini faktor-faktor dalam belajar seperti kenyataan (Konkretheit), kegairahan (Lebhaftigkeit), keanehan (Bizarrheit), emosi (Emotion), warna (Farbe) yang mempunyai pengaruh dalam belajar. Dalam Mnemoteknik faktor-faktor ini mendukung ingatan visual. Dalam mengingat suatu kata ada dua proses yaitu proses mengingat secara visual dan verbal. Proses ini akan saling menguntungkan apabila informasi itu diberikan secara gambar dan akustik motorik secara bersama-sama, sehingga apa yang telah diingat tidak akan mudah dilupakan. (Sperber,1989:83-84).

Menurut Brown (2000: 119) dan Pohl dalam www.pohl.de/lernen/index, fungsi otak bagian kanan adalah menyimpan informasi secara visual baik gerak tubuh dan gambar, intuisi, perasaan, kreatif dan spontan, suka akan musik dan seni, tergantung pada ruang/tempat dan menyimpan informasi secara global dan garis besar. Sedangkan fungsi otak kiri adalah menyimpan informasi secara verbal, matematis, rasional/logik, teratur, analisis dan sangat detail, tahap demi tahap dan tergantung pada waktu.

Pembahasan

Teknik Mnemo dalam Pembelajaran Bahasa Jerman

Syarat dari penerapan teknik Mnemo agar efektif menurut Mjima dalam www.mjima.de/mnemotechnik adalah dengan terlebih dahulu mengaktifkan minat pembelajar, menggunakan semua panca indera dan perasan pembelajar dan informasi yang akan diberikan sedapat mungkin secara visual. Menurut Sperber (1989: 10-16) dan Bohn (2000:95-100) yang termasuk strategi belajar teknik Mnemo adalah:

  1. Eselsbrücken/Merkverse und Akronym (titian ingatan dan akronim). Yang terpenting dalam titian ingatan ini adalah adanya kombinasi keseragaman rima dengan visual, motorik dan ritmik, sehingga informasi yang dipelajari akan tersimpan dengan baik. Contoh: untuk mengingat preposisi dalam bahasa Jerman bisa dengan menyanyikannya, aus,bei,mit,nach,seit,von,zu,seit,von zu alle haben Dativ (melodi lagu ini seperti lagu Brother John dalam bahasa Inggris).

Huruf awal sebuah kata dapat dijadikan sebagai titian ingatan. Akronim ini sangat individualis tergantung pembelajar itu sendiri. Misalnya seorang pembelajar mengemudi akan selalu ingatkata Wolke karena kata ini merupakan akronim dari:

Wasser (air)

Oel (minyak)

Licht (lampu)

Kraftstoff (Benzin)

Elektrik (elektrik/bertenaga listrik)

 

2. Schlüsselwortmethode(keyword method/Kata Kunci)

Proses metode ini adalah menghubungkan kesamaan bunyi antara bahasa Ibu dengan bahasa yang dipelajari/bahasa sasaran. Sperber (1989:11) mengatakan bahwa metode ini mendukung interaksi visual dalam ingatan. Contoh: pembelajar bahasa Jerman dari Ceko menghubungkan kata spáti – dengan bahasa Jerman spät (terlambat). Padanan dalam bahasa Indonesia masih belum diketemukan.

 

3.   Metode Loci

Loci berasal dari bahasa Yunani berarti tempat. Metode ini menggunakan ingatan ruang/tempat yang telah dikenal dengan baik sebagai tempat untuk menyimpan dan mengingat kosakata yang akan dipelajari. Proses metode ini adalah:

  1. pembelajar membayangkan suatu jalan, misalnya jalan menuju rumah atau jalan menuju tempat kerja.
  2. kemudian pembelajar berjalan melalui jalan itu dengan menghubungkan kata-kata yang ingin dipelajari. Dengan kata lain, pembelajar meletakkan kata-kata yang ia pelajari di tempat-tempat yang dia kenal dengan baik, sehingga menjadi suatu situasi yang tidak lazim. Situasi yang tidak lazim ini sangat mendukung ingatan.

c. pembelajar melalui jalan itu dalam pikiran dan menemukan benda-benda yang tidak lazim di tempat yang dia sudah kenal dengan baik.

Pengaruh dari teknik ini adalah menghubungkan apa yang pembelajar sudah ketahui dengan baik dengan suatu yang baru/ kata baru. Sehingga kata baru itu tidak akan mudah dilupakan. Akan tetapi untuk konsep-konsep yang abstrak teknik ini sulit untuk dilakukan.

Contoh: pada gambar berikut ini digambarkan penerapan metodi Loci. Kata bak mandi (Badewanne) ditempatkan di depan rumah, kata kapal (Schiff) diletakkan di depan garasi (Garage), kata Harimau (Tiger)diletakkan di atas Pagar (Zaun), dan kata berlian (Diamant) ditempatkan dia atas pohon Ek besar (Eiche), kemudian kata-kata itu dirangkai menjadi sebuah kalimat.

Sri-Laci

Gambar. Metode Loci (Bohn, 2000:97)

 

  1. Teknik bercerita (die Geschichtentechnik)

Proses teknik ini adalah pembelajar diminta untuk mengingat 10 kata dan membuat cerita dari 10 kata tersebut. Sebagai contoh: dalam suatu eksperimen, salah seorang pembelajar membuat cerita dari 10 kata berikut ini   Ente (angsa), Hausfrau (nyonya rumah), Hecke (pagar), Holzfäller(penebang kayu), Kissen (bantal), Kolonie (sekumpulan), Möbelstück (mebel), schlitten(terpeleset), Strümpfe(kaos kaki/stocking), stürzen(berlari kencang).

Menjadi “ Der Holzfäller stürzte aus dem Wald, schlitterte um eine Hecke hinter einer Kolonie von Enten. Er stolperte über ein Möbelstück, zerriss sich seine Strümpfe, während er zu dem Kissen hastete, auf dem die Hausfrau lag.”(seorang penebang kayu berlari kencang dari hutan kemudian dia tersangkut di pagar tanama yang di belakangnya ada sekumpulan angsa. Dia tersandung sebuah mebel, hingga kaus kakinya robek, dan terjatuh di atas bantal yang di atasnya berbaring sang nyonya rumah).

5.   Visualisasi

Contoh dari visualisasi adalah permainan ingatan atau “ Memoryspiel”. Dalam permainan ini pembelajar mencocokkan kata dengan gambar atau menghubungkan kata dengan warna. Contoh: rot wie Blut (semerah darah), weiß wie Schnee(seputih salju), blau wie Meer(sebiru laut). Visualisasi dapat berbentuk diagram tata bahasa untuk memudahkan dalam mengingat kaidah bahasa. Visualisasi dapat memperjelas fenomena kaidah bahasa Jerman, sebagai contoh kata kerja disimbolkan dengan bentuk ellips dan subjek dengan bentuk segi empat.

Sri-gbr3

 

Gambar. Teknik Visualisasi untuk Preposisi (Wolf,1988:11)

 

6. Gute Freunde (teman baik)

Teknik ini menghubungkan suatu kata dari bahasa ibu yang mempunyai hampir kesamaan tulisan dan pengucapan akan tetapi mempunyai arti/makna yang berbeda dengan bahasa sasaran. Teknik ini sangat cocok untuk bahasa yang serumpun. Contoh: kata come (dalam bahasa Inggris) dengan kommen, kedua kata ini menpunyai arti yang sama (Bohn, 2000:98-102 & Sperber, 1989: 113-140).

7. Menggunakan Flash cards yaitu menulis kata kata di kartu dan menggaris bawahi kata kata yang dianggap penting, membuat catatan sendiri tentang kaidah tata bahasa. Di balik kartu, siswa dapat menuliskan terjemahannya. Akan lebih bagus jika kartu disusun dalam 3 bagian, dengan sususan bagian pertama untuk kartu yang baru dipelajari, bagian kedua adalah kartu yang sudah dipelajari satu kali, dan bagian ketiga untuk kartu yang sudah kita pelajari secara mantap. Kartu dapat disusun secara abjad.

Sri-kartukosa kata

Gambar 2.13. Kartu Kosakata (Bohn.2000)

 

 

Simpulan        

Strategi belajar teknik Mnemo bukan merupakan strategi belajar yang baru, terlebih strategi akronim kita telah mengenalnya sejak di sekolah dasar ketika kita menghafal warna pelangi. Tidak ada salahnya dan bahkan dianjurkan dalam belajar bahasa asing, pembelajar menggunakan strategi belajar yang telah dikenalnya sehingga belajar itu menjadi lebih baik dan bermakna, seperti yang dikatakan oleh Neuner yaitu man lernt besser wenn man weisst.

 

Daftar Pustaka

Bimmel, Peter., Kast, Bernd., Neuner, Gerd. 2003. Deutschunterricht planen Arbeit mit Lehrwerkslektionen Fernstudieneinheit 18. München: Uni Kassel, Goethe Institut & Langenscheidt

Bimmel, Peter & Rampilon, Utte.2002. Lernstrategien und Lernautonomi Fernstudieneinheit 23. Muenchen: Uni Kassel, Goethe Institut & Langenscheidt

Funk, Hermann. 2000. The Learner’s Handbook, Learning Strategies, German Phrases, German Grammar. Berlin: Cornelsen

Bohn, Rainer, 2000. Probleme der Wortschatzarbeit Fernstudiemeinheit 22. München: Uni Kassel, Goethe Institut & Langenscheidt

Brown, H.Douglas. 2000. Principles of Language Learning and Teaching, second edition. New Jersey:Prentice Hall inc

Heyd, Gertraude. 1990. Deutsch Lehren Grundwissen für den Unterricht in Deutsch als Fremdsprache. Frankfurt am Main: Diesterweg

Neuner, Gerhard. 1991. Lernerorientierte Wortschatzauswahl und –vermittlung. Majalah Deutsch als Fremdsprache. Edisi 2/1991 hal: 76-83. München: Goethe Institut

Sperber, G Horst. 1989. Mnemoteknik im Fremdsprachenerwerb. München:Iudicium Verlag

www.mjima.de/mnemotechnik, diakses pada 27.04.2011

Risk-Taking as a Contributing Factor to Make Learning English a Success

(Kutipan referensi/citation: Jurnal Linguistik terapan Vol 3/1, Mei 2013)

Ermyna Seri

Politeknik Negeri Medan

 

ABSTRACT

The success of language learning can be affected by internal and external factors. One of the internal factors is risk-taking. This factor drives learners to be able to gamble a bit, to be willing to try out hunches about the language and take the risk of being wrong. This article elaborates the characteristics of risk-taking learners on learning English, the learners’ personal learning problems on learning English, and the methods of increasing risk-taking ability. The methods discussed here directly address the learners’ personal learning problems which include inhibition to speak, low self-esteem, lack of motivation, and low risk-taking ability. Considering the significant role of risk-taking to the success in learning English, language teachers should establish an encouraging class atmosphere or a nonthreatening classroom climate in their classes to reveal risk takers.

Keywords: success, English learning, risk-taking

 

English is one of the languages widely used in the world by the speakers whose first language is not English. Besides its function as a means of communication with other speakers, it is also used as a medium to get some information or read materials in English about issues, advancement of technology and knowledge, and understand about different nation or people’s culture.

In Indonesia English is often considered as a foreign language or second language. English is one of the subjects taught in school starting from primary to university level. English is the subject on the school curriculum, and it is compulsory for students to take and pass the examination in order to be graduated from school.

To pass from this period, students have to go through the process of learning. Learning process is the path to reach success in which the students have to go through several stages in order to understand something that he or she has not known yet before. Furthermore a student who can carry out the learning activity can be assumed that he understands about something he or she has learnt about something (Rooijakkers, 1991:14). One individual’s learning process is called internal process. This internal process can be seen from the student’s individual behavioral change or action that reflects the learning (Rooijakkers, 1991:5).

Some students learn English faster and more easily than the others in school and they tends to be more .successful than the others. Success is perceived from two perspectives, namely the internal and external factors, but in this article, the internal factor would be discussed. Therefore the title chosen is “Risk-Taking as Contributing Factor To Make Success Of Learning English”.

THEORETICAL REVIEW

Learning according to Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary is knowledge obtained by study. Dimiyati and Mudjiono (2006) said that this knowledge obtained by study, or done through a learning activity in any places such as at school, or out of school. Learning can be seen from two perspectives. The first perspective is from teacher’s side and it is designed through learning instructions, while from the student’s side, it comes from the student’s desire to learn.

Dimiyati and Mudjiono define learning is an student’s act and student. As an act, learning is only experienced by the student himself/ herself, and determined by the student whether the learning process happens or not (Dimiyati and Mudjiono 2006:7). Furthermore they say that the learning process happens because the student gets something from his/ her learning environment, and this can be seen from the act of learning from outside (Dimiyati and Mudjiono 2006:7).

According to Djamarah (2008:15) learning is an activity that we do to gain knowledge).

Jakobovits (1970:44) learning a language means learning the whole new pattern of habits,….. A little learning like to play the piano or the violin, except that it is easier. Therefore, it is important to practice, to practice, and to practice. The practice should be intensive and enthusiastic in class and out silently to oneself while reading or to fellow students. Involve all your senses as you learn a language by using your ears, mouth, eyes, fingers and use your imagination.

According to Brown learning is a relatively permanent change in a behavioural tendency and is the result of reinforced practice. The components of the definition of learning are : learning is acquisition or getting, retention of information or skill, retention implies storage system, memory, cognitive organization, active, conscious, focus on and acting upon events outside or inside the organism, relatively permanent but subject to forgetting, involves some form of practice, perhaps reinforced practice, change in behavior (Brown, 1994:7).

 

Definition of Success

Success by the Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary definition is the achievement of a desired aim (Hornby 1995 : 1193). Success in learning interpreted as a student’s desire to achieve something. Key to get a success in learning is to study harder and sacrifice for something to reach the goal (Djamarah 2008, 10-11).

 

Risk-Taking as a contributing factor to make a success of learning English

Many researches show, the key point to accomplish second language learning depend on the personality differences among learners. There are two contributing factors to make a success of learning the language such as internal and external. The internal factors consist of natural talent, age, exposure to native speakers, high motivation, risk-taking, strong self-confidence, high self-esteem. Brown uses the term as the affective domain (Brown 1994:134). Obviously students who have these factors are better than the students who do not.

Whereas the external factors are teachers, instructional materials, approach, method, teaching strategies (Shoebottom 1996-2012). According to Walqui, Internal factors deal with personality and motivation. They vary from one student to another. External factors refer to the institutional contexts in which language learning takes place; contextual factors in second language acquisition.

According to Brown, there are two aspects contributing to the success of language learning such as of the cognitive and affective domains. The first aspect of the affective domain is called intrinsic that deals with the personality factors within a person and the second aspect is that encompasses extrinsic factors such as socio-cultural variables that emerge as the second language learner brings not only the two languages into contact but also the two cultures, and in some sense, he/she must learn a second culture along with a second language (Brown 1994:134).

Affective domain according to Brown is the emotional side of human behavior, and it may be juxtaposed to the cognitive side (Brown 1994:135). Further Brown says the development of affective states of feelings involves a variety of personality factors, feelings both about ourselves and about others with whom we come into contact.

According to Djamarah, there are some factors contribute to the success of learning such as : (A) obeying learning guide : regularity, be discipline and have a good motivation, focus, good time management such as to rest and to sleep (Djamarah, 2008:15-27); (B) avoiding learning difficultness : determining the learning objective, recognizing the remembering system, recognizing the remembering system range, recognizing the learning type, recognizing the rate of difficulties of book read, avoiding laziness, fulfilling recent wish, note taking for the future wish, writing any unfinished assignments, not to push yourself to study if you are not ready, staying healthy, taking a rest whenever necessary, emptying any unnecessary memory, mastering the language (Djamarah, 2008:28-42); (C) having intellectual mentality : be honest in any way, smart in thinking and action, reliable, self confidence, optimistic, not to hesitate in taking action, be brave to face the challenge, patience and never give up, take a change in any opportunity, willing to do something in any circumstances, learning effectively, learning while praying, never get satisfied easily on success achieved; (D) mastering the learning method well (Djamarah, 2008: 43-58).

Jakobovits a psycholinguist cited that the Modern Language Association of America sponsored a conference in 1964 which resulted in a statement entitled “Advice to Language Learners” in which consists of ten statements. Then these statements were revised by teachers and linguist. The ten claims about the psychology of foreign learning have been extracted from the 1966 revised statements (Jakobovits 1970:43).

The extracts of statements related to the language learning are : (1)learning a FL facilitates subsequent learning of another FL; (2)any intelligent student can learn a FL provided there are present ‘hard work’, a good teacher, and a good textbook; (3)a helpful strategy in learning FL is to avoid making direct comparisons between it and English; (4)learning a language means a whole new pattern of habits… a little like learning to play the piano or the violin. Therefore, it is important to practice, to practice, and to practice. Practice should be intensive and enthusiastic in class and out, silently and loudly, to oneself while reading, and to fellow students; (5)there are three techniques in language learning : imitation, analogy, and analysis. Imitation consists of repeating what you hear as closely as you can by listening carefully to your teacher and the other models. Learning how to create by analogy is the purpose of pattern drills and other exercises. (6) As one grows older, he/she begins to lose capacity for easy imitation but he/she gains the advantage of being able to reason: to analyze language, information of this sort given in grammatical explanations or rules can help you to learn the language faster; (7)memorizing sessions should be broken up into several intense short periods; (8)reading and writing are learned more easily if one first learns to speak the language; (8)practicing to speak should be done right from the start; (9)when reading a FL, one should at first read only what has been previously practiced, and do so out loud; (10)English translation of words or phrases should never be written on the page in the reading book (Jakoboits, 1970:43-45)

Theoretical Approach

There are two theoretical approaches in relation with the success of learning the language as proposed by Brown and Jakobovits discussed in this article. Brown outlines a risk-taking factor as part of aspect of the affective domain or called intrinsic and how this factor influences the success of the language learning. Whereas Jakobovits  a psycholinguist outlines learning theory from psycholinguistic perspective adopted in the discussion of the techniques in language learning this article are points (4) and (5) as mentioned above.

 Personality Factor

Personality is the characteristics and qualities of a person seen as a whole. An individual’s personality is the complex of mental characteristics that makes her/him unique from other people and the qualities make somebody different from other people and interesting.

Personality factors according to Brown is the intrinsic side of affectivity that affects in learning English are self-esteem; inhibition risk – taking; anxiety; empathy; extroversion; motivation (Brown 1994:136-156). But in this article, I will focus on the risk-taking as contributing factor to make a success of learning English.

 

DISCUSSION

In this article, I would focus on one particular psychological dimension such as risk-taking. To improve students’ learning process towards success, I outlined three components that involved in the discussion of this article such as the first part of this article presents the overview of characteristic risk-taking learners on learning English and its effects. The second part is personal learning problems on learning English, The third part is the Method of increasing risk-taking ability

 Overview of the Characteristic of Risk-taking Learners on Learning English and Its Effects

The literature review of risk-taking behavior appeared in the literature of psychology in 1960s (Kogan & Wallach, 1967), and 1970s ;(Bem, 1971) and it appeared in literature of linguistics and English as a Second Language (ESL) in 1960s, (Labov, 1969), 1980s, (Beebe, 1983, Ely, 1986a). Kogan and Wallach correlated two personality dimensions, motivation and risk-taking behavior to this basis McClelland –Atkinson position, which is a theory of achievement motivation developed by McClelland, Atkinson, Clark and Lowell in 1953, (cited in Beebe, 1983).

Risk-taking is an important characteristic of successful learning of a second language. Learners have to be able to gamble a bit, to be willing to try out hunches about the language and take the risk of being wrong (Brown 1994:140). Related to the characteristics of a “good” language learner, risk-taking is also recognized as important factor in successful language learning. Risk-taking is not only one of the dimensions of individual differences (IDs), but also, it is one of the important parts in second language learning process; moreover, it is a language learning strategy for good language learners who are willing to take risks (cited in Gass & Selinker, 2000).

A risk-taking student is typically student who actively participate in discussion in the class room and answer the questions without being waited to be called by the teacher. This type of student is usually not afraid of speaking in front of his/her classmates and not afraid of making mistakes, and they are willing to take part in class discussions without any fear and they also get involved in language learning activities very quickly and easily. This involvement helps them to learn more and better and more successful. Besides, risk-taking students usually speak more, and talk much in the classroom and therefore they are better than shy students. Furthermore, risk-taking typical students are willing to make a try to produce words or sentences or guess and not be discouraged by making mistakes and   being appeared foolish in order to progress. By this way these students will improve their learning from the mistake they made. So the key to the success in second language learning is the students should be willing to make a try or guess and not be discouraged by making mistakes and being appeared foolish.

 

Personal Learning Problems on Learning English

I taught my students in Banking and Finance study program at Politeknik Negeri Medan in the semester 6. On the first day of the week in the beginning of the semester my students and I just met in the classroom. At the first meeting I introduced about the syllabus ,methods, communicative activities and other rules and regulations in class room and then started my lesson with the topic of ‘Introduction’ . In this topic, the students talked about making a self-introduction. Before it got started, I introduced my self then I called their name one by one to know them better then I introduced the syllabus and topics to be discussed within the semester. After a few weeks, I got to know the students better by their names and started to observe their characters.

In general I found the students have diversities in characters among other students in many individual characteristics. Mostly the students, were very quiet, shy, inhibited, low learning ability and were passive learners and listeners. The students only listened to the lecturer and were not even brave enough to give opinion or to put comments or to raise questions. They waited for the Lecturer to call their name in order to speak. I tried to find out why they behaved in this way. Through my observation in class, later I identified some problems faced by the students such as : (1) the students were inhibited; (2) the students had low self-esteem; (3) the students were lack of motivation; (4) had low risk-taking ability in a spoken language.

 

Method of increasing risk-taking ability

After I identified the students’ learning problems. I tried to solve their problems. The following learning problems are presented and methods used :

(1)   the students were inhibited to speak

Inhibition by the Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary definition is a feeling that makes one nervous and embarrassed, and unable to relax or behave in a natural way (Hornby 1995:613).

Brown said Anyone who has learned a foreign language is acutely aware that second language learning actually necessitates the making of mistakes; If we never ventured to speak a sentence until we were absolutely certain of its total correctness, we would likely never communicate productively at all (Brown 1994:139).

I found from several students why the students were inhibited to speak because they were afraid of making mistakes. The classmates often laughed at the student who made mistake in pronouncing the words, and this has made the students were lack of confidence. So the mistake was often viewed as threats. This student was descended from Batakist ethnic group who came from the village where they always use Batakist language ethnic group every day. This student usually has very accent of first language. This strong accent had influenced him from pronouncing the word in English. For example : What are the requirements to open a new bank account ? The word open phonetically must be pronounced as [əupən] but it was pronounced [əupæn]. Batakist has strong phonetically sound of [æ] instead of [ə]. This strong accent of his/her first language had influenced his/her speech production of how the word is supposedly pronounced. As the result, the pronunciation sounded awkward and funny to the other students’ ears. This condition made the students laughed at their classmate. Therefore, the student were inhibited to speak because they didn’t want to be looked stupid, or being embarrassed by their classmates when making mistakes.

In the condition of this problem, I told the students not to laugh because they might make the same mistake. I encouraged the students in their learning to be brave to speak out and neglects what ever circumstances his/her classmates may behave. I drilled the students to practice the pronunciation and gave more examples of words which have similar sounds until they pronounced the word correctly. I told the students not to worry making mistakes, because learners learn from mistake. If the students never tried, they would never know they made mistakes and never know how to improve.

I also recommended the students to use English-English dictionary. The students can look up the word and learn how the word is read and pronounced with its phonetically transcriptions. Other than that, I instructed the students to participate in the discussion when they were given tasks to do in class.  I told the students that I would ask them after they had finished discussing. if the first student could not answer the questions, the other students will be given a turn to answer. I rewarded the students’ when they could answer the questions and did well and made improvement in their study. I assured this atmosphere in their class happened. With this learning condition I made, the students could be risk-takers in many situations, because the students now became relax and not nervous anymore when they talked and expressed their ideas. As the result the students were willing to take part in the class and did well on learning English unconsciously.

(2)   the students had low self-esteem

Self-esteem is according to Coopersmith cited by Brown , it expresses an attitude of approval or disapproval, and indicates the extent to which an individual believes himself to be capable, significant, successful and worthy. In short, self-esteem is a personal judgment of worthiness that is expressed in the attitudes that the individual holds towards himself (Brown 1994:137).

In general, I found the students had low self-esteem and were lack of self-confidence . Mostly these students who were weak in structure or grammar and had limited vocabulary. For example the students did not know how the sentence(s) constructed correctly and this had made them were not able to produce sentences correctly, and also the students had limited vocabulary, and knowledge. All of these students’ weakness had made them lack of confidence.

In the condition of this problem, I was patience and reviewed the structure and grammatical explanations or rules in which area the students were not capable to do the communicative activities. I wrote some points where the students made mistakes. I explained the structure and grammar after the students had finished practicing the conversation. This way aims to refresh students’ mind as they have actually learned it before at school. In doing this review, I demonstrated the use and the usage of the language expressions through its communicative functions and I gave them varieties of sentence pattern related to its communicative functions. I always encouraged the students to try out what they knew and took the risk of being wrong. By practicing the conversations with their pairs, the students may increase their self-confidence, because the students were given the opportunity to speak their learned language in English in real life situations. Because of these important reasons, as Woolfolk (2001) noted and advised that activities can be done in order to increase the confidence of silent students in the classroom; give plenty of practice in the class room.

In order to increase students’ self-esteem, I asked the students to practice by using the imitation technique. With this technique the students repeated what they heard and the models of sentence pattern learned. When the students were capable enough to do the activities then I asked them to continue the practice by making analogy. With this analogy technique, the students were asked to create sentences by using the learned pattern drills. At last I asked the students to practice activities with analyzing technique. With this technique, the students were asked to create sentences and use the language of giving reasons. With these given techniques, I helped the students to rebuild their self-confidence and gradually they gain knowledge and skills and developed self-confidence. Finally, the students were able to produce words and sentences correctly and learned the language faster.

(3)   the students were lack of motivation;

Motvation by the Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary definition is to cause somebody to want to do something (Hornby 1995 : 758). According to Brown, motivation is commonly thought of as an inner drive, impulse, emotion, or desire that moves one to a particular action (Brown 1994:152). Robert Gardner and Wallace Lambert (1972) had made studies of foreign language learners in Canada, United States and Phillipines in an effort to determine how attitudinal and motivational factors affect language learning success. Motivation was examined as a factor of a number of different kinds of attitudes. They had put two clusters of attitudes divided two basic types of motivation: instrumental and Integrative motivation. Instrumental motivation refers to motivation to acquire a language as means for attaining instrumental goals such as furthering a career, reading technical material, translation, and so forth. An integrative motive is employed when learners wish to integrate themselves within the culture of the second language group, to identify themselves with and become a part of that society (cited by Brown, 1994:153-154).

I found the students were lack of motivation. This problem was caused of the students were in semester 6 and they were tired and bored a little bit after they passed five semesters studied and were busy writing reports after doing their on the job trainings and started again writing final assignments before they were graduated. Having this kind of condition, the students were lack of motivation in learning English.

In the condition of this problem, I stimulated their motivation again by telling them if they have capability in English, they would be able to work in International organizations. I also gave them a suggestion of learning strategies and tried to create a good encouraging class atmosphere in the class to reveal risk takers. I gave challenging communicative activities for speaking in the forms of role-plays or simulation. These communicative activities gave the unmotivated students to participate from passive into active learners. I encouraged students to take risk by asking the students to practice the conversation. Before I conducted the communicative activities, I gave them the example. This example of the conversation I put in one particular situation and context, so the students can use their learned knowledge in real life situations. I picked up one topic related to the banking and finance context. Then next I asked the students to choose one of the topics listed in their hand outs such as : Opening a new bank Account; Withdrawing Money; Making a Deposit; Enquiring about credit facilities, requirements and procedures; Applying for a credit card; Buying travelers’ cheques; Exchanging foreign currencies. These activities, especially to improve students’ oral skills, reduce anxiety level, and risk-taking ability improves. During the students practiced the dialogues with their partners, they were looked more relax and not worried or nervous, because they had more freedom to express out what they knew and thought. I walked around the class and took note for any area the students might make mistakes. After the practice, I wrote the mistakes on the whiteboard and asked if any student might know the answer. I encouraged the students to speak and say what they knew and thought about the answers. All the students’ answer were written on the whiteboard and to be checked together. If they got stuck with the choice of words or sentence patterns   and were not able to express out in a correct English grammar, then I helped. Finally, I wrote the correct answer on the whiteboard and the students copied. That was the way they increase again their motivation. If they got motivated, they would increase their risk-taking ability and became good risk-takers. Then I gave them language learning techniques, strategies, styles, and conducted the classroom as the student-centered and I told them being a risk taker in many situations would advantage the students in learning the language.

By doing this practice through the communicative activities, the students who never spoke in class or during conversational and oral practice before then became motivated. I also conducted quiz and told the students if they could answer they would be given an additional score of English Subject. More students participated to answer the questions. I think this competition also has an important role to play in the development of oral skills, motivation during the language learning process. Over all activities, I gave the students feedback and specific praise.

I also asked the students to do assignments for the project work by interviewing the tourists. The students worked in group of 4 people. They conducted an interview to the tourists and recorded the conversation. The students were motivated to speak with the native speakers than with their classmates. The reason is because they were more relax and not to be looked stupid when making mistakes.

However, some of the students still were not motivated, I tried to identify the students’ learning problem specifically concerning about their learning situation. After I found the problem, I used another method to help them and encouraged students to take risk (Oxford, 1992). I didn’t scold the students, and didn’t put them in embarrassment or punishment and I also told the students not to sneer their classmates.

(4)   had low risk-taking ability in a spoken language.

I found the students had a low risk-taking ability in a spoken language. This situation happened because they didn’t get enough practice and practice the language.

In the condition of this problem, I practically observed the students’ behavior among some students in the speaking class. There were a few students were silent and looked like stressful throughout the lesson. After the lesson, I asked the reason, why they did not participate the conversations, their explanation was that their friends might laugh at them and this situation could disturb their psychology and learning enthusiasm. This is a common student thought about them.

I also found some students were talkative and sociable ones in their peer group. They were quiet because they didn’t have ability to express out their ideas correctly and appropriately. Therefore they didn’t dare enough to take a high risk in speaking with their lecturer or teacher or because the students did not want to be looked foolish in the classroom. I made sure to call on everyone, and gave each student a chance to practice until the students mastered how  to use and know the usage of the language.

Beebe (1983) states that all of these three strategies are related to risk-taking, for example willing to guess is a part of risk-taking and willingness to appear foolish is willing to take risk. Therefore, I reinforced the students to be risk-taking, Furthermore, Beebe made another study about classroom participation and risk-taking ability, and tried to find the reason why L2 learners are shyer a second language around peers or classmates from their mother tongue group than around native speaker and teachers is that they perceive the risk of looking foolish as a greater in the presence of peers from their own country.

 

CONCLUSION

In the conclusion, risk-:taking has a significant role to the success in learning English. Risk-taking is a contributing factor hat associated with willing to make a try or experience, or to be wrong or to be embarrassed, or to gamble, and not to be shy, be active learners, learn from mistakes, not to be discouraged by making mistakes and being appeared foolish.

Language teachers should be aware of who their students are, what are the individual differences among their students. Language teachers should establish an encouraging class atmosphere or a nonthreatening classroom climate in their classes to reveal risk takers. Language teachers should reward and respect to boost the students learning style. Language teachers should encourage students to be risk-takers in many situations and classroom should be student-centered. Language teachers should be patient to review the structure and grammar such as the use and usage of the language. The language teachers should stimulate the students’ motivation by telling them if they have capability in English, they would be able to work in International organizations and give a suggestion of learning strategies and try to create a good encouraging class atmosphere in the class to reveal risk takers, and conduct communicative activities for speaking in the forms of role-plays or simulation. Language teachers should give each student a chance to practice until the students mastered how to use and the usage of the language.

 

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Brown-Mollie Immel. Key Factors in Language Learning Success. 11/13 2006

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Dimyati and Mudjiono.2006. Belajar dan Pembelajaran. Jakarta : Penerbit Rineka Cipta

Djamarah, Syaiful Bahri. 2008. Rahasia Sukses Belajar. Penerbit : Rineka Cipta, Jakarta

Effects of Attitude towards Language Learning and Risk-taking on EFL Student’s Proficiency

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Ely, C. (1986a). An analysis of discomfort, risk taking, sociability and motivation in L2 classroom. Language learning36: 1:25

Emerson D. C., Ph.D. (Oct. 22, 2005). English 418-Course Notes. Session Twelve. Retrieved Oct. 31, 2005 from California State University Bakersfield

Gass, S.M., & Selinker, L. (2000). Second language acquisition: An introductory course (2nd Ed.). Retrieved March 25, 2010.

Hornby, AS. 1995. Editor Jonathan Crowther. Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English. Fifth Edition.Oxford : Oxford University Press

Jakobovits, Leon A. 1970. Foreign Language Learning. A Psycholinguistic Analysis of the Issues. Newbury House Publishers, Rowley, Massachusetts.

Kelly, M. (2004). Taking account of affective learner differences in the planning and delivery of language courses for open, distance and independent learning. Retrieved April 14, 2010 from University of Southampton website: http://www.lang.ltsn.ac.uk/resources/resourcesitem.aspx.resourceid=1315,

Klinger, Walter. Factors for Success in Second Language Learning http://www.usp.ac.jp/english/pdf/wk02-factors.pdf

Kogan, N. & Wallach, M. A. (1967). Risk Taking as afunction of the situation, the person, and the group. New directions in psychology III.New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

McClelland, D. C., Atkinson, J. W., Clark, R. A., 4 Lowell, E. L. (1953). The Achievement Motive. New York: Appleton:Century:Crofts,

Norris, Holt Jacquelinne Norris, Motivation as a Contributing Factor In second Language

Acquisition. The Internet TESL Journal, Vol.VII, No.6, June 2001, http://iteslj.org/Articles/Norris-Motivation.html

Mc Donough,Jo and Shaw, Christopher.2003. Materials and Methods in ELT, second edition. Blackwell Publishing

Oxford, R. (1992). Who are our students? A synthesis of Foreign and Second Language Research on Individual Differences with Implications for Instructional Practice. TESL Canada Journal, 9, 2: 30:48.

Risk-taking and Anxiety http://www.language.com.hk/articles/anxiety.html

Shoebottom, Paul 1996-2012  The Factors That Influence The Acquisition of a Second Language, http://esl.fis.edu/teachers/support/factors.htm

Woolfolk, A. (2001). Motivation: issues and explanations. In educational psychology(8thEd.), Needham Heights, MA: Pearson Education Company.

Learner’s memory and learner’s success

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Trimpop, R. M. (1994). Advanced in psychology, the psychology of risktaking behavior. Holland: Acid Free Paper: 48:51.

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Online Resources and Learner’s Autonomy

oktaviaKutipan refernsi: Jurnal Linguistik terapan Vol 3/1, Mei 2013)

by Oktavia Widiastuti

UIN Maulana Malik Ibrahim, Malang

 

ABSTRACT

There is a perceived relationship between technology and learner autonomy in the language teaching community. Students become increasingly empowered when using technology as they develop self-discipline and confidence through increased responsibility for their own learning processes. For language learning, computers offer rich volumes of text, pictures, sound, and video, they are also interactive, available at any time and place for individual or collective learners. It also facilitates learner autonomy, which is understood as the learner’s learning capacity displayed both in the way the learner learns and in the way he or she transfers what has been learned to wider contexts. It involves the learner, teacher, materials, learning context, and what students want in an online environment.

Online learning offers many opportunities for students. Some research results showed that the students responded positively to this means of communication. The students’ way of learning interaction is enriched through the computerized media. Furthermore, it can enhance their learning as it strengthens their understanding toward the language they learn and their self study, meaning that it makes this type of language learners more motivated than the non-autonomous ones. At present, however, there is a great need for research that focuses on the relationship between particular forms of practice and the development of autonomy.

 

Keywords: learner autonomy, online resources, learning process, self-study

 

There is a perceived relationship between technology and learner autonomy in the language teaching community. Learner empowerment is a prominent feature of integrating the technology of online resources in a foreign language curriculum. Students are seen as becoming increasingly empowered when using such technology because they develop self-discipline and confidence through increased responsibility for their own learning processes (Warschauer, Turbee, and Roberts, 1994). Benson and Voller (1997) discussed these issues stating that “Computer software for language learning is an example of a technology which claims to promote autonomy simply by offering the possibility of self-study. Such claims are often dubious because of the limited range of options and roles offered to the learner”. Benson and Voller go on to argue that all educational technologies including the textbook and the computer can be perceived to be more or less supportive of autonomy.

Computers have often been viewed as the perfect independent learning tool rather than simply a part of the autonomy/independence bigger picture. Why is that, and can technology really offer learners something unobtainable by other means? It could be argued that online resources are the ultimate engine for language learning. They offer volumes of text, pictures, sound, and video. They are also interactive and increasingly offer ready made self-access materials available at any time and place for individual or collective learners.

Defining Learner Autonomy

Autonomy has been described as “a capacity – for detachment, critical reflection, decision-making, and independent action. The capacity for autonomy will be displayed both in the way the learner learns and in the way he or she transfers what has been learned to wider contexts” (Little, 1991, p. 4). When the instructor’s role is examined within a certain educational setting, it would indicate whether a particular teacher tends to control the behavior of students or support their autonomy (Deci et al., 1981). Some other terms such as ‘self-access,’ ‘independent learning,’ ‘open,’ ‘distance,’ and ‘flexible’ learning have often been used to describe similar activities in which the teacher has more or less input in what goes on in the classroom. (The bottom line in all these uses is that teachers are encouraged to turn some power over to the learners and simultaneously take such roles as bystander, facilitator, guide, or helper.) One should be cautious, however, not to assume that all individuals are equally receptive to the notions of autonomous/independent learning.

The Learner Autonomy Picture

There are four players in the learner autonomy picture: the learner, the teacher, the materials, and learning the context. Here is a look at each one of them in detail.

1. The Learner

Obviously, autonomous learners are perceived to possess unique characteristics that make them independent, self-efficient, and willing to take the risk and responsibility of relying more on themselves than on others. Dickinson (1993) identifies five characteristics of independent learners:

1. they understand what is being taught, i.e. they have sufficient understanding of language learning to understand the purpose of pedagogical choices;
2. they are able to formulate their own learning objectives;
3. they are able to select and make use of appropriate learning strategies;
4. they are able to monitor their use of these strategies;
5. they are able to self-assess, or monitor their own learning (Dickinson, 1993, pp. 330-31).

2. The Teacher

A variety of new roles have been proposed for teachers to play in autonomous or independent learning. These roles include bystander, facilitator, guide, helper, counselor, and mentor. For example, an activity in which the instructor’s role is to monitor the students’ activities in pairs or small groups discreetly could be introduced to encourage learner autonomy. In such case, intervention is unnecessary unless learners need assistance. However, some teachers find these changes to be challenging and do not necessarily accept these new ideas easily. This is also a mistake that is commonly made in materials design for independent learning.

3. The Materials

Designing suitable materials for the autonomous learner can be a challenge. Motteram (1997) wrote about the many years teachers spend developing materials for their classrooms and adapting their teaching styles to that environment. He wrote that when teachers switch to an independent learning environment, they might expect the immediate transferability of the previous skills to the new learner-centered environment. This never happens because the nature of independent learning materials is different. Consequently, teachers may feel threatened that they have lost the value of their hard earned skills. Motteram added that many learners will feel cheated if they find that the material they are presented with in a so-called independent learning environment is the same as that presented in a regular class.

4. Learning the Context

Individuals are unique and their uniqueness should be emphasized because of their sociocultural background and the significance of allowing social reality to be a part of classroom teaching and learning. Social reality is not stable and because learners influence it, teachers cannot teach everything about a language. Learners influence the social context and the language in turn, or at least its use. For this reason, learners become more important members of a classroom. Therefore, classroom learning should take learners’ backgrounds into account in order to provide a meaningful and stimulating learning environment. This view of social reality is consistent with the constructivist movement in cognitive psychology, which shows that individuals gradually build their own understanding of the world through experience and maturation (Bruner, 1986).

Benson (1997, p.1-2) notes that the term learner autonomy can have at least five different connotations:

a. for situations in which learners study entirely on their own

b. for a set of skills which can be learned and applied in self-directed learning

c. for an inborn capacity which is suppressed by institutional education

d. for the exercise of learners’ responsibility for their own learning

e. for the right of learners to determine the direction of their own learning (Benson, 1997, pp. 1-2).

We often hear the term self-direction in connection with learner autonomy. This term refers to the type of learning that occurs when the learner makes a decision regarding the setting and content of the learned subject matter. While this could happen unconsciously, other learners consider self-directed learning as a conscious form of learning, thereby equating it with autonomous learning (Hammond & Collins, 1991). In sum, autonomy is a social construct that includes the ability to function effectively as a cooperative member in a group. Learning takes place in a social context and it is this context that learners have to be aware of and assume a role in.

5. What students want in an online environment?

The idea of a learner-centered environment is still unfamiliar to many students who grew up in a teacher-centered classroom. Asking those students to suddenly shift to a new setting that is totally or partially electronic might lead to a shock and great resistance. In order to ensure a smooth transition to a new reality, students should be asked what they want in the new environment. If adapting to a technologically enhanced classroom is inevitable in this era, researchers, curriculum designers, administrators, and teachers should obtain the students’ feedback on what features of online resources appeal to them and are most helpful in their education. In addition, we know very little about how students actually use online resources. Students may not use the resources in the ways that the teachers had envisioned.

The Advantages of Using Online Resources as an Educational Tool in Language Programs

Much of the published research on this topic shows that the advantages of using online resources as an educational tool far outweigh the disadvantages. Several researchers have mentioned many advantages. For example, according to Berge and Collins (1995), many opportunities are offered through online learning for such endeavors as course management, information retrieval, peer review, project-based instruction, personal networking, mentoring/tutoring, interactive chat, professional growth, and experience in using modern technology. Berge and Collins added that by writing online for an authentic purpose, students are motivated to communicate with a broader audience than what they are used to- the classroom. In addition, the digital revolution of the late 20th and early 21st has shifted the focus in the classroom from the teacher to the learner. In the new environment students are helped through online learning to find the necessary resources to carry on their learning outside the classroom and thus become lifelong learners.

Interaction was also discussed by many researchers. For example, Vilmi (1995) said that cultural awareness among students in different parts of the world is enhanced by the opportunities for interaction offered by online resources. Moreover, in searching for and retrieving information online, students have greater interaction with the course materials, providing them with a sense of ownership (Shetzer, 1995), as well as enjoyment of the course content (Opp-Beckman, 1995). In discussing the interaction of text and context, Kramsch and Andersen (1999, p. 31) said that using multimedia technology in teaching languages presents a double challenge for learners to observe and select “culturally relevant features of the context” and put linguistic features in context to understand language in use. The kinds of reflectiveness and interactivity that are mediated through asynchronous conferencing have also been researched. Lamy and Goodfellow (1999) concluded in their study of French learners that such an environment has “created the possibility for learners to interact with each other and with teachers and native speakers–thus providing opportunities for practice and intrinsic feedback” (p. 43). Lamy and Goodfellow go on to argue that conscious reflection is still necessary even in such an interactive learning environment and that it should be combined with spontaneous interaction. In another study about computer mediated communication, Blake (2000), in a study on L2 Spanish interlanguage, found that “CMC can provide many of the alleged benefits ascribed to the Interaction Hypothesis” (p. 120), which states that the conditions for SLA are crucially enhanced by having L2 learners negotiate meaning (i.e., resolve their miscommunications) with other speakers, native or otherwise Long & Robinson, 1998), but with more possibilities for access out of the classroom. Blake added that “incidental negotiations commonly occurred in networked learner/learner discussions as well, especially with respect to their lexical confusions” (p.120). Blake’s study showed “the value of synchronous chat records as a window for investigating interlanguage” (p.120).

Computer-assisted classroom discussion using networked computers was the topic of Healy Beauvois’ (1992) dissertation. In her study, she explored the “interaction intermediate French students using a Local Area Network (LAN) for synchronous classroom discussion in French” (p. v). The findings suggested that student contributions in French fit “sound language learning pedagogy” where code switching and teacher intervention instances were low, whereas discourse was high in both quantity and quality, and students responded positively to this means of communication. Moreover, the effects of the communication context of synchronous interaction tools, such as Web chat between English non-native and English native speakers, on the process of acquiring a second language was studied by Negretti (1999). The main purpose of the author was to discover “patterns and conversational strategies used by participants in this on-line context” as well as “the machinery and the structure of social action in language”. The study also analyzed whether Web chat implied a “reduction of the range in interactional practices, actions performance, sense making, and meaning negotiation, thus affecting the SLA process”. The analysis focused on “the overall structure of interaction and sequence organization in connection with the on-line communication setting features”. It then passed to “turn-taking organization, with attention to recurrent structures and patterns as in openings and closings; turn design (or packaging of actions); expression of paralinguistic features in this on-line context; and some (interlanguage) pragmatic variables”.

Computer-mediated communication was also studied by Sengupta (2001) who stated that it can be “a powerful tool towards literacy development as its text-based nature supports sustained reflection on classroom exchanges”. Sengupta described how students completing a BA in Contemporary English Language used “the available technology to interact with peers and their comment on how this mode of delivery extended their traditional notions of learning”. Sengupta’s data showed that the students were personally accountable due to their elevated exposure online- an issue viewed as an exceptional but intimidating part of this approach. This study evaluated how powerful online exposure can be in showcasing the students’ experiences and comments. Collaborative Internet projects were studied by the EFL study of Braunstein et al. (2000). It was found that those projects provided “students with opportunities for completing authentic reading and writing tasks, for learning about other cultures, and for developing useful technical skills”. In a paper examining “the two tenets of communicative language teaching– authenticity of the input and authorship of the language user–in an electronic environment”, Kramsch et al. (2000) concluded, in their study of Spanish and English, that “a communicative approach based on the use of authentic texts and on the desire to make the learners author their own words has been changed by the physical properties of the electronic medium and the students’ engagement with it”.

Learner empowerment is another feature of integrating online resources in a foreign language curriculum. Students become empowered as they develop self discipline and confidence by being more responsible for their own learning processes (Warschauer, Turbee, and Roberts, 1994). In addition, students are judged by their production, not what their appearance or how they sound, thus making them more confident when communicating in the target language. Online learning can provide students with new, exciting, and challenging resources (Barron and Ivers, 1998). It creates opportunities for multicultural education, establishes authentic learning experiences, supports higher-order thinking skills, improves writing skills, and boosts motivation, achievement, and positive behavior. Reading and writing skills are promoted through electronic discussion lists, email key pals, and projects online by providing an authentic audience for students’ writing (Gaer, 1999). In addition to having the flexibility to be used with students at any grade level and any proficiency level, these projects also help students develop computer literacy and online skills as they use the computer for authentic purposes. Online resources also provide an excellent language learning environment especially for the autonomous learner. This environment was described in Egbert, Chao, and Hanson-Smith (1999) and it listed eight conditions including opportunities interaction with an authentic audience to perform authentic tasks, encouraging learners to be creative, providing enough time and feedback for learners, guiding learners to be fully attentive during the learning process, having an ideal level of stress and anxiety, and supporting learner autonomy.

The Disadvantages of Online Resources as an Educational Tool in Language Programs

As with any teaching tool, along with the benefits come some drawbacks as well. A challenge facing teachers is the time requirements in learning new ways to give feedback online, teaching software programs to students (Opp-Beckman, 1995), and facilitating and participating in online projects which are just getting started (Vilmi, 1995). Shetzer (1995) also warned that the interaction between the student and text (or computer) might overwhelm that among students themselves. Learning and teaching online require great tolerance of ambiguity and even of chaos (Warschauer, Turbee and Roberts, 1994). In addition, students with low proficiency in keyboarding, reading and writing might find it difficult to remain motivated, perceiving the virtual classroom as a hindrance to learning more than a benefit (Hiltz, 1990). Learning online was not designed to be, and is not, a complete language learning tool; it is merely one of many ways that we can learn and practice a foreign language. In particular, the material available on the Internet, with the exception of material produced for language learners, is not graded. Beginning students can easily be overwhelmed with the rich vocabulary and colloquial expressions that they find there. It is therefore an important task for instructors to guide students to material that not only is of interest to them, but also manageable at their current level of language proficiency. Using online resources is not one thing with narrow, uniform, and readily predictable outcomes. In practice, it is many things with many possible outcomes for different students. Furthermore, even a single category of using online resources, such as using them as an information archive, can produce tremendous variation in likely consequences. Schofield and Davidson (2002) looked at six kinds of outcomes of use of online resources that students experienced:

enhanced enjoyment and motivation, a better understanding of both computing and the Internet, a greater ability to produce work of quality, more access to career information and opportunities, exposure to a broader range of perspectives and experiences, and improved reading skills in both English and foreign languages (Schofield and Davidson 2002, p. 209).

As a result of the widespread effects of technology throughout the world, college-level educators are being challenged to rethink and revise their approaches and goals in teaching in order to effectively prepare students for what will be expected of them in the real world. Black et al. (1995) summarized the importance of using computers as educational tools because students like working on them and are motivated by the use of real data and the fact that this is a skill they will need in the future. Because the way in which we retrieve and interpret information is changing and evolving, so must the education which prepares students to successfully accomplish these tasks.

The Educational Applications of Online Resources in Language Programs: communication and Research

According to Barron and Ivers (1998), the educational applications of online resources can be divided into two very broad areas: communication and research. The communication category includes asynchronous communications such as e-mail and electronic publishing, and synchronous communications such as chat rooms, audio conferencing, and video conferencing.

The research category includes basic, advanced, and original research. Basic research involves finding, comparing, and reporting facts from one or more preselected sources. Advanced research includes a wider variety of sources such as several online sites in addition to print or CD-ROM sources. Another difference is that the sources are not preselected. Original research can be done using surveys and collaborative experiments.

After the information is compiled, it can be graphed, analyzed, and reported. Online resources can connect the teaching and learning of languages as described in Shetzer and Warschauer (2001) who state that learners should be taught the type of language that they would eventually use and that the learner’s motivation increases if there is informational content being taught. They added that in order for teaching to be effective, prior knowledge, existing knowledge, the total academic environment, and learners’ linguistic proficiencies should be taken into consideration and that that contextualized language use should be the focus of language teaching. Finally, they wrote that what benefits learners most is a focus on significant and relevant content.

Language students’ attitudes toward and perceptions of online resources

As to the attitudes of L2 learners toward the use of technology, Yang (2001), in a study about EFL students, reported that the experience was generally positive for learners. On the other hand, negative attitudes had to do with technical difficulties and information overload. Yang also reported that using online resources often stimulated incidental learning and that seeking information online triggered both anxiety and excitement in learners at the same time. In concluding the study, Yang stated that computer networks could empower students especially in well-designed language learning environments and that providing scaffolding to guide learners in using online applications and orient them to the task is essential for the success in implementing and integrating technology into the curriculum. Researchers also studied student perceptions. In an important article, Stepp-Greany (2002) presented survey data from beginning Spanish classes using a combination of technologies: Internet activities, CD-ROM, electronic pen pals, and threaded discussions. Goals of the study were to determine students’ perceptions of (a) the role and importance of the instructor in technology-enhanced language learning (TELL), (b) the accessibility and relevance of the lab and the individual technological components in student learning, and (c) the effects of the technology on the foreign language learning experiences. Students attributed an important role to instructors and perceived that cultural knowledge, listening and reading skills, and independent learning skills were enhanced but were divided in their perceptions about the learning or interest values of the individual components.

In addition, Kung and Chuo (2002) investigated the potential role of ESL/EFL Web sites as a means to supplement in-class instruction. They evaluated a program in which forty-nine students enrolled in a high-beginner EFL class were introduced to five Web sites and instructed to use them for a homework assignment and for selfstudy. The data revealed that despite some difficulties encountered, students had an overall positive attitude to using the teacher-selected Web sites in their learning of English. The students found that learning English through ESL/EFL Web sites was interesting and that the teaching strategies used by the teachers were effective and necessary.

The relationship between using online resources and enhancing the learning of language skills

Many researchers have studied the relationship between using online resources and enhancing the learning of language skills. This line of research has established a high correlation between using this technology in the language classroom and high achievement in language proficiency. In the reading comprehension area, for example, Lomicka (1998) wrote about “how computerized reading with full glossing may promote a deeper level of text comprehension” (p. 41) for students of French. Moreover, reading comprehension practice and production practice in Japanese were studied by Nagata (1998) who investigated input versus output practice in educational software for second language acquisition. In addition, De Ridder (2002) found that when reading a text with highlighted hyperlinks, her subjects, native Dutch speakers learning French, were significantly more willing to consult the gloss. However, this increased clicking does not slow down the reading process, does not affect text comprehension, and does not increase the vocabulary learned incidentally. The reading task does not seem to alter the clicking behaviour of the students but seems to influence the reader’s vocabulary learning: A content-oriented reading task decreases the reader’s attention for vocabulary (De Ridder, 2002, p. 123).

With regard to grammar, Collentine (2000), studying foreign-language learners of Spanish, demonstrated “how computer-assisted language learning (CALL) software containing user-behavior tracking technologies can provide important insights into the construction of grammatical knowledge” (p. 44). This satisfies the constructivist premises that are increasingly compelling teachers to employ exploratory and inductive tasks, stipulating that students should be “agents” who manufacture rather than receive knowledge. Sotillo (2000) investigated “discourse functions and syntactic complexity in ESL learner output obtained via two different modes of computer mediated communication: asynchronous and synchronous discussions” (p. 82). The results showed that asynchronous and synchronous CMC have different discourse features which may be exploited for different pedagogical purposes. In the hands of experienced teachers, both modes of CMC can be used as novel tools to enhance the language acquisition process by encouraging interaction among participants, collaborative text construction, and the formation of electronic communities of learners (Sotillo, 2000, p. 82).

Hoven (1999) proposed an “instructional design model appropriate for humanistic multimedia Computer-Enhanced Language Learning (CELL) in a self-access environment for second language learning through listening and viewing comprehension” (p. 88). Hoven’s model was “grounded in sociocultural theory, and set against a background of research into the complexities of listening and viewing, individual learner differences and learning styles, characteristics of self-directed and autonomous learning, and user-friendly instructional software design” (ibid.). Several researchers also highlighted the use of e-mail to promote foreign language learning in general and the writing skill in particular. When compared with oral production, L2 use generated through the electronic medium has several features according to González-Bueno (1998), who studied Spanish students. Those features are: “(a) greater amount of language; (b) more variety of topics and language functions; (c) higher level of language accuracy; (d) more student-initiated interactions; and (e) more personal and expressive language use” (p. 55). However, Biesenbach-Lucas and Weasenforth (2001) questioned the potential of electronic mail writing in improving academic writing abilities for ESL students because email engenders features of both the written and spoken forms of the language. In a comparative study, there were no obvious differences found between students’ electronic mail and word-processed writing. However, the electronic mail texts were significantly shorter than the word-processed texts, and text-initial contextualization was more prominent in the word-processed than in the electronic mail texts. (Biesenbach-Lucas & Weasenforth, 2001). Other researchers were interested in investigating how the online resources would help in teaching culture. Osuna and Meskill (1998), for instance, concluded that the online environment was a suitable tool to increase language and cultural knowledge of Spanish, as well as a means to increase motivation. Furstenberg et al. (2001) presented a “Web-based, cross-cultural, curricular initiative entitled Cultura designed to develop foreign language students’ understanding of foreign cultural attitudes, concepts, beliefs, and ways of interacting and looking at the world” (p. 55). The participants were French and American students, and the focus was on the “pedagogy of electronic media, with particular emphasis on the ways in which the Web can be used to reveal those invisible aspects of a foreign culture, thereby giving a voice to the elusive silent language and empowering students to construct their own approach to cross-cultural literacy” (ibid.). In another culture-related study, Müller-Hartmann (2000) compared three email projects between EFL high school classes in Germany, and English and Social Studies classes in the United States and Canada. The researcher concluded that:

A comparison between intercultural learning in the actual reading process and the negotiation of meaning in the network phases shows a close resemblance in the structure and use of tasks. Task properties, such as activity, setting, and teacher and learner roles, as well as the personal level (i.e., non-thematic exchange of information) in the asynchronous e-mail exchange, proved to be especially influential for intercultural learning in the design and management of task structure (Müller-Hartmann, 2000, p. 129).

In testing, Roever (2001) argued that “Web-based language tests were most appropriate in low-stakes testing situations; but with proper supervision, they can also be used in medium-stakes situations although they are not generally recommended for high-stakes situations” (p. 84). Perez Fernandez (2000) examined how the use of the World Wide Web (WWW) as a tool may change the contents as well as the teaching procedures and the material covered. In class he used the WWW as a source of authentic material for the study of English in the field of psychology. His students had “access to current online material, and they can work with such diverse web sites as departments of psychology web sites, on-line atlases of the brain, resource web sites, career orientation and professional information web sites, etc.” (p. 257). He reported that the students became proficient in English and acquainted with vocabulary related to their main discipline, i.e. psychology. Perez Fernandez reported that the result was more dynamic approach to teaching English, so that the students gain autonomy, with the instructor acting only as coordinator, supervisor and tutor.

In another study on English for construction, Perez Fernandez (2001), studied the potential of the WWW to expand the possibilities of language teaching, particularly in the field of specific content areas, like engineering, architecture or the construction industry. He found that the Web facilitated “easy, instantaneous access to sources of information, specialized texts and data that were either unavailable in the past or took a considerable amount of time to access” (p. 119). He suggested that “in addition to providing these specific texts that can be used as teaching and practice  material, and serving as an electronic board with information on classes, deadlines, contents, syllabus, etc., the WWW should also affect the way languages are taught, as well as the learning styles of the students” (ibid.). Perez Fernandez concluded that because online resources are being increasingly used as a teaching resource, “we should move from a phase of simply using the new media with the old content, on to developing not only new contents but also new teaching procedures and strategies based on these new media”.

This line of research still has a number of open questions about how to optimally utilize this modern technology and incorporate it into foreign language programs. LoCastro (2001), for example, recommended that this area especially needed more qualitative or multi-dimensional research learn more about learners’ perceptions of the incorporation of online resources. She further suggested that future studies focus on individual learners’ accounts without interference from the researcher. Moreover, Stepp-Greany (2002) concluded that more research is needed on student perceptions of multimedia instruction and the teacher’s role in such environments. It is also hoped that further research in this topic confirms the prediction that foreign language learners exposed to this learning tool would become lifelong learners of the foreign language beyond the classroom context (González- Bueno, 1998).

Fostering autonomy in language learning through using online resources

Technology-based approaches to autonomy development are similar in many areas to other resource-based approaches, but can be differentiated from them through their focus on the technologies used to access resources (Benson, 2001). As Motteram (1997) points out, new learning technologies have a long association with autonomy. Many technology-based projects have been reported incorporating student-produced video (Gardner, 1994), computer-enhanced interactive video (Gardner and Blasco-Garcia, 1996), electronic writing environments (Milton, 1997), concordancing (Aston, 1997), hypermedia systems (Mayes, 1994), e-mail language advising (Makin, 1994), and computer simulations (Mak, 1994). In these projects it is either the interaction with the technology itself or the potential of the technology to facilitate interactions that is seen to be supportive of autonomy. Since the establishment of learner autonomy research, a number of misconceptions have occurred. Benson (2001) summarized these misunderstandings in two points. First, learner autonomy is not the same as self-instruction as the latter often fails to provide successful results.

Second, learner autonomy does not mean that the teacher yields all his/her authority to the students. A major influence on learner autonomy is the work of Vygotsky. The central term in his theory is the zone of proximal development, defined as “the distance between the actual developmental level as determined by independent problem solving and the level of potential development as determined through problem solving under adult guidance or in collaboration with more capable peers” (Vygotsky, 1978, p. 85). Benson (2001) summed up the importance of Vygotsky’s theory in studying learner autonomy by stating the importance of social interaction and collaboration in the learning process, which means using alternative learning environments that are not teacher-centered and that encourage student collaboration and interaction. Thus, external social interaction and internal cognitive interaction become inseparable and mutually influential.

This way, the learning environment is broadened and now includes the learner’s responsibility for his or her own learning process as well as that of peers. Autonomy has been described as a capacity – for detachment, critical reflection, decision-making, and independent action (Little, 1991). The capacity for autonomy will be displayed both in the way the learner learns and in the way he or she transfers what has been learned to wider contexts (Little, 1991, p. 4). Egbert, Chao, and Hanson-Smith (1999) listed eight conditions that, when present in the language learning environment in some form and in some amount, seem to support optimal classroom language learning. Not surprisingly, supporting learner autonomy was one of those conditions.

In general, autonomous learners are more highly motivated than nonautonomous learners. In other words, autonomy leads to better, more effective work. The literature has provided evidence that learning autonomy increases motivation and consequently increases learning effectiveness. Knowles (1975), for instance, reported that “there is convincing evidence that people who take the initiative in learning (proactive learners) learn things and learn better than do people who sit at the feet of teachers, passively waiting to be taught (reactive learners). They enter into learning more purposefully and with great motivation,” (Knowles, 1975, p. 14). In addition, Wang and Peverly (1986) reviewed findings of strategy research (in subjects other than language learning) and concluded that independent or autonomous learners were those who had the capacity for being active and independent in the learning process; they were able to identify goals, formulate their own learning strategies, and monitor their own learning. The advantages of learner autonomy can be summarized in three points according to Dickinson (1995): learning is more focused, purposeful, and effective; there are no barriers between learning and living; and learners are able to transfer their autonomous behavior to other areas of their lives.

Conclusion

There is a great need for research that focuses on the relationship between particular forms of practice and the development of autonomy. The most pressing need is for empirical research that will support or undermine the theoretical assumptions on which forms of practice are based (Benson, 2001). There is also a gap in the literature in the areas of students’ self-perception as autonomous learners, the value of online resources as a learning aid for the autonomous learner, and the inherent features in online resources that empower the autonomous language learner.

 

References

Benson, P. (2001). Teaching and Researching Autonomy in Language Learning.

Benson, P. & Voller, P. (1997). Autonomy and Independence in Language LearningLondon: Longman.

Berge, Z., & Collins, M. (1995) Computer-mediated communication and the onlineclassroom in distance learning. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press.

Bruner, J. (1986). Play, thought and language.Prospects: Quarterly Review ofEducation, 16, 1, 77-83.

Deci, E. L., Schwartz, A. J., Sheinman, L., & Ryan, R. M. (1981). An instrument to assess adults’ orientations toward control versus autonomy with children:reflections on intrinsic motivation and perceived competence. Journal ofEducational Psychology, 73, 642-650.

Dickinson, L. (1993). Talking shop: aspects of autonomous learning.ELTJ, 47, 4,330-336.

Dickinson, L. (1995). Autonomy and motivation: a literature review. System, 23,165-174.

González-Bueno, M. (1998). The effects of electronic mail on Spanish L2 discourse.Language Learning & Technology, 1, 2, 55-70.

Hammond, M. & Collins, R. (1991).Self-directed learning: critical practice. NewJersey: Nichols.

Little, D. (1991).Learner Autonomy. 1: Definitions, Issues and Problems. Dublin:Authentik.

LoCastro, V. (2001). Individual differences in second language acquisition: attitudes, learner subjectivity, and L2 pragmatic norms. System, 29, 1, 69-89.

Motteram, G. (1997). Learner autonomy and the Web.In V. Darleguy et al. (eds)Educational Technology in Language Learning: Theoretical Considerationsand Practical Applications. Lyons: INSA (National Institute of AppliedScience), pp. 17-24.

Stepp-Greany, J. (2002). Student perceptions on language learning in a technologicalenvironment: implications for the new millennium. Language Learning &Technology, 6, 1, 165-180.

 

Warschauer, M., Turbee, L., & Roberts, B. (1994). Computer learning networks andstudent empowerment. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii, Second LanguageTeaching & Curriculum

Analisis Jenis dan Frekuensi Kesalahan Gramatikal Bahasa Inggris Tulis Mahasiswa

Zubaidi

Politeknik Negeri Malang


ABSTRAK

Kesalahan gramatikal dalam berbahasa asing tidaklah dapat dihindari dan ini waiar terjadi.  Kesalahan ini disebabkan oleh beberapa faktor, yang antara lain berupa: pengaruh bahasa  asal, generalisasi yang berlebihan (overgenerali-zation), tidak megetahui aturan gramatikal, atau aturan gramatikal yang disalah-mengertikan. Penelitian ini menguji frekuensi dan jenis kesalahan tulis dari 20 karangan pendek yang dibuat oleh mahasiswa Jurusan Administrasi Niaga, Politeknik Negeri Malang. Dari  429  kalimat dalam karangan tersebut ditemukan 871 kesalahan dalam 25 jenis. Jenis kesalahan yang terbanyak adalah omission of article, omission of plural, S-V agreement, dan omission of preposition. Hasil investigasi terhadap penyebab kesalahan tersebut adalah adanya pengaruh bahasa asal (L1) terhadap bahasa sasaran (L2).

 

Kata kunci: kesalahan gramatikal, error analysis, contrastive analysis, grammatical errors

 

Mempelajari kesalahan gramatikal (grammatical errors) dalam suatu wacana setidaknya dimaksudkan untuk dua tujuan, yakni: (1) men-cari data tentang perolehan bahasa (language acquisition), dan (2) mencari informasi sebagai dasar untuk mengembangkan kurikulum dan menyusun materi pengajaran (Richards, ed., 1974).

Kesalahan gramatikal adalah penyimpa-ngan terhadap aturan baku dalam bahasa tulis maupun lesan yang terjadi secara sistematis (Giri, 2010). Dalam proses mempelajari suatu bahasa kesalahan gramatikal adalah sesuatu yang wajar dan sering kali tidak ter-hindari. Oleh karena itu kesalahan ini perlu dipelajari dan dicermati sehingga dapat dike-tahui jenis, frekuensinya dan penyebabnya sehingga kemudian dapat ditemukan cara-cara untuk mengatasi kesalahan tersebut.

 Ada beberapa jenis kesalahan grama-tikal yang dikelompokkan secara umum dalam analisis kesalahan. Jenis kesalahan tersebut adalah (1) penghapusan morfem gramatikal (omitting grammatical morphemes), (2) penandaan ganda (double marking), (3) pola keteraturan (regularizing), (4) penggunaan archiform (using aarchiform), (5) penggunaan dua bentuk atau lebih dalam perubahan random (using two or more forms in random alteration), dan (6) salah penempatan (mis-ordering). Jenis-jenis kesalahan ini kemudian dikembangkan lagi bersamaan dengan dikem-bangkannya teori-teori baru dalam analisis kesalahan gramatikal dalam berbahasa.

 

Contrastive Analysis vs. Error Analysis

Contrastive analysis (CA) muncul pada abad ke-18 ketika William Jones membandingkan bahasa-bahasa Yunani dengan bahasa-bahasa Sanskrit. Dengan CA ini ia menemukan bahwa kedua kelompok bahasa tersebut memiliki banyak persamaan yang sistematis. CA memfokuskan pengamatannya pada aspek hubungan-hubungan fonologi dan evolusinya, sehingga dihasilkan silsilah-silsilah bahasa.

Pendekatan CA ini didasarkan pada asumsi bahwa kita dapat meramalkan dan menguraikan struktur bahasa yang dipelajari (L2) yang akan menyebabkan kesulitan dalam pelajaran dengan membandingkannya dengan bahasa asal (L1). Dalam  perbandingan bahasa  kedua bahasa tersebut akan ditemukan aspek-aspek bahasa yang sama dan berbeda. Diasumsikan bahwa aspek bahasa yang sama akan mudah dipelajari sedangkan aspek yang berbeda akan sulit dipelajari.

Selain itu, CA juga dikaitkan dengan teori pengalihan bahasa atau language transfer. Dalam teori ini dikatakan bahwa pembelajar bahasa cenderung untuk mengalihkan pola atau struktur bahasa asal ke pola atau struktur bahasa yang dipelajarinya. Menurut beberapa pakar CA, pengalihan bahasa digolongkan dalam dua kelompok, yakni pengalihan bahasa yang meunjang pembelajaran, dan pengalihan bahasa yang menghambat pembelajaran.

Para ahli bahasa terpecah menjadi dua kelompok dalam memandang manfaat CA ini, yakni kelompok yang percaya bahwa CA dapat memberikan sumbangan yang berarti bai pengajaran bahasa, dan kelompok yang meragukan manfaat CA dalam membantu keberhasilan pengajaran bahasa. Namun, setidaknya CA berguna dalam: (1) menerangkan mengapa kesalahan terjadi, dan (2) menunjuk-kan strategi apa yang harus diambil untuk mengurangi kesalahan itu dalam pembelajaran bahasa.

Dalam melakukan investigasinya, CA mengamati Perbedaan (dan persamaan) pada aspek: (1) fonologi, baik fonem segmental maupun suprasegmental, gugus vokal maupun gugus konsonan; (2) morfologi atau pembentukan kata; (3) sintaksis, yakni pembentukan kalimat, baik struktur dalam (deep structure) dan struktur luar (surface structure); (4) leksis (lexical contrasts), yakni yang terkait dengan kosa kata; (5) budaya, yakni dalam perilaku non-linguistik; dan (6) ortografis (orthographical contrasts), yaitu dalam penulisan abjad, suku kata dan tulisan logografik.

Dalam teori CA ini dikatakan bahwa ‘belajar bahasa’ pada dasarnya merupakan suatu proses pembentukan kebiasaan-kebia-saan otomatis dan bahwa oleh karenanya kesalahan-kesalahan yang terjadi berasal dari kebiasaan dalam berbahasa asal (L1) yang mempengaruhi pembelajar dalam mempelajari bahasa sasaran (L2). Dikatakan juga bahwa analisis kontrastif atau perbandingan dari dua bahasa yang dipelajari akan menggambarkan aspek-aspek bahasa sasaran mana yang meng-hasilkan kesalahan.

Namun, beberapa pakar bahasa lain melihat bahwa sejumlah besar kesalahan yang dibuat pembelajar mungkin tidak dapat ditelusuri melalui bahasa asalnya. Oleh karena-nya, teori CA ini dianggap tidak dapat menjelaskan secara rinci sebab-sebab dari kesalahan gramatikal. Sebagai gantinya, muncullah teori baru yang disebut sebagai Error Analysis.

Error Analysis (EA) atau analisis kesalahan baru menjadi populer pada tahun 1965-an. Teori ini meneliti secara mendalam kesalahan-kesalahan yang ditemukan dalam pembelajaran bahasa dan mencari tahu sebab-sebab terjadi kesalahan yang dibuat. Tidak berbeda dengan CA, EA dipergunakan untuk mengidentifikasi unsur-unsur bahasa yang menimbulkan kesulitan belajar.

Sementara itu, EA dilaksanakan dengan menganalisis wacana pembelajar, baik lesan maupun tulis, dan mengidentifikasi kesalahan yang ada dan kemudian dikelompokkan dalam jenis kesalahan dan selanjutnya dihitung frekuensinya. Kesalahan yang mempunyai frekuensi tinggi dikategorikan sebagai unsur bahasa yang sukar dipejari atau dipahami; sebaliknya kesalahan yang mempunyai frekuensi rendah dianggap sebagai mudah.

Sebelum diuraikan lebih lanjut tentang metode dalam EA, perlu diketahui terlebih dahulu tentang kesalahan gramatikal (grammatical errors) dan kekeliruan gramatikal (grammatical mistakes).

Menurut teori audiolinguism, kesalahan gramatikal merupakan tanda bahwa cara penyajian materi bahasa kurang baik atau guru kurang mahir dalam mengajar. Sementara itu menurut pendekatan komunikasi, kesalahan-kesalahan gramatis justru merupakan tanda bahwa proses belajar mengajar berjalan dengan lancar dan bahwa kesalahan tersebut tidak perlu dihindari atau dielakkan.

Dalam berbahasa pembelajar sering membuat kesalahan. Kesalahan, atau lebih tepatnya penyimpangan dari strukutr yang benar, dibedakan dalam dua kategori, yakni KESALAHAN atau disebut errors, dan KEKELIRUAN atau disebut mistakes. Secara konsep, keduanya berbeda.

Kekeliruan (mistakes) adalah penyimpa-ngan yang tidak secara sengaja diucapkan atau dituliskan oleh seorang penutur, dan dengan mudah dapat diperbaiki oleh penutur itu sendiri. Semua orang, baik penutur asli maupun bukan penutur asli, dapat membuat kekeliruan. Tetapi apabila ia dapat dengan segera memperbaiki kekeliruan tersebut karena dia sadar bahwa ia membuat kekeliruan maka ini bukan disebabkan ia tidak menerapkan aturan-aturan tata bahasa yang benar. Kekeliruan biasanya disebabkan oleh hal-hal yang bersifat psikologis, seperti: kelelahan, kurang menyi-mak, mengantuk, memikirkan hal lain, dan lain sebagainya.

Sebaliknya, kesalahan (errors) ialah penyimpangan dari tata bahasa yang benar karena ia tidak memahami aturan tata bahasa tersebut. Oleh karenanya, penutur tersebut  biasanya tidak dapat segera memperbaiki kesalahan itu. Kesalahan biasanya terjadi secara sistematis dan sering terjadi berulang. Penutur akan menyadari kesalahannya jika diberitahu oleh penutur lain atau guru.

Secara lebih rinci, langkah-langkah yang dilakukan dalam analisis kesalahan (EA) ini adalah: (1) mengidentifikasi kesalahan, tidak hanya yang terkait dengan faktor linguistik tetapi juga dengan faktor non-linguistik; (2) menjabarkan kesalahan, yakni menggolongkan jenis kesalahan berupa addition, omission, alteration,  dan misordering; (3) menerangkan kesalahan, yaitu mencari sebab-sebab terjadinya kesalahan, yang umumnya berupa fossilization, overgeneralization, hyper-correction, miscon-ception, dan misformation; (4) mengevaluasi kesalahan, yakni menganalisis kesalahan secara kualitatif dan kuantitatif; dan (5) memperbaiki kesalahan.

Dalam menganalisis kesalahan, EA menggunakan empat taksonomi untuk mengelompokkan kesalahan. Taksonomi ini diperlukan untuk mencari sebab-sebab kesalahan sehingga mudah dalam menarik kesimpulan. Keempat taksonomi tersebut adalah:

 

  1. 1.       Taksonomi Kategori Linguistik (linguistic category taxonomy)

Dalam taksonomi ini pengelompokan kesalahan didasarkan pada aspek kebahasaan (linguistic items) yang  meliputi fonologi, sintaks, morfologi, semantik, leksikon, dan wacana (discourse).

 

  1. 2.       Taksonomi Strategi Permukaan (surface strategy taxonomy)

Dengan taksonomi ini kesalahan gramatikal digolongkan berdasarkan pada bagaimana struktur bahasa mengalami perubahan yang mengarah pada kesalahan. Kesalahan yang mungkin terjadi adalah (1) omission, yakni penghilangan unsur-unsur kalimat tertentu yang justru diperlukan, (2) addition, yaitu penambahan unsur-unsur kalimat yang justru tidak diperlukan, (3) misformation, yakni pembentukan unsur kalimat yang salah, dan (4) misorder, yaitu penempatan unsur kalimat yang salah.

 

  1. 3.       Taksonomi Perbandingan (comparison taxonomy)

Taksonomi ini mengklasifikasi kesalahan dengan membandingkan kesalahan yang sama yang dilakukan oleh anak-anak penutur asli  bahasa yang dipelajari. Kelompok kesalahannya dimasukkan dalam empat golongan, yakni development errors, interlingual errors, ambigious errors, dan other errors.

 

  1. 4.       Taksonomi Efek Komunikasi (communica-tion effect taxonomy)

Dalam taksonomi ini kesalahan didasarkan pada ‘kesalahan-kesalahan bukan dalam struktur dan kosa kata tetapi dalam ragam bahasa yang digunakan’ atau disebut sebagai unsur pragmatik. Unsur pragmatik ini mencakup setting,pelaku komunikasi, tujuan, suasana, topik, dan media.

 

Bahan-Bahan Analisis Kesalahan

Dalam melakukan analsis kesalahan gramatikal, peneliti dapat menggunakan sumber-sumber data analisisnya. Umumnya sumber itu dikumpulkan dari bahan-bahan wacana yang diproduksi oleh pembelajar, baik secara lesan maupun tertulis. Hasil-hasil penelitian menun-jukkan bahwa teknik pengambilan data dapat mempengaruhi hasil atau kesimpulan dari analisis, dalam hal ini adalah baik jenis kesalah-an yang ditemukan maupun urutan unsur-unsur bahasa yang menjadi titik perhatian analisisnya. Oleh karena itu, dalam memilih jenis data untuk dianalisis peneliti perlu mempertimbangkan kemungkinan hasil yang akan diperoleh.

Data untuk analisis kesalahan dapat diambil dari sumber-sumber berikut.

 

  1. a.      Wawancara

Biasanya wawancara dilaksanakan secara individual berdasarkan pertanyaan-perta-nyaan mengenai topik-topik tertentu. Hasil wawancara itu direkam dan kemudian dianalisis. Dengan cara wawancara  ini peran pewawancara sangat berpengaruh dalam ujaran-ujaran yang dihasilkan oleh pembelajar. Situasi yang diciptakan oleh pewawancara akan juga mempengaruhi pembelajar secara psikologis yang pada akhirnya hasilnya mungkin baik atau tidak. Teknik wawancara ini membutuhkan waktu yang panjang sehingga jarang digunakan.

 

  1. b.      Karangan Tertulis

Dengan cara ini peneliti memberikan beberapa pilihan topik kepada pembelajar untuk kemudian menulis sebuah karangan pendek, satu atau beberapa paragraf, sesuai dengan topik yang dipilihnya. Tingkat kesulitan topik yang diberikan (berdasarkan latar belakang pengetahuan atau back-graound knowledge pembelajar) akan mempengaruhi hasil wacana yang diproduksi, terkait juga dengan penguasaan kosa katanya.

 

  1. c.       Karangan lesan

Dengan cara ini peneliti memberikan topik-topik tertentu dan pembelajar kemudian mencatat hal-hal yang akan diucapkan. Data analisis berupa rekaman dari karangan lesan yang diproduksi oleh pembelajar.

 

  1. d.      Dialog Terbuka

Cara ini disebut sebagai open-ended dialog, dimana pembelajar diberi suatu percakapan antara dua peran, A dan B. Peran A sudah memiliki kalimat-kalimat lengkapnya, sedangkan peran B masih kosong yang harus dilengkapi oleh pembelajar sesuai dengan konteks yang diberikan. Data semacam ini disebut sebagai data denga  bahan pancingan atau elicitated data.

 

  1. e.       Terjemahan

Bahan data analisis dengan cara ini dipero-leh dari pembelajar atas hasil terjemahan. Pembelajar diberi suatu wacana dalam bahasa asal (L1) dan mereka kemudian diminta untuk menterjemahkannya ke dalam bahasa sasaran (L2). Teknik ini sering dipakai tetapi memerlukan kehati-hatian karena apabila ujaran-ujaran dari bahasa asal tidak jelas atau tidak disusun dengan baik dan baku maka hasil terjemahannya juga akan tidak baik. Dengan demikian, kesalahan yang terjadi bukan disebabkan oleh ketidakmampuan pembelajar dalam berbahasa sasaran tetapi lebih oleh faktor lain.

 

Subyek Penelitian

Penelitian ini menjabarkan dan menjelaskan kesalahan gramatikal yang terdapat pada karangan tulis pendek  oleh mahasiswa Program Diploma III, Jurusan Administrasi Niaga, Poli-teknik Negeri Malang. Di jurusan ini bahasa Inggris diajarkan sebagai salah satu mata kuliah pokok.

Mata kuliah ini diajarkan selama enam semester berturut-turut dan bersifat sebagai mata kuliah praktek dalam koridor English for Specific Purposes (ESP) dan English for Occupational Purposes (EOP). Dengan demikian, topik-topik yang diajarkan adalah topik yang terkait dengan jurusan, yang antara lain filing, handling guests, office management, financial management, office ettiquette, secretarial duties dan lain sebaginya.

Bahasa Inggris diajarkan dalam jumlah jam yang cukup banyak dibandingkan dengan mata kuliah lain, yakni 5 atau 6 jam per minggu selama 18 minggu. Pada semester 1 dan 2 bahasa Inggris diajarkan dengan fokus pada dasar-dasar bahasa Inggris termasuk grammar, ungkapan-ungkapan sederhana untuk berkomu-nikasi, dan dikemas dalam empat keterampilan berbahasa, yakni reading, listening, speaking dan writing.

 

Metodologi dan hasil penelitian

Penelitian ini dilakukan terhadap hasil karya tulis pendek oleh mahasiswa di Jurusan Administrasi Niaga Politeknik Negeri Malang.  Dengan menggunakan sampel secara acak, 20 karangan pendek diambil dari sejumlah 51 karangan. Karangan ini adalah hasil tugas dalam mengikuti mata kuliah ‘Business English’ yang diajarkan pada semester 5.

Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui jenis-jenis kesalahan gramatikal yang dilakukan oleh mahasiswa dalam karangan tulis mereka dan untuk mengetahui tingkat keseringan atau frekuensi kesalahan gramatikal untuk masing-masing jenisnya.

Hasil penelitian ini bermanfaat bagi para pengajar bahasa Inggris, khususnya di Jursan Administrasi Niaga, sebagai salah satu evaluasi terhadap kesulitan-kesulitan yang dihadapi oleh mahasiswa dalam berbahasa Inggris, yang ditunjukkan dengan terjadinya kesalahan-kesalahan gramatikal. Dengan demi-kian, pengajar dapat memberikan waktu khusus untuk mengajarkan dan memperbaiki kesa-lahan-kesalahan gramatikal tersebut bersama-sama dengan mahasiswa.

Dengan menggunakan taksonomi stra-tegi permukaan (surface strategy taxonomy), semua karangan dianalisis untuk mengidenti-fikasi kesalahan-kesalahan gramatikal yang terdapat di dalam setiap kalimat. Proses ini adalah bagian analisis yang membutuhkan  banyak waktu dan ketelitian karena setiap kalimat dari sejumlah 429 kalimat ditandai jenis-jenis kesalahannya. Tanda-tanda tertentu digunakan untuk menandai kesalahan, seperti garis bawah, lingkaran, tanda panah tunggal, tanda panah bolak-balik, tanda centang, tanda tanya, dan tanda coret.

Setelah semua kesalahan diidentifikasi, kesalahan tersebut kemudian dikelompokkan jenis kesalahannya. Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa terdapat 25 jenis kesalahan gramatikal seperti terangkum pada Tabel 1 berikut.

 

 

Tabel 1

Jenis, Contoh dan Frekuensi Kesalahan yang Dibuat oleh Mahasiswa

 

Jenis Kesalahan

Contoh

Frekuensi

Total

Persen

A.      Omission (tulisan superscript adalah pembetulan oleh peneliti)
A1. Article Qualified opinion is given by the auditor.

207

23,77

A2. Head noun GNP is used to measure high and low income.

5

0,57

A3. Subject We hope we are not deceived by that.

18

2,07

A4. Main verb … and the workers are not bored.

37

4,25

A5. Direct object The company divides it into several parts.

6

0,68

A6. Preposition The tax bond is divided into two parts.

58

6,66

A7. Plural In fact, the function of all secretaryies is not only helping the director.

83

9,53

A8. Conjuction … many private banks take fund from people with all methods and that is a good idea.

8

0,92

B.      Addition (tanda kesalahan dan pembetulan oleh peneliti)
B1. Double marking of verb Macro economy is a science that is studyies carefully …

18

2,07

B2. Double marking of noun … makes the workplace an important part of each worker employee.

18

2,07

B3. Article The selection depends on a the job analysis.

7

0,80

B4. Preposition We can know the economic situation of a country with in the same variables.

16

1,83

C.      Misformation (tulisan miring oleh peneliti)
C1. Overgenerali-zation It catched sight of Section 3 PBB institutions …

11

1,26

C2. Alternating forms of verb It is used to indicate and to provision

42

4,82

C3. Alternating forms of preposition Status refers with a person’s rank or …

29

3,33

C4. Alternating forms of adverb … to indicate the economic variables with the way totality.

26

2,99

C5. Alternating forms of noun All departments must have planning.

50

5,74

D.      Misordering (tulisan miring oleh peneliti)

 

 

D1. Adverb Credit tax only can happen if …

2

0,23

D2. Noun They don’t take the credit long-term because …

9

1,03

E.       Other Errors (tulisan miring oleh peneliti)

 

 

E1. Tense The limited company is being a kind of a comapnies…

29

3,33

E2. Passive voice … that is invite to operate in districts.

31

3,56

E3. Adj-Noun The price favourable is wanted by the supplier.

45

5,17

E4. Possessive Auditors report consists of …

21

2,41

E5. Agreement Tabungan Kesra are motored by BII, Bank Danmon, and Bank Bali.

81

9,30

E6. To-Infinitive The selection must to take attention to a rule and government appointment.

14

1,61

871

100,00

Sumber: Data primer penelitian

Langkah berikutnya dalam analisis ini adalah mencari sebab terjadinya kesalahan yang dibuat oleh mahasiswa. Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa ada lima macam sebab terjadinya kesalahan, sebagai berikut:

1. Pengaruh bahasa asal (bahasa Indonesia) terhadap bahasa Inggris, yang mencakup:

1.a. Penghilangan kata sandang (article):

  • Secretary is assistant of leader. →   A secretary is an assistant of a leader.
  • In 1990 there was decrease of production. →   In 1990 there was a decrease of production.

1.b. Pengurutan frase benda yang tidak benar:

  • The operator bank includes …→   The bank operator includes …
  • Invoice Purchase is made for the buyer. →   Purchase Invoice is made for the buyer.)

1.c. Pemilihan kata depat yang tidak tepat:

  • The function of a secretary is different with the function of   …→   The function of a secretary is different from the function of…
  • We know people will be interested with high interests.→   We know people will be interested in high interests.

1.d. Pembentukan kata keterangan yang tidak tepat:

  • The leader must solve the problem with careful.→   The leader must solve the problem carefully.
  • “…to indicate the economic variables with the way totality.”→   …to indicate the economic variables in the total way.

 

2. Generalisasi aturan yang tidak benar (over-generalizatio), yang meliputi:

2.a. Pembentukan kata yang tidak benar (misformation):

  • The company never gived holidays. →   The company never gave holidays.
  • The guests may not be leaved doing nothing.→   The guests may not be left doing nothing.

2.b. Pembentukan kata benda yang tidak benar:

  • All departments must have plan-ning.→   All departments must have plans.
  • The guests must write thier identity in the guest booking.→   The guests must write thier identity in the guest book.

 

3. Aturan bahasa tertentu tidak dipahami, yang meliputi:

3.a. Pemakaian kata kerja yang salah:

  • After research the problem, so the writer…→   After researching the problem, the writer…
  • The secretary must keep smile.→   The secretary must keep smiling.

3.b. Pemilihan ‘tense’ yang tidak benar:

  • If the company was good, I will take the job.→   If the company were good, I would take the job.)
  • The waiting room provided good situation in order the guests can stay well.→   The waiting room provides good situation in order the guests can stay well.

3.c. Penggunaan kata depan yang tidak tepat:

  • The auditor has examined the financial report according in Auditing Standards.→   The auditor has examined the financial report according to Auditing Standards.
  • …to receive guests who will meet to the director.→   …to receive guests who will meet to the director.

 

4. Pembelajar tidak menerapkan tata bahasa secara lengkap, yang umumnya berupa penghilangan unsur bahasa tertentu:

4.a. Tidak adanya ‘head noun’ dalam frasa benda (omission of head-noun):

  • The secretary can keep the meeting for the next meeting.→   The secretary can keep the meeting minutes for the next meeting.
  • The company can use perpetual to balance the property.→   The company can use perpetual method to balance the property.

4.b. Tidak adanya kata kerja utama dalam kalimat (omission of main verb):

  • The workers absent from work.→   The workers were absent from work.
  • It also a kind of limited tax.→   It is also a kind of limited tax.

4.c. Tidak adanya subyek kalimat (omission of subject):

  • In the study developed categories of needs.→   In the study he developed categories of needs.
  • Also means an employee who manages correspondence.→   Also secretary means an employee who manages correspondence.

4.d. Tidak adanya kata depan (omission of preposition):

  • … to take care of the documents manager.→   … to take care of the documents of manager.
  • The duty the receiving department is to receive all goods.→   The duty the receiving department is to receive all goods

4.e. Tidak ada kesesuaian antara subyek dan kata kerja utamanya (S-V agreement):

  • She help the manager for his jobs.→   She helps the manager for his jobs.
  • It cause a person to take the tax…→   It causes a person to take the tax…

4.f. Tidak adanya kesesuaian antara kata sandang dan kata benda (Article-Noun agreement):

  • The secretary should be able to write a letters well.→   The secretary should be able to write a letter well.
  • The secretary then keeps that letters.→   The secretary then keeps those letters.

 

5. Pembelajar mempunyai pengertian yang salah tentang suatu konsep dalam bahasa sasaran (L2). Contoh kesalahan seperti ini adalah penulisan kata kerja berganda (double marking of verb):

  • So her leader must can take measures …→   So her leader must take measures …
  • Objective tax is be a tax which …→   Objective tax is a tax which …

 

Kesimpulan dan saran

Langkah berikutnya dalam analisis kesalahan dalam penelitian ini ada mengevaluasi kesalah-an. Yang dimaksud dengan mengevaluasi kesa-lahan adalah menganalisis data secara kualitatif dan kuantitatif. Dari data primer penelitian, semua kesalahan dikelompokkan jenisnya dan kemudian dihitung frekuensinya. Hasil evaluasi ini tercantum pada Tabel 1 di atas.

Tabel tersebut menunjukkan bahwa jumlah keseluruhan kesalahan yang dibuat adalah 871 dari 429 kalimat. Jenis kesalahan yang mempunyai frekuensi paling tinggi adalah ‘omission of article’ yakni sebesar 23,77%. Kesalahan seperti ini diyakini disebabkan oleh masih besarnya pengaruh bahasa asal (Bahasa Indonesia) terhadap kemampuan berbahasa Inggris karena kata sandang dalam bahasa Indonesia bukan merupakan unsur penentu dalam kalimat, sementara sebaliknya, kata sandang dalam bahasa Inggris sangatlah penting. Dengan demikian, unsur bahasa ini perlu mendapatkan perhatian khusus dalam proses belajar mengajar.

Jenis kesalahan kedua yang sering dila-kukan oleh mahasiswa adalah ‘omission of plural’ atau tidak menggunakan bentuk plural untuk frasa benda. Kesalahan ini dilakukan oleh mahasiswa sebanyak 9,53%. Kesalahan ini terjadi juga akibat pengaruh bahasa asal karena bahasa Indonesia tidak memiliki aturan yang sama terkait kesesuaian antara head-noun dan kata sandang atau article.

Jenis kesalahan ketiga dengan frekuensi besar adalah ‘S-V agreement’ dimana jumlah-nya adalah 81 atau sebesar 9,30%. Jenis kesalahan ini umumnya timbul karena maha-siswa tidak menerapkan atauran tata bahasa secara benar.

Kesalahan yang berkaitan dengan preposition perlu diajarkan secara lebih intensif dalam proses belajar mengajar mengingat hasil evaluasinya menunjukkan persentase yang cukup besar yakni 58 kesalahan.

Setelah evaluasi dalam metode peneli-tian ini, langkah berikutnya yang perlu dilaku-kan adalah memperbaiki kesalahan dengan cara melakukan rekonstruksi ujaran-ujaran yang digunakan. Memperbaiki kesalahan ini dilaku-kan dengan memperhatikan jenis kesalahan dan penyebab kesalahannya.

Selanjutnya, agar mahasiswa menyadari bahwa mereka membuat kesalahan gramatikal dalam kalimat yang mereka buat, memperbaiki kesalahan ini dilakukan bersama-sama dengan mahasiswa.

Karena pengaruh bahasa Indonesia menjadi penyebab paling besar terjadi kesalahan gramtikan ini, mahasiswa perlu diberi waktu cukup untuk lebih banyak mempelajari tata bahasa Inggris, khususnya pada aturan tata bahasa yang memiliki pola yang sangat berbeda dengan pola bahasa Indonesia. Pemberian materi ini akan lebih baik dilakukan dengan memberikan banyak latihan sehingga pola kalimat yang sering mereka buat secara salah dapat diingat lebih mudah dan dapat dipahami dan digunakan secara bawah sadar.

Penanganan kesalahan gramatikal harus dilakukan seara hati-hati dan diupayakan agar mahasiswa tidak merasa ‘salah’ yang akhirnya dapat menurunkan motivasi mereka untuk menggunakan bahasa Inggris. Perbaikan kesala-han gramatikal sebaiknya dilakukan dengan yang tepat.

 

Daftar Pustaka

Abbasi, Mehdi; Karimnia, Amin. 2011. “An analysis of grammatical errors among Iranian translation students: Insights from interlanguage theory”. European Journal of Social Sciences. 25(4). 525-536.

Abushihab, Ibrahim; El-Omari, Abdallah H.; and  Tobat, Mahmoud. 2011. “An analysis of written grammatical errors of Arab learners of English as a foreign language at Alzaytoonah Private University of Jordan”. European Journal of Social Sciences. 20(4). 543-552.

Erdogan, P. 2005. “Contribution of error analysis to foreign language teaching”. Mersin University Journal of the Faculty of Education. 1(2). 261-270.

Font-Llitjos, Ariadna; Probst, Katharina; and Carbonell, J aime G., “Error Analysis of Two Types of Grammar for the Purpose of Automatic Rule Refinement” (2004). Computer Science Department. Paper 304. http://repository.cmu.edu/compsci/304

Giri, Anju. 2010. “Errors in the use of English grammar”. Journal of NELTA. 15/1-2. 54-63.

Guasti, Maria Teresa. 2002. Language Acquisition: The Growth of Grammar. Massachusetts: Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Lee, I. 2004. “Error correction in L2 secondary writing classrooms: The case of Hong Kong”. Journal of Second Language Writing. 13(4). 285–312.

Lightbown, Patsy M.; Spada, Nina. 1998. How Languages Are Learned. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Richards,  Jack, (Ed).  1974.  Error  Analysis:  Perspectives  on  Second  Language  Acquisition.  London: Longman.

Thornbury, Scott. 1999. How to Teach Grammar. Essex: Pearson Education Limited.

Using Mind Mapping and Five Reviewing Patterns to Improve Senior High School Students’ Vocabulary Mastery

by Dian Fadhilawati

Islamic University of Balitar, Blitar, East Java, Indonesia

Abstract

This reported research was a collaborative action research to improve the vocabulary achievement of high school students using mind mapping and five reviewing patterns proposed by Buzan (2009). The subjects were 35 students of X-B class of MAN Kota Blitar, East Java, Indonesia, in 2011/2012 academic years. The data of the research included qualitative data (observation result and field note) and quantitative data (test result). This research was conducted in one cycle which included 2 meetings. The first meeting was done at Tuesday, 7 February 2012. It was for teaching vocabulary about newspaper and publishing using mind mapping and review 1. The second meeting was done at Wednesday, 8 February 2012. It was for teaching vocabulary about radio and television as well as for the review 2 at the beginning of the meeting. At the end of the meeting, the teacher gave take home tasks for review 2 of meeting 2. Further, the third review (1 week after the first learning) was given at Wednesday, 15 February 2012. It was intended for reviewing both the materials in meeting 1 and 2. The forth review was a take home reviewing tasks given 1 month after the first learning and the fifth review was a take home review assigned 3 months after the first learning. After all of the five reviews, a vocabulary test was administered. The finding showed that the implementation of mind mapping and 5 reviewing patterns could improve the students’ vocabulary achievement, from the mean score of 55.66 to 80.57. The students also gave positive responses toward the strategies applied as reflected from the result of the questionnaire given.

 

Key words: mind-mapping, reviewing, vocabulary achievement

Based on the researcher’ preliminary observation at the first of February 2012, it was found the following weaknesses. First, teachers lacked of media in teaching and learning process (the teacher only used an exercise book called “LKS Aspirasi”). He did not use the language laboratory, chart, mind mapping, game, song pictures, or other media/facilities. Second, the students were lazy and unmotivated. Third, the students were passive in the classroom. Fourth, in teaching vocabulary the teacher only wrote down the vocabulary list on the white board and asked the students to find the meaning of the word in Indonesian. Therefore, the researcher assumed that instruction absolutely must be changed by the teacher by using appropriate method in order the students take apart to the lesson and got better achievement at the end of teaching learning process.

In addition, based on the result of the vocabulary test which administered to the students before the action, it could be said that the students’ English ability of X-B class was low, especially in understanding the meaning of words in context. The students’ mean score for the vocabulary test was 55.66, that was below the minimum school standard criterion of English mastery that required them at least have mean score 70.00.

Actually, there are a lot of interactive media or strategies to encourage students to take apart in the lesson especially in vocabulary teaching and learning. Since vocabulary teaching and learning aimed at enabling learners to understand the concepts of unfamiliar words, to gain a greater number of words, and to use words successfully for communicative purpose, it is necessary for the teacher to select and apply appropriate strategies in teaching vocabulary for the students which could improve their motivation to take apart in the lesson.

Mind mapping and five reviewing patterns proposed by Buzan (2009) can be applied by the teacher in teaching vocabulary. There are some reasons why the teacher may use mind mapping in teaching vocabulary, for example: (1) mind mapping is very appropriate and flexible to be applied for different levels of age, theme, subject, and situation either for whole class, group or individual, (2) mind mapping is a very good tool for creative thinking and problem solving, (3) in foreign language teaching and learning, mind mapping can improve memory recall of facts, words or images, (4) mind mapping is creative note taking method, which eases us to remember much information, and (5) mind mapping is colorful, uses pictures or symbols which leads the students’ interest to the subject (Deporter, Readon, and Nourie, 1997: 175). From the statement above, it can be concluded that mind mapping is potentially a good way to teach vocabulary to the students in senior high school.

In line with the previous statements, Buzan (1993:1) adds that mind mapping is a powerful graphic technique which provides a universal key to unlock the potential of brain. It imitates the thinking process, recording information through symbol, pictures, emotional meaning and colors, exactly the same like our brain process it. It means that mind mapping is very useful media for creating attractive, and enjoyable learning that lead the successfulness of the students in learning English vocabulary

In addition Buzan (2009: 39) also states that by using a mind mapping we can see what we are going to do and what we have done. It means, mind mapping may be used by the teacher or the students for planning the lesson, summarizing the lesson or recall to the lesson that the students have learnt. Moreover, Buzan (2009) also argues that mind mapping and 5 reviewing patterns will lead the students to achieve good scores in their examination test.

Talking about the success of the students’ in gaining good vocabulary achievement, it is crucial for the teacher to think deeply about how to implant vocabulary in the students’ mind for long term memory. In this case, the teacher may apply reviewing to facilitate the students with better memory to what they have learnt. It could be done at school or at home by giving tasks as a mean for reviewing the lesson that the students have learnt.

Usually many students are confused in deciding when they should start to review their school lessons, and most of them tend to postpone the reviews. As a result, in the time of final test, they often panic and study for their test immediately at the night before the examination with less sleep. As a result, at the examination day they lost concentration, were sleepy and, therefore, they failed or got poor scores. Actually, the best way to review lessons is step by step, little by little, day by day, and gradually until it becomes a habit in life (Buzan, 2009:38).

Furthermore, a good reviewing model was proposed by Buzan (2009) which is called 5 reviewing patterns. Buzan (2009:125) states that if students review the lesson 5 times such as: (1) 1 hour after the first learning, (2) 1 day after the first learning, (3) I week after the first learning, (4) 1 month after the first learning, and (5) 3 months up to 6 months after the first learning), they would have permanent memory of the lesson.

Therefore, the researcher and her collaborator assumed that the use of mind mapping and 5 reviewing patterns proposed by Buzan (2009) could improve the students’ vocabulary achievement and facilitate the students’ memory of the words or phrases they have learnt.

The studies on the use of mind mapping in teaching English have been performed by some researchers such as: Indah (2010), Effendi (2004), and Helmasari (2008). In this case, Indah (2010) proved that mind mapping was an effective medium to teach vocabulary to the tenth grade students of SMU Negeri 15 Palembang. Besides that, Effendi (2004) also found that mind mapping was effective to increase the second year students’ reading comprehension at SLTPN 43 Palembang. Further, Helmasari (2008) reported that mind mapping was effective to teach paragraph writing to the eleventh year students of SMA Negeri 14 Palembang.

 

 

Research Objective

The objective of this research is to use mind mapping and five reviewing patterns to improve the tenth year students’ vocabulary achievement at MAN Kota Blitar.

 

Research Design

In this research, the researcher employed collaborative classroom action research through mind mapping and Buzan’s 5 reviewing patterns to improve the students’ vocabulary achievement of X-B class of MAN Kota Blitar. In this case, the researcher’s collaborator was involved from the beginning up to the end of the research process. The action of teaching vocabulary through mind mapping and Buzan’s 5 times reviewing patterns is done by the researcher, and her collaborator acted as an observer of the teaching learning process. This idea is based on Calhoun’s principle (in Kasbollah, 2002:43) that argued “in collaborative action research, the researcher makes collaboration with the school teacher investigated as the researcher’s collaborator to do the research activities.”

 

Research Setting

The Research was conducted in MAN Kota Blitar starting from February to May 2012. The school is located at Jl. Jati 78 Sukorejo Blitar. This school was chosen because of some reasons such as: there are problems which need solution dealing English teaching learning process mainly on vocabulary achievement of X-B class which considered need to improve, and of course the permission from headmaster of MAN Kota Blitar.

 

Research Subjects

The research subjects of this research were the students of Class X-B of MAN Kota Blitar, consisting of 35 students (11 boys and 14 girls). The class was chosen as the subject because: (1) the class of X-B got the lowest achievement among the others class at the first semester (2) the students’ low vocabulary achievement (with the mean score of 55.66).

 

Research Procedure

The procedure of this Classroom Action Research was a modified version of Kemmis and Taggart (1997:27) model which covered some steps, namely preliminary study, planning of action, action, observing the action, and reflecting on the observation. This research was held from February to May 2012. The researchers conducted this study for one cycle that planning the action, implementing the action followed by 5 times reviewing, observation and evaluation, and analysis and reflection. This was only one cycle because the purpose has been achieved with only one cycle. Further, the description of the research procedures was presented on the following figure.

fig-1-dianfadila

Figure1: The Procedures of Classroom Action Research (CAR)

 

Research Instruments

1. Test

Vocabulary test was given after the implementation of the action. It was used to know the students’ development. The test consisted of 50 words about newspaper and publishing as well as radio and television in which it distributed as follows: (1) questions numbers 1-15 were in the form of multiple choice, (2) questions number 16-30 were in the form matching test, (3) question number 31-40 were in the form guided completion and (5) question number 49-50 were in form of rearranging the scrambled words into good sentences. To make the test administered valid and reliable, in this research the researcher and her collaborator conducted validity test to another class of the tenth grade students at MAN Kota Blitar (X-C) class. Furthermore, the researcher used content validity, the evidence based on content of the test’s and its relationship to the construct it was intended to measure. In this case, the researcher looked for evidence that the test represented a balanced and adequate sampling of vocabulary mastery. Moreover, the content validity of the test was based on the basic competence in the tenth grade of Senior High School’s curriculum.

Before the post test was given to the respondent. It was tried out first to other group of students who had the same level with the respondent to know the test items were too difficult or too easy, whether the time is enough or not and the respondents understood the instruction or not. It was tried out on 2nd May 2012 at the class X-C of MAN Kota Blitar consisting 35 students. The following is the vocabulary test that was given to the students either in preliminary test or after the action test.

 

2. Observations Checklist

            Observation checklist was used to get the data about the students’ activities during the teaching learning process. In this case the researcher provided 2 observations checklist; the first to observe the teacher’ preparation, presentation, teaching method, personal characteristic, and teacher-students interaction in the classroom. The second observation checklist was intended as media in observing the students’ activities in the classroom.

 

3. Questionnaire

            A questionnaire was used to collect the data about the students’ reaction toward mind mapping and Buzan’s 5 times reviewing patterns in learning vocabulary. The Questionnaire contained 10 items with Likert scale options: Absolutely Agree (AA), Agree (A), Not Sure (NS), Not Agree (NA), and Absolutely Not Agree (ANA). It was adopted from Kristiana (2011).

 

4. Field note

            To get the rich data, this research also used field notes to write down the activities of teacher and students in the classroom which are not covered in observation checklist. Further, field notes composed of the descriptions of what was being heard, seen, experienced and thought in the classroom. The recorded data dealt with the phenomenon such as: time allotment, classroom atmosphere, tasks organization, and teacher’s feedback.

 

Criteria of Success

            The criterion of success in this research was designed on the basis of the school criterion: the students are considered good or successful in their vocabulary achievement if they achieve at least 70 of the optimal score competence level of 100. It means that the students’ mean score of the post-test should equal to or is higher than 70. Moreover, beside the students’ score in vocabulary achievement, the result of questionnaire was used to support the explanation of the criteria of success.

 

Kinds of Data and Data Sources

 

There were two kinds of data in this research, namely quantitative data and qualitative data. Quantitative data in the research refer to the data acquired from the test and questionnaire. Moreover qualitative data refer to the result from observation, questionnaire and field notes.

 

Techniques of Data Collection

The data were collected by (a) conducting an observation, (b) making field note, (c) administering test, (d) distributing questionnaire.

 

Data Analysis

The data analysis was used by researcher in this research followed some procedure such as: classifying the data, presenting the data and the last was concluding the data.

 

1. Data Classification

In this research, the data were classified into two categories, the first was quantitative data and the second was qualitative data. The quantitative data referred to the data which was taken from the students score as well as the questionnaire. However, the qualitative data were taken from the observation and check list as well as field note.

 

2. Data Display

The classified data from observation result and field note were described qualitatively using categories of achievement such as: very poor, poor, fair, good, and very good. Moreover, the data taken from the test was presented in tables, and the data from the questionnaire was calculated in percentage.

Furthermore, the use of quantitative data analysis was classified as follow:

1. The rule to decide the accomplishment degree and the mean score

  • Rule to find an individual degree of mastery

 

 

(Adopted from Petunjuk Guru Bahasa Inggris for the Senior high school).

  • Rule to find mean score

 

M       =      Mean score

SX      =      the total scores of the students’ vocabulary test

N        =      the numbers of students

(Adapted from Beast, 1981). 

2. The rule of calculating the percentage of students’ questionnaires responses

 

 

 

 

Concluding the Data

Data conclusion was done after the researcher evaluated and interpreted the data. It is important to conclude the data to know whether another cycle was necessary. In this research, researcher stopped the action at cycle 1 because the students had achieved mean score 88.57. That result was higher than the minimum mastery criterion stated in that school (70.00). Moreover, that result was supported by the results of observations which indicated the improvement of the teaching learning process from teacher and students’ part and the result of questionnaire dealing the implementation of teaching learning vocabulary using mind mapping.

 

Reflection

Reflection is the most important part in Classroom Action Research, it is needed to evaluate whether another cycle to solve the problems is necessary or not. The number of cycles cannot be predicted in advance. A classroom action research may take only one cycle if after the first cycle, all the targeted criteria of success have been achieved. The researchers, in fact, have to do their best to plan their classroom action research as few cycles as possible.

If all of the problems in teaching vocabulary are solved, there is no need to conduct the second cycle. In reflection, the researchers consult the result of data analysis and compare it with the criteria of success. If the result of our first action fulfills the criteria of success, the action is stopped. If it does not fulfill the criteria of success, the researchers should continue to the second cycle by revising the lesson plan (Latief, 2010:87).

Furthermore, Mistar (2010:31) states that “reflection in a classroom action research is an effort to evaluate whether the teaching learning process succeeds or fails based on the criteria of succeed that have been decided before”.

The reflection in this research was done by the researcher and her collaborator after accomplishing each of the research steps in order to know whether we could stop the research or should continue to another cycle. In this case, they decide to stop this research in the first cycle, because the criterion of succeed of the research has been achieved by the students. The student’s mean score was 80.56; it was higher than the criterion of success of the research (70.00).

 

The Result of Teaching Learning Process Analysis

The analysis of the teaching-learning process was done based on the result of field notes and the observation checklist. Some findings show improvement from both the student and teachers’ parts. On the part of the students’ attitude towards the task, it was found that the students were actively involved and participated actively in the lesson. Further, the teacher’ ability in conducting teaching and learning process was observed and categorized as excellent and above average. Mostly, the indicators in observation checklist were rated 4 (excellent) and 3 (above average) by the collaborator researcher. In this case, the teacher was evaluated in the five points namely: (1) preparation, (2) presentation, (3) execution/method, (4) personal characteristics, teacher-students inter­action. Dealing with preparation, the teacher was well prepared and the lesson execution was good.

Further related to presentation, the teacher explained the materials well, smoothly, in sequence, and logically. Moreover the teacher also paced the lesson well, gave the lesson direction to the students clearly, for example in asking them to do the tasks, to play mind map, to do homework etc. Besides that, the teacher always tried to make the students talk or write for example by asking question, asking them to write the sentences, etc. Further, she also realized if there were some students who were having trouble in understanding the lesson. In this case, she asked the students the points they didn’t understand and she explained it again carefully. Further, in presenting the materials the teacher was very encouraging, full of enthusiasm, and showed the interest in the lesson,

Furthermore, dealing with execution or method, the teacher used various activities in during the class, reinforced the material, walked around the class, made eyes contact with the students, and knew the student’s name well. She also distributed the questions appropriately and used media in teaching. Contextual learning was used with clear example and illustration of the materials through mind mapping.

On the teacher’s personal characteristics, the teacher was patient in answering the students’ questions. She had audible voice for all students in the class. She also had a good appearance, initiative and was resourceful. She had appropriate and acceptable use of English while she is teaching the students.

The last point is related to teacher – student interaction in the classroom. Dealing with that point, the teacher tried to set the class into a student-centered class. She encouraged students’ participation in classroom by asking them to do activities or to raise or answer questions. Further, she was able to control and direct the class well; she sometime relaxed the students and made students work in group or individual. In conclusion teacher and the students had excellent interaction for enjoyable learning in the classroom.

An analysis of the result of the test given at the end of cycle 1 showed that an improvement of learning result was achieved. In this case, the mean score of the student’s in the vocabulary test after the action increased significantly after the implementation of mind mapping and 5 reviewing patterns proposed by Buzan (2009). The mean score of the students was 80.57. The students’ mean score was higher than the students’ mean score in vocabulary test before the action (55.66) and the minimum criterion mastery stated in the school (70.00).

 

The Students’ Questionnaire Result

The data on students’ opinion towards learning vocabulary using mind mapping and Buzan’s 5 reviewing patterns was obtained through a questionnaire with 10 statements given to 35 students of the tenth year of students in X-B class of MAN Kota Blitar. The questionnaire contained four variables to measure: (1) learning motivation, (2) learning result, (3) tasks accomplishment and (4) social relationship. The result showed that on the first variable “learning motivation”, the students are motivated to learn vocabulary using mind mapping and Buzan’s five reviewing patterns strategy. It can be seen from the result of the four statements given related to it. For the first statement (item no. 1) “I am very eager to learn vocabulary using mind mapping and Buzan’s 5 reviewing patterns”, 30 (85.7%) students chose “absolutely agree” and 5 (14.3%) students “agree”.

Moreover, 29 (82.9%) students state “absolutely agree” and the rest 6 (17.1%) students state “agree” for the statement (item no. 2): “Learning vocabulary using mind mapping and Buzan’s 5 reviewing patterns is an interesting and enjoyable activity”. On the other hand, in the third statement for this variable, statement no. 6, “It is difficult for me to learn vocabulary by mind mapping and Buzan’s five reviewing patterns”, 2 (5.7%) students state “not sure”. Moreover, 4 (11.4%) students state “not agree”, and the rest 29 (82.9%) students state “absolutely not agree”. Meanwhile, for the next statement (item no 7), “Learning vocabulary using mind mapping and Buzan’s 5 reviewing patterns strategy is a worthless and time consuming activity”, 6 (17.1%) students state “not agree” while the rest 29 (82.9%) students state “absolutely not agree”.

The data on the second variable “learning result” also showed satisfactory response. There are 4 indicators representing this variable. The first indicator is statement (item no. 3) “In my opinion learning vocabulary using mind mapping and Buzan’s reviewing patterns can increase my vocabulary”. 29 (82.9%) students chose “absolutely agree”, 6(17.1%) students chose “agree”. Second is statement no. 4, “Mind mapping and Buzan’s 5 reviewing patterns help me learn and memorize new words”.  30 (85.7%) students’ state “absolutely agree” and 5 (14.3%) state “agree”. The next is statement no. 5, “Learning vocabulary using mind mapping and Buzan’s five reviewing patterns enabled me to learn words and their meaning in comprehensible way”. 28 (80%) students state “absolutely agree” while the rest 7 (20%) students state “not sure”. And the last indicator is statement (item no 10), “Learning vocabulary through mind mapping makes me brave to express idea or asking and answering the question”. For this 29 (82.9%) students state “absolutely agree” and 6 (17.1%) students state “agree.”

The third variable “task achievement” also showed good response. As it can be seen in statement no. 8, “Using mind mapping and Buzan’s 5 reviewing patterns makes me motivated to do the class tasks or take-home tasks“, 30 (85.7%) students state “absolutely agree” and 5 (14.3%) students sate “agree”

The last variable “social relationship” also showed acceptable response. It can be seen from the result of statement no. 9, “Learning vocabulary using mind mapping and Buzan’s 5 reviewing patterns promotes the togetherness among students”. 29 (82.9%) students choose “absolutely agree”, and 3 (8.6%) students state “agree”, while 3 (8.6%) students state “not sure”.

 

Reflection

Based on the result of the analysis both the teacher teaching-learning process and students’ learning result in cycle I, it was shown that the students made an improvement in learning vocabulary. This improvement could be seen from indicator of success achieved as follows. The obtained mean score was 80.57 was higher than the standard minimum mean score (70.00). Therefore, it was decided that the next cycle was not necessary. In addition, that result was supported by the result of teaching learning process which was derived from observation checklists and field note in which the teaching learning process in that class was very good/ excellent and it was also supported by the students’ positive responses toward the use of mind mapping and five reviewing patterns in learning vocabulary as presented previously. The following figure is the description of students’ improvement in learning vocabulary by using mind mapping and 5 reviewing patterns

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 2: Students’ Improvements

 

The result of the research that was presented above was in line with Indah ‘s experimental research result on the use of mind mapping to teach vocabulary, in which she reported that the vocabulary achievement of the students of IKIP PGRI Palembang increased after being taught using mind mapping. She recorded that the calculation result of the matched t-test formula was 2.396. It indicated that the calculated t obtained was greater than the critical value (1.725). The finding of her study showed that mind mapping is effective in teaching vocabulary to the tenth year of SMUN 15 Palembang.

Moreover, the researchers’ result was also in line with Yusuf’s experimental research result entitled “The Effectiveness of Mind Mapping Technique In Increasing the Second Year Students’ Reading Comprehension at SLTPN 43 Palembang” The result of the calculation of the t-test formula was 4.19. It indicated that the t value was higher than the critical value (02.021). The findings of his research showed that mind mapping is significantly effective in teaching reading comprehension to the subject of SLTP Negeri 43 Palembang.

In addition, the researchers’ result was in line with experimental research result by Hermalasari entitled “Teaching Writing Paragraphs by Using Mind Mapping to The Eleventh Year Students of SMA Negeri 14 Palembang in which she reported that the students’ average score in pre-test was 59.68 and the average score of post-test was 67.85. It indicated that calculated t value was higher than the t value on the table (1.684). It means that mind mapping is effective to teach writing paragraphs at the eleventh grade in that school. And now, with this current research mind mapping is also proved effective to teach vocabulary

 

The Strength and the Weaknesses of Mind Mapping and 5 Reviewing Patterns

There is no perfect thing. Besides having some strengths mind mapping and 5 reviewing patterns also have some weaknesses. The strengths include (1) leading the students to have better memory, (2) easy to apply in the classroom as media to present the material, media to do the task, media to review the lesson, and media to assess the students’ achievement, (3) interesting, and attractive media to teach all themes or sub-theme.

Further, mind mapping and 5 Buzan’s reviewing patterns were a pairs of strategies which support each other. As Buzan (2009:39) argue the best way to review the lesson is using mind mapping. With mind mapping to review the lesson, students will have better memory of the materials they have learnt. Better memory will make them easier in doing the test. It was proved by the students’ vocabulary mean score after applied with those strategies in this research.

However, mind mapping and five reviewing patterns also have weaknesses such as: (a) Mind mapping and 5 reviewing patterns need consistency as well as continuity of implementation either in the for of classroom implementation by teachers or at home reviews by students following the procedures given. Especially for the strategy of reviewing the lesson, it must be done seriously based on Buzan’s 5 reviewing patterns. Buzan’s 5 reviewing required teachers and students to review the lesson until 5 times based on these following rules: (a) one hour after the first learning, (b) one day after the first learning, (c) one week after the first learning, (d) one month after the first learning and, (e) three up to six months after the first learning. Those reviewing procedures may be difficult to do for students at the first time. Besides, with five time review, the teacher must provide and prepare more tasks, and of course it needs additional cost to prepare them as well as need additional time to do. In addition, it is not easy to change the habitual linear note writing in preparing teachers’ teaching materials or presentation. While with mind map, teachers need to be creative in making mind maps and present them in the class. If they don not have creativity and a good understanding about the material, the teachers would have problems in translating the materials into mind maps. Mind map reflects the materials to teach in the class. Therefore, before teachers make mind maps, they must understand the materials well so that they can generate the good key words. Otherwise, the mind map would be confusing for the students. Further, some teachers may not have a good ability to use multimedia or technology in teaching and learning such as in operating computer, laptop or internet applications. Or it can be said that mind map is still difficult to make for some teachers who did not have computer mastery or creativity to draw it.

In mind maps, everything is supposed to be provided on a single page. This is a tough challenge for teachers who have comprehensive and complex topic to deal with in the classroom. A mind map which is made carelessly or which is too ambitious to cover all aspect would look so crowded and this might cause students difficult to understand.

 

 

Conclusion and Suggestions

Mind mapping and 5 reviewing patterns proposed by Buzan (2009) can improve the tenth year students’ vocabulary achievement. Therefore, the English teachers are recommended to apply this model as one of alternatives teaching technique to teach vocabulary in the classroom. Besides that, the English teachers are also suggested to inform or discuss this model of vocabulary teaching through teachers’ forum such as workshop and seminar.

It is suggested that parents with elementary, junior or senior high school sons or daughters practice Buzan’s 5 reviewing patterns as strategy to review their lesson in order to improve their learning achievement. Furthermore, the students are also recommended to make mind map of their lessons at home after school and do the review 5 times based on the certain procedures as Buzan proposed. So, the students must be active both in the classroom and outside of the classroom for reviewing their lessons, for example, by summarizing, mapping, re-reading the material by themselves or by reviewing them in peer learning, and group learning at home.

In addition, this research is an action research in which the result cannot be generalized. It is advisable or recommended that future researchers would conduct the research with different design for example experimental research to know the effectiveness of Buzan’s 5 reviewing patterns on certain skills or subjects. Such research would be useful to strengthen or reject this research result.

 

 

 

 

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